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Lecture: 2

The Newmark Method

Other Implicit Integration Methods are Houbolt Method and Wilson Method

The Newmark integration scheme can be understood to be an extension of the linear acceleration

method.

U t t

U t

t

t t

1

U t U t t

2

U t t U t 1 U t U t t t

1

U t t U t tU t U t U t t t 2

1

1

Where and originally proposed by Newmark as an unconditionally stable scheme.

2

4

Reference

engineering mechanics division, vol. 85, 1959, PP. 67 94.

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A. Initial calculations:

1. Form Stiffness K, Mass M and Damping C matrices.

2. Initialize U 0, U 0 and U 0

3. Select time step size t , parameters and and calculate integration constants.

0.5, 0.25 0.5

1

1

1

a0

; a1

; a2

; a3

1

2

t

t

t

2

a4

; a5

2 ; a6 t 1 ; a7 t

5. Triangularize K : K LDLT

1. Calculate effective loads at time t t

R t t Rt t M a0 U t a2 U t a3U t

C a1 U t a4 U t a5 U t

LDLT U t t R t t

3. Calculation of accelerations and velocities at t t

U t t a0 U t t U t a2 U t a3 U t

U t t U t a U t a U t t

6

t 0.28 s.

0.25

0.5

0

0

0

U 0 , U 0 , U0

0

0

10

Integration Constants are

a4 1.0

a5 0.0

a6 0.14 a7 0.14

108 2

2 0

6 2

51.0

K

2 55

0 1

2 4

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0

2 0

R (t t )

51U (t ) 14.3U (t ) 1.0 U (t )

10

0

1

Then, K U (t t ) R(t t )

And U (t t ) 51.0 U (t t ) U (t ) 14.3U (t ) 1.0 U (t )

U (t t ) U (t ) 0.14 U (t ) 0.14 U (t t )

Performing the above calculation, we obtain

Time

t

2t

3 t

4 t

5 t 6 t 7 t 8 t 9 t 10 t 11 t 12 t

U (t ) 0.00673 0.0505 0.189 0.485 0.961 1.58 2.23 2.76 3.0 2.85 2.28 1.40

0.364

1.35

2.68

4.0

4.95

2.90

2.44

2.31

In Runga Kutta method the second order differential equation is first reduced to two first

order equations. As an example, consider the differential equation for the SDOF system, which

may be written as

1

x F t Kx Cx f x, x , t

m

By letting x y, the above equation is reduced to the following two first order equations:

x y

y x f x, y, t

Both x and y in the neighborhood of xi and yi can be expressed in terms of the Taylor series.

Letting the time increment be h t , we have

d 2 x h2

dx

x xi h 2

dt i

dt i 2

d 2 y h2

dy

y yi h 2

dt i

dt i 2

Ignoring higher-order derivative, we can write

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dx

x xi h

dt i av

dy

y yi h

dt i av

If we use Simpsons rule, the average slope in the interval h becomes, i.e.

1 dy

dy

dy

dy

6 dt t i

dt i av

dt t i h 2 dt t i h

The Runge-Kutta is very similar to the preceding computations, except that center terms of the

given equation is split into two terms and four values of x, y and f are computed for each point i

as follows:

t

T1 ti

X 1 xi

h

T2 ti

2

h

T3 ti

2

T4 ti h

y x

Y1 yi

h

h

X 2 xi Y1

Y2 yi F1

2

2

h

h

X 3 xi Y2

Y3 yi F2

2

2

h

X 4 xi Y3 h Y4 yi F3

2

f y x

F1 f T1 , X 1 , Y1

F2 f T2 , X 2 , Y2

F3 f T3 , X 3 , Y3

F4 f T4 , X 4 , Y4

h

Y1 2Y2 2Y3 Y4

6

h

yi 1 yi F1 2 F2 2 F3 F4

6

Where it is recognized that the four values of Y divided by 6 represent an average slope dx/dt and

the four value of F divided by 6 results in an average of dy/dt as define by eq, (arrange

acceleration).

xi 1 xi

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4 x 2000 x F t

F(t)

100

0.10

0.20

Solution:

1

x1

F t 500 x

4

let y x then

1

y x F t 500

4

2000

4

2

T

0.281 s

T 0.281

0.0281 0.02

10

10

t

x

y x

f

0

0

0

25

t1

0.01

0.25

25

t2 0.02 .0050 0.475 22.50

Calculate

0.02

0 .0.50 0.50 0.475 0.00491667

x2 0

6

0.02

25 50 47.50 22.50 0.483333

y2 0

6

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0.03 0.0097500 0.70874997 20.12500

0.03 0.01200417

0.6845833

18.997915

t3 0.04 0.01860834

0.8632912

15.695830

x3 0.00491667

0.02

0.483333 2 0.70874997 2 0.6845833 0.8632912

6

0.01869431

0.02

22.541665 2 20.125 2 18.997915 15.695830

6

0.4833333 0.388827775

y3 0.4833333

0.87161075

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