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Caste, Class and Economic Opportunity in Kerala: An Empirical Analysis

Author(s): P. Sivanandan
Source: Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 14, No. 7/8, Annual Number: Class and Caste in
India (Feb., 1979), pp. 475-480
Published by: Economic and Political Weekly
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69 Ezhava 11.89 acres of dry land per owner whereas households belonging to other castes held land ranging roughly between 1 and 3 acres.Propor.4 11.0 6. We shall in this context examine some aspects of the distribution of land-holdings.o-Economic Survey on Caste/Communities in Kerala.52 2.5 Acres Acres Acres Acre Brahmin 28.81 6.9 7.4 12.48 Other Christian 5.89 Nair 43.6 acres of wet land per owner and 12. Class and Econotnic Opportunity in Kerala An Empirical Analysis P Sivanandan An attempt is made in this paper to examine the interplay of caste and class forces in Kerala.4 4.6 13. 1969.0 2 to 5 Above 5 Land Size 0.Proportion of tion of tion of tion of (Acres) Owners Area Owners Area Wet Land Dry Land Brahmin 1.62 3. Nair households.75 0.04 6.7 3.12 1.95 OtherHindu 11.5 23. However. The exclusive traditional privilege of proprietorship and administrative and supervisory powers enjoyed by a group of superior and influential castes in the past are being shared also by a large number of other castes.07 2. 1968. The author examines. among the other castes not only is the proportion of households reporting ownership low but so also is the average size of the holding per owner. Part I.9 1.70 5.00 100. We do not.6 37.90 Muslim 5.5 18.85 1.60 0.21 7. Along with this upward occupational mobility.8 0.13 1. social groups with their corresponding levels three or four decades earlier in order to see if the contemporary casteclass relation is any different fromthat of the past. however.2 40.08 8.8 Souirce: Report on Soc.00 2. in this context. In this paper an attempt is made to examine the interplay of caste and class forces in the distribution of income earning opportunities.93 1.42 2 95 9.90 38. belonging in particular to the intermediate section of the Hindu. the upward occu- TABLE 1: LAND-HOLDING PATTERN BY CASTE IN TRAVANCORE. In our analysis we try to compare the present level of economic attainments among the major Owner Propor. in spite of a small average per owner. are extremely minimal when compared to the experi- ence of other caste/communal groups.8 6.8 21.4 33.5 0.jstor.43 All Communities 100. had a fairly large share in the total land (38 per cent in respect of wet land and 30 per cent in respect of dry land). Bureau of Economic and Statistics.4 5. despite a certain degree of interpenetration.7 20. Thus the land ownership pattern during the 30s shows that there was a very high level of inequality in the distribution *of land and in the proportion of land owners among the various com- class.9 17.2 17.5 36.41. KERALA 1968 Community No Land Below 0.05 15.85 4.6 35.9 26. especially of wet land.8 Jacobites 13.7 0.60 12.4 26.2 In contrast.9 9. Vol XXVIII. This process of economic re- organisation among the various castes contains a unique feature namely class formation within a caste framework.1 In the case of Nair households the low average of holding is explained by a process of partition among the joint family members.08 19. particularly during the 20s and 30s.4 28.18 1.2 5.6 2. Report Appendix IV.6 2.09 30. both the Brahmin and the Nair communities reported ownership on a much bigger scale than did the other castes. p 472 and 475.6 All communities 32. Table 1 shows that Brabmin households held on average 15.32 9. a certain extent of downward occupational filtration has taken.8 34. have comparable data relating to this period for the regions comprising present-day Kerala as a whole.1 1 .13 1.10.0 5.71 2.4 39. controlled TABLE 2: PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION oF HOUSEHOLDS IN EACH CASTE/COMMUNITY ACCORDING TO LAND OWNED.77 16.33 . Travancore.47 10. 11 Apr 2016 11:53:57 UTC All use subject to http://about.00 100.1 Scheduled Tribe 57.5 to 2.Caste. 475 This content downloaded from 202.88 16.1 6.1 SC Converts to Christianity 51.95 Syrian Christian 18. 1931 Wet Land Dry Land Average Area Per Community pational mobility and class reorganisation among the lowest castes which traditionally constituted the dependent class of agrarian labour. some aspects of the distribution of land-holdings and of educational and employment opportuzities among the major social groups. Nevertheless.7 22.7 23.3 on Mon. THE structure of the labour market and the distribution of assets in Kerala retain a very significant level of caste- class association.1 .71 29.7 Syrian Catholic 27.70 27.4 Ezhava 33.72 2.03 1. The presenit level of economic attainments among the major social groups is comlpared with the corresponding level three or four decades earlier in order to see if the contemporary caste-class relation is any different from that of the past.43 1.0 Nair 16.20 2.2 ST converts to Christianity 92.9 Scheduled Caste 53. Available dlata for the Travancore region show that during the nineteen thirties the dominant castes.2 33. Trivandrum. Christian and Muslim communities. LAND-HOT nINoS The pattern of land-holding seems to be an important factor around which caste-class relations develop.0 21.57 Source: Census of India.00 100.4 Muslim 32.7 2.9 0.Propor.91 26.11 1. Moreover. educational and employment opporttImities. place and it has naturally enlarged numerical strength of the labouring the largest share of landed property in this region of Kerala.03 2. particularly the traditional caste Hindu sections.02 6.2.69 3.28 Depressed Hindu 1.

