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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Subject Name: GE6757-Total Quality Management

Class & Sem : IV MECH & VIII

UNIT IV
TQM TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES II
Control Charts - Process Capability - Concepts of Six Sigma - Quality Function Development
(QFD) -Taguchi quality loss function - TPM - Concepts, improvement needs - Performance
measures.
PART - A
1. Define Taguchis Quality Loss Function (TQLF)
2. Define Total Productive Maintenance (TPM).
3. What are the objectives of TPM?
4. What is meant by House of Quality?
5. Draw the general structure of house of quality.
6. What is a quality circle?
7. What are the various approaches to improving reliability of a product?
8. What is Product Life Characteristics Curve?
9. What are the three stages shown on a Product Life Characteristics Curve?
10. What is the essential feature of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)?
11. What are the overall goals of TPM?
12. What are the different ways of classifying maintenance activities?
13. What is some performance measures used to assess the success of TPM?
14. What are the eight pillars of TPM?
15. What is Control Chart?
16. What are the types of control charts?
17. What is Process Capability?
18. What is Six Sigma?
19. What are the advantages of Six Sigma?

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20. What is the purpose of using Six Sigma?
21. What is Process Capability index?
22. What is QFD?
23. What is the need of using QFD?
24. How to apply Performance measures in TPM.
25. What are the advantages of using TPM?
26.

PART-B
1. Explain the pillars of TPM and its benefits.

2. Explain the stages involved in developing TPM. (8)


Key Hint:

3. Explain quality function deployment with an example. (Nov/Dec-2014)(Aril/May-2015)


(May/June-2013)(Nov/Dec-2013)(May/June-2012)(Nov/Dec-2012) (MK) (16)
Key Hint:
Quality function deployment is a systematic and organized approach of taking customer needs
and demands into consideration while designing new products and services or while improving
the existing products and services.
Definition:
Quality function deployment may be defined as a system for translating consumer
requirements into appropriate requirements at every stage, from research through product design
and development, to manufacture, distribution, installation and marketing, sales and service.
OBJECTIVES OF QFD:
1. To identify the true voice of the customer and to use this knowledge to develop products
which satisfy customers?
2. To help in the organization and analysis of all the pertinent information associated with the
project.
3. Quality function development aims at translating the customers voice into product
specifications.
(8 Marks)

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QUALITY FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT PROCESS:
Phase 1: product planning:
Step1: list customer requirements
Step2: List technical descriptors
Step3: Develop a relationship between WHATS AND HOWS
Step4: Develop a interrelationship matrix between HOWS
Step5: Do competitive assessments
Step6: Develop prioritized customer requirements
Step7: Develop prioritized technical descriptors.
Phase 2: part development:
Step8: Deploy QFD process down to sub-components level both in terms of requirements and
characteristics.
Step9: Deploy the component deployment chart. Relate the critical sub-component control
characteristics.
Phase 3: process planning:
Step10: Develop the relationship between the critical characteristics and process used to create
the characteristics
Step11: Develop the control plan relating critical control to critical processes.
Phase 4: production planning:
Step 12: Tabulate operating instructions from process requirements
Step13: develop prototype and do testing
Step14: Launch the final product to the market.
BENEFITS OF QFD:

(8 Marks)

4. Explain the concept of TAGUCHIS QUALITY LOSS FUNCTION in detail. (May/June


2009) (Nov/Dec-2014) (May/Dec-2013) (Nov/Dec-2011) (MK) (16)
Key Hint:
Taguchis methods are statistical methods developed largely by Genichi Taguchi to
improve the quality of manufactured goods.
Taguchi methods are controversial among many convention western statisticians.
Taguchis principle contributions to statistics are:
1. Taguchi loss function;
2. The philosophy of off-line quality control; and
3. Innovations in the design of experiments.
Taguchi loss function:
Taguchi defines quality as the loss imparted by the product to society from the time the
product is shipped.
This loss includes costs to operate, failure to function, maintenance and repair costs,
customer dissatisfaction injuries caused by poor design and similar costs.
Defective products/ parts that are detected repaired reworked or scrapped before shipment
are not considered part of this loss.
The essence of the loss function concept is that whenever a product deviates from its target
performance it generates a loss to society.
This loss is minimum when performance is right on target, but it grows gradually as one
deviates from the target.
Therefore the loss function philosophy says that for a manufacturer, the best strategy is to
produce products as close to the target as possible, rather than aiming at being.
LOSS FUNCTION:
Taguchi has defined quality as the loss imparted to society from the time a product is
shipped. Societal losses include failure to meet customer requirements, failure to meet idea
performance, and harmful side effects. Many practitioners have included the losses due to

