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MEKANIKA BATUAN (ROCK MECHANISM)

Dr. La Hamimu, S.Si., M.T

SCIENCES CLOSED TO ROCK MECHANICS

PHYSICS/MECHANICS

+
GEOLOGY/(ROCK,
CLIMATOLOGY)

ROCK
MECHANICS

KEUNIKAN GEOLOGI UMUM INDONESIA


There are three interesting geology phenomena of Indonesia. First, about 80 - 90% of Indonesian land is
covered by quarter sediment namely, alluvial, clastic, and pyroclastic sediments resulted from volcano
activities, as well as trass alluvial, and soils resulted from rock weathering. Second, the rock formation in
Indonesia is very young, and third there are many tectonic activities taking place in Indonesia.
The young rock formation apparently should have not been well compacted, and this particular rock
formation has a very wide range rock types. This rock type is seemingly not quite dense, and as a results
the porosity is relatively higher than that of old rock formation.
About 13% - 17% of the active volcanoes in the world are located in the Indonesian archipelago and
there are 3 volcanoes magmatic belts, stretching from Sumatra to Irian Jaya. As far as the rock type is
concerned, sedimentary rock and rock formation formed from volcanic activities are dominant in
Indonesia.
Regarding the tectonic activities, it should be borne in mind that there are three tectonic plates i.e.,
Eurasia - Australia - Indian Pacific Ocean, intersect each other in Indonesia. Thus, it is not unusual if
strong and many tectonic activities take place in Indonesia. As a matter of fact, about one tenth of earth
- quakes in the world happens in Indonesia. The earth - quakes normally cause tension zones that
ultimately create unstable zones.

GENERAL GEOLOGY OF INDONESIA


At least 80 - 90% Indonesian land is covered by quarter sediment & the rock formation is very young
There are many tectonic activities occurring in Indonesia
The young rock formation have not been well compacted, & has a very wide range rock types; not quite
dense, high porosity
At Least 13% - 17% of the active volcanoes in the world are located in Indonesian archipelago

3 volcano magmatic belts: stretching from Sumatra to West Papua & mineral belts also relatively
occupying the same magmatic belts
High rainfall 3000 - 4000 mm & mostly in Sumatra, Kalimantan & Java
A combination of high rainfall, ambient temperature & intensity of ultraviolet rays over a year period
causes chemical weathering occur frequently, & this turns hard rock formation into so-called soft rock
Rapid mining development coupled with soft rock behaviour lead to Geomechanical or rock
engineering problems

IKLIM & CUACA


Indonesian archipelago is located within the Equator and between Asia and Australia
continents and surrounded by Pacific and Indian oceans. As a result of this unique condition
Indonesia has a very high rainfall rate. This happens mostly in the areas of Sumatra,
Kalimantan, west Java, and the average annual rainfall rate being 3000 - 4000 mm.

Beside the high rainfall rate, it can be noted as well that the ambient temperature and
intensity of ultraviolet ray over a year period are relatively high. These facts of course cause a
great contribution toward the weathering process, particularly the chemical weathering.
Hence, it is not surprising when rock changing takes place frequently.
This weathering process would therefore turn hard rock formation into so called soft rock
formation. Laterite and monmorilonite clay is the typical materials resulted from weathering
process. And, monmorilonite clay is the most interesting one, because once it gets wet it will
expand very quickly and consequently influence the deformation behaviour.

DEFINISI BATUAN

DEFINISI BATUAN
MENURUT GEOLOGIWAN
Batuan adalah susunan mineral dan bahan organis yang bersatu
membentuk kulit bumi.
Batuan adalah semua material yang membentuk kulit bumi yang
dibagi atas :
1. Batuan yang terkonsolidasi (consolidated rock).
2. Batuan yang tidak terkonsolidasi (unconsolidated rock).