1 40.0 2.2 Scheduled Castes 47. the landless munities.4 20.8 0.81 0.3 11.2 SC converts to Christianity 65.5 (3) Agriculturallabourers .6 0.23.3 30. 11 Apr 2016 11:53:57 UTC All use subject to http://about.0 place.50 1.00 100. op cit TABLE 4: LITERACY RATES AND EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AMONG SELECTED COMMUNITIES.0 . that roughly half of the Nair households and over 56 per cent of the Brabmin households also were either landless or owned less than half an acre each.. while 1.6 (7) Others 14. the lower castes continue to predominate while in the larger size holdings.3 5.62 Ezhava 22.5 9.3 In general there has been a significant increase in the proportion of households cultivating small bits of land.5 0. particularly in the lowest land size and landless categories. TABLE 5 : PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS (OF ALL AGES) ACCORDING TO GENERAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION.1 28.4 The process has considerably tilted the traditional caste-class association: a certain extent of interpenetration has taken Source: 1968 Survey Report.00 holds operating over 10 acres accounted for 15. Vol XXI. learned and artistic professions 35.7 30.29 Ambalavasi 0.2 4.2 36.18 11.3 Ezhava 67.0 Nair 35. The data available for 1971-72 Acres show that 68 per cent of the rural Brahmin 1. it is important to note that the agrarian KERALA 1968 pronounced has continued to retain a pronounced concentration of land Propor.9 Jacobite Christian 80.74 14. It needs to be noted.34 Other Hindu (except SC and ST) 10.00 100.63 12. we may look at the pattern of land distribution among the various communities for an understanding of the prevailing caste composition in each land size class and the class composi- tion of each community. DURING 1931 Proportion of Literate in Proportion Percentage of Pupils of Children under Ins.5 55.0 1.74 12.No Less 0.73 1.0 100.70 18.4 18. Though the data do not provide the share of land among the different communities.8 91.41.0 100.2 NA 10.2 1. and Vol X1V.TABLE 3: PERCENTAGE DISTRBUTION OF TOTAL LAND OWNED BY COMMUNrrnEs.20 0.4 5.42 13.1 20.67 Scheduled Tribes 1.jstor.2 5. The class structure of the communi- ties is vividly brought out by the dis- tribution of total land owned by each community in each land size class.11 0. The latest in- formation we have in this regard is from a survey conducted during 1968.5 Acres Than 2 Acres among a small proportion of house- holds.63 1.Proportion of Households Owning Community tion of House.-(5) Trade and commerce .4 37. These data thus show the extent to which downward mobility has taken place among the upper caste groups.11 0. On the other hand the proportion of house- holds owning above 5 acres among the upper castes was significantly higher than that among the lower castes.29 SC and ST converts to Christia- nity 1.2 44.PostSSLC graduate graduate Brahmin 85.84 0.55 0.0 100.30 23.23 17.0 18.5 17.76 9. Vol XXVII.30 20.3 0.29 0.(6-12 Age truction in Group) AtTotal Po. Roughly two-thirds of Muslim and Ezhava households were either landless or owned less than half an acre.0 28. There has also been a reducLion in the proportion of landlesshouseholds.20 0.2 32. op cit TABLE 6: CASTE AND OCCUPATION (PROPORTION OF WORKERS IN EACH CATEGORY OF OCCUPATION) (i) Malabar-1921 Census Nambudiri Nair Thiyya Mopla Chel uma Occupation Brahmin Muslim (1) Rentiers 41.37 2.84 18.2 Muslims 55.0 21.3 26.4 2. Before we study the changes that labour and small peasant classes conti- Those belonging to the lower castes have occurred during recent decades.8 9.3 Scheduled Tribes 36.3 34.0 50.0 Source: Census of lIndia.3 Total 100. while the great majority of the Harijan house- holds were similarly placed with respect to ownership of land (Table 2).5 29.87 18.9 23.5 36. Madras.36 1.7 5.65 10.3 Source: 1968 Survey Report.5 67.31 11.21 1.tending _____ _ _ ___________ pulation Schools Travancore Cochin Malabar Travancore Cochin 1931 households operate less than 1 acre 1931 1931 1931 1931 Brahmin 50.7 (6) Public administration.7 37.65 14.7 12.4 14.6 9.2 4.29 16.0 Ezhava 21.2 per cent of the house- (all denominations) Muslim 17. while the landlord and cultiva- nue to be composed mainly of lower 476 This content downloaded from 202.17.5 Christian 35. 