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Nature of Domestic Violence Against Women in Rural

Area of Bangladesh

and urban

Abstract :Domestic violence means and includes any violence against any
women or child member of family regarding,physical, mental, sexual, torture
or economic loss by another member of family.Domestic Violence has been a
common practice throughout the recorded history. Corresponding to the other
parts of the world, domestic violence has been one of the major problems
that affect the lives of many women both in the urban and the rural areas of
Bangladesh. Now a days, Bangladesh ranks one of the highest in the world
with respect to violence against women and, in terms of domestic violence ,
Major forms of domestic violence in Bangladesh include physical, sexual,
economic and psychological violence. However, the patriarchal social
structure, the culture of acceptance and the wide practice of community
violence are considered as the key factors promoting domestic violence in the
country. Existing legal and institutional mechanisms often seem inefficient
and mal-functioning to protect the rights of the victims. Following
rigorousness of the phenomena, there are several initiatives to be made by
the stakeholders on the basis of short, medium and long run in order to stop
domestic violence from Bangladesh.
"Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, or psychological. Physical and
sexual violence by an intimate partner are common problems, affecting 2050% of women at some stage in life in most populations surveyed globally.
Domestic violence has a profound impact on the physical and mental health
of those who experience it. As well as injuries, it is associated with an
increased risk of a range of physical and mental health problems and is an
important cause of mortality from injuries and suicide." 1
Introduction : Here,I would be disclosed about domestic violence includes,
Definition of Domestic violence, domestic violence can be happened by,why
happend domestic violence, types of domestic violence in Bangladesh,
constitutional protection of domestic violence in Bangladesh,statistics of
domestic violence in bangladesh.some recommendations to reduce domestic
violence in Bangladesh.
Definition of Domestic violence :Domestic violence can
defined as a pattern of abusive behaviors by one or both
intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, family, or
Another view on the term asserts that, domestic violence
physical, sexual, psychological or financial violence that
1

generally be
partners in an
cohabitation.
is a form of
takes place

Noor Mohammad Sarker is a Research Assistant for International Affairs


at Bangladesh Institute of Law and International Affairs (BILIA), Dhaka,
Bangladesh.

within an intimate or family-type relationship and that forms a pattern


of coercive and controlling behavior.
Domestic violence can be happened by_
Violence in the domestic sphere is usually perpetrated by males, who have
been in positions of trust and power including husbands, boyfriends, fathers,
fathers-in-law, stepfathers, brothers, uncles, sons, or other relatives.
Therefore, domestic violence is, in most of the cases, violence perpetrated by
men against women. Women can also be violent, but their actions account for
a small percentage of domestic violence.
why happened domestic violence in bangladesh were as follow1.lack of knowledge: most of the domestic violence can be happened lack
of knowledge, we know that,domestic violence victims are women and
child,they don't know about their legal rights. that's why,many relatives are
taking that's opportunity, specially, husband are taken this opportunity and
always pressure over him, and happened domestic violence.
2.lack of education :most of the domestic violence is occurred lack of
education.when a man and women are not involved in education then he or
she actually does not know their rights,thats why in our country,domestic
violence is increasing day by day,both side urban and rural area,so, we can
see that,many relatives are taken this opportunities, so it is the main factors
to constitute domestic violence.
3.poverty :It is also most important topics here to constitute domestic
violence, because, our country is not developed country, most of people's are
poor,that's why they are suffered for money,so that , many relatives are
tortured over them for dowry. and when they are not given dowry, then their
husband and husband relative tortured over him.so I think that,it is the most
important reason to constitute domestic violence.
4.lack of implementation of law:I think it is the big problems in our
country, our law enforcement agencies are not attentive about their regular
works,
in the case of Aan Karobi Adhikari Tia, a housewife whose family alleges was
killed by her husband and his relatives, Tia's mother attempted to file a case
under the Women and Children Repression Prevention Act, but the police
recorded it as an unnatural death. The case was eventually transferred to the
Criminal Investigation Department; however, the family claims that no
progress has been made on the investigation and the accused husband and
mother-in-law remain free in Lalmonirhat town . Tia's death reportedly

