Test 2 [10 marks]
Instruction: Answer the following question in 500-700 words. Submit your answer to the elearning before 25 December 2016.
1. During the adolescent period of development, serious emphasis is placed on the kind of
education that students receive and the kind of educational and vocational advice they
are given in order to prepare them for the world of work.
a) What value decisions would you make on environmental factors that provide advantages
for academic performance? [Note: Think about environmental factors that could give
advantages or disadvantages on educational and academic opportunity to students]
   Learner Beliefs
Learners always take interest in the things related to their religious ideas and environmental
believes. The things which are against the beliefs of the learner are not taken seriously by him
and do not take interest to learn them.
Advantages: When the student itself view academic is important to their life and future
development, they will improve their academic performance. They are also trying harder in
achieving their goals. This student always has mission, vision and goal in their life. In order to
fulfill it, they will work hard to obtain it.
Disadvantages: Learner belief can also effect academic performance if they view themselves as
incompetent, education seem not important to them as well as they regard studying is a waste of
time. This learner will not upgrading their selves, always feeling down, they not take things
seriously, no mission, no vision as well no goal in life. Their academic performance also will be
   Social Expectation
Social expectation is an internalized social norm for individuals and organizations, thus for
society as a whole, about what people should do. The term social expectations refers to the
general standards of behavior that individuals who live within a society are expected to uphold.
Advantages: Students who have received high social expectation from their teacher and parent
have a great impact on their academic performance. Through this secure relationship, students
learn about socially appropriate behaviors as well as academic expectations and how to achieve
these expectations.

great access to general knowledge. his ideas. they feel there is nothing wrong for not achieving good grades. class without learning material can lead to student's poor academic performance. Disadvantages: Some of the students are not so well equipped. So. photographs and posters. computer.    Cultural Demands Our cultural values. clients.Disadvantages: Students who not received social expectation may have impact on their academic performances. A child's first educational experiences are centered in the homes. Family size. upgrading their knowledge and so on that can increase their academic performance. resources. Cultural environment influences aspiration because culturally based explanations of behavior tend to focus on the moral codes that operate within particular families. Advantages: Some of the student well equipped with gadget such as laptop. socio-economic status and family stability affect student academic performance 2 . which often include particular religious beliefs. visual and audio-visual aids. attitude and general pattern of behavior are as a result of his childhood rearing. As culture has to do with beliefs values.    Family Background Learner inherits many things from his family. The gadgets. A student belong to a literate family has different learning trend as compared to the students who do not know to read and write. Mother is the first institute for a person so family background effects on the learning of a person. shape our way of living and they have also changed over time as circumstances demand. nobody cares about their achievement or failure. to upgrade their knowledge. facilities in both types of community will influence the learning processes of the child. They will face difficulty to make reference to what they learned at school. This will influence the student learning process in which they easily to find resources to support their understanding better on the subject teach in school. Student's cannot single handedly achieve all their goals. adequate technological facilities such as textbooks. norms and socializations. Some communities have a tradition of formal education and modern education influences. to obtain additional information or resources in order to become more understanding in a given subject and so on. communities or groups. tablet. hand phone. research evidence have shown that the environment whether urban or rural industrial also contributes to what a child learns and how it is being learned. Therefore. To them.

