English Grammer अपूणर कालीन वतर म ान काल - Use of Present Imperfect in English Grammar We already have discussed about

Present Indefinite Tense in our previous post. So, here I want to share some opinions about Present Imperfect Tense which is known as Present Continuous Tense also. This is the most important tense to make a sentence because it comes in our day to day life. There are some simple rules to make Present Imperfect Tense that you have to follow during the making sentence. Rule of Present Imperfect to make a sentence: S+is/are/am+V1+ing+O It means; S = Subject Is/are/am = auxiliary verb V1 = First form of Verb Ing = Verb + ing O = Object मै पयास कर रहा हू ँ। I am trying. मां खाना बना रही है। Mother is cooking. चचार करते समय होने वाले कायर इसी Tense मे रखा जाता है। जैसे - What are you doing? I am reading a novel. यह भिवषय मे होने वाले कायो ं को दशारता है परनतु कवल तब जब कायर होने या न होने का माता बराबर हो। जैसे - I am े going to village. वैसे सरे कायर जो किणक है, जलदी समाप होने वाले है; Present Imperfect Tense मे रखे जाते है। जैसे - The labour is repairing the road. I am reading the alphabet. See, Feel, Wear, Smell, Notice, Know, Trick, Salter, Understand, Guess, Suppose, Wise, Refresh, Believe, Live, Read, Prefer, Cave, Perfect, Seem, Appear, Belong, Possess, Remember, Late आिद शबद िकया का कायर कायर करे तो वे अपने साथ ing नही लेगे। इसिलए इनहे Present Indefinite मे रखना होगा परनतु अथर Present Imperfect वाला िनकलेगा। जैसे -I am feeling. (Wrong) I feel. (Right) ये सभी िकया क रप मे Present Imperfect मे आए तो ing नही लेगे। Other Tense मे ing ले सकते है या े Adjective or Adverb क रप मे ले सकते है। उन शबदो मे िजनमे एक Sensational part का पयोग होता है वे ing े नही लेगे। िजनक एक से अिधक Sensational Part का पयोग होता है, ing लेगे। े जैसे I am listening transition. Now, This, Time, Present at the moment क साथ Present Imperfect Tense का पयोग होता है। े Now, I am going to home.

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English Grammer अं ग ेज ी गामर मे अिनिशचत कालीन वतर म ान काल - Uses of Present Indefinite Tense कोई भी Tense क िलए verb मुखय िकया मे होनी चािहए। इसक अंत मे ता, ते, ती है होते है। जैसे े े हमलोग िहसाब जानते है। - We know mathematics. तुम हला करते हो। - You make a noise. पशनातमक वाकय मे Do/Does लगते है िजसक चलते Verb मे S या ES नही लगाया जाता है। े Do/Does+S+Principal Verb+O+? कया मै अंगेजी सीखता हू ँ? - Do I learn English? कया वह गीत गता है? - Does he sing a song? नकारातमक वाकय मे Don't/Doesn't लगते है िजसक चलते Verb मे S या es नही लगाया जाता है। े S+Do/Does+not+V+O. राम सकल नही जाता है। - Ram doesn't go to school. ू तुम हला नही करते हो। - You don't make a noise. िकसी क आदत को दशारने क िलए Present Indefinite का पयोग होगा। े े रशमो, िरवाजो तथा पथाओ को दशारने क िलए इसी Tense का पयोग होता है। जैसे - Hindu girls tie Rakhi to े their brother. इितहास क बातो को इसी मे रखा जाता है। जैसे - Bharat goes to forest to bring Ram to Ayodhya. े (Universal Truth) शासवत सतय इसी Tense मे रखे जाते है। जैसे - The sun rises in the east. यिद एक वाकय मे एक से अिधक िकया हो और वे एक क बाद एक routine way वे मे हो तो सारे क सारे िकयाये े े Present Indefinite मे होगे। जैसे - We put water in a bottle, we boil the water. Then we take tea and sugar. Then we pow it in the cup. Then we make milk and take it. Commentary को भी Present Indefinite मे ही रखा जाता है। जैसे - Kapil throws the ball. भिवषय मे होने वाले वैसे कायर जो िनिशचत है, अटल है Present Indefinite मे रखे जाते है। जैसे - Kamal visits Bihar very soon. िकसी भी लेखक की बात को दोहराने क िलए इसी Tense का पयोग करते है। जैसे - Valmiki says in the े Ramayana. एक वाकय मे दो बार Shall या Will नही लगेगा। एक बार Shall या Will लगेगा और एक बार Present Indefinite। अब पशन यह उतपन होता है िक Present Indefinite कहाँ लगेगा और Future Indefinite कहाँ, यािन Shall/Will कहाँ? तो उतर यह है की वाकय क िजस केत मे What, Whatever, When, Whenever, Where, Wherever, As े Soon As, As Long As, Till, Untill, Of, Unless, After, Before आिद लगा हो, उस केत मे Present Indefinite लगेगा। शेष मे Shall या Will। जैसे - I shall help you whenever you call. Always, Never, Seldom, Often, Sincerely, Every day आिद शबदो क साथ Present Indefinite का पयोग े होता है। ये सभी शबद आदत दशारते है और आदत मे सदा Present Indefinite लगता है। जैसे - I always come late. पूणर कालीन और पूणर कालीन किमक वतर म ान काल - Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous Tense We have discussed about Present Indefinite Tense and Present Imperfect Tense in our previous posts. We have known the uses of these two Tense in English Grammar. Now, I am 2

English Grammer going to share my knowledge about Present Perfect Tense and Present Perfect Continuous Tense. पूणर कालीन - Present Perfect Tense: S+Has/Have+V3+O माता ने बुलाया है। - Mother has called. मैने िसनेमा देखा है। - I have watched the cinema. ऐसे सारे कायर जो चचार से पूवर ही समाप हो गए है परनतु उनका पभाव बािक है, Present Perfect मे रखे जाते है। जैसे I have learnt the article. At, Ever, Already, Up to, Just, Just Now, Recently क साथ Present Perfect Tense का पयोग होगा। े जैसे - I have come just now. Last, Past, Before, Yesterday, Then क साथ Present Perfect Tense का पयोग नही होगा जैसे े I have come yesterday. (Wrong) I came yesterday. (Right) पूणर कालीन काल क साथ Since या For का भी पयोग िकया जा सकता है, लेिकन कवल तब जब यह देखना हो की कोई े े कायर बोले जाने क पूवर कछ देर तक चला, समाप हो गया, लेिकन पभाव बोले जाने क समय तक बािक है। जैसे - I have े े ु lived in Kolkata for one week. पूणर कालीन किमक काल - Present Perfect Continuous Tense जब कोई कायर बोले जाने क पूवर से चल कर बोले जाने क समय तक चला हो, और आगे भी चलने की समभावना हो तो उसे े े Present Perfect Continuous Tense मे रखते है और वाकय की संरचना इस पकार से हो जाती है। जैसे S+Has/Have+Been+V1+Ing+O+Since/For+Others Since का पयोग - यह Proper Noun क जगह पयोग होगा। यह अिडग है। इसका Plural नही बनेगा। यह कब से सवाल े पूछता है। यह Point of Time होता है। For: यह Common Noun क जैसे पयोग होगा। इसको Singular से Plural बनाया जा सकता है। यह िकतने से सवाल े पूछता है। यह Period of Time होता है। जैसे -I have been learning English for two months. You have been reading since 9'O clock. एक समय ऐसा भी आता है जब Present Perfect Continuous Tense मे Principal Verb का आभाव पाया जाता है। उसक बदले मे Adjective या Noun का पयोग िकया जाता है जो यह बतलाता है िक कोई वासतु या वयिक चचार से े पहले अमुख अवसथा मे थी, अभी भी है; आगे भी रहेगी। ऐसी अवसथा मे जबिक िकया का पयोग नही होता है, िकया मे लगे Ing का पयोग भी नही होता है तथा वाकय की संरचना इस पकार हो जाती है। जैसे S+Has/Have+Adjective/Noun+Since/For+Others अमेिरका आरमभ से बेईमान है। - America has been dishonest since beginning. भारत १९४७ से शािनत िपय है। - India has been peaceful since 1947. जब कोई कायर या अवसथा बोले जाने क पूवर से चलकर बोले जाने क समय तक मौजूद हो और आगे भी रहने की आशा हो े े तो Present Perfect Continuous Tense का पयोग िकया जाता है। जैसे - We have been dying for a year. इसक साथ-साथ समय का होना िनतांत आवशयक है। जैसे - We have been coming for two months. े इसक साथ समय को दशारने क िलए Since या For आएगा। जैसे - I have been reading since 9'O clock. े े 3