provoked protests and allegations of police negligence by citizens in her


hometown.
on the other hand,we can see that,many laws are involved in many statute
but it's implementation does not exist, this opportunity are taken higher class
peoples,and they are tortured over them,so I tkink it is also important topics
here to constitute domestic violence.
5.lack of awareness:many victims are not know about their legal rights,
they are not conscious about their rights, they are fail to taken legal
action,because, most of the offenders are relative,they do not know how file
sue against husband or relative. so it is also important topic to constitute
domestic violence.
Types of Domestic Violence in Bangladesh
Bangladesh stands second in the world in terms of violence against women in
different forms like women battering, wife beating, domestic and
dowryrelated violence, acid attack, rape, physical and verbal harassment,
sexual harassment in the workplace, trafficking and prostitution, polygamy
and child abuse.The study found that, there are mainly four kinds of domestic
violence,were as follow 1.Physical violence which included hitting, punching, kicking, burning, acid
throwing, forced abortion.
2.Psychological violence included
restricting mobility, abandonment.

threat

of

physical

violence,

insult,

3.Sexual violence included marital rape, forced prostitution, refusal to have


sex etc.
4.Economic violence included stopping food, stopping maintenance for
victim, stopping maintenance for children, dowry demand, not permitting to
earn income, forcing to earn etc.
constitutional protection of domestic violence in bangladesh
In our constitution has been provides article 28 sub clause1 and 2
Discrimination on grounds of religion, etc.
(1) The State shall not
discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race caste, sex or
place of birth. (2) Women shall have equal rights with men in all spheres of
the State and of public life.
on the other hand,article 27 of the constitutions of bangladesh has been says
that,Equality before law. All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to
equal protection of law.

above this two article we can see that,our constitutions has given opportunity
and legal right to women,so we should reduce domestic violence.
statistics of domestic violence in bangladesh: In our country we can see
that,in rural and urban area,About 87 percent of married women in
Bangladesh have been victims of various forms of domestic violence in their
lifetime, according to a United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)-sponsored
survey conducted by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, released this
January.
"Of 12,600 women surveyed, 65 percent said they were physically tortured
by their husbands, 36 percent were victims of sexual violence, 82 percent
faced psychological abuse and 53 percent were victims of mental anguish.In
rural Bangladesh, 55 percent of married women face sexual violence
compared to 37 percent in urban areas.We found that 66 percent of women
never talk about their experience of violence and 34 percent, who talk about
their experience, usually talk to their relatives and sometimes, in rural areas,
to their neighbors. But less than two percent seek help from formal
institutions like police and hospital."
A WHO survey of 2,400 Bangladeshi men found that 89 percent of rural men
believe a husband has the right to mildly beat his wife to correct her, while 83
percent of the urban males surveyed held the same view.Moreover, 93
percent of urban men and 98 percent of rural men believed that one needs to
be tough to become a real man and 50 percent of urban men and 65 percent
of rural men thought women need to tolerate repression to save their
families.
some recommendations to reduce domestic violence in bangladesh
were as followIn order to eliminate the domestic violence from Bangladeshi Societies, a
number of steps must be made by the stakeholders. Government remains the
key responsible actor in ensuring proper policy making and implementation
mechanisms. Non-governmental actors, such as, civil society, business
organizations, mass media etc., also have a shared responsibility with
government to make the government aware on the issue when seems
necessary and to monitor the policy implementation process.
1. Raising community or neighborhood opinion against wife beating.
2.Initiating collective community action against domestic violence.
3.Mobilizing men and women from other mass-based groups, trade unions,
etc.
4.Enhancing media publicity given to the issue of domestic violence.

