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4.


(COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING CIM)
, 3+2, , 4. , 7., 2010/2011

: . -
: , . .

1.

:
/

5
1,2,4

1.1.
1.2.
1.3.

3
I

1.4. (CIM) (FMS)


2.


(FMS) (CIM)
2.1.

2, 8

2.2. (FMS) (CIM)


2.3. CAD/CAM

II

2.4. (FMS)
2.5. (FMS)
3.

2, 5,6

3.1. -
3.2.

III

IV

3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
4. FMS

4.1.
4.2.
4.3. Free Choice Asimetric-Choice

VI

VII

VIII

4.4.
4.5.

4.6.
4.7. (Bottom-up
, Top Down
4.8. FMS

5.

5.1.
5.2.

IX

5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
6. (AGV)

6.1
6.2. AGV

XI

6.3. AGV
6.4. AGV
6.5. ( ) AGV
6.6. AGV
7.
(CAD) (CAE)

( )
XII

8.

XIII

XIV

9.

4,9,10

XV

45

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XV

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04 KIP Operativna programa, ZS 2010-11

30


.

, .

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:
(max 40 ) (max 80 ),
. , () ((max 10 ),
(max 10 )
: 5 0-50 , 6 51-60
, 7 61-70 , 8 71-80 , 9 81-90 10 91-100 .

1. , .: ,
2008/2009, - , , 2008.
2. MengChu Zhou, Kurapati Venkatesh: Modeling, Simulation, and Control of Flexible
Manufacturing Systems, a Petri Net Approach, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.,
Singapore, 2000.
3. J.Borenstein, : Where am I? Sensors and Methods for Mobile Robot Positioning, The
University of Michigan, April 1996.
4. Robotika I FPS Kniga ETF Beograd (Internet)
5. MengChu Zhou, Kurapati Venkatesh: Modeling, Simulation, and Control of Flexible
Manufacturing Systems, a Petri Net Approach, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.,
Singapore, 2000.
6. B. Hruz, M.C. Zhou: Modeling and Control odf Discrete - event Dynamic Systems with Petri
nets and Other Tool, Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007.
7. C.G. Cassandras, S. Lafortune: Introduction to Discrete Event Systems, Second Edition, Springer
Science +Bussines Media, LLC, 2008.
8. R. David, H. Alla: Discrete, Continuous and Hybrid Petri-Nets, Springer Verlag Berlin
Heidelberg 2005.
9. V. Ivanovic, . Spasi, E. Seferovi: Problemi integracije u automatizovanim proizvodnim
sistemima na primjeru poslovanja alatima, www.????...
10. Tariq Masood and Iqbal Khan: Productivity Improvement through Computer Integrated
Manufacturing in Post WTO Scenario, University of Engineereing and technology, Taxila,
Pakistan, National Conference on Emerging Technologies, 2004.
04 KIP Operativna programa, ZS 2010-11

. -

. -


COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING - CIM

, 2010


1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3. CIM
1.4. (CIM) (FMS)
2. -FMS -CIM
2.1.
2.2. FMS CIM
2.3. CAD/CAM
2.4. FMS
2.5. FMS
3.
3.1. -
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
4. FMS
4.1.
4.2.
4.3. Free Choice Asimetric-Choice
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.7. (Bottom-up ,
Top Down
4.8. FMS

5.
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
6. (AGV)
6.1
6.2. AGV
6.3. AGV
6.4. AGV
6.5 ( ) AGV
6.6. AGV
7. (CAD)
(CAE)

8.

. -

. -

COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING - CIM

1.

, 2010/2011


1.

1.1.

1.2.

1.3. CIM

11

1.4. a

15

1.
1.1.
() - Computer-integrated
manufacturing (CIM) . ,
, real-time
.
(flexible design and manufacturing).
-

.

, .
(flexible manufacturing),
, .

: ( )
CAD/CAM - /
(Computer-aided design/Computer-aided
manufacturing)
CAPP - =Computeraided process planning
ERP - = Enterprise resource
planning
CNC - ) =
computer numerical control) machine tools
DNC - =direct
numerical control machine tools
FMS - flexible machining systems =
ASRS - automated storage and retrieval systems =
AGV - automated guided vehicles =
5

Robotics =
Automated conveyance systems = ()
Project management software/computerized scheduling and production control = /

CAQ - =
Computer-aided quality assurance
A business system integrated by a common database =
.

(Key Challenges)

(CIM) :
:
(CNC , )
,
.
.
- AGV, / .
:
.
(CIM)
,
/
.
:

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.


(FMS - Flexible Manufacturing System)
(A flexible manufacturing system FMS) (manufacturing system)
() (flexibility)
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,
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, (machine flexibility),

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flexibility), ()
(multiple machines) ,
,
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(FMS)
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(FMS)

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1.2.

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(labor-intensive production systems) (a),
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(FMS)
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(http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=8395026066625190321#,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_wU9R9_i3ZU).

1967, - (CNC) . .

.


.
1970- -
(Computer Integrated Manufacturing CIM)
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(FMS) (CIM) .

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(CIM).
10

1.3.
() ( [4])


(CIM - Computer Integrated Manufacturing)
70- . CIM
J. Harrington i A. D. Little SAD [4].


, .

.

,
.
(CIM)
(CIM) ,
,
[4]:
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,
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11

(CIM)
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(CIM) .1.3.1.
Y - [4].
.1.3.1. (CIM)
,
- .

. 1.3.1. (CIM)
(Subsystems of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM))

12



. , CIM
.
-CIM .1.3.1.,
, -CIM
.
:
- CIB (Computer Integrated Business) - WAN (Wide Area
Network) ,
- CIE (Computer Integrated Enterprise)

.
.1.3.2. -CIM
[4]. . 1.3.2
-CIM .

[10].

. 1.3.2.
(Distribution of functions of tool management system)

13

posistemi -CIM sistem


podednako zast. To jasno .1.3.3. [11].

.1.3.3. (CIM)
( )

Picture 9. Represent of subsystems of CIM in use


CAD (Computer Aided Design),
PPC (Process Planinng and Control),
NC (Numerical Control),
DNC (Direct Numerical Control)
CAE (Computer Aided Engineering
CAQ (Computer Aided Quality)
CAP (Computer Aided Planning)
DSS (Decision Support System)


CIM . CAD, PPC (Process Planinng and
Control), NC (Numerical Control), DNC, CAE (Computer Aided Engineering)
, DSS (Decision Support System)
.
75%
.
-CIM
CIB
, 42%
.
14

1.4. COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING (CIM) AND


ROBOTICS LABORATORY
Objectives
1. To provide a high quality laboratory experience for undergraduate students
enrolled in courses that cover manufacturing automation, robotics,
advanced material processing, and computer assisted and computer
controlled manufacturing.
2. To ensure that students get hands-on experience with robotics, material
handling and flexible manufacturing systems (FMS).
3. To support teaching and research activities in the design, analysis, and
implementation of advanced manufacturing systems.
4. To assist and support Ort Braude College of Engineering (COE) faculties
and student research, and technical services.
5. To provide educational services to other Ort Braude College Schools and
organizations.
6. To acquaint* students with the most advanced methods in various
production processes.
7. To give students practical experience with real-world applications and
industrial activities within a safe learning environment.
8. To offer sophisticated solutions for educating and training students in the
principles and technologies of computer integrated manufacturing.

Lab Activities
Each experiment in this lab is to be completed within the weekly three hour lab
class period. The formal laboratory report is generally due the following week.
Experiments will normally be conducted in groups of three students. On the
projects due date, the team must give an oral presentation and demonstrate their
project assignment to the instructor. The written report should be submitted via
e-mail within two weeks after the demonstration.
_____________________
*) acquaint['kwejnt=zapoznae]

15

Lab Exercises
Following is a list of the topics covered by the lab assignments:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Introduction to CIM and ACL


Robotics: Introduction to on-line programming.
Robotics: Motion control
Robotics: Pick and place
Robotics: Interface with external equipment
Integration with a robot and sensors
Vision
Solid modular design: SolidWorks
Human-Machine Interface (HMI
Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
CIM Simulation: OpenCIM

Lab Activities
Equipment and devices located at the different stations - CIM Lab Layout

16

Introduction to CIM
The CIM lab presents the main theoretical concepts of CIM to students,
including:
-

flow of information during the manufacturing process,


computer-aided design and manufacturing tools,
material handling,
automation,
robotics,
sensors,
communication and supervisory control.

The theoretical explanations are followed by detailed demonstrations of the


lab equipment (hardware and software).
CIM The Building Blocks

17

Equipment and devices located at the different stations - Robotics


SCORA-ER 14

ER-V plus

The CIM lab covers the design and control of industrial robotics applications.
Topics include:

18

- the theoretical principles of control and its relation to robot control


language,
- various components of a robotic system,
- position definition in space and introduction to kinematics,
- the use of input/output and conditional statements in robotics control, and
- writing a simple robotics application by using on-line and off-line
programming schemes.
Examples of industrial applications are: pick-and-place, and material
handling.
Equipment and devices located at the different stations
ASRS Automated Storage and Retrieval System
- The ASRS sends out the raw materials and receives the finish products.
- The ASRS takes the raw materials, reads the barcode stamp to verify that
these are the materials specified in the production plan, and sends them to
the next station.
- The ASRS consists of:
o
Automated Storage and Retrieval
o
Barcode Reader Automatic Identification
o
Robot X,Y,Z
o
Inventory Control

19

Equipment and devices located at the different stations - Conveyors

Equipment and devices located at the different stations


- Computer Aided Design (CAD)
The Computer Aided Design station covers theoretical and practical concepts
of CAD including:
- Part modeling
- Assembly modeling
- Simulation modeling and FEM
Various mechanical artifacts are designed using CAD software such as
SolidWorks.
Equipment and devices located at the different stations - Human-Machine
Interface (HMI)
The Human-Machine Interface station covers the main principles of HMI.
Included are designing and applying a Graphic User Interface (GUI) in various
industrial applications that were programmed in the PLC software. A GUI
includes computer screens, functional buttons, and presentation of monitored
information in real time.

20

Equipment and devices located at the different stations - Vision System


Laboratory

The Vision System lab introduces theoretical concepts of machine vision, e.g.,
binarization, thresholding, recognition algorithms etc. and the basic concepts,
capabilities and applications of industrial vision systems. Students get practical
experience in designing and controlling a vision system. Classes in the lab cover
the definition of vision system components, and an understanding of the
relationship between the vision system and its environment (lighting conditions,
part type, production flaws etc.). Students will program a simple vision
application, which involves the creation of a parts database, followed by an
automatic on-line identification process.
Matrox Inspector is the image processing software for the View Flex machine
vision package used in the CIM lab. Students will be using this software in the
vision labs.
Equipment and devices located at the different stations - Manufacturing
(CAM)

21

Students get hands-on experience by creating a machining process and an


NC (numerical control) code using the proper software packages (Mastercam).
They will learn how a part surface is generated geometrically by various
machine processes. In addition, the basic principles of milling and turning
processes and the operation instruction for the CNC (computerized numerical
control) machines are taught.
CIM Robot

CIM vo celina

22

. -


. -

COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING - CIM

2.

