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Top GCSB Officials

Observe Waihopai 20 Trial

(see page 5)


Bruce Miller (left), Officer in Charge at

Waihopai, and Hugh Wolfensohn, Senior
Executive Officer in the GCSB, take a
break from the Waihopai trial in
Blenheim. 21 April 1997.

In this issue: page

• The Waihopai 20 have their day in court 2

• Spies "bug" Waihopai 20 trial 5
• Black Birch Naval Observatory - What replaced it? 6
• More Moore hyperbole on Harewood 6
• Government to put the "NZ" back in ANZUS 7
• SISsy Bits 8
• Protest against Tandem Thrust 12
• Asia-Pacific Bases Round-up 14
• The Dirty Dogs of War 16
• Chernobyl nuclear explostion confirmed in US 21
• The cost of Free Trade 22
• CIA File 24
• Sam Day visits Christchurch - Mordechai Vanunu Campaign 27
• Waihopai Warren goes (North) West 28
• Thanks Marty 28

- Warren Thomson & Murray Horton

The January 1997 annual protest at the Waihopai
accurate - Judge Grace indicated he would not have
spybase involved a number of new features -
accepted the witness. It would have introduced a
extremely high media interest, stimulated by Nicky
"political" element, and Grace was determined not t o
Hager's bombshell 1996 book "Secret Power"; the
allow his court t o b e used for "political" purposes. But
presence of MPs for the first time; the arrest of the
focussing on Singleton did mean the media received
biggest single number 20 of any of the protests,
a useful reminder of the insidious US presence within
- -

