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# Module: 10

Lecture: 2
The Newmark Method
Other Implicit Integration Methods are Houbolt Method and Wilson Method
The Newmark integration scheme can be understood to be an extension of the linear acceleration
method.

U t t
U t
t

t t
1
U t U t t
2

## The following assumption are used

U t t U t 1 U t U t t t
1

U t t U t tU t U t U t t t 2

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1
Where and originally proposed by Newmark as an unconditionally stable scheme.
2
4
Reference

## N. M. Newmark, A method of computation structural dynamics, A.S.C.E., Journal of

engineering mechanics division, vol. 85, 1959, PP. 67 94.

## Step-by-Step Solution Using Newmark Integration Method

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A. Initial calculations:
1. Form Stiffness K, Mass M and Damping C matrices.
2. Initialize U 0, U 0 and U 0
3. Select time step size t , parameters and and calculate integration constants.
0.5, 0.25 0.5
1

1
1
a0
; a1
; a2
; a3
1
2
t
t
t
2
a4

; a5
2 ; a6 t 1 ; a7 t

## 4. Form effective stiffness matrix K : K K a0 M a1C

5. Triangularize K : K LDLT

## B. For each time step

1. Calculate effective loads at time t t

R t t Rt t M a0 U t a2 U t a3U t
C a1 U t a4 U t a5 U t

## 2. Solve for displacement at t t

LDLT U t t R t t
3. Calculation of accelerations and velocities at t t
U t t a0 U t t U t a2 U t a3 U t
U t t U t a U t a U t t
6

## Earlier example by Newmarks method

t 0.28 s.

0.25

0.5

0
0
0
U 0 , U 0 , U0
0
0
10
Integration Constants are

a4 1.0

a5 0.0

a6 0.14 a7 0.14

108 2
2 0
6 2

51.0
K

2 55
0 1
2 4

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## For each time step we need to evaluate

0
2 0

R (t t )
51U (t ) 14.3U (t ) 1.0 U (t )
10
0
1

Then, K U (t t ) R(t t )
And U (t t ) 51.0 U (t t ) U (t ) 14.3U (t ) 1.0 U (t )
U (t t ) U (t ) 0.14 U (t ) 0.14 U (t t )
Performing the above calculation, we obtain

Time
t
2t
3 t
4 t
5 t 6 t 7 t 8 t 9 t 10 t 11 t 12 t
U (t ) 0.00673 0.0505 0.189 0.485 0.961 1.58 2.23 2.76 3.0 2.85 2.28 1.40
0.364

1.35

2.68

4.0

4.95

2.90

2.44

2.31

## Method II (Runge Kutta Method)

In Runga Kutta method the second order differential equation is first reduced to two first
order equations. As an example, consider the differential equation for the SDOF system, which
may be written as
1
x F t Kx Cx f x, x , t
m
By letting x y, the above equation is reduced to the following two first order equations:
x y
y x f x, y, t
Both x and y in the neighborhood of xi and yi can be expressed in terms of the Taylor series.
Letting the time increment be h t , we have
d 2 x h2
dx

x xi h 2
dt i
dt i 2
d 2 y h2
dy
y yi h 2

dt i
dt i 2
Ignoring higher-order derivative, we can write

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dx
x xi h
dt i av
dy
y yi h
dt i av
If we use Simpsons rule, the average slope in the interval h becomes, i.e.

1 dy
dy
dy
dy

6 dt t i
dt i av
dt t i h 2 dt t i h
The Runge-Kutta is very similar to the preceding computations, except that center terms of the
given equation is split into two terms and four values of x, y and f are computed for each point i
as follows:
t

T1 ti

X 1 xi

h
T2 ti
2
h
T3 ti
2
T4 ti h

y x

Y1 yi
h
h
X 2 xi Y1
Y2 yi F1
2
2
h
h
X 3 xi Y2
Y3 yi F2
2
2
h
X 4 xi Y3 h Y4 yi F3
2

f y x

F1 f T1 , X 1 , Y1
F2 f T2 , X 2 , Y2
F3 f T3 , X 3 , Y3
F4 f T4 , X 4 , Y4

## These equations are then used in the following recurrence formula:

h
Y1 2Y2 2Y3 Y4
6
h
yi 1 yi F1 2 F2 2 F3 F4
6
Where it is recognized that the four values of Y divided by 6 represent an average slope dx/dt and
the four value of F divided by 6 results in an average of dy/dt as define by eq, (arrange
acceleration).
xi 1 xi

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4 x 2000 x F t

F(t)
100

0.10

0.20

Solution:

1
x1
F t 500 x
4
let y x then
1
y x F t 500
4
2000

4
2
T
0.281 s

T 0.281

0.0281 0.02
10
10
t
x
y x
f
0
0
0
25
t1

0.01

0.25

25

## 0.01 0.0025 0.25 23.75

t2 0.02 .0050 0.475 22.50
Calculate
0.02
0 .0.50 0.50 0.475 0.00491667
x2 0
6
0.02
25 50 47.50 22.50 0.483333
y2 0
6

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## t2 0.02 0.00491667 0.4833333 22.541665

0.03 0.0097500 0.70874997 20.12500
0.03 0.01200417

0.6845833

18.997915

t3 0.04 0.01860834

0.8632912

15.695830

## We then calculate x3 and y3

x3 0.00491667

0.02
0.483333 2 0.70874997 2 0.6845833 0.8632912
6

0.01869431
0.02
22.541665 2 20.125 2 18.997915 15.695830
6
0.4833333 0.388827775

y3 0.4833333
0.87161075

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