, 2010/2011

2.1.

2.2.
2.2.1 FMC
2.2.
2.3 - FMS
2.4. (CIM)

4
5
5
6
7

2.3. FMS CIM


2.3.1
2.3.2. FMS
2.3.3. FMS
2.3.4.
2.3.5.

9
9
9
12
14
15

2.4. CAD/CAM
2.4.1. CAD
2.4.2.
2.4.3.
2.4.4.
2.4.5. CAM

16
16
16
18
19
21

2.5.

2.5.1.
2.5.2.
2.5.3.

22
22
23
24

2.7.

27

2.6.

27

2. FLEKSIBILNI PROIZVODNI SISTEMI


2.1. VOVED


, .
.
takv situacij, kao neophodn uslov uspe
modifi postoj proizvod i osv novi, svr. Orijentacija na est izmen proizvodn
programa, meut, bitn promene organizacij .
. iksna atomatizaci = isokoamatiz roizvodn lini namen seisko proizvod.
Rentabilnost vakv proizvod poiva seri i
relativno d aktuelnost .
, zaotren konkurencij, bitno skratil
vreme aktuelnost istog proizvoda. Da bi
neophodno inovir novi tehnoloki dostignu i vae modni tkovi. Treba, ,
drastino skraeno i vreme potrebno ideja neko
.
serisk proizvod posta
postav za sredni i mali seri. Meut,
dan maloserisk ili poedin proizvod orienti na upotreb univerzalni alatni main u .
Ot se organiz takvi proizvodni
sistemi koi i pri mali seri (i poedin proizvod)
postig ekonominost svojstven serisko proizvod. To e
prilino sloen problem b e proizvod ed
element na univerzalni main, to , moe
do 100 p negov proizvod na modern
proizvodn liniji fiksn automatizacij. Tak se dolo do po
fleksibiln automatizacij (ngl. flexible automation) koja o
est izmen proizvodn program t.. proizvod roizvod bez men koja . Fleksibilni proizvodi sistemi trebalo, svoj organizacij i upotreb savremen tehnologij, da postign visok produktivnost pri malim seri i poedinno proizvod.
3

2.2. OSNOVNI POMI I RAZGLEDUVAWA



:
kratkorona fleksibilnost (short-time flexibility), i
dgorona fleksibilnost (long-time flexibility)
rincip, to e raznovrsnost proizvodni zada ko sistem moe , negova fleksibilnost
.
. Na fleksibilnost mo izmen postoj proizvodn program i
to samo on izmen koi . To na kratkoron fleksibilno.
Dolgoronata fleksibilnost podrazbira da se moni
promen proizvodn program. Pri promen sistem eventualno dop ( main) bez promen
.
K fleksibilni sistemi fleksibilnost.

Sl. 2.1.1. Fleksibilna proizvodna elija - .


(Flexible manufacturing cell" FMC)

FMS
,
. .
FMS ( 2.1.1.):
2.1. Fleksibilna proizvodna elija- ("flexible manufacturing cell" FMC)
: robot i nekol alatni maina oko .
raspola svo (maga) alat
, moe lokalno privremeno skladite
delov.
, proizvodna elija s i sistem za kontrol proizvod, odnosno izvreni ra operaci.
Kako raboti (FMC) na Sl.2.1.1?

Paleti so rabotni predmeti se dvi`at po podvi`na traka, poseben ured obezbeduva prefrlawe na pristignatite paleti vo privremeno skladite, kao i pre palet s gotovi ra
a po trak.
S o (FMC) raspola s nekol visokosloeni main, t moe izvr razli proizvod zada.
Pri to robot opslu main, ..
elija donek na ra nekol i od kog se o .
Uprav FMC e potp orienti i
integri. Robot, main za obra, elementi transport i osta FMC predstav podsistem koi
delu kao funkcionalna celina s c izvr odre
proizvodn zada. Programska biblioteka raspola niz program utvr ra pri razliiti proizvodni
zada. , fleksibilnost e obezbe kako raspolo oprem ( termin hardver), tako i
uprav (softver).
2.2. Fleksibilna proizvodna linija.
nekol main op i posebn namen postavim
liniski sistem transport, dobi t. proizvodn
linij.
linija bi fleksibilna neophodno e
proizv nekolk razli proizvod.

transportn linij i, zavisnost od sam proizvod,


obra r nek postav main.
.
Prvo, neophodn e fleksibiln sistem opslu ma,
to se reava upotreb robot. problem lei neednak vreme obra poedin proizvod. To se reava
privremeni skladita (engl. buffers)
.
2.3. Fleksibilni proizvodstvenii sistemi (FMS)
Prethodno raz proizvodn linij mo
tako to e liniski transport
sistem (npr. po traka) na fleksibiln proizvodn eli. D trak se razli ra predmeti.
S t proizvod razli
kombinacij proizvodni eli. esto nek operaci
moe izvr ne samo edna odre FMC .
FMC koja slobodna. Tak,
ra do ne stigne do koja
g obra. T robot po utvr redosled
ma. transport palet, t se proekt
za razmen palet izme transportn trak FMC.
zavr obra FMC, ra predmet se vraa
na trak i FMC koja e
obra.
fleksibil proizvod sistem
("flexible manufacturing system" FMS).
Opi struktur FMS moem .
Naime, ne mora postoi central transport liniskog tipa.
FMC mo ostvari, na primer,
atomatski po koli i t razli proizvodi t
fabrikacij p s razli p.
, central
koj bi uprav posistemi (FMC, transport, zavrna kontrola, itd.), hierarhisk struktur uprav.

2.2.4. integr proizvod -


(Computer-Integrated Manufacturing - CIM).
Vo vovednite izlagawa za FMS ja naglasivme tendencijata kon
skratuvawe na vremeto koe e potrebno za razrabotka na idejata za
noviot proizvod, negovoto proektirawe i planirawe na proizvodstvoto. Da bi se postignalo ova, se razvieni specijalni programski
sistemi koji im pomagaat na proektantite vo razrabotkata i finalizacijata na proektot. Taka govorime za kompjutersko proektirawe
ili proektirawe so pomo{ na kompjuter (Computer-Aided Design CAD).
Upotrebata na kompjuteri e vkluena planira proizvod, govori planira ili (computer -aided planning - CAP).
Sam atomatsk proizvod ko se na primen
FMS podraz uprav celi proces i to:
poedini posistemi (numeriki uprav alatna maina, robot,
itd.) i materijal koj obezbedu potrebn proizvod
lanc za s proizvod. Tak se jav po

(Computer-Aided Manufacturing - CAM).
, proekt mora nuno vodi mo
proizvodn t.. proek se koncipira tak da bde
pogodn za realizacij FMS. drug stran, obra proek pogodn i za ednostavno programira alatni
main i robot, to e bitn de CAM sistem. Na ovj naina
do va upotreb proekt proizvod. Zato obino i govori CAD/CAM sistemi.
Ako ovo sistem proekt-proizvod i
atomatiz sistem skladite gotovi proizvod s program ko vodi evidencij skladi, zaokru edna proizvodna celina ij integrativ faktor e koordinacija bazi i hierarhisk sistem uprav. Ot do naziv .
ak proizvod sistem ima niz prednosti. dna od n, na
koj , e mo precizno planir
proizvedeni koliin . Na primer, zavrna
kontrola o proizvod, to se signalizira
uprav nivo ko da nalog da se proizvede
. Na sli nain, mo precizno vo

proizvod. im koliina odre skladit predvi granic, centralni uprav sistem


naredi dop proizvod. B ob proizvod
i mo ( - ), pojavio se pom proizvod
tno na vreme (engl. just-in-time manufacturing - JIT).
Da bi ompletiral slik integri proizvodno kompleks osnov kori ,
istakn marketing masovno korist ,
kompletni informacioni sistemi o o protok
i dost informaci pre, pa esto
razli ekspert sistem.

2.3. HARDVERSKI ELEMENTI FMS I CIM


2.3.1. Numeriki uprav alatn main
() (computer numerically
controled machine CNC machine) .

.
.
(, , , , , .). CNC
(x, y, z, ,) 2.

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CNC
FMC FMS.

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2.3.2. FMS
FMS
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10.4 11.2.4.
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2.3.3. FMS
FMS
FMC
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12

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( overhead
convevor). FMC,
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(roller convevor system)
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14

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. ,

15


.
CAD ,
CAD/CAM

.

2.4.1. CAD
CAD .7.
.

.

. 7. CAD

,
.
.
,
.
CAD.

16

2.4.2.

. ,
, .
,
.
,
,
, .
,
, .
CAD

.
. ,
, ,
.
,
.

, .
, . ,
,
( .
, 0 1,
). ,
, ,
..
.

. -,
( ).
.
. ,
, ,
.
. , , ,
. CAD
, .
,
. , ,
,

17

. ,
.
CAD . ,
,
, ,
. ,
.

2.4.3.
,
, .
. .
, , ,
,
. ,

. ,
, . .
.
,
. ,
, .
,
, , . ,

.
. ,
,
. CAD
. -
.

.

. 8.

18

, .

, .
,
,
. 8 ,
. (R)
, (r
) ,
() ( b).

( m(,,b)),
( max(, , b) < d).
, , b.

.

2.4.4.

CAD .
( ),
. ,
.
. .
.
,
. ( )
.
. (
. 4096 x 4096 ), .
.
,
. , .
50-60 .
, (. 1280 x 1024).
, ,
, .
, , .
.

, ,
. ,
,
. ,
50-60 .
.
: , (,

19

) .
. ,
( . 9 ).

. 9.

. 10.

solid state tzv. ,



.
. : , , , , .
: (U),
() (\). ,
.
10
.
.
, ,
, . CAD,

20

,
.

2.4.5. CAM
(CAM)
.
, .
CNC , ,
FMS,
. , CAM
. FMS .
. ,
, ,
, . , CNC.

21

2.5.


.

: ,
, ,
, ,
. , , ,

,
. ,
,
CNC , , .
,
, . ,
. ,
,

. ,
.
, .
FMS
. .
.
FMS CIM.

2.5.1

. ,
.
, FMS ,
.
.

. ,
FMS .
FMS
.
-
.
.

22


.
,
.
, ,
, .

.
,
FMS.
, ..
.

2.5.2.
, :
, , , .

.

.
:
-

(, )
;

, ;


.
. ,
.

,
. ( )
.
,
. ,
. ,

.
,
.

23

.
, .
,

. ,

. ,
, .
FMS .

, . ,
PD ,

.
.
.

.
. ,
. ,
, ,
.

2.5.3

FMS ,
.
FMS (
) , ,
.
,
.
.
FMS ,
.
. , , , ,

, .
CIM.
, ,
, FMS
. , ,
. ,

24

. ,
, - ,
.
.
FMS ,
. ( . )
.