1968. Travancore.00 100.2 (4) Toddy drawing and selling .5 46.2 32.6 1.41 25.0 More holds Land Than 0. General Education Tech- Caste/Communlty Llterates nical Litera. they give the proportions of households in eachl land size class.82 0.1 2.1.Prima.0 100.9 68.0 Pulaya 3. Therefore.0 0.5 3.0 Muslim 14.3 1.1 per cent of the total operated area. 1931.98 34.5 0.4 23.Educates below ry and and duate and tion Primary below Under. Cochin.23 All communities 100. Land was thus concentrated had either no land or very little.3 1.85 Christians 20.89 7.0 16.SSLC Gra.4 13. castes. To see the extent of this interpenetration.94 2.2 2.5 Nair 72.1 0.80 1.36 Nair 14.86 24.5 13.3 33.9 .2 37.7 40.0 82.1 22.00 100.0 0. however. the upper castes and the intermediate castes constitute the domi- nant category.59 Scheduled Castes 8. Table 3 shows that among the landless and among those with small land holdings.97 19.2 22.7.8 (2) Cultivators 9.5 Syrian Catholics 79.9 6.67 21.7 7.9 33.2 1.10.6 nil nil All communities 66.7 8.4 8.0 57..2 1.4 .5-2.0 7.12 3.5 1.3 on Mon. in the hands of upper caste families.7 0.3 32.4 0.1 36.5 26.76 each.4 68.

6 10.4 33. nal attainment and skill formation particularly Nairs. Madras.8 72. Those at the lower end of the social hierarchy on the other hand suffered severe occupational limitations in the past. that in addition to the government's efforts to set up educational and training institutions Nevertheless.6 18. in this context. the rest of the communities which occupy the lowest position in the social hierarchy and form a significant section of the class of landless peasants and wage labour.1 Total 100.2 7.4 46. Iravancore.2 31.9 5.0 100.3 .0 100. Vol XXI 1931. notwithstanding a certain ex- nal advancement during the period 1931 tent of downward mobility among upper to 1968.4 . liberal arts and Professions 3.8 26.4 6. trade and transport 3. These data show that literacy levels were ge-nerally very low among the low castes. and Vol XXV 1921 and Vol XXVIII 1931.1 71.(2) Cultivators 22.3 8.6 3.1 (4) Industry. For instance.0 100.8 15.0 40.5 2.4 49.7 10. Part I.7 44. these communities.0 100.2 2. With large scale public and private investments. However. The Brahmins and the Nairs were not only rentiers and cultivators but also the main participants in public administration and the learned professions.0 16. however.0 23. The Christians. tor classes are largely constituted by class factors continue to influence its persons from the traditional privileged evolution.1 20.4 3. the literacy levels of all communities had gone up significantly (Table 5). thanks to the growing social and political awareness of the people.0 100. most of them do not go beyond the school stage (Table 5).3 .3 12.0 100.8 15.occupation tion 1921 1931 1921 1931 1921 1931 1921 1931 (1) Traditional occupation 11. Among those who acquire higher general and technical education. Cochin and Travancore.1 (5) Wage labour 3.0 100.10.7 23. Nevertheless.4 4. Nevertheless.9 0.4 68. -iaving a long record of involvement in commercial activities and agricultural pursuits. have utilised all opportunities for educational and professional advancement.9 1.7 12.4 fii 7. the state. By looking at the educatio- classes.0 100.-1. The role of the national government is particularly sig- nificant since it has adopted numerous special assistance programmes for the upliftment of the backward castes/ classes. 