5.Campaigning for gender just laws and reform in the criminal justice
mechanism.
6.Business organizations should make all of their members aware about the
rights of women workers.
7.Business organizations should invest more
awareness programs against domestic violence.

to

facilitate

the

public

8.Making a Part of Academic Education It is necessary to make the whole


nation aware about the particular roles, responsibilities and rights of women.
9. Ensuring Regular Psychological Treatments for Women As the majority of
women who are victims of domestic violence suffer from great mental
trauma, they need to seek the help of mental health professionals.
10.Ensuring Womens Empowerment To make women free from oppression.
11.Ensuring their empowerment in the society is must. Women should be
encouraged to make their role and position valuable at the political,
economic, social, religious and familial levels. Government and nongovernmental organizations should also provide extending material support
to the women enabling them to access economic resources, information, etc.
12. Rehabilitation of the Victims Besides giving justice to the victims, it is
essential to ensure social rehabilitation of those victims.
13.quick Tribunals quick judgments on the part of the victims should be
facilitated by the government in the broader level and the society in the local
level while dealing with the issue of domestic violence.
14.Creating economic opportunities for women, such as employment.
15.Providing them with information about the various government welfare
programs.
16.Providing women with the necessary socio-cultural space and articulate
their issues.
17.Proper Implementation of Law.
18.Reformation of Existing Rules and Regulations.
19.Establishment of National Acid Control Council Fund.
20.Cancellation of acid selling License for the time being.
Conclusion : In the long run we can see that,women in Bangladesh face
double peril. Inside the barred doors, it is humiliation,outside there, it is

public anger. Victim women due to the domestic violence are now going to
court or police for protection. But even if appeals for protection are met, only
disrespect greets them when they return home. Similarly,therefore, dowry
death is a relatively easier crime than murder to prosecute and so the crime
continues."Religious stigma and customary cultural practices contribute
greatly to sustain such kind of violence in our society. A single word is,
therefore, not uttered by the victims, since the society does not authorize it
at a natural basis. A majority of the victims belong to the under privileged
classes and they have hardly any means to fight out the lengthy legal battles.
While court appearance and seeking police protection in all these types of
torture and violence by husbands and in-laws appear to be a painful
experience. Therefore, most women prefer to sweep their bitter experience
under the carpet, even to die in silent protest" 2. However, society has always
been a progressive entity. It can not achieve progress while keeping a half of
the total society in simply darkness. We have to understand that our
existence in the world has come from our parents, comprised of a male and a
female. Unless a female remains unable to play her role into the society,
social progress will simply be stopped.f Therefore, besides men, women
should also be honored and valued in the society. They may need some
strength apparently to figure the way out from the social oppressions. Then,
their
strength
must
come
from
the
society
and
from
the
government.Domestic violence, whether it is perpetrated by private or state
actors, constitutes a violation of human rights. It is the duty of states to
ensure that there is no impunity for the perpetrators of such violence.They
are not only required not to commit human rights violations, but also to
prevent and respond to human rights abuses.
_______________________________________________
Reference 1.Daily Star [Dhaka]. 19 December 2003. "domestic violence "
2.International Family Planning Perspectives [New York].September 2003. Vol.
29, No. 3. "In Bangladesh,Women's Risk of Domestic Violence is Linked to
Their Status." [Accessed 29 Dec. 2003]
3.14 August 2003. "'Textbooks Should Cover Violence on Women Issue'."
[Accessed 30 Dec. 2003.

Bhuiya, A. et al.1999. Nature of domestic violence against women in a


rural area of Bangladesh: implication for preventive interventions.
Available at: www.jhpn.net/index.php/jhpn/article /download/184/179.
Accessed 12 April, 2013.

4.The Daily Star. 26 July 2008. Domestic Violence: Society must protect
the
victims
Available.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?
nid=47386. Accessed 15 October, 2012.
5.The daily star,Wednesday 29 may.Domestic violence still pervasive.
6.United Nations Childrens Fund
Violence against Women and Girls.

(UNICEF).

June

7.World Health Organization (WHO).1997. Violence


Geneva: World Health Organization.

2000.

Domestic

against

Women.