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- Flow Analysis
- ANSI (FCI70).pdf
- Fluid Force on a Bend
- 182068578-price-list-for-WIKA-pdf.pdf
- Assignment 3
- The Secondary Flow in Curved Pipes
- Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration
- Fisher Cat12 s2
- 999072_GB_a
- Aq-differential Pressure Gauge
- MKS Vacuum Measurement Brochure
- ME Graduate Course Information
- D6T#SMC#HydraulicSystem
- DKE292_Ch23
- VOF_Tee
- Flujo Multifasico en pozos petroleros
- p Measure
- Lecture 2
- 36_STR990-1_Pressure Drop Data Y
- Influence of Slippage of a Gas on the Resistance

You are on page 1of 6

Objectives:

To calculate the volume flow rate from the pressure difference between the pipeline

and the minimum cross sectional area. (Orifice and venture devices)

To compare the actual volumetric flow rate and theoretical value using the coefficient

of discharge concept given.

To identify how the rotameter works

Introduction:

This experiment was working on the volumetric flow rate. It consists of fluids which goes

through a duct or a pipeline, where the mass flow rate remains constant as it is the key

property. The velocity of for the liquids or any other incompressible fluids (density are

constant) must be increase as the there is a change in diameter of the pipeline. Based on the

Bernoullis equation, it tells us that the pressure at that point must be change. Imagine a liquid

flowing from point to point 2 which can be at a different elevation than point 1. There is no

other energy exchange if the flow is frictionless. Bernoulli derived an expression between the

pressure and velocity at point 1 to point 2 as:

p1

g

u1

2g

z1 =

P2

g

u2

2g

+ z2

The other key equation is the continuity equation which says the mass flow along the pipe

must be constant. Since mass flow is given by G = Q = uA , then

G1 =

G2

then

U1 A1 = U2 A2

Based on three equations are applied to each of the measuring systems which are available in

this experiment. For frictionless, the relationship between the volumetric, velocity and the

pressure difference between the pipeline and the minimum cross sectional area is given by:

(

Qideal = uA = A

A 2

1)

a

2P

The cross sectional area of the upstream pipe is A, whereas a is the cross sectional area of the

minimum point. For real cases where there is friction involved, the volumetric flow rate is

given by:

Qactual =Cd Qideal

The rotameter is a constant pressure type of device, where the position of the float gives a

direct indication of the volumetric flow rate.

Methodology:

I.

In order to empty the tank, the drain blockage was removed.

II.

The valve C was adjusted until the reading on the rota meter is 200 l/hour

III.

As the float in the rotameter remains on 200 Pa, the readings on each of the tubes on

the manometer bank were recorded.

IV. The drain bloackage was put back in and the main flow control valve was adjusted to

200 Pa after the readings was recorded. The liquid level gauge was observed once the

water pumps in and filled the tank.

V. The time taken for the water volume from 0 liters to reach 10 liters was recorded

using a stopwatch. After the water has passed the 10 liters mark, the drain blockage

was removed and the main flow control valve were switched off.

VI.

Step II until step VI was repeated with flow of different pressure which is 400 Pa, 600

Pa, 800 Pa, and 1000 Pa and the readings of the manometer was observed.

Experimental Detail:

Manometer function: To calculate the pressure by observing the water level height inside the

manometer.

P= gh

Rota meter: To determine the volumetric flow rate in liter per hour ( l/hour

Venturi meter: It is attached to the manometer and

Discussion:

For volumetric flow rate 200 l/h

Qact =

V

t avg

0.01m

189.5

= 5.277 105 m3 s1

Qideal =A

=(

2 gh

A 2

( ) 1

a

3.386 104

2(9.81)(0.35)

(

3.386 104 2

) 1

8.46 105

= 7.240 105 m3 s1

Cd=

Q actual

Qideal

5

5.277 10

5

7.240 10

= 0.729

Q ideal

A

(7.240 105 )

(3.386 104)

u=

=

= 0.214 m s1

Reynolds number:

d=

4A

4(3.386 104 )

= 0.021 m

=

du

1 1

0.00089 kg m s

= 4988

Reynolds number:

=

du

0.00089 kg m1 s1

= 6253

Reynolds number:

=

du

0.00089 kg m1 s1

= 8219

Reynolds number:

=

du

0.00089 kg m1 s1

= 10831

Reynolds number:

=

du

1 1

0.00089 kg m s

= 11768

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