1931 and 1941 shows very clearly the close relationship between profession and caste status which existed despite diversification of . Vol XIII.6 6.9 16.6 0. inciustry and trans- port 21.0 100. artisan ansd trading classes. The occupational classification in the three regions of Kerala.3 41.5 68.1 3.0 25.5 1.7 42. the differ- ences have persisted. Ezhavas among the various social groups in Ke- and Muslims also themselves manage a rala seems to suggest that caste and large number of similar institutions.7 1. among the various communi- castes such as Brahmins and Nairs. the pattern of educatio- all over the state. with the advent of colonial administration and as a result of social reform movements and political freedom struggles.9 (3) Trade. We have community-wise occupational distribution for the last four or five decades.0j100.0 100. It may be seen that although the literacy rates have improved considerably among people of the lower castes.4 15.3 ..4 0. Similarly the Christians.(Agricultural traditional wing) Labour) Occupa.10. however.5 1.7 12. In this context.0 Source: Census of India.1 (3) Field labour .0 56.3 13. and Vol XIX 1941.job opportunities in all sectors (Table 6).3 (2) Farming 32.7 11.6 86. Table 4 gives data on the literacy EDUCATION Education and cultural advancementi were considered to be the sole privileges of certain communities which enjoyed superior positions in the traditional so- cial hierarchy.0 100.4 15. had a mixed occu477 This content downloaded from 202.3 2.5 16.0 100. have only very recently been introduced to literacy and modern education.3 18. The intermediate caste '1indus and Muslims who constitute a large proportion of the peasant.3 33.9 5.9 6.6 (4) Public administration and liberal arts 30. adopted a policy of protective assistance which includes pecuniary support and preferential treatment.1 23. have also begun to acquire modern education. Cochin. among the superior caste Hindus. illiteracy is a rarity.2 13. educational and training opportunities have improved throughou.0. ties.0. These data show that traditional communal status and the pattern of employment were closely related.0 1.5 3.8 8.2 (5) Public administration.ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY Annual Number February 1979 (ii) Cochin-1931 and 1941 Census Occupation Malayala Nair Christian Muslim Ezhava Pulaya Brahmin 1931 1941 1931 1941 1931 1941 1931 1941 1931 1941 1931 1941 (1) Rentiers 66. However. viz. it is still a hard task for this poor and poverty stricken class to ward off illiteracy and attain educational levels similar to those of others in the society.9 3.41.5 It is remarkable.8 26.0 100. it is possible to assess the under- lying pattern of change.0.0 100. 11 Apr 2016 11:53:57 UTC All use subject to http://about.6 87.7 19.9 16.jstor.2 10.6 45.3 14.1 2.1 0.0. who have a long heritage in learning. the upper castes and the Christians continue to be preponderant.3 83.3 29.1 2.3 3. Christians.4 Total 100.3 on Mon. rates among the different communities in 1931.0 100. land- ownership and political power.8 11.7 35.8 . available from the census of .0 (iii) Travancore. there has been a considerable breakthrough in the spread of education among the masses.9 3.2 16.9 51.4 4. a certain degree of relaxation of caste barriers in social relations has provided the new generation (belonging to all social groups) an opportunity to learn and improve their skills. the Muslims' and the Ezhavas.4 20. By 1968.2 (6) Others 3. Considering the long tradition of their social disability and economic backwardness. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES Upward occupational mobility among the higher castes was widespread.9 12.0 100.2 8.1921 and 1931 Census Brahmin Nair Ezhava Pulaya Caste and (Priesthood) (Agriculture) (Toddy dra.0 100. Malabar. tlle government has.9 .5 7.