,
. .
FMS
, , , .
, ,

.
FMS.
:

SDR-4X Sony

ASIMO Honda

25

Casper Hammersley

IRB 580

Motoman da20

FANUC 6 AXIS

26

2.6.

.
,
,
, -. ,
FMS .
.
.

2.7.
1. Dr. Veljko Potkonjak: Robotika i automatizacija-Kniga ETF Beograd

27

. -

. -

COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING - CIM

3.

, 2010/2011

3.

3.1. -

3.2.

3.3.

27

3.4.

42

3.5.

61

3.
3.1.
e , ,
.


,
- .
. 1962
-
.

:
,
,
,
, .. .
- ,
, .


.

:
a. : , , , , ,
, . . ,
. (Topdown), (Bottom-up)
.
b. . 4

real-time
(PLC) .
c.
: (Deadlock), ,
-
.
d. , . :
( ), ,
, , .
(bottleneck).
e. - .
f. real-time , FMS.
g. (scheduling)
, , , , , .

() , 3 :
- (places , positions,
),
- (transitions, , preodi)
- (arcs, , )
, () ,
() /.
(Tokens) .
(
- , . ).

(Token)

(Place)

(Transition)

,
(Arc,directed)
flow

.3.1.1.
,
.

.
t1

p1

(
)

p2

(
)

(
)

.3.1.2.
.3.1.2
.

. , () (),
.
, - , .
.3.1.1. p1 t1 . p2
p3 t1 .

,
, ,
.3.1.3.
.
,
. ,
6

,
.
p1

t1

t2

p2

()

p3

t3

(Places): (buffers), ,
(Transitions): ,
(Tokens):

.3.1.3.

.
, ,
, .

:
- ,
- (PLC)
-
- : , , ,

3.2.
3.2.1
(PN) Z ( P, T , I , O, m) :
1. P { p1 , p2 ,..., pn }, n 0 ,
(, places) ;
2. T {t1 , t2 ,..., ts } , s>0 ,
() ( ) PT0
PT=0 .. ;
3. I: PT N, (, ) P T N =
{0,1,2,} ;
(I I [ I ( pi , t j )] )
4. O: PT N,
(, ) T P;
( O [O( pi , t j )] )
5. m: P N, i- (tokens) i- . () m0. .
-
( ):
6. W - ( I , O) = FN\{0}

7. K - , N \{0} .
4 ( P, T , I , O) PN .
(tokens)
- PN , .
.

I(p,t)>1, I(p,t) ()
p t. O(p,t)
t p. I O
ns .
I O (
) :
C=OI

(3.2.1)

PN
(P,T,F,W,m) F {PT}{TP},
, W: F N,
.
I(p,t) = k , (O(p,t) = k), k -
p () t ( t
p).
I(p,t)=0, (O(p,t)=0),
p t (t p). k=1.
k>1, k

k. m(p)=j>1, j p,
j p j .
3.2.1:
.3.2.1. , :
P { p1 , p2 , p3} ;
T {t1 , t2 } ;

I p1 , t1 1, I p1 , t2 0;

O p1 , t1 0, O p1 , t2 0 ;

I p2 , t1 1, I p2 , t2 0;

O p2 , t1 0, O p2 , t2 1 ;

I p3 , t1 0, I p3 , t2 1;

O p3 , t1 1, O p3 , t2 0 ;

m [1 1 0]T .

.3.2.1. 3.2.1.
9

(I: PT N) (O: PT N)
..,
I ( p1 , t1 ) I ( p1 , t2 ) 1 0
I I ( p2 , t1 ) I ( p2 , t2 ) 1 0 ,
I ( p3 , t1 ) I ( p3 , t2 ) 0 1

O( p1 , t1 ) O( p1 , t2 ) 1 0
O O( p2 , t1 ) O( p2 , t2 ) 1 0
O( p3 , t1 ) O( p3 , t2 ) 0 1

:
1 0
I 1 0 ,
0 1

0 0
O 0 1
1 0


0 0 1 0 1 0
C = O - I 0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 1 0 1


:
O(t , p ) O(t1 , p2 ) O(t1 , p3 ) 0 0 1
O 1 1

,
O(t2 , p1 ) O(t2 , p2 ) O(t2 , p3 ) 0 1 0


1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
T
0
0
1

C = OT - I
1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0
0
1
0

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1

,
:
pi, i = 1,2,,n,
pi tj, j = 1,2,,s, i- j-
, , 0.
I(pi,tj)0, pi () tj.
, tj, j =
1,2,,s, tj pi, i = 1,2,,n, i-
j-
, , 0.
, O(pi,tj)0, pi tj.

10

3.2.2.
( )
PN
(enabling) (firing):
1.
t T m(p) I(p,t), p P.
m(p) , I(p,t)
t.
( t p t

p t.)
t

m( p ) 2 1
p

I ( p, t ) 1

m( p ) 2 3
3

I ( p, t ) 3

m( p ) I ( p , t )

m( p ) I ( p , t )

.3.2.2 ) )

2.
t m, t
m:
m(p) = m(p) I(p,t) + O(p,t), p P.

(3.2.2)

m (, )
(reachable) m.
) , ,
)
p t. ,
p
t p.
(enabling rule) ,
t , t
.
.
I (AND) .

11

(firing rule)
t .
t
.


t. (3.2.2)
I(p,t) .

t .
+O(p,t) (3.2.2).
3.2.2.
.3.2.2. t
1 ( I(p,t)=1),
, 2 3, ( O(p2,t)=1 O(p3,t)=1).
p2

1
p1

p2

p1

1
1

I ( p, t ) 1

O( p2 , t ) 1

1
1

I ( p, t ) 1

O( p3 , t ) 1

p3

p3

.3.2.2. t
(3.2.2).

m(p)=3 ( .3.2.2.),
, (3.2.2), :
m(p) = m(p) I(p,t) + O(p2,t) + O(p3,t) = 3-1+1+1 = 4.
, 4 (.3.2.2.)).
3.2.3:
.3.2.3. t1 m(p1) = 1 = I(p1,t1)
m(p2) =1 = I(p2,t1); t2 m(p3) = 0<1 = I(p3,t2).
t1 p1 p2,
,
t1, p3.

12

t1 .3.2.3.().
m ' [0 0 1]T . m t2
m(p3)=1 = I(p3,t2).
t2 m = [0 1 0]T.
. t1
m m(p1) = 0<1 = I(p1,t1), m(p2)
= 1 = I(p2,t1).
p2
:

p1

t1

m [m( p1 ), m( p2 ), m( p3 )]T
p3

t2

[1 1 0]T

t1

t1
p2

p1

t1

m [m( p1 ), m( p2 ), m( p3 )]T
p3

t2

[0 0 1]T

t2

t2
p2

p1

t1

m [m( p1 ), m( p2 ), m( p3 )]T
p3

t2

[0 1 0]T

. 3.2.3. PN 3.2.3.:
() m=[1 1 0] , () m=[0 0 1] , (c) m=[0 1 0] .

13

3.2.3.

..
(zero testing ability), .. e
.
, (inhibit =, , ).
,
, ,
. .

. ,

.

.
. , , .
.
,
.
PN
H: PT N. t

m(p) I(p,t) m(p)<H(p,t), p P.
(
t
t)
.
H(p,t) = 1 I(p,t) = 0, t
. H(p,t)>1,
(p,t), I(p,t)<H(p,t).
, ,
o jo .

.
.

14

3.2.4:
.3.2.4() PN
p3 t1. K m0 3 0 1 0
t1 p3 .
t3 .

.3.2.4 () PN () PN

t3 m1=[3 0 0 1] . K
, t1 p3 m1(p3)=0 < H(p3,t1)
m1(p1)=3 > 2=I(p1,t1).
t4 m1(p4)=1 = I(p4,t4).
t1 t4. t4

m0=[3 0 1 0], t1 m2= [1 1 0 1] .


m2 t2 t4.
t2 m1 = [3 0 0 1] t4

m3=[1 1 1 0] . (m3)

t2 t3. t2 m0=[3 0 1 0] ,

t3 m2=[1 1 0 1] .
I(p,t) = O(p,t), p e
I(p,t) .
PN p4 t1
.3.2.4(). p3
, p4 , . p4 p3.
.3.2.4
.

15


:
1)
2) , , / .
6.
p3 t1,
.3.2.4(),
t3 ( t1 t3 ) .
p1

p1

p3

p1

t1

t1

t2

p2

p2

.3.2.5

.3.2.6 -.


p1

p2

p3

p1

p2

p3

3
1
1
1
t

M i 2 M i 1 1


1
4
2
4

t
3

2
p5

p4

t
3

p4

p5

.3.2.7.
2 t
(2,t)=2 2,
m( p2 ) 1 .

16

3.2.4.

. :

PN ( P, T , F , K ,W , M 0 ) ,

(3.2.3)

:
P - : P { p1 , p2 ,..., pn }, n 0 ;
T - : T {t1 , t2 ,..., ts } ,
F - : ( I O )
K - , N \{0}
W - , FN\{0}
M 0 - ( ), N

0, - F ( F I O ).
,
.
. , , ( , ).
.3.2.8.
.
1 K ( p1 ) 20 , 2
K ( p2 ) 20 . .
t1
20
p1

20
1

10

p2

3.2.8. .
.3.2.8.
:

P { p1 , p2 }
T

{t1}

F {( p1 , t1 ), (t1 , p2 )}
K {( p1 , 20), ( p2 , 20)}
W {(( p1 , t1 ),1), ((t1 , p2 ),1)}
M 0 {( p1 ,10), ( p2 , 0)}

17

(3.2.4)

3.2.5. a

.
( ) () .


x ).

x y ,
' x x ( ' x

, - .3.2.9.

3.2.9

3.2.10.

3.2.6.
x y ,
y x ' x ( x ' x ).

, .
.
, ,
.3.2.11.

18

.3.2.11. (-). p1
t1 .
3.2.7.
:
. ,
.
, .
, .. .
. ,

,
.
.
, .
(.3.2.12):

. 3.2.12
,
, ..
.
,
.
.
(.3.2.13).
19

.3.3.13.
(= )

3.2.8.

,
.
:
,
,
.
).

.
(.3.2.14).

. 3.2.14.

.3.2.15

( p1 )
( t1 ). ( p2
p3 ) 1 2 .
20

1 2 ,
..
1 2 (
). ( t2 t3 )
1 2.
).
.
(.3.2.15).
( t1 ) p2 p3 ,
, .
1 2 , .
.
,
,
.
)
,
.
. , ,
.


(.3.2.16).
1

1
1

1.

1.

.3.2.16.

21


. ,

. , .

3.2.9.

.
, .

(.3.2.17).

.3.2.17.
=

.3.2.18.
=

,
,
,
. , , .
(.3.2.18). (
, , ...) , .

,
.
, .., (.3.2.19).