KLASIFIKASI GEOLOGI BATUAN


Batuan Beku (igneous rocks)
Batuan Sedimen (sedimentary rocks)
Batuan Malihan atau metamorf
(metamorphic rocks)

PROSES PEMBENTUKAN BERBAGAII JENIS BATUAN

PROSES PEMBENTUKAN
BATUAN BEKU

PROSES PEMBENTUKAN
BATUAN METAMORPHIC

PROSES PEMBENTUKAN
BATUAN SEDIMENTS

BERBAGAI JENIS BATUAN PENTING DALAM


REKAYASA BATUAN

PENGARUH GEOLOGI BATUAN TERHADAP


REKAYASA BATUAN-1
Out of the three generic categories of rocks, metamorphic rocks exhibit highest degree
of anisotropy [1].

Segregation of constituent minerals, in response to high pressure and temperature


gradients, is associated with tectonic evolution and development of layers of
contrasting mineralogical assemblages.
Rocks flow and recrystallize under new tectonic stresses to form weak foliation planes.
Such planes of weakness (i.e. schistosity) affect the strength and deformational
behaviors of rocks with orientation to the applied stresses. Irrespective of the size of
the engineering projects, either dealing with inherent intact rock anisotropy from an
exploratory borehole or induced rock anisotropy due to in situ fracturing [1], where
stability of large rock mass is concerned, evaluation of intact rock anisotropy in terms of
strength and modulus is inevitable.

PENGARUH GEOLOGI BATUAN TERHADAP


REKAYASA BATUAN-2
Prediction of the anisotropic responses of strength and deformation of rocks
involves study of specimens at different orientation angles, b (the angle
between the major principal stress direction and the foliation plane).
Anisotropy, which is characteristic of metamorphic rocks such as schists, is due
to a process of metamorphic differentiation.
Preferred orientation of minerals like mica and chlorite in response to tectonic
stresses makes schistose rocks foliated.
As a result their engineering properties vary with the direction of loading.

JENIS STRUKTUR BATUAN

DEFINISI BATUAN
MENURUT TEKNIK SIPIL - GEOTEKNIK
Istilah batuan hanya untuk formasi yang keras dan padat dari kulit
bumi.
Batuan adalah suatu bahan yang keras dan koheren atau yang telah
terkonsolidasi dan tidak dapat digali dengan cara biasa, misalnya
dengan cangkul dan belincong.

DEFINISI BATUAN MENURUT TALOBRE


Menurut Talobre, orang yang pertama kali memperkenalkan
Mekanika Batuan di Perancis pada tahun 1948, batuan
adalah material yang membentuk kulit bumi termasuk
fluida yang berada didalamnya (seperti air, minyak dan lainlain).

DEFINISI BATUAN MENURUT ASTM


(AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS)
Batuan adalah suatu bahan yang terdiri dari mineral padat (solid)
berupa massa yang berukuran besar ataupun berupa fragmenfragmen.

DEFINISI BATUAN MENURUT UMUM

Batuan adalah campuran dari satu atau lebih mineral yang berbeda,
tidak mempunyai komposisi kimia tetap.

Batuan tidak sama dengan tanah. Tanah dikenal sebagai material


yang mobile, rapuh dan letaknya dekat dengan permukaan bumi

KOMPOSISI BATUAN
MINERAL

MINERAL

SiO2

59,8

Fe

3,39

Al2O

14,9

Na2O

3,25

CaO

4,9

K2O

2,98

MgO

3,7

Fe2O3

2,69

H2O

2,02

Batuan terdiri dari batuan padat


baik berupa kristal maupun yang
tidak mempunyai bentuk tertentu
dan bagian kosong seperti poripori, fissure, crack, joint, dll.