SCconvertsto Christianity 30.6 1.9 (D) Muslim 4. The intermediate caste Hindus (C) and Muslims (D).2 1.3 2. SC and ST converts to Christi- anity 2.4 4.5 7.4 1.5 2.1 6.6 3.8 25.9 2.8 2.4 2.0 4.9 2.6 2. Trade ces.Servi.1 3.1 11.3 0.0 36.2 38. The broad classification of communi- 478 This content downloaded from 202.2 2.5 (A) .8 4.6 The 1968 survey gives a detailed desthe various social groups in terms of (a) Activity Status (Table 7).4 sections (B) to have a larger proportion of student population and a lower pro- | (iii) Syrian portion of wage earners when compared to other communities.2 1.6 0.2 5.4 IScheduledTribes 0. Jacobites 35. namely (A) the Hindu Upper Castes (Brahmin.5 9.6 1.2 (C) (D) Ezhava 28.2 8.7 14. Muslim 22.4 3.7 14.8 20.5 S T converts to Christianity 15.8 9. tural Skilled Profes.1 0. On the other hand.7 17.1 10. TABLE 8: PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF EARNERS IN MAJOR CATEGORIES OF EMPLOYMENT.8 4.Family loyed yed Enter- Wages prises CBrahmin 36.5 0. In these Tables the selected communities are classified among them are mostly distributed in the salaried.9 6.7 38.9 .7 t Ezhava 5.4 8.6 16.9 .2 3.6 19.3 1.1 36.6 LNair 14.3 on Mon. and (E) Scheduled Castes.8 8.3 33.2 2.3 32.6 29.9 .4 2.4 1.7 0.0 8.4 26. It is characteristic among the upper caste Hindus (A) and the Chris-tian f Christian (total) 10.7 (according to socio-economic similarity) into five groups. is extremely low when compared to the other communities.4 5. They were engaged in cultivation and industrial.3 5.1 36.7 0.2 39. Their parti- of Tribals).6 24.Annual Number February 19179 ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WtEKLY TABLE 7: ACTIVITY STATUS-PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS IN SELECTED CASTES/COMMUNITIES. employer and self-employed classes.0 1.8 0.3 81.7 13.3 58.9 8.7 1.and Trans.1 3.9 5.2 (Scheduled Castes 22. remain the major constituent in the labour force for agricultural operations and Rllied activities. who formed only a tenth of the state's population.9 (B) .6 6.4 66. while having a lower proportion of student population .3 5. Scheduled Tribes and their converts to Christianity. Ambalavasi and Nair).jstor.2 30.2 6.8 5.3 11.6 1.8 tNair 32.7 2.5 1.2 9.3 22.3 2. Jacobites. The workers (i) Marthomites 17.1 3.0 80. 1968 Community Student Daily Weekly Salaried Employ-Self Unpaid Unemp.6 jScheduled Tribes 15. Marthomites and Latin Catholics).8 21.8 15.1 1.4 Source: 1968 Survey Report.6 10.6 0. (b) distribution of gainfully employed persons in *various occupations (Table 8) and (c) caste composition of workers in each occupation (Table 9).1 21.0 10.7 9. 1968.5 9.1 12.0 6.0 2.and Labour minis- Community Commu- tra.2 1.5 22.0. the Pulaya or Cheruma community was restricted almost wholly to agricultural labour as the cipation as cultivators (except in the case main occupation.3 (E) .8 4.0 29.2 (A) i Ambalavasi 29.have a larger propiortion of workers in the wage labour and selfemployed categories.3 0.9 6.6 1.6 1.9 0. Kammala 3.2 7.1 7.5 11.5 2. tholics 7.4 2.Agricul.0 6.7 36. There are only a few among them in the salaried and employer classes. the proportions of salaried and employer seeLions among them are higher than those among other communities below them in the social hierarchy.1 38.6 5.5 2. 3 72.1 17.7 1.6 2.0 0.6 3.3 7.3 2. 1968 (I) (t1) ~(III) (IV) (V) (VI) (VII) Techni.10. (C) the Hindu Inter- mediate Castes (Ezhava and Kammala).0 3.7 2.6 All communities 6.8 .6 7.2 12.3 6. trading and commercial activities. or industries or as persons engaged in business or commerce.5 0.6 1. The main activIty of these communities is daily wage employment. To some extent they worked also as wage labourers.6 1.4 2.4 4.6 0.5 37. pational pattern. op cit.2 15.2 8.8 16.4 8..0 8.0 5.8 36. cription of employment pattern among The industrial classification for 1961 and 1971 shows that the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.5 16.6 { Kammala 27. Trivandrumn.7 0.8 10.0 9.2 7.7 Marthomites 39. namely (E).7 32.3 1.Uncal. owners of production processes.7 4.5 2.7 1.8 0.7 28.2 2. .4 0.1 1.6 2.. The lowest proportion of non- working population (student + 'others') is amo-ng the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (E).7 3.4 3.compared only to (A) and (B) groups.6 LOther Hindu 4.0 4.3 8.0 3.2 4.2 1. Ambalavasi 31. (B) the Christian sections (Syrian Catholics.2 1. (D) Muslims.3 6.6 5.9 5.5 F Scheduled Castes 1.2 40.2 37.4 6.2 (iv) Latin Ca- .7 36. the occupations concerned are by and large related to traditional crafts supplementary to agricultural production.3 3.2 6.ive nications fiBrahmin 46.1 1.4 3. However.5 7.4 All communities 27.9 (B) i (ii) Jacobites 13.and Labour sional Sale Farming Craft Port Allied and Ad.6 2.6 12.8 Source: Report on the Sample Survey on Socio-Economic Conditions of Castes/Communities in Kerala.9 5. Though about four per cent of workers among the Scheduled Castes have reported as self-employed.0 3.2 8. 