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Fluid Mechanics Experiment 1

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1

BASIC FLUID PROPERTIES

Ceejhay C. Panganiban

Abstract

The experiment has three objectives, first is to determine and compare the density of different

liquids, second is to compute other fluid properties i.e specific gravity, specific weight, and specific

volume and lastly to compare the experimental value of density from the literature value. The

experiment used three different liquids which are water, Carbon Tetrachloride, and cooking oil and

utilized two different methods of obtaining the data. The first is with a use of graduated cylinder and

triple beam balance and the second is with a use of pycnometer and analytical balance. The percent

error obtained from water, Carbon Tetrachloride and cooking are compared to their theoretical value.

The first method gives an average error of 4.04%, 36.92% and 15.04% respectively and while using

the second method the data obtained are 0%, 8.59% and 0.87% respectively which is a great

improvement compared to the first method. From the data obtained it is easy to conclude that using a

pycnometer and analytical balance is much more accurate because of the precision of the said

equipment. Systematic errors, random errors, and personal errors are also considered to why using

the graduated cylinder and triple beam balance yield a very high percent error.

INTRODUCTION

Fluid is a substance which can flow.

Technically the flow of any substance means a

continuous relative motion between different

particles of the substance. The term fluid

includes both liquid and gases. The main

difference between a liquid and a gas is that the

volume of a liquid remains definite because it

takes the shape of the surface on or in which it

comes into contact, whereas a gas occupies the

complete space available in the container in

which it is kept. [1] Some properties of fluids

are

Density is the mass per unit volume of a

fluid. In other words, it is the ratio between

mass (m) and volume (V) of a fluid. Density is

denoted by the symbol . Its unit is kg/m3.

(V) occupied per unit mass (m). It is the

reciprocal of density. Specific volume is

denoted by the symbol v. Its unit is m3/kg.

volume of a fluid. It is denoted by w. Its unit is

N/m3. Specific weight varies from place to place

due to the change of acceleration due to gravity

(g).

the given fluid to the specific weight of standard

fluid. It is denoted by the letter S and it has no

unit.

between densities of the given fluid to the

density

of

standard

fluid.

[2]

Liquid

Density

Water

0.997300 g/mL

Carbon Tetrachloride

1.584 g/cm3

Cooking Oil

0.92 g/cm3

determine and compare the densities of the three

different liquids, compute other fluid properties

such as specific gravity, specific weight and

specific volume and lastly to compare the

obtained experimental value of the densities

from the literature value.

METHODS

The experiment used three different

liquids which are Water, Cooking oil and

Carbon Tetrachloride which is commonly used

as solvent. Two different balance were used;

Triple beam balance and Analytical balance to

ensure precision. A 10mL graduated cylinder,

beaker, pipette, thermometer and pycnometer

were also used.

Determining the density of Water

The mass of a dry 10-mL graduated

cylinder was obtained using a triple beam

balance and then recorded. Then the temperature

of the sample water was taken. The graduated

cylinder was filled with water and its volume

recorded. And lastly the mass of the graduated

cylinder with water mas measured. The

procedure was repeated for 4 times to ensure

accuracy. The density was then obtained by

plotting volume versus mass.

Determining the density of other Fluids

The data presented are acquired during

the experiment. The data are logged on a table

and plotted using graphs.

Water

Trial

Mass of Dry

Graduated Cylinder

Volume of Water

Mass of Graduated

Cylinder and Water

Mass of

Water

Temperature of

Water

Theoretical Density

of Water at 24C

22.6

g

22.6

g

22.6

g

9.74

mL

34.7

g

9.43

mL

34.1

g

9.25

mL

34

g

9.15

mL

33.85

g

12.1

g

11.5

g

11.4

g

11.25

g

24C

0.997300 g/mL

Density of Water

12.2

12

Tetrachloride was obtained by repeating the

processes used in determining the density of

water but without considering the temperature.

11.8

a Pycnometer

11.4

equipment or glassware used to measure

material properties of substances. It may

resemble a measurement bottle with a hole or

protruding glass stopper. This vessel performs

fast, precision measurement of density or

specific gravity of a liquid. [3] The mass of a

dry pycnometer was obtained using an analytic

balance to ensure accuracy. The temperature of

water was measured and then poured onto the

pycnometer until it is completely full. The

stopper is the inserted so the ground glass end is

in the bottle. The outside of the pycnometer is

then carefully dried with a tissue and the mass is

taken.

1

22.6

g

R = 0.96

11.6

11.2

11

10.8

9.10 9.20 9.30 9.40 9.50 9.60 9.70 9.80

Based on the figure, the plotted data has

given the value of 0.957g/mL while the

theoretical value of water at 24C is 0.997300

g/mL The experimental value obtained a 4.04%

error.

Based on the figure, the plotted data has

given the value of 0.992g/mL while the

theoretical value of Carbon Tetrachloride is

Trial

Mass of Dry

Graduated Cylinder

Volume of

Water

Mass of Graduated

Cylinder and Water

Mass of

Water

Theoretical

Density of CCL4

22.6

g

22.6

g

22.6

g

22.6 g

9.97

mL

9.85

mL

9.91

mL

9.75

mL

38.4

g

38.2

g

38.3

g

38.05g

15.8

g

15.6

g

15.7

g

15.45

g

3

1.584 g/cm

Carbon Tetrachloride

Density of CCL4

15.9

15.8

15.7

R = 1

36.92% error.

