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Effect of temperature on tensile properties of
HDPE pipe material
Article in Plastics Rubber and Composites · June 2006
DOI: 10.1179/174328906X103178

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Tensile tests are performed on dog bone type ASTM standard specimens.3d 21/7/06 12:34:45 The Charlesworth Group. The modulus of elasticity varied in the same fashion as the yield strength. Merah et al. The temperature effect on the tensile properties of PE-100 pipe material is compared with that of CPVC and PVC pipe materials. the yield strength sys.5 the tensile strength of HDPE pressure pipe material is shown to decrease from 21 MPa at 23uC to 10 MPa at 60uC. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. Bazoune The properties that make plastic of direct interest to designers and engineers are its good strength to weight ratio.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) 2006 VOL 35 NO 4 1 . Khan and A. however. Rubber and Composites Plastics. Saudi Arabia *Corresponding author.sa ß 2006 Institute of Materials. CPVC. According to Bond. whereas elongation at break Mechanical Engineering Department. They have shown that the mechanical properties of drawn polymers are directly related to the thermal expansion and have used this approach to show the temperature dependence of Young’s modulus and yield stress over a wide temperature range. water. the modulus of elasticity E and the melting temperature Tm increase with density while the elongation %El and toughness decrease.3 have investigated the effect of temperatures ranging from 210 to 70uC on the mechanical properties of CPVC.4 investigated the thermal and mechanical properties of drawn polymers over a wide temperature range. Temperature effect.edu. Minerals and Mining Published by Maney on behalf of the Institute Received 19 November 2005. HDPE. The yield strain.2 have reported effects of strain rate and temperature on fracture behaviour of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) polymer. They found that stress at break decreased steadily with increasing temperature. all polymers at temperatures significantly below their glass transition temperatures Tg undergo brittle fracture. showed a slight increase in this temperature range. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 - revealed a maximum between 80 and 90uC and a minimum between 130 and 170uC. Hitt and Gilbert1 have studied the tensile properties of PVC at temperatures ranging from 23 to 180uC. The results showed that the fracture behaviour of TPX polymer was highly dependent on cross-head rate and temperature. 31261. Merah*. used in comparable applications. The present work addresses the effect of temperatures ranging from 210 to 70uC on the tensile properties of high density polyethylene PE-100 pipe material. Saghir. Yield stress. They reported that Young’s modulus and yield stress decrease with increasing temperature. polymers usually yield and undergo plastic deformation as the modulus of elasticity decreases.1179/174328906X103178 Plastics. Rubber and Composites prc2326. The average yield strength decreased linearly from 32 to 9 MPa when the temperature is increased from 210 to 70uC. They used polyethylene tetraphthalte (PET).Effect of temperature on tensile properties of HDPE pipe material N. Bronnikov et al. F. They found that the yield strength and elastic modulus decreased linearly with temperature. modulus of elasticity and yield strain in all these materials. but below Tg. Tensile properties. In general. Ye et al. owing to the dependence of mechanical properties on a large variety of parameters and mainly Rev 7. Other researchers6. Yield strain Introduction Polyethylene comes in three different general grades: low density polyethylene (LDPE). In the region above the brittle fracture regime. Yield stress and modulus of elasticity are found to decrease linearly with temperature. medium density polyethylene (MDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). Therefore. low manufacturing and installation costs and high durability. nylon 6 and nylon 610 for analysis. The mechanical properties of high density polyethylene like all polymers are very sensitive to service temperature. Dhahran. The deformation at room and high temperatures is accompanied by considerable necking. sewage and wastewater distribution systems. The strength of polymers is known to be sensitive to temperature and this generally limits their use under service temperatures lower than the glass transition temperature. accepted 30 June 2006 DOI 10. In general. a similar effect was observed on yield stress. In general. Modulus of elasticity. Brittle fracture occurred at temperatures below room temperature while ductile fracture occurred at room temperature and temperatures above. Z. Medium density polyethylene and more and more higher density polyethylene are being extensively used for gas. Ductile fracture is observed to be the controlling failure mechanism at all the temperatures of interest. Keywords: Polyethylene.7 have also found that the increase in temperature leads to a drastic decrease in polymer strength and stiffness. email nesar@kfupm. The increase in density results in the variation of material properties.