11 Apr 2016 11:53:57 UTC All use subject to http://about.5 42.5 56.7 3.8 0.3 3.2 2.5 20.41. Bureau of Economics and Statistics. Catholics 8.2 0.2 37.4 2.4 8.3 LCatholics 26.1 (C) .8 35.4 4.8 (E) .4 8.4 33.2 48.2 3.8 41.Othetg Wages yer emplo.1 29.1 19.9 0.3 40.9 14.7 2.8 3.7 [Syrian Catholics 32.

4 10.9 19. transport and communication.0 26.4 4.1 38.3 25.2 1. Ambalavasi 0.8 1. continue to retain a considerable proportion of their earners in the same occupations as in the past. A community-wise distribution of earning persons in each major category of employment would. namely (I) technical.1 0. The next most advantageous position in acquiring remunera.0 26. On the other hand.Proporcal.4 15.1 2.3 13. and service occupations.1 0. Jacobites 22.6 32.Crafts Service.10.8 0.7 1.3 24.3 0.1 20.0 100.7 They have pioieered the process of land reclamation and developing plantations.ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY Annual Number February 1979 TABLE 9 : COMMUNITY-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF EARNERS IN EACH CATEGORY OF EMPLOYMENT.8 All communities 43.8 13.7 7.4 12.tive occupations is held by the Nairs who onco formed the militia and the tenantry of the land.Labour Admi.9 0.2 0.6 12. (V) service.3 0. TABLE 10: PERCENTAGE OF EARNERS ACCORDING TO MONTHLY INCOME.2 9.0 36. who have endured in the past the most severe forms of social and economic disabilities have poor representation in the more remunerative occupatiorls.2 6. as a community.4 20.0 38.9 27.6 6.3 0.2 0.6 (A)i Ambalavasi 25.2 LKammala 31.municanistra.1 associates of the Brahmin aristocracy. is closely similar to that of the Brabmins. and (VII) unskilled labour.9 r Mathomites 29.4 13.5 4.3 J(ii) Jacobites 6.3 16.3 1. are primarily agriculturists. Most of the Christians.5 (B).7 0.2 1 (i) Marthomites 3.0 0. They are also very much involved in farming.0 100.7 (E)4 ScheduledTribe 66. For instance.6 All communities 100. the interimediate caste Hindus (C) who have experienced social disability and have traditionally constituted a major section of the peasantry and artisan class.5 12.1 LLatin Catholic 49.7 0.Sale port and Labour Total Community sional and Allied Earners and Com. 11 Apr 2016 11:53:57 UTC All use subject to http://about.1 1.7 16. On the other hand. though traditionally Tnot averse to any particular occupation.1 0. 1968 Monthly Income (Rs) Community Below 50 50-100 100-200 More Than 200 rBrahmin 11.5 2.9 3.3 16.1 I SC and ST converts to Chris- Ltianity 62.2 2.0 Source: 1968 Survey Report.0 3. therefore.9 11.2 1.8 7.2 16.6 12. The employment pattern among the Ambalavasis. by investing their savings from trade and other acti- vities.Unskil. op cit.1 0.8 (C)t rEzhava 17.7 1.2 14.1 0. Scheduled Tribes and their converts to Christianity.6 16.7 0. commercial and farming activities.4 32.5 LKammala 0.7 0.2 0.3 0. technical and professional occupations.6 9.3 7.1 16.7 LNair 31. each of these communities munerative employment Is largely asso- has certain predetermined advantages which give themn a relative superiority over other communities.0 considerably from the onset of capitalist of the 19th century. The Muslims (D).3 39. 