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EXPERIMENT NO.

1
BASIC FLUID PROPERTIES
Ceejhay C. Panganiban
Abstract
The experiment has three objectives, first is to determine and compare the density of different
liquids, second is to compute other fluid properties i.e specific gravity, specific weight, and specific
volume and lastly to compare the experimental value of density from the literature value. The
experiment used three different liquids which are water, Carbon Tetrachloride, and cooking oil and
utilized two different methods of obtaining the data. The first is with a use of graduated cylinder and
triple beam balance and the second is with a use of pycnometer and analytical balance. The percent
error obtained from water, Carbon Tetrachloride and cooking are compared to their theoretical value.
The first method gives an average error of 4.04%, 36.92% and 15.04% respectively and while using
the second method the data obtained are 0%, 8.59% and 0.87% respectively which is a great
improvement compared to the first method. From the data obtained it is easy to conclude that using a
pycnometer and analytical balance is much more accurate because of the precision of the said
equipment. Systematic errors, random errors, and personal errors are also considered to why using
the graduated cylinder and triple beam balance yield a very high percent error.
INTRODUCTION
Fluid is a substance which can flow.
Technically the flow of any substance means a
continuous relative motion between different
particles of the substance. The term fluid
includes both liquid and gases. The main
difference between a liquid and a gas is that the
volume of a liquid remains definite because it
takes the shape of the surface on or in which it
comes into contact, whereas a gas occupies the
complete space available in the container in
which it is kept. [1] Some properties of fluids
are
Density is the mass per unit volume of a
fluid. In other words, it is the ratio between
mass (m) and volume (V) of a fluid. Density is
denoted by the symbol . Its unit is kg/m3.

Specific volume is the volume of a fluid


(V) occupied per unit mass (m). It is the
reciprocal of density. Specific volume is
denoted by the symbol v. Its unit is m3/kg.

Specific weight is the weight possessed by unit


volume of a fluid. It is denoted by w. Its unit is
N/m3. Specific weight varies from place to place
due to the change of acceleration due to gravity
(g).

Specific gravity is the ratio of specific weight of


the given fluid to the specific weight of standard
fluid. It is denoted by the letter S and it has no
unit.

Specific gravity may also be defined as the ratio


between densities of the given fluid to the
density
of
standard
fluid.
[2]

Liquid

Density

Water

0.997300 g/mL

Carbon Tetrachloride

1.584 g/cm3

Cooking Oil

0.92 g/cm3

Table 1: Densities of Liquid

The objectives of the experiment was to


determine and compare the densities of the three
different liquids, compute other fluid properties
such as specific gravity, specific weight and
specific volume and lastly to compare the
obtained experimental value of the densities
from the literature value.

METHODS

Materials and Equipment


The experiment used three different
liquids which are Water, Cooking oil and
Carbon Tetrachloride which is commonly used
as solvent. Two different balance were used;
Triple beam balance and Analytical balance to
ensure precision. A 10mL graduated cylinder,
beaker, pipette, thermometer and pycnometer
were also used.
Determining the density of Water
The mass of a dry 10-mL graduated
cylinder was obtained using a triple beam
balance and then recorded. Then the temperature
of the sample water was taken. The graduated
cylinder was filled with water and its volume
recorded. And lastly the mass of the graduated
cylinder with water mas measured. The
procedure was repeated for 4 times to ensure
accuracy. The density was then obtained by
plotting volume versus mass.
Determining the density of other Fluids

Results and Discussion


The data presented are acquired during
the experiment. The data are logged on a table
and plotted using graphs.
Water
Trial
Mass of Dry
Graduated Cylinder
Volume of Water
Mass of Graduated
Cylinder and Water
Mass of
Water
Temperature of
Water
Theoretical Density
of Water at 24C

22.6
g

22.6
g

22.6
g

9.74
mL
34.7
g

9.43
mL
34.1
g

9.25
mL
34
g

9.15
mL
33.85
g

12.1
g

11.5
g

11.4
g

11.25
g

24C
0.997300 g/mL

Table 2: Determination of the density of water

Density of Water
12.2
12

The densities of Cooking oil and Carbon


Tetrachloride was obtained by repeating the
processes used in determining the density of
water but without considering the temperature.