The student might have difficulty to coming to school. Egwuche (1981) noted that family size to a large extend determines the relative amount of physical attention and time which each child gets from his parents. Durojaiye (1975) in his investigation among four thousand (4000) primary and secondary children from Ibadan in Nigeria found that 88% of children from extended family situation were influenced by grandparents. Student from higher socio-economic to classes are expected to perform better in schools. Family stability also plays great influence on student academic achievement. Family instability such as divorce. 91% complained of being unable to study at home because of their being sent on errands by relatives. Achievement may enhance performance as it and psychologically facilitates adherence to expectation of others. the said appeared to be the less favorable than unclear family for the emotional and academic wellbeing of the child. Student from low social economic status are expected to perform less in the class because their family are less stable in terms of financial resources. These student backgrounds affect the school success. Fraser (1978) she looks at socio-economic class as one of the major causes of unnatural inequalities in education. which prompted their inability to attend school. separation and single parenthood affect the children academic performance in which it create depression among the student.    Achievement Advantages: Student who have achieved highly before are more likely to achieve highly again. The study also found out that 78% justified the need to lie as a means of escaping blames and punishments from all sides and 75% admitted regular stealing. Disadvantages: Student with large family size tend to have less amount of physical attention that effect the level of intellectual quantity that the student brings into the classroom. Some polygamous homes burden children with domestic duties that they had little time left for rest or study. The extended family system. 92% complained of lack of clear standard to follow. aunts and uncles in discipline at home. buying resourceful material or textbook to be used in the classroom and there are chances to be dropout from the school. Student from higher socio economic status have well-equipped equipment and resources they can use for their study. In some cases the children from polygamous home were left to care for their younger ones.Advantages: Student with smaller family size has more amounts on physical attention they get from their parent that effect the level of intellectual quantity that the student brings into the classroom. 3 .

Teachers should provide a healthy and creative environment in the class room and in the institute so that learning may become better. This includes the classrooms. They tend to feel no confident and less take seriously on what they learned. Advantages: Student feels happy in a peaceful and friendly environment. performance such as the color of the classroom and lighting. equipment. textbooks. When they are in more convenient place free from distraction like noise they are more easily to absorb knowledge and pay attention when the teacher is teaching. Lighting: Advantages: Good lighting make the student feel comfort and lead to good academic achievement. the student eager to discover that noise rather paying attention to that teaching. Disadvantages: Schools sited in noisy urban streets are associated with deficits in mental concentration leading to student’s poor performance. Dunn (1985) insisted that the lighting of a school should be considered on active element of the total educational environment. They can easily programming the information that been teaching by the teacher. He found that good lighting contributes significantly to the 4 . Noise produces influence on children's information processing strategies. Good and pleasant conditions always produce better results for learners. feelings of personal control as well as their level of arousal. Noise is anything that interferes with teaching or learning process. school supplies. Below are the types of physical condition: a) school location or site of the school School location plays important role in student academic achievement. It cannot be denied that the type and quality of instructional materials and equipment play an important part in the instructional efficiency of the school. When there is noise from the area that outside the classroom. There is direct relationship between good lighting and student’s performance. One of the factors that affect the efficiency of learning is the condition in which learning takes place. Onukwo (2004) in his note says that a conducive environment enhances a child's growth and development.    Physical Condition Physical conditions needed for learning is under environmental factor.Disadvantages: Student who receive low grades before not trying to compete to achieve high grade later. b) Visual environment affects a learner's ability to perceive visual stimuli and affects his or her mental attitude and thus. Color choice and lighting can impact the teaching-learning process. and other instructional materials.

University of Georgia. Disadvantages: Improper color choice can affect student academic performance in which the student will feel depressing. exciting and stimulating. W. absenteeism and promote negative feeling about school.P. 38(19). G. School and home. Light up their lives. (1997). (1985). 863-869. References: Dunn. Disadvantages: Students cannot study unless lighting is adequate. (1985). Paradotas (1993)in his findings suggests that the proper use of color in schools can convert an atmosphere that is depressing and monotonous into one that is pleasing. Onukwo. Philips. The reading teacher. S. E. 5 . Therefore. monotonous. Educational facility age and the academic achievement of upper elementary school students. students perform well than in a dark classroom. A research on the effect of lighting on children's achievement and behaviour. Paints color in schools especially carefully planned color schemes positively affects academic achievement of students. Bad light leads to discomfort and poor academic performance. P. lighting and color choice lay a significant role in the achievement of student's academic performance. unpublished doctorial dissertation. Fraser. post graduate diploma in education 2004/2005. Class note on educational psychology. London: University of London press. Color also affects blood pressure in students.aesthetics and psychological character of the teaching space. R. Color choice: Advantages: color affects a student's attention spent and affects a student and teacher's sense and time. (1993). The effectiveness of information collection is reduce in bad light seeing in bad light can lead to the development of ineffective programming of the information collection process which may become habitual. Change in color schemes in schools reduces absenteeism and promotes positive feeling about schools. Paradotas. Color then motivated color's psychological effects on students national.

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