English Grammer इसक साथ आने वाला समय भूतकाल से समबंिधत रहेगा। जैसे - I have been living in Patna since 1999. े अपूणर कालीन वतर म ान काल - Use of Present Imperfect in English Grammar We already have discussed about Present Indefinite Tense in our previous post. So, here I want to share some opinions about Present Imperfect Tense which is known as Present Continuous Tense also. This is the most important tense to make a sentence because it comes in our day to day life. There are some simple rules to make Present Imperfect Tense that you have to follow during the making sentence. Rule of Present Imperfect to make a sentence: S+is/are/am+V1+ing+O It means; S = Subject Is/are/am = auxiliary verb V1 = First form of Verb Ing = Verb + ing O = Object मै पयास कर रहा हू ँ। I am trying. मां खाना बना रही है। Mother is cooking. चचार करते समय होने वाले कायर इसी Tense मे रखा जाता है। जैसे - What are you doing? I am reading a novel. यह भिवषय मे होने वाले कायो ं को दशारता है परनतु कवल तब जब कायर होने या न होने का माता बराबर हो। जैसे - I am े going to village. वैसे सरे कायर जो किणक है, जलदी समाप होने वाले है; Present Imperfect Tense मे रखे जाते है। जैसे - The labour is repairing the road. I am reading the alphabet. See, Feel, Wear, Smell, Notice, Know, Trick, Salter, Understand, Guess, Suppose, Wise, Refresh, Believe, Live, Read, Prefer, Cave, Perfect, Seem, Appear, Belong, Possess, Remember, Late आिद शबद िकया का कायर कायर करे तो वे अपने साथ ing नही लेगे। इसिलए इनहे Present Indefinite मे रखना होगा परनतु अथर Present Imperfect वाला िनकलेगा। जैसे -I am feeling. (Wrong) I feel. (Right) ये सभी िकया क रप मे Present Imperfect मे आए तो ing नही लेगे। Other Tense मे ing ले सकते है या े Adjective or Adverb क रप मे ले सकते है। उन शबदो मे िजनमे एक Sensational part का पयोग होता है वे ing े नही लेगे। िजनक एक से अिधक Sensational Part का पयोग होता है, ing लेगे। े जैसे -I am listening transition. Now, This, Time, Present at the moment क साथ Present Imperfect Tense का पयोग होता है। े Now, I am going to home. 4

English Grammer अिनिशचत कालीन भूत काल का पयोग - Past Indefinite Tense in English Grammar सकारातमक: S+V2+O उसने दरवाजा खोला। He opened the door. मैने एक कलम खरीदा। I bought a pen. नकारातमक: S+Did+Not+V+O तुमने गलास नही तोड़ा। You didn't brake the glass. पशनातमक: Did+S+V+O कया राम सकल गया? Did Ram go to school? ू Past Indefinite भी Present Indefinite की तरह आदत को दशारता है परनतु यह उन आदतो को दशारता है जो पहले तो था, अब नही है। जैसे - I failed in English. रशमो, िरवाजो तथा पथाओं का पयोग Past Indefinite मे भी होता है परनतु इसमे वे पथाएं राखी जाती है जो पहले तो थी, अब नही है। जैसे - The Hindu women burnt themselves with the dead body of their husband. इितहास क बातो को Past Indefinite Tense मे भी रखा जाता है परनतु इसमे वे इितहास आते है जो पहले भी थे, अब े भी है। जैसे - Columbus discovered America. यिद एक वाकय मे कई बाते कही गई हो और उनमे से एक भी भूत काल से समबंिधत हो तो सारे िकयाओं को Past क ही े िकसी Tense मे रखना होगा। जैसे - The teacher said that he was going. लेिकन यिद वाकय मे Past क साथ कोई Universal Truth हो तो Past क साथ रहने क बावजूद उसे Present े े े Indefinite मे रखना होगा। जैसे- My teacher said that the earth moves round the Sun. एक वाकय मे दो बार Would का पयोग नही होगा। एक बार Would का पयोग होगा और एक बार Past Indefinite का। जैसे I would go if you would say. (wrong) I would go if you said. (right) Always, Never, Seldom, Daily, Generally, Usually क साथ अिनिशचत कालीन भूत काल का भी पयोग होता है े परनतु कवल तब जब ये शबद ऐसी आदत को दशारते हो जो पहले तो थे, अब नही है। जैसे - I always feared English. े Just, Just now, At, Ever, Already, Up to, Recently क साथ Past Indefinite का पयोग नही होगा। जैसे े I came just now. (wrong) I have come just now. (right) Last, Past, Ago, Before, Yesterday, Than क साथ अिनिशचत कालीन भूत काल का पयोग होगा। जैसे े I have come yesterday. (wrong) I came yesterday. (right) यिद कोई कायर बोले जाने क पूवर समाप हो गया हो और उसका पभाव भी समाप हो गया हो तो उसे Past Indefinite मे े 5

English Grammer रखते है। जैसे - It rained yesterday. जब एक वाकय मे दो बाते कही गई हो, उनमे दो अलग-अलग वेबर हो, दोनो का समबनध Past Tense से हो तो एक िकया पहले तथा एक िकया बाद मे होती हो तो पहले होनी वाली िकया Past Perfect मे राखी जाती है और बाद मे होने वाली Verb अिनिशचत कालीन भूत काल मे। जैसे - The train had started before I reached the station. पूणर कालीन किमक भूत काल - Uses of Past Perfect Continuous in English Grammar पूणर कालीन किमक भूत काल - Past Perfect Continuous: िजस वाकय क अंत मे ता रहा था, ती रही थी, ते रहे थे, आ रहा था, आ रही थी, रहे थे इतयािद लगा रहे और उसमे समय े का आभाव हो तो उसे पूणर कालीन किमक भूत काल से तब तक नही बनायेगे जब तक इसमे समय का आभाव रहेगा। कयोिक िबना समय क इस काल की कलपना भी नही की जा सकती। े इस काल मे समय का होना अिनवायर है, समय का समबनध भूत काल से रहेगा। समय को दशारने क िलए since या for का े पयोग होगा। जैसे I had been reading for two days when I was in my school. पशन यह उतपन होता है की Since या For को Past Perfect और Past Perfect Continuous मे भी Present Perfect और Present Perfect Continuous मे भी रखा जायेगा तो िफर हम Past Perfect Continuous का पयोग कब करेगे? उतर यह है की जब वाकय मे Since या For तथा समय क अितिरक एक भूत कािलक वाकय या कम से कम एक भूत े कािलक शबद िदया हो तो Since या For क साथ Present Perfect तथा Present Perfect Continuous का पयोग े न करक Past Perfect का अथवा Past Perfect Continuous का पयोग करते है। े अब पशन यह उतपन होता है िक Since या For तथा भूत कािलक शबदो क साथ तो Past Perfect भी आ सकता है े और Past Perfect Continuous भी। तो हम कब Past Perfect का पयोग करे? और कब Past Perfect Continuous का? तो उतर यह है िक जब भूत कािलक शबदो या वाकयो से पहले कोई कायर कछ देर चलकर समाप हो गया हो तो Past ु Perfect का पयोग करेगे। जैसे Murariji Desai had ruled India for three year when he died. लेिकन जब Since या For क साथ समय हो और यह दशारना हो िक भूत कािलक शबद या वाकयो क समय कोई कायर जारी े े था तो Past Perfect Continuous का पयोग करेगे। जैसे Indira Gandhi had been ruling India for many years when she was killed. अब पशन यह उठता है िक Last और Past भी दो भूत कािलक शबद है परनतु इसक साथ Present Perfect और े Present Perfect Continuous का भी पयोग होता है। तब हम उनहे कसे अलग करेगे? ै उतर यह है िक जब Since या For क तुरत बाद Last अथवा Past लगा हो, उसक बाद समय आये तो हम Present े ं े Perfect अथवा Present Perfect Continuous का पयोग करेगे। जैसे I have been reading English for last three hours. लेिकन यिद Last या Past का पयोग Since या For क बाद नही बिलक Since या For क बाद आने वाले समय क बाद े े े हो तो हम Past Perfect अथवा Past Perfect Continuous का पयोग करेगे। जैसे I had been living in my village for two months last year. अिनिशचत कालीन भिवषय काल और पूणर कालीन भिवषय काल - Uses of Future Indefinite and Future Perfect Tense अिनिशचत कालीन भिवषय काल - Future Indefinite Tense 6

English Grammer िजस शबद मे गा, गे, गी रहे और वह िकया क अंत मे रहे और िकया मुखय िकया हो तब वह अिनिशचत कालीन भिवषय े काल होगा। जैसे हम होगे कामयाब। - We shall be succeed. िचिड़या दाना लाएगी। - The bird will bring grain. अिनिशचत कालीन भिवषय काल का पयोग भिवषय क कायो ं को दशारने क िलए होता है। जैसे - I shall come े े tomorrow. Now का पयोग अब क अथर मे Future Indefinite मे होता है, जबिक अभी क अथर मे Present Perfect Tense मे े े होगा। जैसे - I shall go now. एक वाकय मे दो बार कभी भी Shall या Will नही आएगा। जैसे - I shall come when you call me. I, We क साथ Shall तथा बाकी सब क साथ Will लगता है। े े Promise, word का पयोग होगा तो I, We क साथ Will तथा बाकी सब क साथ Shall रहेगा। े े पूणर कालीन भिवषय काल - Future Perfect Tense जब भिवषय मे िनधारिरत समय तक िकसी काम क समाप हो जाने का बोध करवाना हो तो Future Perfect Tense का े पयोग करते है। I और We क साथ Shall रहेगा बाकी सबक साथ Will रहेगा। े े पूणर कालीन भिवषय काल क साथ समय का आना िनतांत आवशयक है। े पूणर कालीन भिवषय काल क साथ आने वाला समय भिवषय से समबंिधत रहेगा। े Future Perfect Tense क साथ आने वाला समय को दशारने क िलए By या Before आएगा। े े Future Perfect Tense क साथ By का पयोग तब करेगे जब भिवषय मे िदए गए समय मे से कायर करने मे सारे समय े लग जाये, कछ शेष न बचे। जैसे - I shall have joined a service by 2003. ु Before का पयोग तब करते है जब कायर करने मे भिवषय क िदए गए समय से कछ समय बच जाये। जैसे - I shall have े ु joined service before December, 2003. Participle – Uses of Participle in English Grammar जब कभी कोई िकया; िकया रहते हु ए िकसी Noun या Pronoun क साथ आकर उसक बारे मे कछ बोलने क कायर करते े े े ु है, Participle कहलाते है। जैसे - A drunken man told me an interesting story. उपयुक वाकय मे drunken तथा interesting कमशः drink तथा interest िकया से बना है, लेिकन कमशः man तथा story क साथ आकर उसक बारे मे कछ बोल रहा है अथारत Adjective का कायर कर रहा है, अथारत Participle है। े े ु Verb से िनिमर त होने क कारण इसक दो रप होते है - Present Participle and Past Participle. े े Present Participle - जब कभी िकया क अंत मे ing लगाकर उससे Adjective का काम लेते है तो उसे Present े Participle कहते है। जैसे - Burning truth, Running water etc. Past Participle - जब कभी िकया क अंत मे D, Ed, N, NE तथा T लगाकर उससे Adjective का काम िलया जाता है े तो उसे Past Participle कहते है। जैसे - Parked car, Broken plate, Dead body, Fallen tree, Burnt child etc. Participle का पयोग िजसकी सेवा मे होगा उसका सपष उलेख होना चािहए अनयथा अथर का अनथर हो जायेगा। जैसे Being Sunday I did not go out. (Wrong) Being it Sunday I did not go out. (Right) 7

English Grammer Participle का पयोग उस शबद क पहले होगा, िजसक िलए participle पयुक होगा। जैसे - The burning train, A े े burnt child etc. इसक पहले कोई-न-कोई Article अवशय रहेगा। जैसे - The burning truth, A broken chair etc. े यिद आवशयकता पड़ी तो Present Participle क पहले Very आएगा। जैसे - A very interesting match. े यिद आवशयकता पड़ी तो Past Participle क साथ much आएगा। जैसे - Much tired man. े अंगेजी गामर मे अिनिशचत कालीन वतर मान काल - Uses of Present Indefinite Tense कोई भी Tense क िलए verb मुखय िकया मे होनी चािहए। इसक अंत मे ता, ते, ती है होते है। जैसे े े हमलोग िहसाब जानते है। - We know mathematics. तुम हला करते हो। - You make a noise. पशनातमक वाकय मे Do/Does लगते है िजसक चलते Verb मे S या ES नही लगाया जाता है। े Do/Does+S+Principal Verb+O+? कया मै अंगेजी सीखता हू ँ? - Do I learn English? कया वह गीत गता है? - Does he sing a song? नकारातमक वाकय मे Don't/Doesn't लगते है िजसक चलते Verb मे S या es नही लगाया जाता है। े S+Do/Does+not+V+O. राम सकल नही जाता है। - Ram doesn't go to school. ू तुम हला नही करते हो। - You don't make a noise. िकसी क आदत को दशारने क िलए Present Indefinite का पयोग होगा। े े रशमो, िरवाजो तथा पथाओ को दशारने क िलए इसी Tense का पयोग होता है। जैसे - Hindu girls tie Rakhi to their े brother. इितहास क बातो को इसी मे रखा जाता है। जैसे - Bharat goes to forest to bring Ram to Ayodhya. े (Universal Truth) शासवत सतय इसी Tense मे रखे जाते है। जैसे - The sun rises in the east. यिद एक वाकय मे एक से अिधक िकया हो और वे एक क बाद एक routine way वे मे हो तो सारे क सारे िकयाये े े Present Indefinite मे होगे। जैसे - We put water in a bottle, we boil the water. Then we take tea and sugar. Then we pow it in the cup. Then we make milk and take it. Commentary को भी Present Indefinite मे ही रखा जाता है। जैसे - Kapil throws the ball. भिवषय मे होने वाले वैसे कायर जो िनिशचत है, अटल है Present Indefinite मे रखे जाते है। जैसे - Kamal visits Bihar very soon. िकसी भी लेखक की बात को दोहराने क िलए इसी Tense का पयोग करते है। जैसे - Valmiki says in the े Ramayana. एक वाकय मे दो बार Shall या Will नही लगेगा। एक बार Shall या Will लगेगा और एक बार Present Indefinite। अब पशन यह उतपन होता है िक Present Indefinite कहाँ लगेगा और Future Indefinite कहाँ, यािन Shall/Will कहाँ? तो उतर यह है की वाकय क िजस केत मे What, Whatever, When, Whenever, Where, Wherever, As Soon े As, As Long As, Till, Untill, Of, Unless, After, Before आिद लगा हो, उस केत मे Present Indefinite लगेगा। शेष मे Shall या Will। जैसे - I shall help you whenever you call. Always, Never, Seldom, Often, Sincerely, Every day आिद शबदो क साथ Present Indefinite का पयोग े होता है। ये सभी शबद आदत दशारते है और आदत मे सदा Present Indefinite लगता है। जैसे - I always come late. 8

English Grammer िवशेसन का सथान - Order of Adjective in English Grammar १ Proper Noun से िनिमर त Adjective, उस शबद क पहले होगा िजसक िलए पयुक होगा। जैसे - The Indian े े former. २ Pronoun से िनिमर त Adjective उस शबद क पहले होगा िजसक िलए पयुक होगा। जैसे - My pen, Your book. े े ३ Common Noun से िनिमर त Adjective उस शबद क पहले रहते है िजसक िलए पयुक होते है। जैसे - Street lamp, े े flower garden. ४ Material Noun से िनिमर त Adjective उस शबद क पहले होगा िजसक िलए पयुक होगा। जैसे - Golden temple. े े ५ Adjective of Number उस शबद क पहले पयुक होता है, िजसक िलए पयुक होता है। जैसे - Two Friends, The े े Third Umpire. ६ Verb से िनिमर त Adjective भी उस शबद क पहले रहेगा, िजसक िलए पयुक होगा। जैसे- The burning mountain, े े A broken plate. ७ यिद एक साथ एक से अिधक Adjective आ रहे हो तो उनका कम इस पकार होगा - All/Both+The/Pronominal Adjective+Adjective of Quality (Space+Size+Colour)/Proper Adjective+Subject. ८ जब एक ही पकार का कई Adjective एक साथ आ जाए तो सबसे छोटा सबसे पहले रहेगा और सबसे बड़ा सबसे बाद। जैसे - A toll and handsome boy. ९ Alive, Alike, Alone, Aloof, Certain, Memorial उस शबद क बाद आते है िजसक िलए पयुक होते है। जैसे े े The match was worth seeing. १० Numerical Adjective, Possessive Adjective (N.P) क पहले रहेगा। जैसे - All my books are missing. े ११ Numerical Adjective, Demonstrative Adjective क पहले रहेगा जैसे - All these pens are mine. े १२ िकया से िनिमर त Adjective material noun क िनिमर त Adjective क पहले रहेगे। जैसे - A broken wooden े े chair. अंगेजी मे वबर - Use of Verb in English Grammar

1 जो िकया वाकय मे िकसी कायर क होने का बोध करवाए Auxiliary Verb कहलाता है। े २ जो िकया मुखय िकया की सहयता पदान करे उसे (Be) Verb भी कहते है। उदाहरण - is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must, need, dare, ought to, use to. Syntax १ उिचत Subject क अनुसार, उिचत सथान पर उिचत सहायक िकया का पयोग ही Syntax है। े २ Singular Subject क साथ Singular Verb का ही पयोग होता है। जैसे - The boy is coming. े ३ Plural Subject क साथ Plural Verb का पयोग होता है। जैसे - Boys are coming. े ४ यिद And क दारा दो Singular Subject जुड़े है तो उनहे Plural समझा जाता है और उनक साथ Plural Verb का े े पयोग िकया जाता है। जैसे - The boy and the girl are coming. ५ लेिकन यिद And क दारा दो ऐसे शबद जुड़े हो जो सदा जोड़ा बनाकर आते है और And से जोड़े रहने क बावजूद े े Singular समझे जाते है तो Singular Verb लेते है। जैसे - Horse and cart is standing at the door. ६ यिद And दारा दो ऐसे वसतू जुड़े हो जो िमलकर आतमसात जो जाते है तो And से जुड़े रहने क बावजूद Singular समझे े जाते है और Singular Verb लेते है। जैसे - Bread and butter is a good breakfast. 9

English Grammer ७ यिद And क दारा एक से अिधक Adjective जुड़े हो लेिकन कवल पथम को Article पाप हो तो उनहे Singular े े समझा जाता है और उनक साथ Singular Verb का पयोग होता है। जैसे - The black and white dog is barking. े ८ लेिकन यिद And क दारा एक से अिधक गुण या दोष आपस मे जुड़े हो और सबको Article पाप हो तो उनहे Plural े समझा जाता है और उनक साथ Plural Verb का पयोग होता है। जैसे - The black and the white dogs are े barking. ९ यिद And क दारा एक से अिधक पद आपस मे जुड़े हो और कवल पथम को Article पाप हो तो उनहे Singular समझेगे े े और उनक साथ Singular Verb का पयोग करेगे। जैसे - The Prime minister and chairman of planning े commission is coming to Patna. १० यिद And क दारा एक से अिधक पद आपस मे जुड़े हो और पतयेक को Article पाप हो तो उनहे Plural समझकर े Plural Verb का पयोग करते है। जैसे - The Prime minister and the Petroleum minister are corrupt. ११ Each, Either जब अकले आता है तो Singular समझा जाता है और Singular Verb लेता है। जैसे - Each is े happy. १२ यिद इनक तुरत बाद को Noun आते है तो Noun Singular रहेगा ही Verb भी Singular रहेगा। जैसे - Each boy े ं is laborious. १३ यिद इनक तुरत बाद Preposition आए तो Preposition क बाद आने वाला Noun या Pronoun तो Plural रहेगा े ं े परनतु Verb पूवर क ही भांित Singular बना रहेगा। जैसे - Each of you is laborious. े १४ यिद ये And क दारा जुड़े रहे तब भी Singular रहेगे और Singular Verb लेगे। जैसे - Each boy and girl is े laborious. १५ लेिकन यिद इनक ठीक पहले कोई Noun या Pronoun आ जाए तो वह Noun या Pronoun तो Plural रहेगा ही े Verb भी Plural आएगा। जैसे - We each are preparing for exam. १६ यिद Or या Nor क दारा दो Singular Subject जुडा रहे तो वह Singular Verb लेगा। जैसे - The boy or the े girl is making a noise. १७ यिद Or या Nor क दारा दो Plural Subject जुडा हो तो आने वाला Verb Plural होगा। जैसे - Boys or girls े are responsible. १८ यिद Or या Nor क दारा एक Singular तथा एक Plural Subject जुडा हो तो पहले Singular रहेगा उसक बाद े े Plural कयोिक Or या Nor क दारा जुड़े दो शबदो मे अिनतम वाला पमुख होता है। इसीिलए Verb भी Plural होगा। जैसेे The teacher or students are responsible. १९ देश क नाम पायः Singular होता है और उसक साथ Sinular Verb लगता है। जैसे - India is a rich country. े े २० लेिकन यिद देश क नाम से उस देश का नही, उस देश क िकसी भी पकार क दल का बोध हो तो उसे Plural समझेगे े े े और उसक साथ Plural Verb आएगा। जैसे - The teams of India are in need of two fifty runs. े Omission of Article in English Grammar 1. Normally, Proper Noun doesn’t take any “Article” before it – Ram, Patna etc. 2. If common noun is in the form of plural noun, it will not take any “Article” – Boys are playing. 3. Never use “Article” before the Material Noun – Water is gold. 4. Abstract Noun also doesn’t take any “Article” – Love is blind. 5. “Article” is not used before the sports name – Cricket, Football etc. 6. Before the name of weather, “Article” is not used – summer, winter etc. 7. Before the “Night” and “Day”, “Article” is not used – Night was dark. 10

English Grammer 8. “Morning” and “Evening” don’t take any “Article” before it – Morning is very pleasant. 9. Before “Society” we don’t use “The” – We live in society. 10. Before the diseases name, “Article” is not used – Fever, Plague etc. 11. The noun which comes after the possessive adjective, doesn’t take “Article” before it – My pen, Your Book etc. 12. The word which starts from “By”, doesn’t take any article – By train, By sheep etc. 13. The noun which comes after the Demonstrative Adjective, doesn’t take any “Article” before it – This boy etc. 14. The word which comes after the distributive adjective, doesn’t take any “Article” – Each boy is late today. 15. Before “Man, Mankind, Woman, God, Father, Mother, Unique, Universal, Humanity”, “The” is not used – God is great. 16. Normally, we don’t use any “Article” before “Heaven, Paradise and Hell” – We believe in paradise. 17. Before the name of any languages, we don’t use “Article” – We are learning English. 18. Before the “Sunset” and “Sunrise”, “Article” is not used – It is the time of Sunset. 19. Normally, before the Muhalla, Villages, City, State, and Country; “Article” is not used – I live at Kankarbagh. 20. Before the “Diner, Breakfast, Supper, Lunch etc. we don’t use “Article” – Dinner is ready. 21. Before the Battle, “Article” is not used – Battle is dangerous. 22. After the “No”, “Article” is not used – I have no pen. 23. After the “not and any”, “Article” is not used – I have not any friend. These are some omission of article which is used promptly in English Grammar. Omission tells what is not used. Omission of Article tells where “Article” is not used. Use of Article in English Grammar There are two types of Article – Indefinite Article (A, An) and Definite Article (The). Use of Indefinite Article: 1. It is used for unknown – A boy is standing of the door. 2. To show the measurement we use “a” or “an” – 60 km an hour, 5 hundred rupees in a month etc. 3. Whenever we use “Such” to show the surprise then we use “a” or “an” – Such a beautiful girl! 4. Whenever we use “What” to show the surprise then we use “a” or “an” – What a joke! 5. With the “How” we will use “a” or “an” to show the surprise – How an ugly girl! 6. With the “Many” we will use “a” or “an” to show countless – Many a boy is absent today. 11

English Grammer 7. With - Rest, Dip, Exercise, Hurry, Noise, Bath, Lie, Word, Walk, Nap, Headache and Mood we will use “a” or “an” - Don’t make a noise. 8. If “So” use to show the surprise and after it there is an adjective then we will use “a” or “an” after the adjective – So beautiful a girl! 9. If “As” use to show the surprise and after it there is an adjective then we will use “a” or “an” after the adjective – As beautiful a girl! 10. If “Too” use to show the surprise and after it there is an adjective then we will use “a” or “an” after the adjective – Too dark a night! 11. Normally, “an” is used with (A, E, I, O, U) which is vowel but the rules says that if the pronunciation comes with vowel in Hindi then we use “an” otherwise we will use “a” for the Hindi consonant. For example – An M.L.A, A unique, An honest man etc. Use of Definite Article: 1. It is used for known – The boy in the corner is my brother. 2. To make certain thing we use “The” – Remember the word, I told you first time. 3. Before the “Truth” we use “The” – I speak the truth. 4. Before the common noun singular number we use “The” – The chair is new. 5. Before the parts of body name we use “The” – The nose, The ears etc. 6. Before all the invention we use “The” – The watch, The pen, The computer etc. 7. Before all the historical accident we will use “The” – The green revolution, The Gulf war etc. 8. For the entire parts of universe name we use “The” – The sun, The earth, The moon etc. 9. For the name of zone we use “The” – The east, The west etc. Note – If the meaning is not related to zone then we will not include “Article” – East or west India is the best. 10. Each noun which comes before preposition takes definite article – The Gold of South Africa. 11. Before all the religious books we use definite article – The Ramayana, The Bible etc. 12. Before all the novels, serials, and film’s name we use definite article – The Godan, The Santi, The Devdas etc. 13. Before the superlative degree definite article take place – The best, The worst etc. 14. Before the Former and Latter we use “The” – The former chapter is more interesting than the latter chapter. 15. For the parallel comparison we use definite article – The more Pepsi, the more crickets. 16. For the musical instrument use of definite article is necessary – The Tabla, The Harmonium etc. 17. For the news papers definite article is necessary – The Aryavart, The Hindustan etc. 12