11.8

Determining the density of other Fluids using


a Pycnometer

11.4

A pycnometer is a piece of laboratory


equipment or glassware used to measure
material properties of substances. It may
resemble a measurement bottle with a hole or
protruding glass stopper. This vessel performs
fast, precision measurement of density or
specific gravity of a liquid. [3] The mass of a
dry pycnometer was obtained using an analytic
balance to ensure accuracy. The temperature of
water was measured and then poured onto the
pycnometer until it is completely full. The
stopper is the inserted so the ground glass end is
in the bottle. The outside of the pycnometer is
then carefully dried with a tissue and the mass is
taken.

1
22.6
g

f(x) = 1.41x - 1.66


R = 0.96

11.6

11.2
11
10.8
9.10 9.20 9.30 9.40 9.50 9.60 9.70 9.80

Figure 1: Density of Water


Based on the figure, the plotted data has
given the value of 0.957g/mL while the
theoretical value of water at 24C is 0.997300
g/mL The experimental value obtained a 4.04%
error.

Figure 2: Density of CCL4


Based on the figure, the plotted data has
given the value of 0.992g/mL while the
theoretical value of Carbon Tetrachloride is

Trial
Mass of Dry
Graduated Cylinder
Volume of
Water
Mass of Graduated
Cylinder and Water
Mass of
Water
Theoretical
Density of CCL4

22.6
g

22.6
g

22.6
g

22.6 g

9.97
mL

9.85
mL

9.91
mL

9.75
mL

38.4
g

38.2
g

38.3
g

38.05g

15.8
g

15.6
g

15.7
g

15.45
g
3

1.584 g/cm

Table 3: Determination of the density of CCL4

Carbon Tetrachloride

Density of CCL4
15.9
15.8
15.7

f(x) = 1.59x - 0.06


R = 1

1.584g/cm3. The experimental value obtained a


36.92% error.

Cooking Oil
Trial No.
Mass of Dry
Graduated
Cylinder
Volume of
liquid

1
22.6
g

2
22.
6g

3
22.
6g

4
22.6
g

9.35
mL
31.2
g

9.7
5m
L
31.
9g

9.80
mL

Mass of
graduated
cylinder and
liquid
Mass of liquid

9.6
7m
L
31.
5g

8.9 9.3
g
g
0.92 g/cm3

9.7g

Theoretical
Density of
Cooking Oil

8.6g

32.3
g

Table 3: Determination of the density of Cooking Oil

15.6

Mass (G) 15.5


15.4
15.3
15.2
9.7 9.75 9.8 9.85 9.9 9.95 10

Volume (ml)

Density of Cooking oil


f(x) = 0.37x + 6.23
R = 0.78

MASS

8.4 8.6 8.8

9.2 9.4 9.6 9.8

VOLUME

traced to an imperfectly made instrument or to


the personal technique and bias of the observer.
2. Random errors: These are errors for which
the causes are unknown or indeterminate, but
are usually small and follow the laws of chance.
3. Personal errors - Carelessness, poor
technique, or bias on the part of the
experimenter. The experimenter may measure
incorrectly, or may use poor technique in taking
a measurement, or may introduce a bias into
measurements by expecting (and inadvertently
forcing) the results to agree with the expected
outcome [5]

Determination of other liquids using Pycnometer

Figure 3: Density of Cooking Oil


Based on the figure, the plotted data has
given the value of 0.7816g/mL while the
theoretical value of cooking oil is 0.92 g/mL. The
experimental value obtained a 15.04% error.