DEFINISI SOFT ROCK


There are many terms used to describe materials being considered as soft rock (Johnston, 1991, Fairhurst, 1993 and
Vutukuri & Katsuyama, 1994). However, the following term rocks which are susceptible to physical and chemical
weathering resulting in such effects as deterioration in strength, slaking, squeezing and swelling may be
appropriate.
Unlike the hard rock properties, which are mainly controlled by discontinuities, a considerably close relationship is
observed between the properties, determined for rock and those determined for rock masses. Accordingly, the
behaviour of the ground composed of such soft rock and weak rock largely depends upon the physical and
mechanical properties of rock elements. Hence, it is not unusual that rock-engineering problems involving soft
rocks have traditionally been solved by extrapolating from the historically separate technologies of either soil
mechanics or rock mechanics. For example, when soft rock have been encountered in an open pit or an
underground mines, it has usually been a specialist of rock mechanics who has sought a solution. Consequently, the
technology applied has usually involved the empirical hard rock approached. This approach has been much
concerned with the defects within the rock mass rather than the rock material it self.
As mentioned earlier, the descriptor soft would appear to be far more appropriate as it applies to the intact rock
material. The intact rock material is supposedly independent of any discontinuities that may or may not influence
its engineering behaviour. The most well known intact rock classification scheme frequently used by geomechanics
engineers is the one from the ISRM (Brown, 1981).

DEFINISI SOFT ROCK


Considering the intact rock classification, it is therefore of importance to set up a guideline to define the
range of soft rock in term of strength. The Rock Mass Classifications proposed by Bieniawski (1973) and
Barton et al (1974) implied that intact rock that is considered as very weak corresponds to the unconfined
compressive strength (UCS = sc) of less than 25 MPa and the RQD is less than 25% respectively. Furthermore,
Francis (1994) claims that weak rock is associated with the UCS (sc), Youngs Modulus (E) and Poissons Ratio
(n) of < 5 MPa, < 1.5 GPa and > 0.25 respectively. According to Johnston (1991) and Vutukuri and Katsuyama
(1994) the UCS of soft rocks is in the range of 0.25 25 MPa and less than 20 MPa respectively. Thus, it can be
said if any intact rock processing the UCS of less than 25 MPa can be regarded as soft rocks.
The behaviour of Ombilin claystone and Tennessee marble (Kramadibrata, 1999 and Wawersik & Fairhurst,
1970) during triaxial tests is illustrated in Figure 6. The results of claystone, for low confining pressure,
demonstrate a typical of overconsolidated behaviour with relatively brittle stress strain curves and well
defined failure planes as well as degree of dilatancy. As the confining pressure is increased, it turns to
normally consolidate and ductility becomes apparent, ultimately failure is characterised by bulging.
There is ample evidence in the rock mechanics literatures to show that the same characteristic is repeated
with hard rocks as shown in Figure 6 for Tennessee marble. This indicates that a transition from brittle to
ductile behaviour becomes apparent, as confining is increased. Again, the strength characteristics of, soft
rocks and hard rocks are similar, yet the different is the order of the stress level, within which the brittle
ductile transition takes place.

DEFINISI SOFT ROCK

Soft rocks are rocks that have failed under their in situ
stresses.

Generally, soft rocks may be described as geomaterials with


properties between soils and rocks.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOFT ROCKS


S.D. GLASER, D.M. DOOLIN / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROCK MECHANICS AND MINING SCIENCES 37 (2000) 683698

Physical characteristic

Associated problems

Low ratios of strength to applied

Failure through intact portion stress

Naturally occurring fractures

Sliding on weak interface

Volume changes

Change in effective stresses by swelling or slaking

Creep sensitive

Squeezing may occur

CATEGORIES OF SOFT ROCKS


S.D. GLASER, D.M. DOOLIN / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROCK MECHANICS AND MINING SCIENCES 37 (2000) 683698

Nature of weakness

Cause

Example rocks

Naturally Weak

Structurally weak
Evaporites
Organics

Shale, mudstone, sandstone, diatomite, marl, chalk


NaCl KCl, gypsum
Coal, lignite

Chemically or
mechanically altered

Tectonics
Fault zones
Weathering/chemical reaction

Melange
Clays and gouge
Marls, saprolite