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production such as raw material energy and labor consumed on unusable products or toxic byproducts.
(8 Marks)
CUSTOMERS PERCEIVE QUALITY AS MEETING THE TARGET RATHER
THAN JUST MEETING THE SPECIFICATIONS:
There are three common quality loss functions
1. Nominal - the - best.
2. Smaller - the - better.
3. Larger - the better
Quality through Robust Design Methodology:
Taguchi methods emphasized quality through robust design, not quality through inspection.
Taguchi breaks the design process into three stages:
1. System design - involves creating a working prototype.
.
2. Parameter design - involves experimenting to find which factors influence product
performance most
3. Tolerance design - involves setting tight tolerance limits for the critical factors and looser
tolerance limits for less important factor
(8 Marks)
5. Explain the various types of costs contributing to the cost of quality. Give examples of each.
(Nov/Dec-2013) (Nov/Dec-2012) (MK) (16)
Key Hint:
QUALITY COSTS:Quality costs are defined as those costs associated with the non-achievement of
prodect/service quality as defined by the requirements established by the organization and its
contracts with customers and society.
Quality cost is a cost for poor product of service.
ELEMENTS OF QUALITYCOST: Cost of prevention
Cost of appraisal
Cost of internal failures
Cost of external failures.
ANALYSIS OF QUALITY COSTS:Trend analysis

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Pareto analysis

(8 Marks)

PREVENTION COST
Marketing / Customer / User.
Product / Service / Design Development
Purchasing
Operations (Manufacturing or Service)
Quality Administration.
APPRAISAL COST
Purchasing Appraisal Costs.
Operations Appraisal Costs
External Appraisal Costs
Review of Test and Inspection Data
Miscellaneous Quality Evaluations
INTERNAL FAILURE COST
Product or Service Design Failure Costs (Internal)
Purchasing Failure Costs
Operations (Product or Service) Failure Costs
EXTERNAL FAILURE COST
Complaint Investigations of Customer or User Service
Returned Goods
Retrofit and Recall Costs
Warranty Claims
Liability Costs
Penalties
Customer or User Goodwill
Lost Sales.

(8 Marks)

6. Explain in detail about the structure of house of quality. (Aril/May-2014) (GK) (16)
Key Hint:
HOUSE OF QUALITY:
The primary planning tool used in QFD is the house of quality. The house of quality converts
the voice of the customer into product design characteristics. QFD uses a series of matrix
diagrams, also called quality tables, resembles connected houses.
Basic structure of house of quality:

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1. Customer requirements
2. Prioritized customer requirements
3. Technical descriptors
4. Relationship matrix
5. prioritized technical descriptors
6. Competitive assessments
7. Develop a relationship matrix between WHATS AND HOWS

Constructing the house of quality:


Step1: List customer requirements
Step2: List technical descriptors
Step3: Develop a relationship matrix between HOWS
Step4: competitive assessments
Step5: Develop prioritized customer requirements
Step6: Develop prioritized technical descriptors

(16 Marks)

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7. Give Detailed Notes About Quality Circle. (Nov/Dec-2012) (BK) (16)
Key Hint:

(8 Marks)

(8 Marks)

8. Brief six basic techniques for presenting performance measure. (May/June-2013) (BK)(8)
Key Hint:
PERFORMANCE MEASURE PRESENTATION
There are six basic techniques for presenting performance measures. They are
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Time series graph.


Control charts.
Capability Index.
Taguchis loss function.
Cost of poor quality.
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.

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In MBNQA, five categories are analyzed. They are


a) Manufacturing
b) Service
c) Small business
d) Health care
e) Education.