22

. 3.2.19. ( = )
2 ( t2 ) 1
3 ( t1 t3 ). 1 1
( p1 ), 3 2 ( p2 ).
.
1, 2 , 2 3.
3. 2,
1, 3, .
3.2.10. (Deadlock)

.

.
.
.
, , ..
(.3.2.20).
( ) (
1 2) 2 .
, ..
2 .

23

.3.2.20.

,
,
(Deadlock). ,
(.3.2.21).

.3.2.21. (Deadlock)

,
.
,
.
.
. .3.2.22, 1
.

24

.3.2.22

.
,
, (
).
(.3.2.23).

. 3.3.23

25

,
, .
. 1 , . 2
, - .
,
. ,
. 1 , 2 , .
,
.
.

.

3.2.11.
, ..
, .

. :
,
,

,
.
,
.

26

3.3. TE
.
,
,
.
:
,
.
.
, , .
.
,
, . :
(reachability),
(boundedness),
(safeness),
(conservativeness),
(liveness),
(reversibility),
(home state).
:
(repetitiveness),
(consistence) [2] [Murata, 1989].

27

3.3.1 (Reachability),
.: Z ( P, T , I, O, mo ) , m e
m0
m0 m.
m
m m m.
m0 R ( ). R(m0) R(Z,m0) o .
, .
()
. ,


.

, ,
m0 m, m
.

. , ,
m0 m.

, m0 m

.

,
[Zurawski
and Zhou, 1994].

28

:
3.3.1.
.3.3.1.
m0 [1 0 0 0 0]T . (
(m0)
m0).
p1

T1

1
0

mo 0

0
0

0
0

1

1
0

T2
p2

p4

mo
T2

T3

p3

p5

1
0

0

0
0

T1

m2

T3

m1
0
1

0

1
0

T3

T4

m3
0
1

0

0
1

T2

m4

mo

0
0

1

0
1

1
0

0

0
0

.3.3.1.
m0 [1 0 0 0 0]T T1 . T1 m 0
m1 [0 1 0 1 0]T . :
T1
m0
m1 [01010]T

m1 , T2 T3 .
m 2 m3
( .3..3.1) :
T3
T2
m1
m2 [0 0 1 1 0]T
m4

T3
T2
m1
m3 [0 1 0 0 1]T
m4

m 2 T3 . m 4 .
T3
m2
m4 [0 0 1 0 1]T

m3 T2 .
m 4 :
T2
m3
m4 [0 0 1 0 1]T

29

m 4 T4 .
m 0 .
.
( ),
M (m0 )
m 0 .
M (m0 ) :
M (m0 ) {m0 , m1 , m2 , m3 , m4}

.3.3.2.
p1

T1

1
0

mo 0

0
0

p1

T1

p4

p2

T2

T2

T1

p2

T1

p4

p2

T3

p3

p1

0
1

m3 0

0
1

p5

T4

T2

0
0

m2 1

1
0

p4

T3

p3

p5

T4

T4
p1

T2

p5

p3

T4

p2

T3

p5

p3

T1

p4

p2

T3

p1

0
1

m1 0

1
0

T2

0
0

m4 1

0
1

p4

T3

p5

p3

T4

.3.3.2.

:
m 0 T1 ,
T2 . m 2 . :
T1T2
m0
m2

30

T1T2 ( ) (firing sequence).

S TT
1 2

S
m0
m2

() .
( ).
, T1T4 m 0 . , T1 , T4
T1 .

3.3.2 (boundedness and safeness)


Z ( P, T , I, O, mo )
R.
p P B - m(p) B, m R B ( mo,
B - B ).
Z B - o P B o.
(safeness) 1 - (=1).
B
. p B
B, Z .
Z Z
m0.

, , (AGV)
.
() .

.

( ) .
,
.
,
.

31

3.3.2.
.3.3.3. , .3.3.4 .
.3.3.3 :
M (m0 ) {m0 , m1 , m2 , m3} , P1
P2 . . 3- (=3).

.3.3.3.
mo [2 1]T
TT

m1 [1 2]T

1 2
mo
mo

m 2 [0 3]T

1
mo
m1

1
m1
m2

m3 [3 0]T
T

2
mo
m3

.3.3.4 m 0 .
T1
T1
T1
m3 .
m0
m1 , m1
m2 , m2

() 1 ,
2 . .

.3.3.4.

M (m0 ) {m0 , m1 , m2 , m3 ,}
.
. ( (safeness): (safe)
m 0 ,
.
,
1 .
, .3.3.3. , .
.3.3.2 .

.
32

3.3.3
Z=(P,T,I,O,m0) (conservative)
T
w [w1 , w2 ,..., wn ] , wi>0, i=1,2,.,n,
wm=wm0, m R R .
(: w1m( p1 ) w2m( p2 ) wn m( pn ) w1mo ( p1) w2mo ( p2 ) wnmo ( pn ) )
Z (strictly conservative)
Z w [1, 1,...,1]T ,
n

i 1

i 1

m( pi ) mo ( pi ), m R ,

m( p1 ) m( p2 ) m( pn ) mo ( p1) mo ( p2 ) mo ( pn )

,
.

.
,
,
,
.
, . ,

.

(). ,

.
.

. . ,
, ,
.
.
( )
.
Z=(P,T,I,O,m0) () (partialy conservative) w [w1 , w2 ,..., wn ]T , wi 0,
i=1,2,.,n, w 0 wTm=wTm0, m R.

33

(.3.3.5)

.3.3.5.
.3.3.5 () ( )
, ,
4 . m1 m2 m3 m4 1.
,
.
.3.3.5 () m2 m2' 2 ( m2' m( P2) P2 ).
P2
() P2
2 P2 .
P2 P2 .
.3.3.5 () ( .3.3.1),
m0 [1 0 0 0 0]T
{P1 , P2 , P3} , ..
m1 m2 m3 1, ( .3.3.2). , m1 m4 m5 1 .
:

2m1 m2 m3 m4 m5 2 , ( w [2 1 1 1 1] ).
( =
)

( 2 P1 1 ).
Z P . (marking invariant), -
(invariant)) P {P1 , P2 ,..., P}

34

P ,( P P ), w [w1 , w2 ,..., wr ]T
wi :

w1m( P1 ) w2m( P2 ) ... wr m(Pr ) const , m M (m0 )


P' (conservative
component). Z (conservative)
P .
(
). ,
.
, . 3.3.5(b), m(P2) + m(P'2) = 2.
mo(P2 ) + mo( P'2) = N, m(P2) +
m(P'2) =N m.
,
. ,
(.3.3.5.(a)), (.3.3.5(b)).

3.3.4 (Liveness)
t (live) m R ()
t.
, o t m R
t.
.

.
t (dead) m R,

t, m.
(deadlock) m R
. .

()
.

35

: (.3.3.6)
p1

p1

p1

T1
p1

p1

p2

T1

p3

T2
mo

p2

T2

T2

p3

mo

T2

p3

T3

m1

a)

T1
p2

T2

T1
p2

p2

T1

T3

b)

m1

T3
m2

.3.3.6. ) )

1) .3.3.6 ) mo m1 .

T1 :
T
TT
: m0
m1 m1
m1 T1 .
1

2 1

2) .3.3.6 )

mo :

R(mo ) {mo , m1 , m2 } .


T1 m1 ( m 2 ). , m1
, T1 .
( T1 ) !.
.: m o
m o . ( , ,
()).
.
,

(AGV), . ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
[Coffman et al.,1971].
36

1. // :
.
2. : ()

3. :
,
.
4. :
()
.
, ,
/
,
.
,
(AGV), , ,
.
AGV, AGV .
, , AGV .
, , ,
. .
[Banaszak and Krogh,
1990; Hsieh and Chang, 1994; Viswanadham et al., 1990; Zhou and DiCesare,
1993; Xing et al.,1995].
m
m0, .
, , .
. ,
()
.
,
,
. ,

().

37

3.3.5
Z=(P,T,I,O,m0) (reversible)
m R(m0) m0 R(m).
m R(m0) (home state)
m R(m0), m m.
(: (home state) mh m0 , mi R(mo )

Si

Si
mh .
mi

.: m0 m0 home
state ( reinitialisable)

.
m
m0, m0
m.
,
.

.
.
.. m=m0,
. ,
.
/,
.
[Murata, 1989].
3.3.6
, m0
S m0, S.
m0
S m0 m0,
S.

38

3.3.7
3.3.4 ():
.3.3.7
. p1
.
.. [0 1 0]T .
p1. [0 0
1]T [0 1 0]T [1 1 0]T.
. . ,
,
: ) p1
t1 t2 p2 p3
) p1 p3 ,
.

.3.3.7

.3.3.8

3.3.5 ():
.3.3.8 p1
3- .
[1 2 1 1]T. ,
. .

. p1 ,
m0=[3 0 1 0]T
, p1 .
m0. ,
. m2=[1 1 0 1)T m3=[1
1 1 0]T. , .

39

3.3.8

4.1,
4.2,
4.3 [Zhou and Jeng, 1998].
4.1.

/
, ,

, ,

, , /

4.2.

, : AGV,
,

, :
, ,

( )

, , ,

40

4.3.

( : ,
)


, ,

//

41

3.4.

:
1)
2)
3)
4)

3.4.1.
,
,
. (, )
.
, ( 3.3) ,
.

.
:
(depth first),
(breadth first).
,
,
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.

.
, , , . , 42

. ,
.
.
o
.
.
.
.
(
) .

.3.4.1
3.4.1. ( 3.2.4):
m0=[3, 0, 1, 0]T ,
t3 .
t3 m1=[3, 0, 0, 1]T,
.3.4.2.). m1,
t1 t4.
t1 m2=[1, 1, 0, 1]T. m2,
t2 t4.
t2 , .. m1.
t4 m3=[1, 1, 1, 0]T.
m3 t2 t3 .
t2 m0 ,
t3 m2.
t4 m1.
t4 m0.

:
m0-t3-m1-t1-m2-t2-m1;
m2-t4-m3-t2-m0;
m3-t3-m2;
m1-t4-m0,
.3.4.2.

43

.3.4.1.PN .3.2.4.()

m0 [3 0 1 0]T

t3

m0 [3 0 1 0]T

m1 [3 0 0 1]T

t1

m0 [3 0 0 1]

m2 [1 1 0 1]

t2

t3

m0 [3 0 0 1]T

t2

m2 [1 1 0 1]T

m3 [1 1 1 0]T

t2

m1 [3 0 0 1]T

t1

t4

t4

t3

t4

t3

t4

m2 [1 1 0 1]T

m3 [1 1 1 0]T

.3.4.2. () ()
.3.4.1.

44


.
m0 t3.
t3 m1=[3 0 0 1]T. m1
t1 t4.
t1 m2=[1 1 0 0]T ,
t4 m0.
m2, t2 t4.
t2 m1, t4 m3=[1 1 1 0]T.
m3 t2 t3.
t2 m0, t3 drugo m2.