35 23.40 15. modulus of elasticity and yield strain with temperature are studied.61 31. 0.30 665. the accurate determination of mechanical properties of polymers with respect to environment and material variables is very important.50 392.2%) were also added to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the pipes. The present paper addresses the temperature effects on the mechanical properties of PE-100 pipe material. The yield strength is defined here as the true stress at the maximum load and the modulus of elasticity is obtained from the initial linear portion of the stress–strain (elongation) curve. MPa Modulus of elasticity. 1.9 Tensile loading was performed in the direction perpendicular to the extrusion direction to obtain the material resistance to hoop stress created by internal pressure. 50 and 70uC and at a strain rate of 661024 s21.45 10.25 925.8 Temperature setting and exposure time were carefully monitored to obtain the same heating history for all the specimens. Effects of temperature on tensile properties of HDPE pipe materials the temperature. Results and discussion Temperature effects on stress–strain curves Load–elongation curves were obtained using a PC interfaced with the testing frame. the rings were straightened in a specially designed mould. Rings were cut from the pipe section and slit into two halves. The results in terms of yield stress and modulus of elasticity.49 30. 40.45 399. 23. The effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of HDPE is also compared with that of CPVC and PVC materials used in piping systems for similar applications. Rubber and Composites 2006 VOL 35 NO 1 Load–elongation curves for HDPE at different temperatures load–elongation curves are illustrated in Fig. Rubber and Composites prc2326.05 407.55 14. An Instron 8501 material testing frame was used for testing (load capacity ¡100 kN). MPa 32.5 1035.79 32.09 7. During flattening. After heating for y60 min at 130uC in an electric oven.30 . Environmental chambers with an accuracy of ¡1uC were used for tests in non-ambient conditions.95 287.00 923.69 16.65 924. The typical engineering stress–elongation curves developed from the load–elongation results at each Table 1 Results of monotonic tests performed on HDPE specimens Serial no. Additives such as carbon (.56 670. 50 and 70uC.10 667. The machine is equipped with a hydraulically actuated self-aligning gripping system. 40.35 289.00 14. This range encompasses the temperatures at which this type of pipes may be used in the different areas of the world. typical tensile stress at yield 23 MPa). It can be seen that except for tests at 70uC. Variations of the mechanical properties such as yield stress. The mechanical properties such as yield strength and elastic modulus are usually given as a range for plastics and usually only at room temperature.Merah et al.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) Yield strength. 210uC 1 2 Average 0uC 3 4 5 Average 23uC 6 7 Average 40uC 8 9 Average 50uC 8 9 Average 70uC 10 11 12 Average 4 Plastics.3d 21/7/06 12:34:46 The Charlesworth Group.85 23. Representative 2 Plastics. The specimens for tensile tests were machined from the straightened plates according to the ASTM D638 Standard method of test for tensile properties of plastics.44 8.99 223.38 291. Experimental procedure The specimens for tensile testing were prepared from commercially available 4 inch (100 mm) Class V PE-100 pressure pipes manufactured by extrusion by a local company in Saudi Arabia (typical compound density 960 kg m23.27 23. The average value of the yield strength obtained at 23uC is very close to the typical value reported by the pipe manufacturer. the pressure was carefully applied to the material to avoid compressing the plate after flattening and to conserve the original thickness. the scatter in the values of yield strength and modulus of elasticity is minimal.70 16. The deformation was measured by an Instron clip-on extensometer with a gauge length of 200 mm.25 29.00 30. it is difficult for the designer to select a certain material without knowing all these parameters. The results obtained from these tests are presented and discussed in the following sections. specially machined inserts were used during the tests. The effect of temperature is investigated by performing tensile tests at 210. in different test conditions are provided in Table 1. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 - Rev 7. Therefore. following the procedure described by Irfan.10 201.15 220.65 9.06 237.21 14. Two to three tests were performed at each of the temperatures 210. 23. It can be seen that the stiffness of the material as well as the load bearing capacity decreased with increasing test temperature. This is an indication that the process of specimen preparation described above did not result in altering the mechanical properties of the pipe material. along with their average values.45 30. To ensure the vertical alignment of the specimen. 0.20 1032 1038.

2. 2 that ductile fracture occurs with a definite yield point characterised by a maximum in the stress–strain curve. The variation of E with absolute temperature T for HDPE pipe material can be expressed Plastics. the yield strength sys for PVC and CPVC decreases at a faster rate than that for HDPE. Rubber and Composites prc2326. the yield strength varies linearly with temperature. Ref.3d 21/7/06 12:34:49 The Charlesworth Group. after a sufficient amount of strain. It can be observed that in the present temperature range. 5 for HDPE.7 for PVC and Merah et al. at all the temperatures.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) (1) 2006 VOL 35 NO 4 . the slope of the stress–strain curve begins to increase after reaching a minimum stress value. The variation of modulus of elasticity E as a function of absolute temperature for HDPE is shown in Fig. 3 for CPVC pipefitting material are also shown in Fig.Merah et al. It is evident in Fig. both PVC and CPVC have higher strength than HDPE at all temperatures. Equation (1) can be used to develop temperature de-rating factors for the present HDPE material at any service temperature within the specified range. V is the activation volume also known as the Eyring flow volume. The variation of temperature is shown to have an even higher effect on the yield strength of PVC where the slope of the regression line has a value of more than twice that for HDPE. usually . DH is the change in enthalpy and Ae is a material constant. 4. 7 for PVC and Ref.3 for CPVC. 2 Representative stress–%elongation curves for HDPE at different temperatures Effects of temperature on tensile properties of HDPE pipe materials 4 Effects of temperature on modulus of elasticity Yield stress and modulus of elasticity temperature are illustrated in Fig. 3 Effect of temperature on yield stress The average values of yield strength sys are plotted against absolute temperature T in Fig. which is usually associated with the crazing phenomenon. The pipe material undergoes plastic deformation. 3. E also decreases linearly with increasing temperature. A considerable amount of plastic deformation. It can be seen that in the range 263 to 343 K (210 to 70uC). The linear dependence obtained in the present study is similar to that reported by Povolo et al. The effect of temperature on the main tensile properties such as yield strength. The values of sys reported in Ref. The slope of the regression line in this temperature range has a value of 20. For tests conducted at constant strain rates. the specimens did not break and the test was interrupted after a considerable amount of elongation was produced. e is the strain rate. Rubber and Composites Plastics. 3 .5 MPa as the temperature is increased from 210 to 70uC. yield strain and elastic modulus is discussed in detail in the following sections. illustrated in the hump. It should be noted here that at 23uC and higher temperatures. For this set of results.99. This is produced by the alignment of HDPE chains in the strain direction resulting in material strain hardening.200%.5 times that of HDPE. the above model predicts a linear relationship between yield strength and temperature.305. The deformation after the yield point at 210 and 0uC is mainly by shear yielding while at 23uC and above. can also be evidently observed. The temperature sensitivity of the strengths of PVC and CPVC materials is more than that of HDPE. 3 for comparison purposes. the yield strength drops from y32 to 7. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 - Rev 7. In the cases of 0 to 70uC. deformation is by shear yielding and cold drawing. The slope of the curve continues on increasing until the plastically deformed sample eventually breaks. with a linear correlation coefficient of 0. a reduction in tensile strength and an enhancement of ductility. much similar to what was observed with sys. As expected. The linear dependence of yield stress on temperature for HDPE can be expressed as sys ~112:85  0:305T 263 KƒTƒ343 K This behaviour falls in line with Eyring’s theory of viscosity expressed in its simplest form as   DH R e sys ~ z ln T (2) V V Ae where R is the universal gas constant. The slope of the regression line for CPVC is y1. Several features of these curves are worth noting: increasing the temperature produces a decrease in elastic modulus.

50 and 70uC). The stiffness of PVC.e. He also found that the exponent n had a unique value of 1. 4. Effects of temperature on tensile properties of HDPE pipe materials 5 Relationship between t and G for HDPE as 6 Variation of yield strain with temperature for HDPE E(T)~3912:8{11T (3) A comparison of the variation of E for HDPE with that for CPVC (Ref. which leads to the conclusion that the variation of temperature has a similar effect on the stiffness of these two materials. The line drawn on the graph has a slope of 0. 4 Plastics. 12).975. Argon and Bessonov10 derived the analytical relationships between elastic modulus and yield strength over a wide temperature range.3 for PVC and CPVC respectively. The yield strain remains fairly constant for the temperature range studied. Figure 5 is a log–log plot according to equation (4) for the values of t and G obtained for HDPE tested over the temperature range of 210 to 70uC. The Poisson’s ratio was assumed constant. 3) and PVC (Ref. however.66. i. Variation of temperature has a limited effect on the yield strain of HDPE. 5. 