9 4.0 100. ties into various classes of activity status throws further light on the nature of Christian communities have comparatively larger proportions of earners in a little more insight into the caste-class their participation in specific occupations. and ing Trans. also made them competent to hold administrative. These communities have.4 23.6 17.2 7. (IV) crafts.0 21. peasants or traders during the 'pre-capitalist system have benefited rChristians (total) 25.5 1.2 farmers.0 32.7 11.2 7.5 1.0 30. the Brahmins who claim antiquity in landlordism.2 5.4 I Scheduled Tribe 0.3 0.3 (D) Muslim 10.5 0.8 4. (VI) agricultural and allied labour.0 17.1 28.1 4.6 15. op cit. the Scheduled Castes.3 1.1 25.5 11. traders and commercial people.jstor.8 4. KERALA 1968.8 29.1 0.9 5.4 19.tion tive rBrahmin 7.2 1.8 7.3 on Mon. This classification brings but the fact that the upper caste Hindu and the first three categories of occupations.4 17. Agri.1 3.4 r Scheduled Caste 62.5 4.41.0 100.1 1.5 12.9 (D) Muslim 39. (II) trade and sale.7 14.6 3. ciated with traditionally high caste s.0 100.tatus and occupational .1 Others 8.0 5. business composition in various occupations.8 r Scheduled Caste 2. however. who were tenant (A).1 4.5 17.3 0.8 (E)> SC and ST con- verts to Chrisia- lnity 0.1 (B).9 15.0.3 (iv) Latin Ca- ( tholics 3.8 9.2 0. Table 9 shows that better and more re- However.1 31.2 30.0 100. learning and intellectual pursuits have the largest proportion of earners in technical.3 27.6 0.0 23. (III) farming.1 26.1 18.1 .2 32. (iii) Syrian Catholics 8.8 25.0 100. In Table 8 the employment opportunities are grouped into seven broad categories.6 2.8 (C)g Ezhava 49.9 5. professional and administrative. professional and administrative careers.5 Syrian Catholics 28.7 12. achieved a higher level of economic advancement mainly because of their concentration in professional.1 30. Their representation in other occupations is nearly equal to the state average.1 tendencies in agriculture since the close LNair 26.cultural led tion of Profes.7 7.7 0.7 2.2 26. provide Sutlrce: 1968 Survey Report.6 5.5 2.5 0.0 2.6 9.6 3.4 29.2 2.6 31.4 0.3 28. It is also significant to find that the appro- priation of various salaried jobs under the government and quasi-government sectors has been largely disproportionate among the different communities despite well-defined legislative regulations for safeguarding the interests of 479 This content downloaded from 202.8 20.7 5. who were originally temple servants and () (11) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) (VII) Techni-Trade Farm.2 20. The spread of education which was much faster among them.

41. In Egypt a number of people who distributed leaflets criticising President Anwar Sadat's November 1977 visit to Israel were detained.'st. received no trial at all.6.en. and their political supporters that the subsequent land legislations during 1960. Bureau of Economics and Statistics. the earning pattern -of the various communities will provide information on their respective levels of economic attainments.2 and 45. is poorly represented in all categories of jobs. In Iran.3 and 67.persons thus detained were executed after trial or summarily kill- ed.Annual Number February 1979 ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY all social groups. which constitutes only a third of the state's population. The liquidation of the first Communist Ministry which had introduced the first Agrarian Relations Bill (1957). More than two-thirds of the 'gazetted'.9. The resistance to radical land reform was so high among the landlords. 2 TC' Varghese. which forms' almost one-fifth of the population. Political Persecution in West Asia and Africa ACCORDING to Amnesty International Report. in the last grade jobs of certain departments. thousands of people suspected of opposition to the authorities were kil!ed il a programme of "revolutionary terror". This is. In Uganda. are all part of the attempt to safeguard the interests of the landlord class. 1978. p 103. Vol 4. pp 449-457. government action against real or alleged conspiracies led to the imprisonment. alleged sympathisers of the Iraqi Baathist Party. For example. of suspected rivals of those in authority. caste-class identity is an inherent feature ir.4 (Sources: Census cf India 1931 cited in Table 1).4 and 20. The lowest among the castes are also the poorest earning groups and vice versa. op cit p 107 to 120. May 1976. National Sample Survey. the capitalists. although it has now a certain level of interpenetration on account of the influence of social movemenits. particularly that of the weaker sections (Harijans and Other Backward Communities). political imprisonment for similar reasons occurred in a number of other African states. "Education and Economic Chance in Kerala". The muslim community. socio-economic relations in Kerala. new detention orders continued to be issued ard more than a thousand convicted political prisoners remained imprisoned. 