stretching back to 1988; and the offer of his services,

the GCSB.
free of charge, by Peter Williams QC, one of the
country's top lawyers and a political progressive in
The presence at court of MPs Rod Donald (Alliance)
his own right.
and Tim Barnelt (Labour) reflected both growing
support for opposition to Government spying and
All of these features - the media, Nicky Hager, MPs,
developing Parliamentary interest in me proceedings.
20 defendants, and Peter Williams - came together
Both MPs have been active in the issue. Rod Donald
in the Blenheim District Court, on April 21. Plus, of
has introduced a private members bill to Parliament
course, a very low key police prosecution team and
to scuttle the new (and ineffective by design)
our old friend, Judge Amazing Grace (who had
Intelligence Agencies Committee (which wasn't
presided over previous Waihopai cases). And a new
apPOinted until nearly a year after the Intelligence
feature - very senior spies from the Government
and Security Agencies Act was passed) Tim Barnett
Communications Security Bureau (GCSB), which
has been promoting discussion on the GCSB and
operates Waihopai on behalf of American
Security Intelligence Service (SIS) within his party.
intelligence, and other member agencies of the
Rod, along with Labour MP Marian Hobbs, had been
UKUSA Agreement (ie UK, US, Australia, Canada
refused a visit to the Waihopai base at the time of
and NZ).
the January protest (see PR 12 for details), but his
efforts in court to explain his concerns about the
On Friday 18th of April, three days before the
GCSB were severely curtailed by Grace's inSistence
hearing, the defence of the Waihopai 20 finally came
that he was being "political".
together. We had contacted most of the defendants.
Transport and accommodation were arranged.
Defendants and supporters arrived at the Spring
Meetings with the defence lawyers were set up, and
Creek holiday camp, the day before the case, in
Glen Singleton, an American who directs policy and
bright cool sunshine and cautiously positive mood.
planning at the GCSB, had been subpoenaed (see
We discussed arrangements and confirmed
elsewhere in this issue for more detail on Singleton).
witnesses. In the evening we met with the defence
We'd canvassed for donations and support, chased
lawyers and finalised our defence strategy. Some of
up MPs circulated the media, painted banners, sold
us would have preferred a more direct testimonial
raffle i
t ckets, made a database of defendants'
onslaught on the base than was proposed, but
situations and those few wtth previous convictions,
Williams's tactic of emphasising the moral nature of
and argued about witnesses and defence strategies
the defence was to prove more viable. (Meanwhile
amongst people scattered from Chr'lstchurch to
Warren Thomson was launching his own direct
Auckland. There was little more we could do.
onslaught on any to'llet within reach - he contracted
severe, but mercifully brief, food poisoning. Be
American Spy Subpoenaed careful of Blenheim hamburgers. You might get Mad
Spy Disease).
Singleton's subpoena - delivered to his home by
Mark Roach early one morning in Wellington after In the morning the defendants and over 20
several unsuccessful efforts - was an interesting but supporters paraded in the park opposite the court
ultimately fruitless attempt to get a senior GCSB house. The media gathered. There was a meeting of
official into the witness box. We wanted to see if he lawyers and witnesses, then we all filed into the
would respond to any questions and to explicitly court. The 20 defendants were shepherded into the
demonstrate the dominating American presence jury box and the seats along the front of the barrier
inthe GCSB. Peter Williams QC was not enthusiastic that divides off the court and the public seating. Two
about this. In the end his court knowledge proved neatly suited gentlemen observed proceedings from
the back of the court. They later reluctantly reveale(j
they were Hugh Wolfensohn (now second in The reason for this was that the defendants had
command at GCSB) and Waihopai boss Bruce Miller. acted on the day in an exemplary fashion and there
Towards the end of the trial they rather upset the was no element of "moral turpitude" ie criminality; the
judge when their cellphone rang and he ordered them defendants were acting in the public good. He
out of the court to take the call. Someone audibly proceeded onto a long exposition on the importance
joked that it was probably the Prime Minister on the of civil disobedience in a "mad" world; one in which
line. You never know. (Mind you, having read about progressive reforms had come from those who stood
the secret scrambler phone in the office of a very up against the Establishment of the day.
senior police commander at Scotland Yard which Occasionally his peroration wandered, but much was
kept ringing with orders for pizzas, it could have been impressive and sometimes moving. He traversed the
anyone.) global history of the protest movement and waved
aloft the book of the moment, John Ralston Saul's
This wasn't the only comic moment - during the "The Unconscious Civilization".
moming, a door by the judge creaked open, with
nobody to be seen. Shortly thereafter, an unearthly
No "Politics" In Court
yowling filled the court, and the judge's assistant
rushed down and put out an inquisitive black cat that
The problems started when Nicky Hager was called
had come in for a looksee. A black cat might have
as the first witness (and arrived with his five year old
been right at home during some of the recent cases
daughter in tow. Julia wasn't allowed to accompany
arising out of "ritual Satanic child abuse", but it was
Dad into the witness box.). Grace warned Williams
not required for a case involving a spy agency which
he only accepted the tenor of his argurnent to the
is very keen to keep all its cats very firmly in the bag.
extent he was showing the motivation of the
Decorum was restored, the majesty of the law no
defendants and would not accept criticism of the
more disturbed by furry interlopers).
base. Nicky began to describe what was in his book
and Grace stopped him. Williams rephrased his
The court was almost full as the judge appeared and
question once or twice but Nicky seldom got more
called a roll of defendants. The police gave their
than a few sentences out before Grace prevented
evidence, which was very perfunctory. 'They were
him from continuing. The judge was becoming more
warned not to cross the (outer, road) fence. They did,
hostile and the tension in the court was mounting as
so we arrested them for trespass" . The prosecution
Williams continued to try to work the defence. Grace
case was over in minutes. Williams rose to give the
reminded us several times that Nicky's evidence was
opening statement for the defence. He placed his
all hearsay anyway. It seemed possible our defence
papers on a lectern, then told the judge that we
would stall completely.
sought a discharge under the judge's discretionary
powers under Section 19 of the Criminal Justice Act.
Continued next page c::ifiF>