English Grammer After the case chapter article is most important chapter in the English Language. If you complete the chapter your writing skills will develop soon. Case Studies in terms of Noun and Pronoun To tell the position of noun and pronoun in a sentence we use case. There is three parts of case: Subjective Case, Possessive Case and Objective Case. Subjective case: when noun or pronoun used as subject then it is known as subjective case. For example – Ram loves Sita. Possessive Case – in any sentence if we find any relations and rights between person and objects to show their relations then we use possessive case. For example – Ram’s brother. Objective case – whenever noun or pronoun works as object, known as objective case. Eg. – Ram loved Sita. There are three situation of pronoun: I – My – Me. Noun can be used as subject or object in both: Ram(s) help Hanuman (o) Or Hanuman (s) helped Ram (o) There are two rules to make possessive case of noun: If noun is living thing then we use apostrophe “s” after the name – Lalu’s wife etc. If the noun is non-living thing then 1st we use the then after that name with “of” to show their relationship – The pocket of the blade. Note-1: if non-living things are very large then we use apostrophe “s” to show their relationship – Sun Ray’s, Ocean’s roar etc. Note-2: in some proverb we use apostrophe “s” in spite of they are non-living things: Wit’s end Pen’s Evil At One’s wit’s end At arm’s length Stone’s throw distance Note-3: If non-living things show as artificially – Jungal’s low, Court’s degree etc. Note-4: If non-living things show as measurement of a thing: A month’s fee etc. Sometimes even in living things we use “of” rather than apostrophe “s” if the situation shows relationship rather than rights: The Picture of Amitabh etc. Whenever the situation comes to use apostrophe “s” two times then we use “of” once: The government of Lalu’s wife. In relative pronoun to show the nearest relation we use “of”: I like the book of Prem Chand who was a great writer. 13

English Grammer There are some pronouns in which we add apostrophe “s” to make their possessive case: some body, any body, every body, someone, anyone, everyone, no one, something, anything etc. For example – Every body’s duty is nobody’s duty. But if “else” come with above mentioned words then apostrophe “s” will come with “else” rather than those words: You depend on somebody else’s. In condition of two person’s rights we use apostrophe “s” in last words: Lalu and Rabri’s policy. But if we have to show their separate rights then we will use apostrophe “s” in both: Ram’s and Laksaman’s wives. In the condition of plural noun and name where “s” already present then we use apostrophe “s” in that “s” which already there: Keats – Keat’s poem. Girls – Girl’s hostel. These are the study of case in the process of English Language Learning. If you have also some great tips or suggestion about case then share that. Noun and Hot Tips of Noun As I already mentioned in my previous post about noun that it is the name of person or places. Now, here I am going to write about hot tips of noun. At first noun has been divided in to five parts in old grammar.Those are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Proper noun Common noun Collative noun Martial noun Abstract noun

But in modern grammar it has been divided into three parts only: 1. 2. 3. 4. Proper noun Countable noun Uncountable noun Noun tips for Translations:

Noun is always known as singular in its natural form. For example: a pen, a book, a watch etc. Normally we make a plural noun by adding “s” or “es”. Book-Books Noun Tips - 1 If in the end of a noun there is “s”, “sh”, “ss”, “z” or “ch” than to make it plural we add “es” in the end of the noun. For example: Ass-Asses 14

English Grammer Box-Boxes Note - If a noun has ending point of “ch” however the sound comes for “ka” not “ch” than to make it plural we add only “s”. For example: Stomach, Stomachs Monarch, Monarch Noun Tips - 2 If a singular noun contain “f” or “fe” in the last of the word then after removing “f” or “fe” we add “ves”. For example: Wife – wives,Knife – knives Note - If any words contain “f” or “fe” in the last of the word and they are not noun then to make that plural simply we add “s”. For example: Chef – Chefs,Belief – Beliefs Noun Tips - 3 If a noun end with “Y” and before “Y” that contain consonant then to make that plural we can remove “Y” with the “ies”. For example: Army – Armies,Lady – Ladies Note - If a noun contain “Y” in the end of the word and before “y” if we find vowel then to make that plural we should simply add “s”. For example: Boy – Boys,Day – Days Noun Tips - 4 If a noun contain “o” in the end of the word and before it there is consonant then to make that plural we should add “es”. For example: Hero – Heroes,Mango – Mangoes Note - If the noun contain “o” in the end of the word and before it there is vowel then to make plural we add only “s”. For example: Zoo – Zoos,Portfolios – Portfolios Noun Tips - 5 Some nouns don’t follow any rules of English grammar. For example: Child – Children ,Man – Men Woman – Women Tooth – Teeth 15

English Grammer Noun Tips – 6 The noun which is in compound word but they have not hyphen between the words then simply we add “s” in the end of the noun. For example: Cupful – Cupfuls ,Handful – Handfuls Noun Tips – 7 Noun which is divided by hyphen, to make that plural we add “s” in the important parts of the word. For example: Arm- chair - Arm chairs,Tooth- brush – Tooth – brushes Noun Tips - 8 If the noun which is formed by compound and that has one portion is preposition then to make that plural we add “s” which comes before the preposition. For example: Father-in-low – Fathers – in – low Passer- by - Passers – by Noun Tips – 9 If the compound noun has man or woman then to make that plural we need to add “s” in the whole. For example: Man- servant - Men – servants Note - But if the noun has man or woman in spite of the meaning of that word not comes from man or woman then to make plural that we add only “s” in the word of end. For example: Man- eater - Man eaters Noun Tips -10 The word which comes from two nouns then to make that plural we have to add “s” or “es” in both words. For example: Lord Justice – Lords Justices Noun Tips -11 The noun which comes from Latin word and in the end of the word contain “us” then to make plural that we remove “us” and only add “i”. For example: Note - But the noun comes from Latin word and contain “on” in the end of the word then to make that plural we remove “on” and add “a”. For example: Criterion – Criteria 16

English Grammer Phenomenon – Phenomena But which noun contain “is” in the end of the word than to make that plural we should remove “is” and add “es”. For example: Basis Bases,Crisis -Crises Noun Tips -12 All the things of the world which makes from two parts and both parts has own importance, known as plural. For example: Scissors, Trousers, Sues etc. Note - But in the above noun if we add a pair of then it will be treat as singular noun. For example: A pair of sues is missing. Noun Tips -13 Part of the body which is single, known as singular noun. For example: Nose, Tongue, etc.

Note - If we talk about whole hair then it is known as singular noun. For example: Her hair is sighing. Note - But if hair is countable then it can be plural or singular. For example: Your one hair is white but my five hairs are white. Noun Tips – 14 Alms, Riches, Eaves, Precisely they are counted as singular noun but now they are counted as plural noun. Tips of noun – 15 All the things which are relative to study known as singular noun. For example: Mathematics, economies etc. Note - But the study marital known as private property then it is considered as plural noun. For example: The Mathematics of S.C. Sinha are good. Noun Tips – 16 17

English Grammer Brick and stone known as singular noun take singular verb. For example: The brick of my house is strong. Note - But brick and stone use as private to make house then it is use as plural noun. For example: There were bricks biting on the road of secretariat. Noun Tips – 17 If we use police then it is plural noun but if we use man in police then it will be known as singular noun. For example: Police are corrupt. But the Police man is honest.

Note - But if there are more than one police men then it is known as plural noun according to the situation. For example: Police men are watching. Noun Tips – 18 Poetry always knows as singular noun but if we need to plural it then we go with poem because it is not possible to make plural of poetry. For example:The poetry in nice. The poem is nice. Poems are nice. Note - Some nouns always known as singular noun even we add “s” in them. For example: Iron - Irons Copper - coppers Sand - sands Noun Tips – 19 Normally, the word which end from “ry”, known as singular noun. For Excample: Scenery, crockery etc. Note - But some word which end from “ry”, known as plural. For example: 18

English Grammer Poultry, Gentry, Peasantry, Cab alary etc. Gentry are combining. These are the some Noun tips which we normally use to make sentences. Case Studies in terms of Noun and Pronoun To tell the position of noun and pronoun in a sentence we use case. There is three parts of case: Subjective Case, Possessive Case and Objective Case. Subjective case: when noun or pronoun used as subject then it is known as subjective case. For example – Ram loves Sita. Possessive Case – in any sentence if we find any relations and rights between person and objects to show their relations then we use possessive case. For example – Ram’s brother. Objective case – whenever noun or pronoun works as object, known as objective case. Eg. – Ram loved Sita. There are three situation of pronoun: I – My – Me. Noun can be used as subject or object in both: Ram(s) help Hanuman (o) Or Hanuman (s) helped Ram (o) There are two rules to make possessive case of noun: If noun is living thing then we use apostrophe “s” after the name – Lalu’s wife etc. If the noun is non-living thing then 1st we use the then after that name with “of” to show their relationship – The pocket of the blade. Note-1: if non-living things are very large then we use apostrophe “s” to show their relationship – Sun Ray’s, Ocean’s roar etc. Note-2: in some proverb we use apostrophe “s” in spite of they are non-living things: Wit’s end Pen’s Evil Cat’s paw Note-3: If non-living things show as artificially – Jungal’s low, Court’s degree etc. Note-4: If non-living things show as measurement of a thing: A month’s fee etc. Sometimes even in living things we use “of” rather than apostrophe “s” if the situation shows relationship rather than rights: The Picture of Amitabh etc. Whenever the situation comes to use apostrophe “s” two times then we use “of” once: The government of Lalu’s wife. In relative pronoun to show the nearest relation we use “of”: I like the book of Prem Chand who was a great writer. There are some pronouns in which we add apostrophe “s” to make their possessive case: some 19