6 The Census of India. Hundreds of people were arrested in Tunisia for trade union activities. Equatorial Guinea.2 and 78. the dominant communal organisations.5. alleged Communist Party members were executed as were suspected Kurdish dissidents.9 In short. Centre for Development Studies. 4 The propertied class has always heen resorting to judicial and political means to retain their land possessions. Palestinians were convicted or detained without trial by Israel for their critical attitude toward Israel's presence in the Occupied Territories rather than for violent activities.8 in this regard.4 and 53. 1966-67". The Ezhava and other Hindu communities in this group have managed to obtain a fairly good number of jobs in the 'non-gazetted' and last grade' services. Vol II. State. In Ethiopia. the land sales and transfers during the sixties (see "Land Reforms Survey in Kerala. shows! that the forward communities hold the maximum number of jobs. However. "Agrarian Change and Economic Consequences: Land Tenures in Kerala 18501960". political forces and administrative reforms. In South Africa. Trivandrum 1968).in Congo. Ezhavas 13. reached "massacre proportions". Somalia and Zaire . of. the intervention of these factors in the reorganisation process does not radically alter the caste-class association. 1978 in many countries of West Asia and North Africa political prisoners frequently had no access to fair trial and.8. other Hindu 13. members of the Lango and Acholi tribes were killed because of their tribal origin. The landlords have been using communal organisations and political pressures to obviate the possibility of losing land rights. while in Algeria former President Ahmed Ben Bella spent his 13th year under house arrest. by far the greatest number of human rights violations in the area related to issues not at the center of world attention. 1970. p 107 to 120.4. In Rhodesia/Zimbabwe detention without trial remained the most common form of imprisonment..omic Backwardness of Harijans in Kerala" in Social . The latest available information (1968). 8 Government of Kerala. and the averages for all communities 20. "Backward Classes Reservation Commission Report". In Syria. often without trial. "Econ. Nair 51. their proportion in the total population) and the disparity is most significant in the case of appointments in the 'gazetted' category. Notes 1 The proportions of households re-. porting ownership of wet and dry lands among the various communities are respectively: Brabmins 42.9. however. Trivandrum. INCOME D?sTiBUrIoN Finally.ome levels are closely associated with caste hierarchy. perhap. at times. 7 T C Varghese. Although 700 of 950 known detainees were released in early 1978. etc. In some cases . Trivandrum. people in leftwing and religious opposition alike were imprisoned.3 and 59.8 and 51. The representation of Harijans and their converts to Christianity is' the lowest in all categories of salaried jobs except. detention without trial and banishment remained common in political cases. 1964 and 1969 were diluted considerably in respect of provisions affecting their interests. the natural culmination persistent disparity in the distribution of land-holding education and employment opportunities.3 on Mon. the slow process of disposal of land disputes. The Christian sections have a satisfactory representation in all categories of jobs. Marxists and mnembers of the Muslim Brotherhood were imprisoned. where the practice of murder by seciirity forces had. No 215. Table 10 con- firms that inc. Some examples: In Iraq. The representation of the other Backward Communities in salaried jobs has not been quite close to the 'norm' (i e. 5 PR Gopinathan Nair. However.. Syrian Christians 26. 9 P Sivanandan. Kerala Vol I. The white minority governments of southern Africa continued to imprison suspected suporters of various black nationaiist movements. Kerala Vol II Part V A and Part II B (i) 1961 and 1971 Series I India Paper 1 of 1975. 3 Tables on Land-holdings.jstor.10. Elsewhere in Africa. 480 This content downloaded from 202. many of whose relatives were also imprisoned. 11 Apr 2016 11:53:57 UTC All use subject to http://about. -over one-half of the 'non- gazetted' and nearly half of the 'last grade' jobs are held by members of this group alone. In Morocco people of Saharan origin remained in detention on account of their ethnic origin. Muslims 20.