(8 Marks)

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UNIT V
QUALITY SYSTEMS
Need for ISO 9000 - ISO 9001-2008 Quality System - Elements, Documentation, Quality
Auditing - QS 9000 - ISO 14000 - Concepts, Requirements and Benefits - TQM Implementation
in manufacturing and service sectors.
1. What are the different types of documents found in ISO 9000? (April/May-2014)
Key Hint:
1) Quality Policy Manual (What? Why?)
2) Quality System Procedures (Who? When? Where?)
3) Work Instructions (How?)
4) Records, formats, forms (Evidence)
(2 marks)
2. What is Environment Management Systems Standards? (Nov/Dec-2014)
Key Hint:
An EMS meeting the requirements of ISO 14001:2004 is a management tool enabling an
organization of any size or type to:
identify and control the environmental impact of its activities, products or services, and
to improve its environmental performance continually, and to
Implement a systematic approach to setting environmental objectives and targets, to
achieving these and to demonstrating that they have been achieved. (2 marks)
3. What are the general requirements of quality management system? (Nov/Dec- 2011)
Key Hint:
The organization shall establish, document, implement and maintain a quality management
system and continually improve its effectiveness in accordance with the requirements of this
International Standard.
The organization shall
a) Determine the processes needed for the quality management system and their application
throughout the organization
b) Determine the sequence and interaction of these processes,
c) Determine criteria and methods needed to ensure that both the operation and control of these
processes are effective,
d) Ensure the availability of resources and information necessary to support the operation and
monitoring of these processes,
e) Monitor, measure (where applicable), and analyze these processes, and

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f) Implement actions necessary to achieve planned results and continual improvement of these
processes.
(2 marks)
4. Draw the documentation pyramid. (Nov/Dec- 2011)
Key Hint:

(2 marks)

5. What do you mean by external and internal audit? (Nov/Dec-2013)


Key Hint:
An internal audit is conducted by personnel within the organization.

An external audit is conducted by people from the organization such as the purchasing
party (second party audit) (or) a certified auditing agency (third party audit).(2 marks)
6. What is the use of QS 9000? (Nov/Dec-2014)
Key Hint:
The QS 9000 standard defines the fundamental quality expectations from the suppliers of
production and service parts. The QS 9000 standard uses ISO 9000 as its base with much
broader requirement.
(2 marks)
7. List the various clauses of ISO 9000-2000 Standard. (April/May-2015)
Key Hint:
1. Scope
2. Normative Reference
3. Terms and Definitions
4. Quality Management System (QMS)
5. Management Responsibility
6. Resource Management
7. Product Realization
8. Monitoring and Measurement

(2 marks)

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8. What are ISO 9000 quality standards? (April/May-2014)


Key Hint:
ISO 9000 are a set of quality standards aimed at promoting the growth of international trade by
facilitating harmonious interactions between suppliers and customers located in diverse
locations globally. It is a quality management system [QMS] to ensure quality of products and
services.
(2 marks)
9. Specify the objective of Quality policy. (May/June-2013)
Key Hint:
It is a brief statement or document that defines your quality goals and objectives, a commitment
to meeting them as well as continuous improvement. It should provide an outline for creating,
stating, and measuring your performance of the quality objectives.
(2 marks)
10. What are the benefits of ISO 9000 certification? (Nov/Dec-2013)(Nov/Dec-2012)
Key Hint:
Achievement of international standard of quality.
Value for money.
Customer satisfaction.
Higher productivity.
Increased profitability
Improved corporate image
Access to global market
Growth of the organization
Higher morale of employees
(2 marks)
11. Define Quality Management Systems?
Key Hint:
Quality management systems are the organizational structures, responsibilities,
processes, procedures, and resources used for implementing quality.
(2 marks)
12. What is third party audit? (Nov/Dec- 2010)
Key Hint:
The third party certification audit is carried out much in the same way as first party
and second party quality system assessments and audits. However, the big difference is that an
independent accredited auditing body carries out the assessment and audit, as opposed to
carrying it out by the organization themselves. Also note that the organization going for third
party audits are responsible for the payment of the third party audit process.
(2 marks)
13. Give any five elements of ISO 9000.

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Key Hint:
[1] Management responsibility, [2] Quality system, [3] Contract review, [4] Design control, [5]
Document control, [6] Purchasing, [7] Purchaser supplied product, [8] Product identification
and traceability, [9] Process control, [10] Inspection & testing.
(2 marks)
14. What are the requirements of ISO 14001?
Key Hint:
i. General requirements
ii. Environmental policy
iii. Planning
iv. Implementation and operation
v. Checking and corrective action
vi. Management review

(2 marks)