English Grammer body, any body, every body, someone, anyone, everyone, no one, something, anything etc. For example – Every body’s duty is nobody’s duty. But if “else” come with above mentioned words then apostrophe “s” will come with “else” rather than those words: You depend on somebody else’s. In condition of two person’s rights we use apostrophe “s” in last words: Lalu and Rabri’s policy. But if we have to show their separate rights then we will use apostrophe “s” in both: Ram’s and Laksaman’s wives. In the condition of plural noun and name where “s” already present then we use apostrophe “s” in that “s” which already there: Keats – Keat’s poem. Girls – Girl’s hostel. These are the study of case in the process of English Language Learning. If you have also some great tips or suggestion about case then share that. Parts of Pronoun and Its Definitions We already have discussed in our previous chapter about personal pronoun specially. But here we are able to discuss all the parts of pronoun. I think pronoun is better placement of noun to know good English and to speak well versed English. Demonstrative Pronoun It comes in the replacement of noun and shows their presence, called demonstrative pronoun. For example – This, That, These, Those etc. Some tips of demonstrative pronoun Use of “This” should be used for those things which are near you and near a subject and that should be in singular noun. For example – I have a pen in my hand. This is new. Use of “That” should be used far way things when it is in singular noun. For example – Look at the star. That is very bright. Use of “These” should be used for nearest things when it is plural noun. For example – I have many pens. These have very good look. Use of “Those” should be used for those which are not nearest and which are in plural noun. For example – Look at the cars, those are very costly. Distributive Pronoun The pronoun which comes with the replacement of noun and shows their presence as distributive elements among things and human beings, called distributive pronoun. For example – each, either etc. “Each” is used as singular noun and it takes singular verb. For example – Each is satisfied. Indefinite Pronoun That pronoun which are not certain, called indefinite pronoun. For example – All, Some, More, Most, Any, Enough etc. If they come as uncountable noun, known as singular noun and take singular verb. For 20

English Grammer example – All that glitters is not gold. But if they will be used as countable noun, known as plural and will take plural verb. For example – All are corrupt. Reflexive Pronoun That pronoun which appear as noun and do everything by itself, called reflexive pronoun. For example – My self, him self etc. One of the best examples for reflexive pronoun is – One should respect oneself. Interrogative Pronoun The pronoun which comes with the replacement of noun and ask question, called interrogative pronoun. For example – What, which, who, whom etc. Interrogative pronoun comes in the beginning for sentence and takes a question mark in the end of sentence. For example – What is your name? Relative Pronoun The pronoun which comes in the replacement of noun and shows the relationship, called relative pronoun. For example – Which, what, who, whose, whom etc. These are used in the mid of sentences and sentence take a full stop in the end. For example – The boy who is playing. Another is - I have a pen which is new. I think after that discussion all the questions about pronoun and parts of pronoun are clear. So, we will proceed with a new chapter in next post. If you collect the information in your mind your English learning way will be very simple. Pronoun and Personal Pronoun Hot Tips We have completed parts of speech and noun chapter in our previous chapter. Here we will discuss about pronoun especially personal pronoun and it hot tips. The pronoun which come in the alternative of noun but they treat as special noun, called personal pronoun. 1st person pronoun in subjective case: I and We 1st person pronoun in possessive case: My/mine and our/ours 1st person pronoun in objective case: Me and us 2nd person pronoun in subjective case: You 2nd person pronoun in possessive case: 21

English Grammer Your/Yours 2nd person pronoun in objective case: You 3rd person pronoun in subjective case: He, She, It, One, and They 3rd person pronoun in possessive case: His, Her/Hers, Its, Ones, Their/Theirs 3rd person pronoun in objective case: Him, Her, It, One and Them Personal Pronoun is Sentence making: Singular Noun - Plural Noun 1st Person I - We 2nd Person You - You 3rd Person He, She, It and any name - They In the sentence making process we always use a formula of Subject and Verb. If in a subject there is plural subject then verb will take place plural. If in a sentence subject is singular then verb also will take place with singular. Singular subject = Singular Verb Plural Subject = Plural Verb Verb in its original form always remain as plural. To make it singular we add “s” or “es” normally.Noun normally remains as singular but to make it plural we add normally “s” or “es”. Hot Tips of Pronoun 1. If living and non-living things come as plural noun whether they are male or female, we will use only “They” as third person. 2. “He” always use as singular noun when it is singular. For example – I have a brother. He is very naughty. 3. “She” always use as singular noun when it is singular. For example – I have a sister. She is very gentile. 4. “It” always use for non-living things when it is singular. For example – I have a pen. It is very costly. 5. For small children we use “it”. For example – I have a nephew. It is very active. 6. For the natural activities and incident we use “it”. For example – It is Sunday. It is raining. 22

English Grammer 7. If personal pronoun comes together then we use the formula of “231”. For example – You, He and I are students. 8. If in the sentence personal pronoun come together with 1st person then we use our/ours/us. For example – You, he and I are doing our work. 9. If in the sentence personal pronoun come together with 2nd person then we use your/yours/you. For example – You and he are doing your work. 10. If in the sentence all the personal pronoun comes together but the sentence indicate with wrong activities then we will use the formula of “123”. For example – I, you and he are going to pluck the mango from his garden.

िवशे स न का सथान - Order of Adjective in English Grammar १ Proper Noun से िनिमर त Adjective, उस शबद क पहले होगा िजसक िलए पयुक होगा। जैसे - The Indian े े former. २ Pronoun से िनिमर त Adjective उस शबद क पहले होगा िजसक िलए पयुक होगा। जैसे - My pen, Your book. े े ३ Common Noun से िनिमर त Adjective उस शबद क पहले रहते है िजसक िलए पयुक होते है। जैसे - Street lamp, े े flower garden. ४ Material Noun से िनिमर त Adjective उस शबद क पहले होगा िजसक िलए पयुक होगा। जैसे - Golden temple. े े ५ Adjective of Number उस शबद क पहले पयुक होता है, िजसक िलए पयुक होता है। जैसे - Two Friends, The े े Third Umpire. ६ Verb से िनिमर त Adjective भी उस शबद क पहले रहेगा, िजसक िलए पयुक होगा। जैसे- The burning े े mountain, A broken plate. ७ यिद एक साथ एक से अिधक Adjective आ रहे हो तो उनका कम इस पकार होगा - All/Both+The/Pronominal Adjective+Adjective of Quality (Space+Size+Colour)/Proper Adjective+Subject. ८ जब एक ही पकार का कई Adjective एक साथ आ जाए तो सबसे छोटा सबसे पहले रहेगा और सबसे बड़ा सबसे बाद। जैसे - A toll and handsome boy. ९ Alive, Alike, Alone, Aloof, Certain, Memorial उस शबद क बाद आते है िजसक िलए पयुक होते है। जैसे े े The match was worth seeing. १० Numerical Adjective, Possessive Adjective (N.P) क पहले रहेगा। जैसे - All my books are े missing. ११ Numerical Adjective, Demonstrative Adjective क पहले रहेगा जैसे - All these pens are mine. े १२ िकया से िनिमर त Adjective material noun क िनिमर त Adjective क पहले रहेगे। जैसे - A broken wooden े े chair. On the use of Adjective 1. Farther – To show the distance between two places or products – Harding Park is farther to Patna Junction from my coaching. 23

English Grammer 2. Further – To add something in the existing data – I gave no further statement. 3. Former – It is used to show 1st thing among two persons, two products or tow objects – Both V.P. Singh and Chandrashekhar were prime minister of India. The former is called Rajamanda. 4. Latter – It is used to show 2nd thing among two persons, two products or two objects – Both V.P. Singh and Chandrasekhar were prime minister of India. The latter is called Baliya Naresh. 5. Later – To show the late in any two work – Magadh Express is coming later Rajdhani Express. 6. Latest – To show new and upcoming things – This is the latest news. 7. Last – To show the end – This is the last chapter. 8. Mutual – To show the good understanding between two – Ram and Mohan are mutual friends. 9. Common – To show the good understanding among all – Dropdi was common wife. 10. Elder – To show the age gap among brother or sisters who have single parents – Ram was elder brother. 11. Older – To show the age gap among people – Ravan was older than Ram. 12. Nearest – To show the close distance – Which is the nearest police station? 13. Next to – To show the near about – My house is next to the temple. 14. Cool – To show the happiest cold – Air is cool today. 15. Cold – To show the unpleasant cold – Air is cold in December and January. 16. Warm – Pleasant hot – I was given warm welcome. 17. Hot – Unpleasant hot – The day is very hot today. 18. Whole – To show everything in once – I have read the whole Ramayana. 19. All – To show everything in all – He has sold all the books. 20. Oral – Related to mouth – This is an oral disease. 21. Verbal – Related to words – There are some verbal mistakes in your sentence.