The results obtained had a high


percentage of error, Experimental error is the
difference between a measurement and the true
value or between two measured values.
Experimental error, itself, is measured by its
accuracy and precision. Accuracy measures how
close a measured value is to the true value or
accepted value [4] in general, there are three
types of errors.
1. Systematic errors: These are errors which

affect all measurements alike, and which can be

Liquid

wate
r

Liquid
1

Liquid
2

Mass of
dry
pycnomet
er
Mass of
pycnomet
er and
Liquid
Mass of
liquid
Density of
liquid

14.5
606g

14.56
06g

14.56
06g

39.6
932g

51.05
51g

37.53
20g

25.1
326g

36.49
45g
1.448
g/mL

22.97
14g
0.912
g/mL

Volume of
water
Temperatu
re of
water
Density of
water at
24

25.2
00mL
24

0.99
73g/
mL

Table 4: Determination of other liquids using Pycnometer

The experimental value of density of


water obtained is 0.9973 g/mL which incredibly
has 0% error. While CCL4 who has a total of
36.92% only summed to 8.59% while using a

pycnometer. The cooking oil has also a decrease


on error. The liquid only accumulated to 0.87%

[5]http://physics.appstate.edu/undergraduateprograms/laboratory/resources/error-analysis

Conclusion
Based on the results the researcher
concluded that using a pycnometer and
analytical balance is more precise and accurate
rather than a graduated cylinder and triple beam
balance. The error in using the triple beam
balance may be pointed to error in measuring,
gathering and precision of the material used.
While the results obtained in using the
Analytical balance further supports the theory
Trial
Mass of Dry
Graduated Cylinder
Volume of Water
Mass of Graduated
Cylinder and Water
Mass of
Water
Temperature of
Water
Theoretical Density
of Water at 24C

22.6
g

22.6
g

22.6
g

22.6
g

9.74
mL
34.7
g

9.43
mL
34.1
g

9.25
mL
34
g

9.15
mL
33.85
g

12.1
g

11.5
g

11.4
g

11.25
g

24C
0.997300 g/mL

that it is more precise.


Trial
Mass of Dry
Graduated Cylinder
Volume of
Water
Mass of Graduated
Cylinder and Water
Mass of
Water
Theoretical
Density of CCL4

22.6
g

22.6
g

22.6
g

22.6 g

9.97
mL

9.85
mL

9.91
mL

9.75
mL

38.4
g

38.2
g

38.3
g

38.05g

15.8
g

15.6
g

15.7
g

15.45
g

Appendix

1.584 g/cm

References
[1]http://www.brighthubengineering.com/h
ydraulics-civil-engineering/42883-basicproperties-of-fluids/
[2]http://mechteacher.com/properties-of-fluids/
[3]http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-apycnometer.htm
[4]http://www.ece.rochester.edu/courses/ECE11
1/error_uncertainty.pdf

Trial No.
Mass of Dry
Graduated
Cylinder
Volume of
liquid

1
22.6
g

2
22.
6g

3
22.
6g

4
22.6
g

9.35
mL

9.6
7m
L

9.7
5m
L

9.80
mL

Mass of
graduated
cylinder and
liquid
Mass of liquid
Theoretical
Density of
Cooking Oil

31.2
g

31.
9g

32.3
g

8.9 9.3
g
g
3
0.92 g/cm

9.7g

8.6g

31.
5g

Liquid

wate
r

Liquid
1

Liquid
2

Mass of
dry
pycnomet
er
Mass of
pycnomet
er and
Liquid
Mass of
liquid
Density of
liquid

14.5
606g

14.56
06g

14.56
06g

39.6
932g

51.05
51g

37.53
20g

25.1
326g

36.49
45g
1.448
g/mL

22.97
14g
0.912
g/mL

Volume of
water
Temperatu
re of
water
Density of
water at
24

25.2
00mL
24

0.99
73g/
mL

Images of actual experiment