15. What are the eight quality principles underlying ISO 9000: 2000? (Nov/Dec 2011)
Key Hint:
[1]Customer focus, [2] Leadership, [3] Involvement of people, [4] Process approach, [5]
System approach to management, [6] Continuous improvement, [7] Decisions based on facts,
and [8] Mutually beneficial supplier relationships.
(2 marks)
14. Define quality system audit.
Key Hint:
Quality system audits is a systematic, independent examination to determine whether quality
activities and results comply with planned arrangements, whether these arrangements are
implemented effectively, and whether these are suitable to achieve objectives. (2 marks)
15. What are the different types of audit?
Key Hint:
First party audit (internal),Second party audit (by customer), and Third party audit (by
independent agency). Another classification: System audit, Process audit, Product audit,
Adequacy audit, and Compliance audit.
(2 marks)
16. What are the different stages in conducting quality audit?
Key Hint:
1. Audit planning schedules, personnel, notifications, checklist.
2. Performance opening meetings, audit process, noting of non-conformities.
3. Reporting Observations, suggestions for corrective action
4. Follow-up implementation of corrective action.
(2 marks)
17. What are the documentation requirements of quality management systems?
Key Hint:

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The quality management system documentation shall include
a) Documented statements of a quality policy and quality objectives,
b) A quality manual
c) Documented procedures and records required by this International Standard, and
d) Documents, including records, determined by the organization to be necessary to ensure
the effective planning, operation and control of its processes.
(2 marks)
19. What is quality manual?
Key Hint:
The organization shall establish and maintain a quality manual that includes
a) The scope of the quality management system, including details of and justification for any
exclusions.
b) The documented procedures established for the quality management system, or reference to
them, and
c) A description of the interaction between the processes of the quality management system.
(2 marks)
20. Explain the managements responsibility for ISO.
Key Hint:
Top management shall provide evidence of its commitment to the development and
implementation of the quality management system and continually improving its effectiveness
by
i) Communicating to the organization the importance of meeting customer as well as statutory
and regulatory requirements,
ii) Establishing the quality policy,
iii)Ensuring that quality objectives are established,
iv)Conducting management reviews, and
v) Ensuring the availability of resources.
(2 marks)
21. What is the need for ISO standards?
Key Hint:
ISO 9000 is needed to unify the quality terms and definitions used by industrialized nations
and use terms to demonstrate a suppliers capability of controlling its processes. (2 marks)
PART-B
1. Explain the elements of ISO 9000 standards. (April/May-2015) (Nov/Dec-2014)(NOV/DEC2013)(Nov/Dec-2012) (MK) (16)
Key Hint:
Management responsibility
The Quality system

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Contract review
Design control
Document and data control
Purchasing
Control of customer-supplied product
Product identification and traceability
Process control
Inspection and testing
Control of inspection, measuring and test equipment
Inspection and test status
Control of nonconforming product
Corrective and preventive action
Handling, storage, packaging, preservation and delivery
Control of quality records
Internal quality audits
Training
Servicing
Statistical techniques

(16 Marks)

2. Explain documentation in quality standard. (April/May-2015) (May-June-2012)


(MK) (8)
Key Hint:
Documents
Quality Policy Manual (What?, Why?)
Quality System Procedures (Who?, When?, Where?)
Work Instructions (how?)
Records, Formats, Forms (Evidence)

(8 Marks)

3. Explain Quality Audits in detail. (Nov/Dec, 2011) (April/May-2015)(May-June(May/June-2012) (Nov/Dec-2011) (MK) (16)

2013)

Key Hint:
Quality audit is the process of systematic examination of a quality system carried out by an
internal or external quality auditor or an audit team. It is an important part of organization's
quality management system and is a key element in the ISO quality system standard, ISO 9001.
Audit Planning: schedules, personnel, checklist
Execution opening meetings, audit process, noting of conformities
Reporting observations, suggestions for corrective actions

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Follow-up implementation of corrective actions
Checklist:
o Whether system to ensure quality has been established
o Whether the system is documented
o Whether the documented system meets requirements
o Whether the system implemented is documented
o Whether the system is effective in achieving orgn. objectives & goals

(16 Marks)