Uses of Adverb in English Grammar - िकया िवशे ष ण का पयोग We already have discussed about adverb and definition of adverb in our previous chapter. Now, I have to discuss about uses of adverb with some examples. Uses of Adverb - िकया िवशे ष ण का पयोग: Ago: जब कभी वतर मान मे भूतकाल की िकसी बात की चचार की जाती है तो भूत काल क समय से लेकर चचार क समय े े तक अंतराल को दशारने क िलए Ago का पयोग करते है। जैसे - I came to Patna 3 years ago. े Before: इसका पयोग दो भूतकािलक िकयाओ क बीच मे अंतराल को दशारने क िलए होता है। जैसे - The train had े े started before I reached the station. 24

English Grammer Already: इसका पयोग कवल Present Perfect Tense मे होता है। जैसे - I have already seen this picture. े Some Time: थोड़ी देर। जैसे - I shall stay here for some time. Sometimes: यदा-कदा, कभी-कभार। जैसे - Sometimes I think of you. Only: कवल - इसका पयोग इस शबद क समीपतम होगा िजसक िलए पयुक होगा। जैसे े े े I only read English. - मै अंगेजी कवल पढता हू ँ, िलखता या पयोग नही करता। े I read only English. - मै अंगेजी कवल पढता हू ँ। यािन, समझता हू ँ, िलखता हू ँ, बोलता भी हू ँ। े Only I read English. - कवल मै अंगेजी पढता हू ँ। दसरा कोई नही पढता है। े ू Late: जब यह Adverb का कायर करता है तो इसका अथर होता है िनधारिरत समय से िबलमब करना। जैसे - I came late. Lately: अभी हाल ही मे। I have learnt the tense lately. Hard: पूरे शिक से। He hits the ball hard. Hardly: बड़ी मुिशकल से। I reached there hardly. Soon: शीघ ही - इसका पयोग िकसी भी Tense मे िकया जा सकता है। जैसे - He came soon. He comes soon. He will come soon. Shortly, Directly, Presently: शीघ ही। इन तीनो का पयोग भिवषय क बातो को दशारने क िलए होता है। जैसे े े Releasing shortly, Coming presently, Showing directly etc. Still: अब तक - इसका पयोग सकारातमक तथा पशनातमक वाकयो मे होता है। जैसे - Is he still sleeping? Yes, he is still sleeping. Yet: अब तक - इसका पयोग नकारातमक वाकयो मे होता है। जैसे - No he has not yet come. Very: Very is used with present participle. For example - Very interesting. Very is used with positive degree. For example - Very good. Very is used before much. E.g. - I am very much tired. Very is used before very. E.g. - Very-very important. Much: Much is used with past participle. E.g. - Much tired. Much is used with comparative degree. E.g. - Much better than you. Much is not used before much. Much can't be used before very. Also: जब कोई दो समान महतव वाले को वापस मे जोड़ना हो तो Also का पयोग होता है। जैसे - Ravana was also strong like Ram. Even: भी - जब कोई कायर आशा क िवपरीत होती है तो उसक िलए Even का पयोग होता है। जैसे - Even Ram made े े 25

English Grammer mistake. Too: भी - जब कोई अपने महानता क कारण अपने आप को समान समझता है तो इसका पयोग करते है। जैसे - I too े am young. I too have dream. Too (इतना अिधक िजतना िक नही होना चािहए): इसका पयोग कवल आलोचना क िलए होता है। पशंसा क िलए नही। े े े जैसे - You are too lazy. Adverb and Definition of Adverb – िकया िवशे ष ण िकया िवशे ष ण: िकया का िवशेषता बतलाने वाला। िकया क बारे मे कछ भी बोलने वाला। कभी-कभी यह Adjective क बारे मे बोलता है। े े ु जैसे A very good boy. कभी-कभी यह दसरे Adverb क बारे मे भी बोलता है। जैसे े ु A very-very good boy. कभी-कभी यह समपूणर वाकय क बारे मे बोलता है। जैसे े Unfortunately I failed. It says sometimes something about the verb, sometimes something about adjective, sometimes something about another adverb and sometimes something about the whole sentence. Adverb of Manner: It says the mod of the verb. It generally answers the question 'how'. For example - quickly, neatly, calmly etc. Generally adverbs of manner are formed by the adding 'ly' after adjective of quality. For example Neat - Neatly Quick - Quickly etc. But sometimes they work without 'ly' in both - adverb and adjective. These are - Best, Much, Late, Last, First, Fast, Hard, Next, Back Little, Better, Good, Less etc. Sometimes they work with 'ly' in both - adverb and adjective. These are - Yearly, Early, Daily, Weakly, Monthly etc. Adverb of Place: It says the place of the work. It generally answers the question 'where'. For example - Here, There, In the corner etc. Adverb of Time: It says the time of verb. 26

English Grammer It generally answer the question 'when'. For example - Now, This time, Present time, Yesterday, Ago, Last day etc. Adverb of Degree: It says the quantity of the work. It generally answers the question 'how much'. For example Little, A little, the little, Much, Less, Some, Enough etc. Adverb of Reason: It says the reason of the work. It generally answers the question 'why'. For example - Since, So, Why, That is why etc. Adverb of Number: It says the number of the work. It generally answers the question 'how often'. For example Once, Twice, Thrice, Four time, Eleven time etc. Interrogative Adverb: It asks the question about the verb. For example - What, Where, When Why, How often, How, How long etc.

अं ग ेज ी गामर मे अिनिशचत कालीन वतर म ान काल - Uses of Present Indefinite Tense कोई भी Tense क िलए verb मुखय िकया मे होनी चािहए। इसक अंत मे ता, ते, ती है होते है। जैसे े े हमलोग िहसाब जानते है। - We know mathematics. तुम हला करते हो। - You make a noise. पशनातमक वाकय मे Do/Does लगते है िजसक चलते Verb मे S या ES नही लगाया जाता है। े Do/Does+S+Principal Verb+O+? कया मै अंगेजी सीखता हू ँ? - Do I learn English? कया वह गीत गता है? - Does he sing a song? नकारातमक वाकय मे Don't/Doesn't लगते है िजसक चलते Verb मे S या es नही लगाया जाता है। े S+Do/Does+not+V+O. राम सकल नही जाता है। - Ram doesn't go to school. ू तुम हला नही करते हो। - You don't make a noise. िकसी क आदत को दशारने क िलए Present Indefinite का पयोग होगा। े े रशमो, िरवाजो तथा पथाओ को दशारने क िलए इसी Tense का पयोग होता है। जैसे - Hindu girls tie Rakhi to their े brother. इितहास क बातो को इसी मे रखा जाता है। जैसे - Bharat goes to forest to bring Ram to Ayodhya. े (Universal Truth) शासवत सतय इसी Tense मे रखे जाते है। जैसे - The sun rises in the east. यिद एक वाकय मे एक से अिधक िकया हो और वे एक क बाद एक routine way वे मे हो तो सारे क सारे िकयाये े े Present Indefinite मे होगे। जैसे - We put water in a bottle, we boil the water. Then we take tea and sugar. Then we pow it in the cup. Then we make milk and take it. 27

English Grammer Commentary को भी Present Indefinite मे ही रखा जाता है। जैसे - Kapil throws the ball. भिवषय मे होने वाले वैसे कायर जो िनिशचत है, अटल है Present Indefinite मे रखे जाते है। जैसे - Kamal visits Bihar very soon. िकसी भी लेखक की बात को दोहराने क िलए इसी Tense का पयोग करते है। जैसे - Valmiki says in the े Ramayana. एक वाकय मे दो बार Shall या Will नही लगेगा। एक बार Shall या Will लगेगा और एक बार Present Indefinite। अब पशन यह उतपन होता है िक Present Indefinite कहाँ लगेगा और Future Indefinite कहाँ, यािन Shall/Will कहाँ? तो उतर यह है की वाकय क िजस केत मे What, Whatever, When, Whenever, Where, Wherever, As Soon े As, As Long As, Till, Untill, Of, Unless, After, Before आिद लगा हो, उस केत मे Present Indefinite लगेगा। शेष मे Shall या Will। जैसे - I shall help you whenever you call. Always, Never, Seldom, Often, Sincerely, Every day आिद शबदो क साथ Present Indefinite का पयोग े होता है। ये सभी शबद आदत दशारते है और आदत मे सदा Present Indefinite लगता है। जैसे - I always come late. अं ग ेज ी मे वबर - Use of Verb in English Grammar