:
m0-t3-m1-t1-m2 t4-m0;
m2- t2-m1 t4-m3;
m3-t2-m0 t3-m2.
==============


,
.
,
, .
:
> k , , k = , k.

.
3.4.1
1.0) m0
.
2.0) , :
45

3.0) m;
3.1) m
.
3.2) m ,
m (deadend).
4.0) t m :
4.1) m
t m;
4.2) m, m,
m() m() mm,
m() , m() > m().
4.3) m , m m t
m .
4.4) m.
3.1
. 3.1. :
m m
m, .

.
3.4.2. ( 3.4.1)
3.4.1
( 3.4.3.
.3.4.4.)). m0=[1,0,0,1,0]T .3.4.4.).
1.0 4.4 o t1 e
m1 = [0,1,0, 1,0]T.

m0. ,
, .
t2 m1
m2=[1, 0, 1, 1, 0]T . m2 m0 = [1,
0, 0, 1, 0]T m2(3) > m0(3). , 4.2, m2(3)
. m2=[1, 0, , 1, 0]T e
m2 .3.4.4.), - t1 t3.
t1 m3=[0, 1, , 1, 0]T
.
46

m1=[0, 1, 0, 1, 0]T,
4.2 .
t1
1

M1

p2

p1

t2

p3

t3
2

M2

p4

p5

t4

.3.4.3.

t3 m2=[1, 0, -1, 0, 1]T = [1, 0, , 0, 1]T
=m2 k = , .
.
m3=[0, 1, , 1, 0]T [1, 0, , 0, 1]T .
m3=[0, 1, , 1, 0]T t2, t3.
t2 m3=[1, 0, +1, 1, 0]T =
[1, 0, , 1, 0]T =m2 ,
.
t3 [0, 1, , 0, 1]T
. [0, 1, , 0, 1]T [1, 0, , 0, 1]T.
[0, 1, , 0, 1]T, t2 t4.
t2 [1, 0, , 0, 1]T
,
.
t4 [0, 1, , 1, 0]T
.
, [1, 0, , 0, 1]T [1, 0, , 0, 1]T
.
[1, 0, , 0, 1]T, t1 t4.

.3.4.4.).
47

[1, 0, , 0, 1]T.
.
.
.3.4.4.).
3.1
[1, 0, , 0, 1]T .
.3.4.4.).
m0 [1 0 0 1 0]T

t1
1

t1
m1 [0 1 0 1 0]T

M1

m2 m1
4.2
T

p2

p1

m2 [1 0 1 1 0]

t2

t2
m2 [1 0 1 0]T

t3
1

t1

m3 [0 1 1 0]T

p3

m2 [1 0 1 0]T

t3

m4 [0 1 0 1]T

t2
2

M2

p4

()

t4

m5 [1 0 0 1]T m3 [0 1 1 0]T

t1

p5

t4

t3

t2

m2 [1 0 0 1]T

t4

m4 [0 1 0 1]T m2 [1 0 1 0]T

()

. 3.4.4. ) .3.4.3,
b) , )
3.1.

48

: ,

.
.
, :
1.
.
, ,
-. ,
, -.
p , m m(p) .
2.
.
3. (deadend) ,
() . ,
e .
4. .
5.
,
, .
6. ,
.

49

3.4.3 ( 3.2.4):
.3.4.2.),
.3.4.1 , .
3.4.4 ():
.3.4.4.),
.3.4.4.) . p3 .

. 4.1
.

.
.
,

. [Peterson,1981; Wong et
al.,1993].

50

3.4.2. a

.
,
. ,
.
, C=O-I, . ( ):
mk =mk-1 + Cuk , k=1,2,
mk mk-1, uk
sx1 () ,
k- .
ti k- a, i- uk e 1
. i- C
ti.
P -
x :
CTx=0
P-.
P - xT
xTmk=xTmk-1+xTCuk, k=1,2,
CTx=0, xTC=0,
xTmk=xTmk-1 , k=1,2,

xTmk=xTm0=const.
P -
. P-
,
.
P- ||x||.

51

T -
y Cy=0, T-.

m0 m0. i- u
ti . u
firing count vector .
m0=m0+Cu
Cu=0 u T-.
T-
, , m0 m0. T-
,
m0 m0,
. ,
.

. ,
P-, . ,
,
PN.
.
P - T - :
CTx=0, - -

Cy=0, - - .
.

52

3.4.5: (4.8)
( )
.3.4.1 (4.6()) P - T - .

:
2
0
I
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

0
0

1
0
, O
0
0

1
1

2
0
0
0

0
0
0
1

0
0
1

:
2 2 0 0
1 1 0 0

C O-I
0 0 1 1

0 0 1 1

.3.4.1. .3.2.4.()
:
2 1 0 0 x1 0
2 1 0 0 x 0
T
2 .
C x0
0 0 1 1 x3 0


0 0 1 1 x4 0

2 x1 x2 0
2 x1 x2 0
x3 x4 0
x3 x4 0

,
2 x1 x2 0
x3 x4 0


x2 2 x1
x4 x3

53

: x1=x3=1, P -
x=[1 2 1 1]T. x1=1 x3=0, x1=0 x3=1, [1 2 0 0]T [0 0 1 1]T,
, , P-.
:
2 2 0 0 y1 0
1 1 0 0 y 0
2
Cy 0
0 0 1 1 y3 0


0 0 1 1 y4 0

, , :
y1 y2 0
y3 y4 0

:
y2=y1 y4=y3.
y1 y3 .
y1=y3=1, T- [1 1 1 1]T. y1=1 y3=0,
y1=0 y3=1, [1 1 0 0]T [0 0 1 1]T, , , T.
P-,
. , ,
, , t3, t1, t2, t4.
.
, [1 1 1 1]T, T.
C
.
T 4.4.

54

( )

3.4.1. PN , C=O-I
, x .
3.4.6: (4.9)
.3.4.1.(4.6()).
4.8. x=(1 2 1 1)T>0
CTx=0, .
, y=(1 1 1 1)T
Cy=0.
3.4.3.
,
,
.
.
.
.3.4.5 , :
a: /
.3.4.5 ().

b: / ,
.3.4.5(b).
c: / ,
.3.4.5 (c).

55

d: / ,
. 3.4.5 (d).
e: / ,
. 3.4.5 ().

f: / ,
. 3.4.5 (f).
,
,
. , c,
d, f, b e, k=j=1.

56

. 3.4.5. ,
, , k , j, ij
ji ,
b.
3.4.7: (4.10):
.4.10()-(d) .
1. t1 t2 t12 b, .3.4.6(b).
2. p1 ,
.3.4.6 (c).
3. t12 f,
.3.4.6 (d).
, .3.4.6 (d) ,
, ,
. ,
b t3 t4 .3.4.6 (d).
,
, .

57

,
.
.

.

.3.4.6. .3.4.1,
b, e, f.

3.4.8:
.3.4.7 (a)-(d).
1. p2 p3 p23, a, p5 p6 p56, c,
t6 t7 t67 d, .3.4.7 (b).
2. t1 t3 t13, t4 t5 t45, t67 t8 t678
b, .3.4.7 (c).
3. b t45
t6 t45678 p1,
.3.4.7 (d).
f
.3.4.7(d) . ,
, .

58

.3.4.7() ,
.

. 3.4.7 3.4.6
.

3.4.9:
.3.4.8 b .
.3.4.8() , .
t1, t2 t1 .3.4.8 (), .`
.3.4.8 (b)
t1 t2 .
p2 t2 t1 t2
b. , t3 t4

59

b t34.
. ,
.3.4.8 (c)
, . t1, t2 t1 .3.4.8 (),
.3.4.8 (c).
.3.4.8 () (c) -
. p1 p2 ,
t1-t2, ,
m0(p2), t1 , m(p1).
m(p1)=a, m0(p3)=c, m0(p4)=d,
:
(t3t4)d(t1t2)b+dt1d+a
.3.4.8 ().

.3.4.8 b 3.4.8
3.4.10:

, .
.3.4.9(), m0=[1 1 0 0 0 0]T,
, , t1 t5
m0. t1
,
m0, t4 t5 . ,
t4 t5 p5
,
t6 .
60

, p5 p6 p56, ,
.3.4.9(b), , . ,
p5 (trap) .
. , .
/
. , ,
,
.

.3.4.9 (a) ,
(b) ,
3.4.4.
,
, ,
(siphon) -
(trap) ,
[Zhou and Jeng,1998].
siphon trap,
.

.

61

, -
.
.
.
,
, , ,
. ,

.
:
3.4.2
1. :
.
2.
, . , ,
1.
3. .


.
4.
3. 3 2.
.
:
1.
,
2. ,

.


.
-

62


(Ch.7-9).
3.5.
,
.
. ,
, .

.
: , , , ,
, , .
. ,
, ,
, , .
.
: , , . ()
.
1.

. ,
.
2.

.
3.
.

. ,
,
.
4. , , .
5. . ,

63

,
.

3.5.
3.5.1.

.
:
(.3.5.1) .
2 4.
.
.

64

. 3.5.1.
.3.5.2.
(): (1 - 4) (1 - 4)
.
.
(2) ():
( 1- 4 ) (1
- 4). - (F1 - F4).
().
.
TE1
TE4. , TE3. TE3 : F2, F3 T3.
TE3 F2, F3 T3 E3.
E3.
TE3 . 3.5.3

65

.3.5.2.

.3.5.3 TE3

66

2 . TE1
T3.
1 2 F1 F4
T1. ET3
T3.
..3.5.2 T3 F2
F3.

.3.5.4 TE1
TE1 T1,
F4 F1 E1.
E1. T1 T3
, (.3.5.4).
T1 T3 , T2 T4 .
ET1 ET3
,
. ET1 .3.5.3.

TE2 TE4 ET2 ET4.

,
.

67

4
EDEN FILOZOF

Gradewe Petri mre`en model za eden filozof


() ()
() .
:
.
.

.1

. 2

. 3
68

4 FILOZOFI

. 1

. 2

69

. 3

. 4

70

5.

Site filozofi mislat. Za da se jade na sekoj mu se potrebni po dve


viljuski.
Moe da pone da jade koj bilo filozof.

Za poetok e ja startuvame aktivnosta TE1 (Filozofot 1 prestanuva da


misli i ponuva da jade. Novata sostojba e na . 6

6. Filozofot 1 jade drugite mislat. Ponatamu, moe da pone da jade samo


filozofot 3 bidejci moe da se aktivira preminot ET3. Druga monost e da
prestane da jade filozofot 1.

71

Po aktivirae na preminot TE3 (filozofot 3 preminuva od sostojba na


mislee vo sosotjba na jadee) situacijata e kako na . 7.