Cooking Oil

Trial No.

Mass of Dry

Graduated

Cylinder

Volume of

liquid

1

22.6

g

2

22.

6g

3

22.

6g

4

22.6

g

9.35

mL

31.2

g

9.7

5m

L

31.

9g

9.80

mL

Mass of

graduated

cylinder and

liquid

Mass of liquid

9.6

7m

L

31.

5g

8.9 9.3

g

g

0.92 g/cm3

9.7g

Theoretical

Density of

Cooking Oil

8.6g

32.3

g

15.6

15.4

15.3

15.2

9.7 9.75 9.8 9.85 9.9 9.95 10

Volume (ml)

f(x) = 0.37x + 6.23

R = 0.78

MASS

VOLUME

the personal technique and bias of the observer.

2. Random errors: These are errors for which

the causes are unknown or indeterminate, but

are usually small and follow the laws of chance.

3. Personal errors - Carelessness, poor

technique, or bias on the part of the

experimenter. The experimenter may measure

incorrectly, or may use poor technique in taking

a measurement, or may introduce a bias into

measurements by expecting (and inadvertently

forcing) the results to agree with the expected

outcome [5]

Based on the figure, the plotted data has

given the value of 0.7816g/mL while the

theoretical value of cooking oil is 0.92 g/mL. The

experimental value obtained a 15.04% error.

percentage of error, Experimental error is the

difference between a measurement and the true

value or between two measured values.

Experimental error, itself, is measured by its

accuracy and precision. Accuracy measures how

close a measured value is to the true value or

accepted value [4] in general, there are three

types of errors.

1. Systematic errors: These are errors which

Liquid

wate

r

Liquid

1

Liquid

2

Mass of

dry

pycnomet

er

Mass of

pycnomet

er and

Liquid

Mass of

liquid

Density of

liquid

14.5

606g

14.56

06g

14.56

06g

39.6

932g

51.05

51g

37.53

20g

25.1

326g

36.49

45g

1.448

g/mL

22.97

14g

0.912

g/mL

Volume of

water

Temperatu

re of

water

Density of

water at

24

25.2

00mL

24

0.99

73g/

mL

water obtained is 0.9973 g/mL which incredibly

has 0% error. While CCL4 who has a total of

36.92% only summed to 8.59% while using a

on error. The liquid only accumulated to 0.87%

[5]http://physics.appstate.edu/undergraduateprograms/laboratory/resources/error-analysis

Conclusion

Based on the results the researcher

concluded that using a pycnometer and

analytical balance is more precise and accurate

rather than a graduated cylinder and triple beam

balance. The error in using the triple beam

balance may be pointed to error in measuring,

gathering and precision of the material used.

While the results obtained in using the

Analytical balance further supports the theory

Trial

Mass of Dry

Graduated Cylinder

Volume of Water

Mass of Graduated

Cylinder and Water

Mass of

Water

Temperature of

Water

Theoretical Density

of Water at 24C

22.6

g

22.6

g

22.6

g

22.6

g

9.74

mL

34.7

g

9.43

mL

34.1

g

9.25

mL

34

g

9.15

mL

33.85

g

12.1

g

11.5

g

11.4

g

11.25

g

24C

0.997300 g/mL

Trial

Mass of Dry

Graduated Cylinder

Volume of

Water

Mass of Graduated

Cylinder and Water

Mass of

Water

Theoretical

Density of CCL4

22.6

g

22.6

g

22.6

g

22.6 g

9.97

mL

9.85

mL

9.91

mL

9.75

mL

38.4

g

38.2

g

38.3

g

38.05g

15.8

g

15.6

g

15.7

g

15.45

g

Appendix

1.584 g/cm

References

[1]http://www.brighthubengineering.com/h

ydraulics-civil-engineering/42883-basicproperties-of-fluids/

[2]http://mechteacher.com/properties-of-fluids/

[3]http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-apycnometer.htm

[4]http://www.ece.rochester.edu/courses/ECE11

1/error_uncertainty.pdf

Trial No.

Mass of Dry

Graduated

Cylinder

Volume of

liquid

1

22.6

g

2

22.

6g

3

22.

6g

4

22.6

g

9.35

mL

9.6

7m

L

9.7

5m

L

9.80

mL

Mass of

graduated

cylinder and

liquid

Mass of liquid

Theoretical

Density of

Cooking Oil

31.2

g

31.

9g

32.3

g

8.9 9.3

g

g

3

0.92 g/cm

9.7g

8.6g

31.

5g

Liquid

wate

r

Liquid

1

Liquid

2

Mass of

dry

pycnomet

er

Mass of

pycnomet

er and

Liquid

Mass of

liquid

Density of

liquid

14.5

606g

14.56

06g

14.56

06g

39.6

932g

51.05

51g

37.53

20g

25.1

326g

36.49

45g

1.448

g/mL

22.97

14g

0.912

g/mL

Volume of

water

Temperatu

re of

water

Density of

water at

24

25.2

00mL

24

0.99

73g/

mL

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