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# Aim: To investigate the flow rate using particular flow measuring apparatus.

Objectives:

To calculate the volume flow rate from the pressure difference between the pipeline
and the minimum cross sectional area. (Orifice and venture devices)
To compare the actual volumetric flow rate and theoretical value using the coefficient
of discharge concept given.
To identify how the rotameter works

Introduction:
This experiment was working on the volumetric flow rate. It consists of fluids which goes
through a duct or a pipeline, where the mass flow rate remains constant as it is the key
property. The velocity of for the liquids or any other incompressible fluids (density are
constant) must be increase as the there is a change in diameter of the pipeline. Based on the
Bernoullis equation, it tells us that the pressure at that point must be change. Imagine a liquid
flowing from point to point 2 which can be at a different elevation than point 1. There is no
other energy exchange if the flow is frictionless. Bernoulli derived an expression between the
pressure and velocity at point 1 to point 2 as:
p1
g

u1
2g

z1 =

P2
g

u2
2g

+ z2

The other key equation is the continuity equation which says the mass flow along the pipe
must be constant. Since mass flow is given by G = Q = uA , then
G1 =

G2

then

U1 A1 = U2 A2

Based on three equations are applied to each of the measuring systems which are available in
this experiment. For frictionless, the relationship between the volumetric, velocity and the
pressure difference between the pipeline and the minimum cross sectional area is given by:
(
Qideal = uA = A

A 2
1)
a

2P

The cross sectional area of the upstream pipe is A, whereas a is the cross sectional area of the
minimum point. For real cases where there is friction involved, the volumetric flow rate is
given by:
Qactual =Cd Qideal

The rotameter is a constant pressure type of device, where the position of the float gives a
direct indication of the volumetric flow rate.

Methodology:
I.
In order to empty the tank, the drain blockage was removed.
II.
The valve C was adjusted until the reading on the rota meter is 200 l/hour
III.
As the float in the rotameter remains on 200 Pa, the readings on each of the tubes on
the manometer bank were recorded.
IV. The drain bloackage was put back in and the main flow control valve was adjusted to
200 Pa after the readings was recorded. The liquid level gauge was observed once the
water pumps in and filled the tank.
V. The time taken for the water volume from 0 liters to reach 10 liters was recorded
using a stopwatch. After the water has passed the 10 liters mark, the drain blockage
was removed and the main flow control valve were switched off.
VI.
Step II until step VI was repeated with flow of different pressure which is 400 Pa, 600
Pa, 800 Pa, and 1000 Pa and the readings of the manometer was observed.
Experimental Detail:
Manometer function: To calculate the pressure by observing the water level height inside the
manometer.
P= gh
Rota meter: To determine the volumetric flow rate in liter per hour ( l/hour
Venturi meter: It is attached to the manometer and

Discussion:

## Appendix: (sample calculation)

For volumetric flow rate 200 l/h
Qact =

V
t avg

0.01m
189.5

= 5.277 105 m3 s1

Qideal =A

=(

2 gh
A 2
( ) 1
a

3.386 104

2(9.81)(0.35)
(

3.386 104 2
) 1
8.46 105

= 7.240 105 m3 s1

Cd=

Q actual
Qideal
5

5.277 10
5
7.240 10

= 0.729
Q ideal
A
(7.240 105 )
(3.386 104)

u=
=

= 0.214 m s1

Reynolds number:
d=

4A

4(3.386 104 )

= 0.021 m
=

du

1 1
0.00089 kg m s

= 4988

Reynolds number:
=

du

0.00089 kg m1 s1

= 6253

Reynolds number:
=

du

0.00089 kg m1 s1

= 8219

Reynolds number:
=

du

0.00089 kg m1 s1

= 10831

Reynolds number:
=

du

1 1
0.00089 kg m s

= 11768