. 7. Filozofite 1 i 3 jadat, a drugite dva mislat. Tie ne moat da ponat so


jadee ddeka ovie dva ne prestanat, bidejki sekomu treba da bidat dostapni po
dve viuki.
Vo sledniot cekor moeme koj bilo od 1 i 3 ili dvata da gi vratime vo
pozicija na mislee. Samo ako dvata gi vratime vo pozicija na mislee drugite
dva (2 i 4) moe da preminat vo proces na jadenje. Po aktivirae na ET1 i ET3 bi
se vratile na .5. a potoa moe da gi aktivirame preminite TE2 i TE4 (Vidi
Sl.8).

. 8. Filozofite 2 i 4 jadat, a drugite dva mislat. Ponatamu moe da se


aktiviraat preminite ET2 i ET4 ili dvata zaedno, pri to eden ili dvata od
filozofite 1 i 3 e preminat od pozicija na mislee vo pozicija na jadee

72

3.5.2.
1:

.

. 1.
,
.

1 . (
= ) . 2
( 2 .
1 , 2
.
.1.) ().
1 . ,
.1.)
.1.) 1 2 (
( 1) ( 2).
1 (.1.)), 1 . -
2. .

73

2. .
, ()
.

) .
1
.

) 1
(
2). 2 ( ) 6 ( )

)
3 .
3 ( ) 5 ( )

) 3

.( 4).
4 (
) 2 ( ) 5 (
)

.2.

74

3.
.
,
.

) ,
Red 1

.

) , 1,.
Green
2 .

) ,
Orange
3
.

) 3
.
.

75

4.
,
. .

.4.) .
-
.
, --- . .4.1.)
1 2 .

.4.) 1 .4.) R1 ()
S (PN semafor) G1 (). 2
( S (PN semafor)
.
, .4.), 1.
( 1 ),
1. .4.).

76

.4.) ,
1.
1 R1 S .
. 2
.

.4.) .4.)

.4.) 2. ,
.

77

3.5.
3.5.3.

()
. ,
.
Fanuc
New Jersey.
(FM) FMS (Flexible Manufactoring system) . .3.5.6.

CNC
CNC

CNC

WS2

WS1

. 3.5.6. Fanuc
(workstations WS):
- (WS1),
- (WS2),
- .
.
:
1.
.

78

2.
(WS1)
3. WS1,
.
4. WS1 (
) () ,
.
.

. ()
().

, .. (, ), ,
, .. .
, ..
.
, ().

.
, ().
,
() .
Fanuc , , ,
() .
p1, p2.

t1. p1 p2 t1
.3.5.7.
p1 p2 t1. ,
t1 ..

-( p3). () t1 p1 .

79


. p4
t2
.
p3 p4 t2
t2 p3 p4.
t2,
, .

. t5 e

.
p2 p4
. , p1
() ;

.
, ()
(). .
5


p7

p1

p3

p2

p6

T2

T3

p5

p4

.3.5.7.

80


(. 3.5.7)
o p1,
:
1. t1
(p1 p2
). t1 ( )
p1 p2 p3. p1 p2
, t1 .
2. t2 ( p3 p4)
p3 p4, t2 (
).
p3 p4 p2 p5.
3. p2 p5,
t3 (
). p2 p5
p6.
4. p6 t4 (
).
6 p2 p7.
5. p7 t5
( ).
p7 p1.
.
, .
p1.
(2) p1 (
2 ).
:
1. t1
(p1 p2). t1 ( ),
p1 ( ) p2 p3.
p2 t1 . , p1
.
2. p3 p4
t2 ( ).
p3 p4 p2 p5.

81

3. p1, p2 p5
t1 t3. t3,
. , t1
(deadlock). t1
p1 p2 p3.
t1 p1 p2, t2
p4, t3
p2. t4 t5
p6 p7.
,
,
.
.

.
,
: ,
, .

,
/ .

o ,
.
,

.
, ,
.
.
,
.


.
.
, (AGV),
. ,
.

82

,
. .


[Xiong, 1996]. .3.5.6.
,
. .3.5.8.
.
, , ,
. p1, p2, p4 p7, t5

.
5


p7

p1

11

p8

p2

p13

T7

T10

p9

p10

T8

p12

p4

T9

p11

.3.5.8. Fanuc
,
, .3.5.9.
,
() , p14 p15.
t1 t6 .
. ,
83

, .3.5.9.
.

. ,
.
, . ,

.
.


.

. 3.5.9.
( ) Fanuc

84

3.5.4.
(FMS)
. -

FMS.
Fanuc
. :
, , ,
, , .
FMS
,
.
,
. FMS
,
(AGV) .
,
, .

. -
.

85

. -


. -

COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING - CIM

4.

, 2010/2011

4.1.

4.2.

4.3.

4.4.

12

4.5.

19

4.6.

23

4.7.

30

4.8.


4.8.1 ottom-up
4.8.2 Top- Down"
4.8.3 (Hybrid Methods)

36
36
38
39

4.9.


4.9.1
4.9.2 Top Down
4.9.3

41
41
43
49

4.10

50

4.1.

. , :
(Finite State Machines- FSM),
(marked graphs), (free-choice Petri nets)
(assembly Petri nets),
(augmented marked graphs), (production process nets), . ,
top-down, bottom-up, . ,
. &, , .
() .
() , ..,
Z ( P,T , I , O, m0 ) p P, t T I p, t O p, t 1 .
, .
(node) . , x
x P T .
(preset) t t,
.., t p : p P I p, t 0 , .4.1.1.).
(postset) t
t , .., t p : p P O p, t 0 , .4.1.1.).
p1

p1

p2

p2

p
n

p
n

(preset) t

(postset) t

. 4.1.1. ) ) t
(preset)
, .., p t : t T O p, t 0 , .4.1.2.).
(postset) p
t , .., p t : t T I p, t 0 , .4.1.2.).

t1

p
p

t2

t2

tn

).

t1

t
n

(preset) p

(postset) p

.4.1.2 p
.
, S (.4.1.3.)
(preset) S , .., S U p . | S |
pS

S .
Z , .. x x x 0 .

p1

p1

p2
p2

pr

pr

.4.1.3. ( S ) ( S )
. Z ( P,T , I , O, m0 )
: x1x2xn, n 1 (xi,xi+1) i N i 1 n>1 xi=xj
i j, i, j N n Nn={1,2,,n}.
( , ) : x1x2x3,...,xn, n>2
(xi,xi+1) i N i 1 n>1 xi=xj , 1 i j n , i=1, j=n.
- (-)
ptp (--) tpt (--).

4.2. -
( =State Machine SM, =Finite State Machine FSM) -

. , .
.
, - ( SM- )
:
SM- ( )
Z ( P, T , I , O, m0 ) :
1. p P, t T , I p, t 1 O p, t ;

2. t T ,| t || t | 1, ..,|{ p P : O p, t 1|| p P : I p, t 1| 1 ;
3. p P m0 p 1.
, 1) Z
. 2)
. 3)

?.
(P,T,I,O) 1) 2),
( , -FSM).

.
4.1: SM- ,
.
[MengChuZhou].
4.1:
SM- :
1: ();
2: a ;
3: ,
,
; t,
() p ; p
t t p. ().
4:
.

. () SM-

.
. .
4.2.1:

.4.2.1.().
,
, . , .
SM- :
, / .
, , , .
, , .
4.2.1.(b).
, ,
. .
. ,

- .
t1 t2 p1 ( ) t1 t2,
t1 p2 ( ) t2 p5 ().
. SM-
.4.2.1(c). 4.2.1
.
, p1
.
, SM-
. .
,
. . , .4.2.1(c), p1-p3
. ,
. ,
. ,
.
4.2.1 .4.2.1(c)

p1

t1

p2

t2
t3

p4

t4

p5

t5

t6

p3

. 4.2.1 () , (b) (c) SM-

Raw material = ,
Inspect = ,
Mill = ,
Drill = , ,
Scrapp = ,
Final part =

4.3.
.
() .
.
Z ( P,T , I , O, m0 )
:
1) p P, t T , I p, t 1 O p, t 1
2) p T , | p || p | 1, .., |{t P : O p, t 1}| |{t P : I p, t 1}| 1
.
.
.
() x1x2xn, n>2 (xi, xi+1)
i Nn1 n>1 xi=xj , 1 i j n , i=1, j=n
[Commoner et al., 1971; Peterson
1981; Murata 1989].
4.3: Z ( P,T , I , O, m0 ) .
1) Z, m m0,
Z m m0 ,

.
2) m m0
(a) Z m m0 ,
(b) x Cx m - m0 ,
t x(t)>0
Z C=O-I Z.
3) Z .
4) Z Z
.
5) Z
.
6) Z, m0
.
4.3.-1) 4.3. -2) [Murara, 1977].
4.3.-3) Z
, ,
.
4.3.-4) [Commoner et al., 1971].
8

4.3.-5)

4.3.-3).
4.2.-6) [Murata,
1989]. f m0.
: Cx=0.
Z n C
n-1. Cx=0 x [k , k...., k ]T k>0
. f k . , 4.3.-6) .
(, )
. :
4.3:
1: ;
2: ,
/. 1) / 2)
:
1):
,
, .
2):
, ,
.
3:
.

. .
(bottom-up procedure),
, .
,
, .

(AGV) .
-- , ,
, .

4.3.
4.3:
(M1 M2 ),
(R1 R2) , . 4.3.1(a).
, R1
M1. ,
R2 M2. (buffer, )

.
.
() M1,
M2. ,
.
1: . : , M1 M2, R1 R2
.
2:
, .4.3.2(b).
,
:
R1 M1,
1 ,
R1 1
,
R2 M2,
M2
R2 2.
p1 . t1-t4
R1 R2, p2, p4
M1 M2. p3
.
(, ).
1 . M1 :
R1 M1 ( t1),
M1 ( p2)
R1 1 ( t2).
3: .
, M1, - R1,
t1-p2-t2 . 4.3.2(c).
.
4.3.2(c). 4.3.
.4.3.2(b) : m0 [3 0 0 0 1 2 111]T .
5.3 a
4.7.

, / .
, .

10

.4.3.2. () , (b) ,
(c)
4.3

p1
p2
p3
p4
p5
p6
p7
p8
p9

t1
t2
t3
t4

M1

M2
M1

M2
R1
R2

11

R1
R1
R2
R2

4.4. FREE-CHOICE ASIMETRIC-CHOICE


(SM)
FreeChoice ( )
FC .
Free-Choice Z ( P,T , I , O, m0 )
:
1) p P, t T I p, t 1 O p, t 1
2) p P, | p | 1, ( p ) { p} ; :
p1, p2 P, p1 p2 , | p1 | | p2 | 1 .

1) .
2)
. ,
,
.
FC [R.David,
H.Alla, 2005]. (Free
choice PN), ( Extended free
choice PN).
Free-Choice Z ( P,T , I , O, m0 )
p1,{t1, t2 ,..., tr } t1, t2 ,..., tr
p1.
Extended Free-Choice Z ( P,T , I , O, m0 )
p1,{t1, t2 ,..., tr } t1, t2 ,..., tr
. t1
p1 , p2 t2 p1 , p2 , .
(Free-Choice Extended Free-Choice ),
,
.
(), siphon () trap (, ),
FC ,
.
simetric Choice ( )
Z ( P,T , I , O, m0 ) :
1) p P, t T I p, t 1 O p, t 1 ;
2)

p1, p2 P, p1 p2 p1 p2 p2 p1 .

