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Pigments- facilitate the capture of wave

length of light in the visible light range. It


absorbs light.
Plants appeared green and yellow
because they reflect the green and
yellow wavelengths of light. Red and blue
wavelengths were absorbed by these
pigments and provide energy.
Photoautotroph gather energy directly
from the light
Heterotrophs take in organic molecules
and respire them, obtaining energy
available in them.
Photosynthesis is the combination of
carbon dioxide and water to form
carbohydrate. It also converts light
energy to chemical energy.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Phosphate (NADPH) involve in the
endergonic reaction.
Guanosine triphosphate- also carries
high-energy phosphate bonds.
ATPs are recycled and reuse repeatedly.
ATP is converted to ADP and phosphate
by metabolic reactions, but phosphate
can be reattached with a high-energy
bond by the reactions of either
photosynthesis or respiration.
3 methods by which ADP can be
phosphorylated to ATP.
Photophosphorylation involves light
nergy in photosynthesis; has the necessary
igments and organelles.
Substrate-level phosphorylation respire
ome of the high-energy compounds that
hey have consumed as food or imported by
hloem. These high-energy compounds
orce their phosphate onto ADP, making ATP
Oxidative Phosphorylation - occurs in
istinct site within the cell, and each
aptures energy from distinct types of

Oxidized- an atom does not carry as


many as electrons as it could.
Oxidation Reaction- increases the
positive charge
Reduced- electrons added to an atom
* most compounds in organism are in
the reduced state
Reduction Reaction- reduces the positive
charge on an atom
Reducing power- ability to force
electrons onto compounds.
Reducing agent- has a powerful
tendency to place electrons onto other
molecules, reducing those molecules
and becoming oxidized themselves. (i.e
NADPH and NADH)
Oxidation-reduction reaction or redox
reaction
-full reaction
Oxidizing agent- oxidizes the material
they react with. (i.e NAD+ and NADP+)
*an optimum solution for moving and
handling reducing power is to use small
molecules that are semistable and
mobile:
Nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide (NAD+) and
nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide phosphate
(NADP+) they can pick up
a pair of electrons and a
proton, thereby becoming
reduced to NADH and
NADPH. Then the proton
released and NAD+ or
NADP+ generated.
Redox potential- tendency to accept or
donate electrons varies greatly
*other electron carriers:
Cytochromes small
proteins that contains

Carbon Dioxide and water are stable and


contain little chemical energy.
Carbohydrates form a good means of
storing energy because all reactions
leading to carbohydrate breakdown have
high energy-of-activation barriers. It is
stable and chemically unreactive.
Water- electron source
Light- energy source
Chemical reaction of photosynthesis
occurs within plants cells in specialized
structures known as chloroplast.
Thylakoids- within the chloroplast; are
small dislike structures
- Where light-dependent reaction
(where conversion of light to
chemical energy is initiated;
create the intermediates ATP and
NADPH)
- Contains pairs of photosystems.
Stroma- fluid field space
- where Calvin cycle (reaction which
synthesized glucose) occurs
- Photosystems (contains network of
accessory pigment molecules and
chlorophyll)
- Photosynthetic unit- granule where
all pigments and carriers that work
together are packed
- Photosystem II- chlorophyll b is
present at level almost equal to
chlorophyll A. It is a mechanism that
reduces P700. It can be best
describe by working backward from
photosystem I.
*chlorophyll a, the molecules that
absorb the proton of light from

xergonic reaction.
*Photophosphorylation occurs only in
chloroplasts in light
* Substrate-level and Oxidative occur in
all parts of plant at all times.
passes the energized electrons to a
series of protein located on the
thylakoid membrane.
*Q- where plastoquinone receives
electron, which receives electron
from phaeophytin.
*Phaeophytin- chlorophyll a that does
not contain a magnesium atom.
Oxidized when chlorophyll a (P680)
absorbs light and is activated.
*electrons lost by photosystem II
replace by photolysis (involve the
oxidation of H2O, producing 2
electron and oxygen gas)
*as electron pass through the electron
transport chain, the energy from the
electron is used to pump hydrogen
ions from the stroma to the thylakoid,
creating concentration gradient)
*the low energy electron leaving
PHOTOSYSTEM II are shuttered to
PHOTOSYSTEM I, where low energy
electrons are reenergized and pass
to electron transport chain where
they are use to reduce the electron
carrier (NADP+ to NADPH)
- Photosystem I- little chlorophyll b
*Reaction center- structure that
contains a pair of special molecules
of chlorophyll a (700) whose
properties differ from all other
molecules of chlorophyll A in the unit.

cofactor,heme, which holds


an iron atom. They are
integral part of chloroplasts
thylakoids membranes.
Plastoquinones transport
electrons over short
distances within a
membrane.
Plastocyanin- a small protein
that carries electrons on a
metal atom (copper)

Chlorophyll doesnt use high-energy


quanta
because they have too much energy.
Fluorescence- released of light by a
pigment
Absorption spectrum- graph that shows
which wavelengths are most strongly
absorbed by a pigment.
Action spectrum- shows which
wavelengths are most effective at
powering a photochemical process
Accessory pigments- molecules that
strongly absorb wavelengths not
absorbed by chlorophyllA
-chlorophyll b and carotenoids
Resonance- allows chlorophyll b to
absorb wavelengths that chlorophyll a
would miss and then transfer the
energy to chlorophyll a for use in
chemical reaction
Carotenoids- poor type of resonance

plastocyanin.
* Plastocyanin receives new electron
from a complex of cytochrome
molecules (Cytochrome b6/f
complex,which in turn gets an
electron from a molecule of
plastoquinone)
* Reaction centre chlorophyll
molecule,

*Fx- electron acceptor


* Ferrodoxin- located in the thylakoid
membrane. They are small protein.
Stroma reactions ATP and NADPH
interact with carbon dioxide and
produce carbohydrate
Electromagnetic radiation spectrumemcompasses gamma rays, ...
Quanta/ Photons set of waves
Short WV- large amount of energy in
each quanta
Long WV small amount
Chlorophyll a- absorbs some red and
blue light
- Essential photosynthetic pigment in
all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria