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3D-Three-dimensional model that displays a picture or item in a form that appears

to be physically present with a designated structure. Essentially, it allows items that
appeared flat to the human eye to be display in a form that allows for various
dimensions to be represented. These dimensions include width, depth, and height.

MOCKUPS - Model or replica built full-size or to scale for testing or training purposes.


Three types of 3D modeling are supported: wireframe, surface, and solid.

Each type has its own creation and editing techniques.

A wireframe model is a skeletal description of a 3D object. There are no

surfaces in a wireframe model; it consists only of points, lines, and curves that

describe the edges of the object. You can create wireframe models by positioning
2D (planar) objects anywhere in 3D space. Some 3D wireframe objects are also
provided, such as 3D polylines (that can only have a CONTINUOUS line type) and
splines. Because each object that makes up a wireframe model must be
independently drawn and positioned, this type of modeling can be the
most time-consuming.
Surface modeling is more sophisticated than wireframe modeling in that it
defines not only the edges of a 3D object, but also its surfaces. The surface modeler
defines faceted surfaces using a polygonal mesh. Because the faces of the mesh are
planar, the mesh can only approximate curved surfaces. With Autodesk Mechanical
Desktop, you can create true curved surfaces. To differentiate these two types of
surfaces, faceted surfaces are called meshes.
Solid modeling is the easiest type of 3D modeling to use. With the solid
modeler, you can make 3D objects by creating basic 3D shapes: boxes, cones,
cylinders, spheres, wedges, and tori (donuts). You can then combine these shapes
to create more complex solids by joining or subtracting them or finding their
intersecting (overlapping) volume. You can also create solids by sweeping a 2D
object along a path or revolving it about an axis. With Autodesk Mechanical
Desktop, you can also define solids parametrically and maintain associativity
between 3D models and the 2D views that you generate from them.
Note Because each modeling type uses a different method for constructing 3D
models and editing methods vary in their effect on the different model types, it is
recommended that you not mix modeling methods. Limited conversion between
model types is available from solids to surfaces and from surfaces to
wireframes; however, you cannot convert from wireframes to surfaces or
from surfaces to solids.


Puppets - a movable model of a person or animal that is used in entertainment and

is typically moved either by strings controlled from above or by a hand inside it.


Hand Puppet (Glove Puppet)
There are many variations to a hand puppet. If the puppet does not have a movable
mouth, three fingers on one hand become the neck and two arms. This type of
puppet is often called a glove puppet. If the puppet has a movable mouth,
traditionally the thumb serves as the lower jaw; the four fingers form the upper
Rod Puppet
Sticks or wire rod manipulate rod puppets attached to the neck and hands. In most
cases, these controls come from below.Rod puppets mayalso be worked with rods
from above, or any direction necessary for good movement and performance.
Shadow Puppet
Mostly rod puppets, they are made flat and cast a shadow when the puppeteer
manipulates them between a light source and a screen (often a piece of muslin
stretched like a canvas). A shadow puppeteer learns to move the puppet in and out
of the light so its shadow grows and shrinks and goes in and out of sharp focus.
Traditionally, these are made from animal hides that are painted and punched with
decorative designs. Colored acetates are often used to create colors in the puppet's
projected shadow.
Hand and Rod Puppet

This is the style made famous by the Muppets. The puppeteer uses his hand to
move the puppet's mouth while rods attached to the puppet's hands animate the
Hand and Glove Puppet
Also used frequently by the Muppets, this puppet is like the hand and rod puppet
except human hands become the puppet's hands. This type of puppet may
manipulate, pick up and put down, objects. For both hands to work, two puppeteers
are needed: one on the mouth and one hand, an additional puppeteer on the
second hand.

Marionette (String Puppet)

One of the most difficult forms of puppetry to manipulate effectively, marionettes
hang on strings. Usually there are eight basic strings to a well-designed marionette.
However, some marionettes can have thirty or more. A good marionette performer
learns how to use gravity to give the puppet life and weight. To work a marionette
well, one must practice.
Ventriloquist Figure
Just don't call it a dummy. Only Paul Winchell may do that. He's one of the great
ventriloquists in show business. Ventriloquism is lots of fun, but it too takes a great
deal of practice. The puppet has a slotted mouth that works on a trigger. A good
vent figure will also have multiple eye movement and eyebrows. Shari Lewis, Edgar
Bergen, Jimmy Nelson were all well known and loved -famous Ventriloquists.

Stop-action Puppet/Stop-motion Puppet

Articulated dolls with movable and posable joints, stop-action puppets are as old as
filmmaking. Still very popular today, stop motion puppets are everywhere. Willis
O'Brien, George Pal, Ray Harryhausen and many others made them an important
part of motion picture history. Today, animators like Wil Vinton and Nick Parks
continue making magic by moving puppets frame by frame. The animation only can
be seen when the sequence is run. This form of puppetry takes a lot of patience and
a willingness to redo. Stop-motion artists prefer the title"animator" to "puppeteer."


Diagram - a simplified drawing showing the appearance, structure, or workings of

something; a schematic representation.

Types of diagrams
Cluster diagrams

Astronomy cluster diagram.

Comparison diagram.
Computer architecture diagram.
Computer network diagram.
UML Class diagram.
Component diagram.
UML Composite structure diagrams.
UML Deployment diagram

Chart - also called a graph, is a graphical representation of data, in which "the data
is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or
slices in a pie chart". A chart can represent tabular numeric data, functions or
some kinds of qualitative structure and provides different info.

Graphs - is a collection of points and lines connecting some (possibly empty) subset
of them. The points of a graph are most commonly known as graph vertices, but
may also be called "nodes" or simply "points."