1) .
2) , .

12

,
.
.4.4.1.
t1

p1

t1

p1

p1

t2

t2

t3

t3

t4
p2

t5

p1

p2

p2

t4

p2

t6

.4.4.1. ) 2), ) 2 : p2 p1
(Siphon Trap)
(Siphon). S
S S , ..,
S S.
(Trap). S ()
S S , .. S
S.

:
1)

, .

2)

3)

4)

.
, .

5)

.
, .

4.4.1 ( ):
1)

S1 { p1, p2 , p3} S1 { p2 , p3 , p4 }
.4.4.2. : S1 t2 , S1 t1 , t2 , S2 t2 , t3 S2 t 2 .
S1 S 1 S1 . S2

S 2 S 2 (). S3 p2 , p3 . S3 S3 t2 .

S3 .
2)

.4.4.3.(a). S1 p1, p2 , p5 S2 p1, p2 , p5 .

S1 t5 , t1 , t2 , t3 , S1 t1 , t2 , t3 , t5 ,

S2 S2 S1 S 2 .

S2 t5 , t1 , t2 , t4 S2 t1, t2 , t4 , t5 .

13

S1 S1

S3 { p2 , p3 }

S2 { p2 , p3 , p4 }

S1 { p1 , p2 , p3}

p1

p3

p2

t2

t1
S1 {t1 , t2 }

p4

S1 {t2 } S2 {t2 }

t3

S2 {t2 , t3}

S3 S3 {t2 }

.4.4.3. .
.
, , . , t1 .4.4.3.
S1, t2 S1 S2 t3,
S2. , .4.3.3
{ p1, p2 , p3 , p4 } .
S1 .
S2 .
:
1. ,
;
2. ,
;
3. Z
, .
SM , MG
.
4.4: - Z ( P,T , I , O, m0 ) ,
1.

Z ().

2. Z K- Z -
SM - , K m0. Z
K=1 .
3. Z - MG .
, m RZ MG
, Z, MG m, m m Z, .., m(p)=m(p) p P' Z.

14

4. Z ( )
Z .
5. Z
S, S F(S)>0
F S min

m( p)

mS


m m0 Cy, m 0, y 0 .

4.4.-2) -3), - (MG -) Z Z


() Z :
1) () Z
;
2) ()
(), ()
.
4.4. -1) -4) [Best, 1987].
4.4. -5) [Chu and Xie, 1997]. F(S)
:
F S min

m( p)

mS


m m0 Cy, m 0, y 0

m, S ,
F(S)=0. , S . FC
.
, 4.4. -1), -4) -5)
,
.
4.4.2.:
, S1 { p1, p2 , p5} S2 { p1, p2 , p5} , . 4.4.4(a)
. S { p1, p2 , p3 , p4 , p5} , .. S1 S2.
. , FC .4.4.4(a) . , , .5.4.4.(b),
. , .4.4.4.(a)
. MG -
.4.4.4(c). MG
.
FC .


FC . [Esparza and Silva,

15

1990], [Chao, 1987; Chao et al., 1994]. [Esparza and Silva, 1990], PP, PT-, TP- TT- ( ) ( ). [Chao,
1987; Chao et al., 1994], PP-, PT-, TP- TT-
, .
, P ( - place) T ( - transition).

.4.4.4 (a) FC , (b) -, (c) MG

16

:
, ,
[Chu and Xie, 1997]:
1. ;
2.
, ,
.
.
4.4.3: ( )
A, B, C D. A, B C
, D .
q1 q2 ,
:
q1 :
1. O11, O12 O13
2. O11, O12, O14 O15
O11, O13-O15 A, B, C D, , O12 .
q2 :
O21 O22 O21 D, O22 D.

.
-

,
.


q1 q2 ,
q1 q2 .


q1 q2 .

. ,
q1 q2 , .4.4.5.

, .
,
.

,

. O14
p14 . t5,
t6. O14 C, pc

17

( ) t5. C t6 pc.
.4.4.5,
. 4.4.3 ,
.

.4.4.5 4.4.5.
1.5 1.5(b)

p11
p12
p13
p14
p15
p21
p22
pa
pb
pc
pd

O11
O12
O13
O14
O15
O21
O22
A
B
C
D

t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
t7
t8
t9
t10

O11
O11 O12
O12 O13
O13 q1
O12 O14
O14 O15
O15 q1
O21
O21 O22
O22 q2

: {pB p13}, {pC, p14 }, {p11, pA,


p22} {p15, pD, p21, p22 }. . ,
pA, pB, pC, pD , ,
4.4. -5).
t1-t2 p12 .
4.4.-5)
4.6.

18

4.5.
, .
,
.
:
1.
.
2. (
).
3. Z=(P,T,I,O,m0),
, :
1) p1 ,
, P, .
2) :
3) p P P' , t , t ' p , t t ' t ={ q P' :
t q},
4) m0(p1)=1 mo(p)=0 p P { p1} . , m f ( p) 1 p P ' m f ( p) 0 p P P ' .
2)
.
3) ,
.
.

. -
- .
/ .
FC (- ) .
:
Z=(P,T,I,O,m0) () :
1) (P,T,I,O) 1-3 ,
2) m0(p)=1 p P' , m0(p)=0, p P P' . ,
mf(p1)=1, m0(p)=0, p P p' .
Z=(P,T,I,O,m0)
Z=(P,T,I,O,m0) . Z
Z.
.

19

4.4 ( ):
1) Z=(P,T,I,O,m0), m e m0
y : m=m0+Cy C=O-I
.
2) Z=(P,T,I,O,m0)
Z .
3) Z , Z .
4) ,
, .
y
m=m0+Cy m m0.
1.4.1 [Murata 89]. 4.4.2
4.2.1,
4.2.1 .
4.4.3 ( )
, 4.4.2. 4.4.4

.
4.5.


. . 4.5.1 :
(Cover - C), (Glass G), (Head Housing - H),
(Bulb - B), (Spring S) (Main Housing - M),
C, G, H, B, S, M.
,
. .

. 4.5.1
p1 ( ), :
1. CGHB ( + + + )
SM ( + ),
2. CG (+) HBSM.
t1 , - t2.

20

t1 : CGHB SM, t2 - : C (), G


() HBSM.
Ponatamu se demontira CGHB ( p2 ) (), G () HB
t3 . HB ( 4) H (
) B () t6 t6.
SM ( 5) S () M ( )
t7 , H B.
, t2 : C (), G ()
HBSM, C (), G () C
(7), G (8). HBSM. , HBSM,
, HB SM ( 4 5) t4
HSM B ( 6 10) t5. HSM
SM H (H) ( 5 9)
t8. SM S M ( 11 12) t7.
, ,
p1.. .4.5.2(a).
(free choice net).
. .4.5.2(a) (deadlock), i toa e:
m f [0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1]T .

() .4.5.2(b).
, ..:
mo [0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1]T ,

:
m f [1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]T .

(free choice
net)., (asymmetric choice net).
, (deadlock),
t7 .4.5.2(b) ,
, .
.4.5.2() , .
? [Suzuki et
al., 1993], e dokaano ilustrirano deka problem

:
: cT x
: Cx m mo , x 0
c /
, C / , m

21

, m o ,
.
,
. x ,
.

. 4.5.2 (a) , (b) .

22

4.6

,
. ,
, ,
( ). ()
,
( Production-Process Nets (PPN).
:
1. 1.

. ,
;
2. 2.

.

(Deadlock).
Deadlock
.
4.6.1.
FMS , 1 2
CM1 CM2 . q1 q2
. (, ) :
q1: M1, M2, M1
q2: M1, 2

.
1,
.5.6.1 (). t10 t20
q1 q2 . p10
q1, p20 - q2.
i=1 2,
ti1 qi,
ti2 qi .
t13 qi ,
t14 q1,
t23 q2.

23

p13 p23 q1, p21 p22


q2. p14 p23
q1 q2 , .
, 1
2, pM1 pM2,
. , q1 1.
pM1 t 11. q1 1
, t21 pM1.
, .5.6.1().
,
.
(Production-process Net PPN)
a. na ispaluvawe na premini,
() ( Deadlock state).
CM1=CM2=1 na .4.6.1(), t10, t11, t12, t20, t21
Deadlock t10 t20 ,
.
Deadlock .
[Banazak and Krogh, 1990; Xing et al., 1995] se izvedeni
.

.4.6.1 )
)
[Proth and Minis, 1995],
(controllable nets).
,
. ,
- .
,
.
jobshop . [Proth and Minis, 1995].

24

Podobreni markiraii grafovi (Augmented Marked Graphs - AMG)


Podobren markiran graf (AMG) Z=( P R ,T,I,O,m0) koja gi
:
1. Z a Z R
.
2. r R , kr (>0) Dr={( t ajr , t bjr ),
j N kr } :

2.1. r tajr , j N Kr

r tbjr , j N Kr ,

2.2. t air t ajr , t bir t bjr i j, i, j N Kr ,


2.3. t air t bir , Z EP( t air , t bir )
t air t bir .
3. Z m0 e , m0(r)>0, r R ,
m0 EP( t air , t bir ), r R , i N kr .
Z,
[Chu and Xie, 1997]:
r R EP( t air , t bir ), i N Kr at p-.
Z e .
S
R (trap) F(S)>0 F(S)=Min
F ( S ) min m( p) m m0 Cy, m 0 i y 0 .
mS

, izvedeni mrei so en izbor (


4.3.5) . PPNs, AMG
.
,
.
.
FMS.

25

4.6.2. ( ?)
, W1, W2, W3
. 4.6.2(). W1,
W2 W3 .
W1-2 , W3
b. W1 W3
.
,
. .

,
W3.
.
,

4.6.2 ():
( p1): W3.
1 ( p2): .
W1 ; W1;
W2.
2 ( p3): W2 .
3 ( p4): W3; W3 ;
W3, .
, t1 1; t2
1 2; t3 2 3; t4
3. p1 t1, t1 p2,, t4 p1
.
p5 p6
W2 .
W2
.4.6.2(). m0 [a,0,0,0, b,1]T .
W1 W3 1 3
.
AC AMG. :
S1={p1,p2,p3,p4},
S2={p3,p5},
S3={p2,p4,p6},
S4={p4,p5,p6}
The first three siphons are also traps. By expressing F(S4)=0 in terms of the initial
marking, it can be derived that F(S4)>0 iff m(p5)+ m(p6)>mo(pl), i.e., b+l>a. If a>0, and
b>0, then S1-3 are all initially marked. The net is live and reversible iff a>0, b>0,and b+l>a.
26

The necessity can be derived as follows. Suppose the net is live but b+l<a. Firing the
sequence (t1t2)bt1 leads to a system deadlock. This contradiction proves the necessity of the
above condition. 0

.4.6.2 ) ,
)

4.6.3 ( !)
-
. ,

27


. FMS . 4.6.3(). AGV,
, .

. . 4.6.3
FMS. p1
.
. p4 p6
, p5 p7
:
p1:
p2: 1
p3: 2
p4:
p5:
p6:
p7:
t1:
t2:
t3:
t4:
p1 ,
p1
. p1, p4 p5, p6 p7
m0(p2)=m0(p3)=0, .
AC .
:
S1 = {p1, p2, p3},
S2 = {p4, p5},
S3 = {p6, p7},
S4 = {p1, p3, p6},
S5 = {p1, p2, p7}.
(traps). S4 S5 .
i = m0(pi).
F(S4) = 0 m(p) = 0, p S4 m(p) 0, p S4
m . m(p) = 0, p S4 2 = 3 = 0, :
y1 = 1 + 6 + y2,
y3 = 6 + y2,
y4 = y2.
:
m(p2) = 1,
m(p4) = 4-1-6,
m(p5) = 5+1+6,
m(p7) = 7+6

28

i 0, m(p2) 0, m(p7) 0. , F(S4) = 0


m(p4) 0, .., 4-1-6 0. , F(S4) > 0 41-6 < 0.
, F(S5) > 0 5-1-7< 0.
, F(S5) > 0 5-1-7 < 0. S1-3,
1 > 0,
4+5>0,
6+7>0,
1+6>4,
1+7>5.
,
.
p4 p6 p5 p7
t1 t2, t3 t4 t1 t3 ,
. ,

. , 1 1
.
t1t3t2t4. , ,
2 p1
p3.

.4.6.3 ) , ,
)
.

29

4.7
- ,
,
.
, , , , ,
. ,
, ,
. :
: ,

. .4.7.1().
(, ):
, , ..
. .4.7.1().
-
/
.
: ,
.
.4.7.1(c).
(): ,
() . .4.7.1(d).
( ):

.

. ,
. [Zhou and DiCesare, 1991]. .4.7.1(). , t1-p2-t2 t3-p3-p4
, p1 ,
. .4.4.5.
,
. .4.6.3().
. .
.

.
.

.

.

30

.4.7.3. : ) , b) ,
c) , d) , )
:
:
, , , ,
, , .
:
, / .

.
.
(Petri Net Design):
/ , ,
/ . 2.
.

.
,
(), , ()
;

31

(), (),
.

( )
.


.

. , .. ,
.
(Petri Net Modification):



.
,

.
.
,
, . bottomup [Ferrarini, 1992].
4.7.1: ( !)
AT&T FWS-200 ,
. FWS-200
.4.7.1. :
1. , ,
.
2. AT&T PC, STD
bus, , ,
.
3.
, X,Y,Z .
4. AT&T PC 6386 .
5. ,
Z
X Y .
6. , ,
, .
7. IRI SV512 ICOS M10000 .
8. .

32

,
. 60.96 cm x
81.18 cm).
,
:
1. : , ,
.
,
M2L.
PCB , .
.

.4.7.1. FWS-200 AT&T


2. .
(!)
3. , R1 R2 ,
/
.4.7.2().

33

,
, PCB .
.4.7.2().
. ti2 pi2, pi2 ti1,., ti4 pi5 pi4
ti5 i=1,2. ti1
, Ri, Ri , p3, pi, pi1
ti1. ti2
ti2 p3. ti2
PCB , p 4 ti1.
.
.
.4.7.2().
: mo [1,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0]T .
14 10 .
4. .

34

.4.7.2 ) , )

35

!
4.8

. - , ,

.

deadlock,
.
[Zhou DiCesare 1993; Proth Xie, 1996]
.
4.8.1 Bottom-up
bottom-up
: .
. ,
/ .
, .
.
. ,
.

, , , :

.
,
.
.
.
,
, .
.
.
.
.
.
,
.5.14 FMS [Zhou Jeng, 1998]:

a. / :
. . 5.14() 5.11()
t1 p2 t2. p1 p3
. p 4
.
t1, t2, p2:

36

t1 t2 , ,
p2 ;
t1 t2 , p2
;
t1 t2 , , p2
.
b. /:
.
k . . 5.14(b) .
p4 k ,
k . p6
. t 3
k p 5.
t3
.
c. / : . 5.14()
,
.5.14(). t3
t4 . t5

d. : ,
. .5.14() .4()
.
.
,
. ,
...
11.
: q1-5 1-5 2. q1
1. q2 2 2'. 2
. 2' 2
. 3 5 q3 q5
. 3,
q2 . 5, 5 . 4
q4 , k .
. :

/ (. 5.14()) q1 1;
(. 5.14()) q2
/ (. 5.14()) 2,
/ (. 5.14()) 2'. t3
t7 .
(.5.14()) q3 3. ,
q2 .., p3 ( q1 ,
q2 );
- / q4 4 (.5.14());
(.5.14()) q5 5;
. 5.15
i i+1 i=1,2,3 4.

37

t q5,
.

p0.
.5.15.

.

.

.

.5.15. ,
..
4.8.2 " " (Top- Down)
Top- Down
, , .

.
. ,
,
.

38

.
-,
.
top-down
"-" .
.
.

"-" :
. . 5.11().
.
.
. FMS
5.8.
. "-" .
.
.
. .
,
.
,
.
"-" .
. 5.10() 5.9.
, ,

.

.
Top- Down
. .
"/" 5.4.
4.8.3 (Hybrid Methods)
top-down bottom-up hybrid
. Hybrid : top-down bottomup . Top-Down
. Bottom-up

.
.
, .., , ,
. .

. .
,
, .., .

39

, .., .
.
:
, , "-"
,
.

,
.. 11()-().

e.
, , , -
.

. .

. ,
.

.

5.5.

40

4.9
4.9.1
FMS
5.16.
:

SI Handling Conveyor System( ): ,


, , , , , 1 2,
.
NASA II CNC Milling Machine( ):
"NJIT FMS"
CAD .
GE P50 Robot()
CNC ,
.
Parts Presentation Station( ):

. ;
.
Computer Vision System ( ):
.
Drilling Workstation( ): IBM 7535 Industrial Robot 1/4"
. (
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
).

. 5.16. FMS

41

, 1
2 FMS , 3 13
FMS :
1.

.
2. GE P50 , ,
. .
3. ,
5.17.
4. IBM 7535
.
5. GE P50 ,
x1 ( 5.17)
CNC .
6. CNC ,
"NJIT FMS" .
7. ,
.
8. .
9. .
10.
.
11. ,
, .
12. GE
.
13. .

. 5.17.

42

4.9.2 Top- Down


top-down .., ,
,
FMS . :
. ,
:

,
NASA II CNC Milling Machine, GE Robot, Computer Visio System, Parts Presentation
Station,
Drilling Workstation.

.

. 5.17.
4.9.2.1
,
. , :
) FMS
,
) - top-down
FMS .

. .

, ,
.
. ,
.
.
, .., x1- x8, 5.17.
.
.
,
, ,
t1- t10 , px1- px8 .5.18. , t1
x 1 x2 t3
x3 x4. px1 x1.
x1- x8 py1-8. , py1
x1 py3 1
x3.
,
. t1 .., x1 x2,
x1 x2 , (px1 ,t1) (py2 ,t1)
. , (t1, py1)(t1, px2) t1
x1 , py1
x1 x2. ,
43

.5.18.
1.4. :
m0=(1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0)
px 1, px2, ...,px8, py1,py2, ...,py8.
m0(px1)=1 x1 m0(px8)=1 2
x8 x1.
px1 px5 -
.

5.18.

1.4. 5.18
.

p

x1 X1
y1 X1

p X2

p

x2
y2 X2

p
1 X3
x3 1 X3
y3

p
1 X4
x4 X4 1
y4

p

x5 X5
y5 X5

p X6

p

x6
y6 X6

p
2 X7
x7 2 X7
y7

p
2 X8
x8 X8 2
y8

44

t

X2

t

1
1
t
X4

t
1
X5

t

X6

t

2
2
t
X8

t
2
X1

10

t
1
X5

,
.
5.2.
, .
, .
4.9.2.2

.5.17, .
x 1 GE P50 . px1- t1
. 5.19.
x1, ( p01) ( p02)
, t () . t 1 ,
x1 .
. 5.19 . 5.18
px1- t1 px1, p01, p02, p03 t
. :
p01: GE P50
p02:
p03:
t: x1.
p02 . p02
,
p02.
FMS.
p02 . 5.19
.

45

5.19. :

4.9.2.3 , GE ,
,
GE P50
. ,
, , , ,
, .
2-8. ..,
6 7, , ,
, . 5.20(). , , .., 1 ,
.
(8), 9
. t 1119 . 5.20().
.
GE (10),
(11), (12),
(13), .

. t 11, (10)
(1) . (1, t11)
(10,t11). (t11, 2) t11( )
() 2. ,
. 5.20. ().
, , 10, 2
. (10, t11) (t12,10) . t13,
t14, t15, t16 t19 10. 11,

46

(11, t12) (t13,11). , 12, (12, t14), (


t15, 12) (t16,12)
, 13, (13, t17), ( 13, t18) (t19,13).
.
. 5 15 16
6 7. ,
. 6 7 t17 t18 8 .
(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1,) .
, , ,

. 5.5.

5.20. () ()

47

5.5 . 5.20().

p

p


9
1

p
GE P50
p

GE P50
2
10

p

p


3
11

p

p


4
12

p

p


5
13


GE
p P50
t


6

11
19

GE
p P50
t


7

',t"
GE
p P50
p


8

'

, , , .
, p' ,
t' t" 1 9.
. p', t' t"
.5.20().
.520(). , ,
, , .
.
4.9.2.4
: .
, ,
. . 5.21.
5.6.
(0, 0, 0, 1) .
.
, ,
. . 5.21
. 5.14().

.5.21.

48

5.6 5.21
p21
p24
p22

t21

p23 t22

4.9.3
. 5.22
px1 px5 . 5.18 5.20() 5.21.
.5.20() 5.21 , , .
, , .
FMS .
, :
, , .
31 21
: (1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0)
1-13, 31-24, px3-4, px6-8 py1-8. m0(1)=m0(px1)=1
m0(p21)=m0(px5)=1.

FMS.

5.22. FMS

49

4.10

.
. :

,
,
Free-choice (-) (FC)

,
Asymmetric choice ( )()
FC ,
/
.
-
- .

5.7.
, , .
SM

e .
() .
.

MG

- .
.
. .

FC

.
. -
.
.

AC

.
,
. , .

APN/DPN () /
() .
.
PPN/AMG - ( AMG,
, .., - ).
/ .

50


& .
. :
bottom-up , top-down , hybrid .
PN . Bottomup top-down FMS
.
.

51