4. What are benefits of implementing ISO 14000 Standard? (Nov/Dec-2014)(Nov/Dec-2013)


(MK) (16)
Key Hint:
The ISO 14001 standard provides specific requirements for an EMS and shares some common
management system principles with the ISO 9000 series of standards, including the "plan-docheck-act model" mentioned above and the requirement for top management commitment. The
basic focus of the ISO 14000 series of standards is environmental protection, while the ISO
9000 series of standards focuses on quality and customer needs.
It should be noted that ISO 9000 is not a prerequisite for ISO 14001, although companies that
have both have successfully integrated the two management systems.
An effective EMS provides many benefits to the implementing organization, its customers and
stakeholders, and to regulators, including:
Reduced environmental risk.
Proactive environmental management.
Improved employee environmental awareness and performance.
Increased operating efficiency and cost-effectiveness.
Enhanced relationships and communication with employees, regulators, and
stakeholders.
(16 Marks)

5. Explain the term Quality Cost. (May/June-2012) (MK) (8)


Key Hint:
1) Cost of Quality: This includes all the costs needed to achieve the required Quality
levels. It includes prevention costs, appraisal costs and failure costs.Other tools: There are
various other tools used in the Planning process such as Cause and Effect Diagrams, System
Flow Charts, Cost Benefit Analysis, etc. All these help us to create a Quality Management Plan
for the project.
2) Quality Assurance: The Input to the Quality Assurance Processes is the Quality Plan
created during Planning. Quality Audits and various other techniques are used to evaluate the

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performance of the project. This helps us to ensure that the Project is following the Quality
Management Plan. The tools and techniques used in the Planning Process such as Design of
Experiments, Cause and Effect Diagrams may also be used here, as required.
3) Quality Control: Following are the inputs to the Quality Control Process: - Quality
Management Plan. - Quality Standards defined for the Project - Actual Observations and
Measurements of the Work done or in Progress the Quality Control Processes use various tools
to study the Work done. If the Work done is found unsatisfactory it may be sent back to the
development team for fixes. Changes to the Development process may be done if necessary. If
the work done meets the standards defined then the work done is accepted and released to the
clients.
Importance of Documentation: In all the Quality Management Processes special
emphasis is put on documentation. Many software shops fail to document the project at various
levels. Consider a scenario where the Requirements of the Software Project are not sufficiently
documented. In this case it is quite possible that the client has a set of expectations and the tester
may not know about them. Hence the testing team would not be able test the software developed
for these expectations or requirements.
This may lead to poor Software Quality as the product does not meet the expectations.
Similarly consider a scenario where the development team does not document the installation
instructions.
If a different person or a team is responsible for future installations they may end up making
mistakes during installation, thereby failing to deliver as promised.
Once again consider a scenario where a tester fails to document the test results after executing
the test cases. This may lead to confusion later. If there were an error, we would not be sure at
what stage the error was introduced in the software at a component level or when integrating it
with another component or due to environment on a particular server etc.
Hence documentation is the key for future analysis and all Quality Management efforts. Steps:
In a typical Software Development Life Cycle the following steps are necessary for Quality
Management:
1) Document the Requirements
2) Define and Document Quality Standards
3) Define and Document the Scope of Work.
6. Explain the benefits of EMS. (Nov/Dec- 2011) (GK) (16)
Key Hint:
a. Global:
Facilitate trade and remove trade barriers
improve environmental performance of planet earth

(8 Marks)

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Build consensus that there is a need for environment management and a common
terminology for EMS.
(8 Marks)
b. Organizational:
Assuring customers of a commitment to environmental management
Meeting customer requirements
Maintaining a good public / community relations image
Satisfying investor criteria and improving access to capital
Obtaining insurance at reasonable cost
Increasing market share that results from a competitive advantage
Reducing incidents that result in liability.
(8 Marks)

7. Discuss about implementation of ISO 9000. (Nov/Dec-2014) (BK) (16)


Key Hint:
Implementation steps
Top management commitment
Appoint the management representative.
Awareness.
Appoint an implementation team.
Training.
Time schedule.
Select element owners.
Review the present system.
Write the document.
Install the new system.
Internal audit.
Management review.
Pre-assessment.
Registration.

(8 Marks)

8. Explain ISO 14000 environmental standards? (Nov/Dec-2014) (BK) (16)


Key Hint:
An EMS meeting the requirements of ISO 14001:2004 is a management tool enabling an
organization of any size or type to:
identify and control the environmental impact of its activities, products or services, and
to

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improve its environmental performance continually, and to
Implement a systematic approach to setting environmental objectives and targets, to
achieving these and to demonstrating that they have been achieved.
General requirements
Environmental policy.
Planning.
Implementation and operation.
Checking and corrective action.
Management review.
(16 Marks)