1 जो िकया वाकय मे िकसी कायर क होने का बोध करवाए Auxiliary Verb कहलाता है। े २ जो िकया मुखय िकया की सहयता पदान करे उसे (Be) Verb भी कहते है। उदाहरण - is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must, need, dare, ought to, use to. Syntax १ उिचत Subject क अनुसार, उिचत सथान पर उिचत सहायक िकया का पयोग ही Syntax है। े २ Singular Subject क साथ Singular Verb का ही पयोग होता है। जैसे - The boy is coming. े ३ Plural Subject क साथ Plural Verb का पयोग होता है। जैसे - Boys are coming. े ४ यिद And क दारा दो Singular Subject जुड़े है तो उनहे Plural समझा जाता है और उनक साथ Plural Verb का े े पयोग िकया जाता है। जैसे - The boy and the girl are coming. ५ लेिकन यिद And क दारा दो ऐसे शबद जुड़े हो जो सदा जोड़ा बनाकर आते है और And से जोड़े रहने क बावजूद े े Singular समझे जाते है तो Singular Verb लेते है। जै से - Horse and cart is standing at the door. ६ यिद And दारा दो ऐसे वसतू जुड़े हो जो िमलकर आतमसात जो जाते है तो And से जुड़े रहने क बावजूद Singular े समझे जाते है और Singular Verb लेते है। जै से - Bread and butter is a good breakfast. ७ यिद And क दारा एक से अिधक Adjective जुड़े हो लेिकन कवल पथम को Article पाप हो तो उनहे Singular े े समझा जाता है और उनक साथ Singular Verb का पयोग होता है। जै से - The black and white dog is े barking. ८ लेिकन यिद And क दारा एक से अिधक गुण या दोष आपस मे जुड़े हो और सबको Article पाप हो तो उनहे Plural े समझा जाता है और उनक साथ Plural Verb का पयोग होता है। जैसे - The black and the white dogs are े barking. 28

English Grammer ९ यिद And क दारा एक से अिधक पद आपस मे जुड़े हो और कवल पथम को Article पाप हो तो उनहे Singular े े समझेगे और उनक साथ Singular Verb का पयोग करेगे। जै से - The Prime minister and chairman of े planning commission is coming to Patna. १० यिद And क दारा एक से अिधक पद आपस मे जुड़े हो और पतयेक को Article पाप हो तो उनहे Plural समझकर े Plural Verb का पयोग करते है। जै से - The Prime minister and the Petroleum minister are corrupt. ११ Each, Either जब अकले आता है तो Singular समझा जाता है और Singular Verb लेता है। जै से - Each is े happy. १२ यिद इनक तुरत बाद को Noun आते है तो Noun Singular रहेगा ही Verb भी Singular रहेगा। जै से - Each े ं boy is laborious. १३ यिद इनक तुरत बाद Preposition आए तो Preposition क बाद आने वाला Noun या Pronoun तो Plural े ं े रहेगा परनतु Verb पूवर क ही भांित Singular बना रहेगा। जै से - Each of you is laborious. े १४ यिद ये And क दारा जुड़े रहे तब भी Singular रहेगे और Singular Verb लेगे। जैसे - Each boy and girl is े laborious. १५ लेिकन यिद इनक ठीक पहले कोई Noun या Pronoun आ जाए तो वह Noun या Pronoun तो Plural रहेगा ही े Verb भी Plural आएगा। जैसे - We each are preparing for exam. १६ यिद Or या Nor क दारा दो Singular Subject जुडा रहे तो वह Singular Verb लेगा। जै से - The boy or the े girl is making a noise. १७ यिद Or या Nor क दारा दो Plural Subject जुडा हो तो आने वाला Verb Plural होगा। जैसे - Boys or girls े are responsible. १८ यिद Or या Nor क दारा एक Singular तथा एक Plural Subject जुडा हो तो पहले Singular रहेगा उसक बाद े े Plural कयोिक Or या Nor क दारा जुड़े दो शबदो मे अिनतम वाला पमुख होता है। इसीिलए Verb भी Plural होगा। े जै से - The teacher or students are responsible. १९ देश क नाम पायः Singular होता है और उसक साथ Sinular Verb लगता है। जै से - India is a rich े े country. २० लेिकन यिद देश क नाम से उस देश का नही, उस देश क िकसी भी पकार क दल का बोध हो तो उसे Plural समझेगे े े े और उसक साथ Plural Verb आएगा। जैसे - The teams of India are in need of two fifty runs. े

Omission of Article in English Grammar 1. Normally, Proper Noun doesn’t take any “Article” before it – Ram, Patna etc. 2. If common noun is in the form of plural noun, it will not take any “Article” – Boys are playing. 3. Never use “Article” before the Material Noun – Water is gold. 4. Abstract Noun also doesn’t take any “Article” – Love is blind. 5. “Article” is not used before the sports name – Cricket, Football etc. 6. Before the name of weather, “Article” is not used – summer, winter etc. 7. Before the “Night” and “Day”, “Article” is not used – Night was dark. 8. “Morning” and “Evening” don’t take any “Article” before it – Morning is very pleasant. 29

English Grammer 9. Before “Society” we don’t use “The” – We live in society. 10. Before the diseases name, “Article” is not used – Fever, Plague etc. 11. The noun which comes after the possessive adjective, doesn’t take “Article” before it – My pen, Your Book etc. 12. The word which starts from “By”, doesn’t take any article – By train, By sheep etc. 13. The noun which comes after the Demonstrative Adjective, doesn’t take any “Article” before it – This boy etc. 14. The word which comes after the distributive adjective, doesn’t take any “Article” – Each boy is late today. 15. Before “Man, Mankind, Woman, God, Father, Mother, Unique, Universal, Humanity”, “The” is not used – God is great. 16. Normally, we don’t use any “Article” before “Heaven, Paradise and Hell” – We believe in paradise. 17. Before the name of any languages, we don’t use “Article” – We are learning English. 18. Before the “Sunset” and “Sunrise”, “Article” is not used – It is the time of Sunset. 19. Normally, before the Muhalla, Villages, City, State, and Country; “Article” is not used – I live at Kankarbagh. 20. Before the “Diner, Breakfast, Supper, Lunch etc. we don’t use “Article” – Dinner is ready. 21. Before the Battle, “Article” is not used – Battle is dangerous. 22. After the “No”, “Article” is not used – I have no pen. 23. After the “not and any”, “Article” is not used – I have not any friend. These are some omission of article which is used promptly in English Grammar. Omission tells what is not used. Omission of Article tells where “Article” is not used. Use of Article in English Grammar There are two types of Article – Indefinite Article (A, An) and Definite Article (The). Use of Indefinite Article: 1. It is used for unknown – A boy is standing of the door. 2. To show the measurement we use “a” or “an” – 60 km an hour, 5 hundred rupees in a month etc. 3. Whenever we use “Such” to show the surprise then we use “a” or “an” – Such a beautiful girl! 4. Whenever we use “What” to show the surprise then we use “a” or “an” – What a joke! 5. With the “How” we will use “a” or “an” to show the surprise – How an ugly girl! 6. With the “Many” we will use “a” or “an” to show countless – Many a boy is absent today. 7. With - Rest, Dip, Exercise, Hurry, Noise, Bath, Lie, Word, Walk, Nap, Headache and Mood 30

English Grammer we will use “a” or “an” - Don’t make a noise. 8. If “So” use to show the surprise and after it there is an adjective then we will use “a” or “an” after the adjective – So beautiful a girl! 9. If “As” use to show the surprise and after it there is an adjective then we will use “a” or “an” after the adjective – As beautiful a girl! 10. If “Too” use to show the surprise and after it there is an adjective then we will use “a” or “an” after the adjective – Too dark a night! 11. Normally, “an” is used with (A, E, I, O, U) which is vowel but the rules says that if the pronunciation comes with vowel in Hindi then we use “an” otherwise we will use “a” for the Hindi consonant. For example – An M.L.A, A unique, An honest man etc. Use of Definite Article: 1. It is used for known – The boy in the corner is my brother. 2. To make certain thing we use “The” – Remember the word, I told you first time. 3. Before the “Truth” we use “The” – I speak the truth. 4. Before the common noun singular number we use “The” – The chair is new. 5. Before the parts of body name we use “The” – The nose, The ears etc. 6. Before all the invention we use “The” – The watch, The pen, The computer etc. 7. Before all the historical accident we will use “The” – The green revolution, The Gulf war etc. 8. For the entire parts of universe name we use “The” – The sun, The earth, The moon etc. 9. For the name of zone we use “The” – The east, The west etc. Note – If the meaning is not related to zone then we will not include “Article” – East or west India is the best. 10. Each noun which comes before preposition takes definite article – The Gold of South Africa. 11. Before all the religious books we use definite article – The Ramayana, The Bible etc. 12. Before all the novels, serials, and film’s name we use definite article – The Godan, The Santi, The Devdas etc. 13. Before the superlative degree definite article take place – The best, The worst etc. 14. Before the Former and Latter we use “The” – The former chapter is more interesting than the latter chapter. 15. For the parallel comparison we use definite article – The more Pepsi, the more crickets. 16. For the musical instrument use of definite article is necessary – The Tabla, The Harmonium etc. 17. For the news papers definite article is necessary – The Aryavart, The Hindustan etc. 31

English Grammer After the case chapter article is most important chapter in the English Language. If you complete the chapter your writing skills will develop soon.

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