7) with absolute temperature is also shown in Fig. 6. The yield strain (denoted by ey) is defined as the ratio of yield stress to modulus of elasticity. the yield strength for HDPE decreases at a slower rate than that for PVC and CPVC.7 and Merah et al. An analysis of these curves reveals that the regression lines for HDPE and CPVC seem to be parallel to each other. 2. decreases at a faster rate than that of HDPE and CPVC. Hence. ey5sys/E. over the temperature range of interest. 4. The yield stress and elastic modulus decrease linearly with temperature.Merah et al. Rubber and Composites prc2326.3 have also used Kitagawa’s model in their study of CPVC and reported the value of exponent n equal to 1.90 t(T)~ 4 Plastics. Shear stress and shear modulus are related by a Kitagawa power law with an exponent of 0. Yield strain Figure 6 shows the variation of yield strain with temperature.46 (Ref. 23. The tensile modulus and yield strength are converted into the corresponding shear modulus and shear yield strength for using Kitagawa’s relationship. equal to 0. 0. The value of slope is less than that reported for semicrystalline polymers because of the presence of additives in the HDPE pipe material chosen for testing. any variable that affects elastic modulus will also affect the yield strength.3d 21/7/06 12:34:51 The Charlesworth Group.69. This can be performed using the following equations of solid mechanics G(T)~ E(T) 2ð1znÞ (5) sys (T) (6) 31=2 where n is the Poisson’s ratio. and n is a temperature independent exponent. Kitagawa11 has expanded and generalised Argon’s theory to arrive at a relationship between shear stress t and shear modulus G which can be represented by a power law relationship of the form   To t To G n ~ (4) Tto TGo where To is the reference temperature.659 and all the points fall very close to this line with a coefficient of regression of 0. The temperature dependence of HDPE strength is lower than that of PVC and CPVC. The following conclusions are obtained from the analysis of tensile test results. Ductile fracture occurred at all the temperatures.63 for all amorphous polymers and a value between 0. Merah et al. 40. The variation of temperature has a similar effect on the stiffness of HDPE and CPVC. the values to and Go are of shear yield stress and shear modulus at some To (conveniently taken as the ambient temperature). Similar results were obtained by Povolo et al. 1. 3. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 - Rev 7. Acknowledgement The authors acknowledge the support of the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. the regression line shown in the graph has a slope of 261024. These theories show excellent agreement with Argon’s experimental results but their analytical form is too complex to be applied to practical situations.80 and 0. Relationship between elastic modulus and yield strength Elastic modulus and yield strength are linearly related to each other. Kitagawa in agreement with Argon showed that a relationship of the form of equation (4) held over a wide range of temperatures for most polymers. Rubber and Composites 2006 VOL 35 NO for semicrystalline polymers. Conclusions The effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of high density polyethylene PE-100 pipe material was studied by performing a number of tensile tests at six different temperatures (210.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) .

1204–1208. Ye. S. Rubber and Composites prc2326. N. 12.. L. Compos. Yuan and Y.Merah et al. Sci. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 - Rev 7.3d 21/7/06 12:34:52 The Charlesworth Group. M. C. Eng. 2. Povolo. Khan: J. I. Kitagawa: J.. Polym. Vettegren and S. W. 34. A. Edn. 17. 19. DIPRA. ASTM. USA. 9. W. Ya Frenkel: Polym. References < 1. Sci. Bessonov: Polym. 2003. 1998. Philadelphia. F. Eng. V. 1601– 1611.. PA. Bonds: ‘Ductile iron pipe versus HDPE pipe’. 1079–1090. (6). Mater.-T. Grellmann and S. Merah.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) 2006 VOL 35 NO 4 5 . Polym. 5. 1977. 64. 2000. V. 174–182.. Sci. 1257–1267. 142. 6.. Rubber and Composites Plastics. 3. Polym. Argon and M. D.goodfellow. Gilbert: Mater. 830–836. Saudi Arabia. Phys. S. 15. G. (3). MSc thesis. Schwartz and E. Mai: Polym. M. 1996.-W. M..com Plastics. (6). 8. 4. 11. Hermida: J. Technol.. 8. M. Polym. Process. Sci. Effects of temperature on tensile properties of HDPE pipe materials 7. 1992. Dhahran. ASTM Designation D638–94b.. 2000. Bronnikov. 3. Sci. Irfan-ul-Haq: ‘Crack propagation in CPVC at different temperatures’. 1997. ‘Standard test method for tensile properties of plastics’. R. (17). Technol. I. 739–744. (1). 1992. J. Seidler: J. B. 10. Irfan-ul-Haq and Z. Hitt and M. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. www. Che. Sci. 1997. 247–255.

3.Authors Queries Journal: Plastics. 3 for CPVC) described here is inconsistent with that in the key box of Fig. Plastics. Please check if the change is ok. 7 for PVC and Ref. Rubber and Composites prc2326. Rubber and Composites Paper: 2326 Title: Effect of temperature on tensile properties of HDPE pipe material Dear Author During the preparation of your manuscript for publication. please provide the location of the organisation. Wakefield +44(0)1924 369598 - Rev 7. the questions listed below have arisen. Many thanks for your assistance Query Reference Query Remarks 1 Author: the information (Ref.3d 21/7/06 12:34:52 The Charlesworth Group. 5 for HDPE.51n/W (Jan 20 2003) . 2 Author: in Ref. Ref. 5. Please attend to these matters and return this form with your proof.