Rob Hanlon and Gwen Struik before the Waihopai trial in Blenheim

Peaee Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 3

The Judgement
The judge had agreed to allow showing of the 1996
TV3 20120 documentary on WaihOpai (see PR 12 for We retumed to our seats. The judge came back and
details) but it was clear he was antagonistic and gave his summation. He went over the events and
made the point strongly that it was just more on the evidence. He made one or two small errors. He
Nicky's book. He watched the first part of the 17 referred to the political aspects of the defence, the
minute film then sa! back with his little finger across hearsay, and worst of all, his inference that the
his mouth and his head lowered. At least the defence was in part, at least, an attempt to gain
policeman who had been dozing in his chair awoke. publiCity for our cause through the medium of his
For some reason Grace got more interested in the court (heaven forbid). He did take on board the
last third of the video and did seem to absorb the sincere beliefs of the 20, and reviewed Williams'
content. proposition that such actions are necessary and
publicly good. He dismissed this and said that this
He remained adamant that there was to be no would not override the basic charge that our protest
"politics" in the courtroom, and Williams had to take went beyond the law, and that we would be
Nicky off the stand. Rod Donald MP followed. He convicted.
managed to get across the point that he was refused
admission to the base and that Parliament had lost He informed uS that those who had no previous
control over it in between Grace telling him it was convictions would be treated as one group, that the
"politics". It seems a little beside the point to ask a convictions previously registered had no bearing on
politician to not talk about "politics". At this stage the case except those of Warren Thomson, and that
Grace called a recess. We walked out in the he would be treated separately. He then proceeded
sunshine for a few minutes. to go through the other 19 and declare them to be
convicted and discharged. People were relieved to
We filed back in. Grace seemed a little better find that they were not going to be further punished.
humoured. Williams began to call testimony from the He then came back to Warren and fined him $300. It
defendants - five designated to represent the 20. could have been worse.
Kate McPherson was first. It was a tough situation
given Grace's previous disposition and when Kate Media interest in the trial was less than during the
referred to her notes a few times the judge stopped protest in January. There were reports in all the
her. But she spoke clearly and made, with conviction, major papers although they tended to focus on what
points about victimisation of the Pacific as she grew happened in court rather than the issue of the GCSB.
in confidence. The Mar/borough Express ran a good story on its
front page. But there has been a considerable shift in
Anna Fenwick followed. She'd learnt from the public awareness over the last year. Most journalists
experience and spoke without the notes she'd been now know about Waihopai and have some idea what
nervously writing only a few minutes before. She we protest about. A number of MPs recognise the
added more points on the reasons we wanted the issue and are concerned. Awareness of the existence
base closed, and made an excellent impression. of the base has filtered through to a large number of
Warren Thomson followed, and pOlitely reminded the the public who take an interest in political and social
judge that he'd been in exactly the same situation a matters.
year before (which probably served to remind Grace
to later single Warren out for harsher treatment). He Probably for the first time since Waihopai spying
outlined the way Waihopai abused civil rights and began nearly ten years ago, the GCSB is having to
how assurances of control over the intelligence deploy its defence mechanisms and polish up its
agencies had been shown to be mistaken. damage control. The spooks are still operating
behind closed curtains, but lots of people have
Hamish Bruce spoke well on the growth of caught a glimpse of the action inside and the GCSB
surveillance and its unacceptability. Maire is going to have a much harder job keeping the
Leadbeater finished our testimony by describing how curtains drawn.
one could not stand aside while the Western
intelligence club contributed to manipulation of the Thanks to everyone who supported us. The large
Pacific. Experienced and committed, obviously clear number of donations, the messages of support, and
in her mind exactly what she was doing and why she the phYSical presence of supporters, was hugely
had been at the base. Maire was an effective final encouraging. The campaign continues.
witness. When the testimony was completed the
atmosphere in the court was much more confident.
The Blenheim lawyer read out the background of
each defendant, Peter Williams made his closing
remarks very briefly, then we went off for lunch.

Peace Rcscarcl1cr 13 - August I tJ97 - Page-+

Spies do pretty much what they want to do, with
minimal accountability outside the impenetrable Wolfensohn, Gary said "Obviously you're doing your
security surrounding their own invisible intemational Job very well. It's a top secret installation. There's
society. The recent Waihopai 20 court trial is a case been no more secret man than you as far as I'm
in point. Glen Singleton, an expatriate American concemed".) I have the impression that my
high up in the GCSB, was subpoenaed to appear in correspondence with GCSB director Ray Parker in
the court for the defendants. He didn't appear, and recent months has involved significant dollops of
the judge would not have allowed his testimony Wolfensohn's legal advice. Nicky Hager describes
anyway (see main article on the trial elsewhere in this Wolfensohn as the Senior Executive Officer for legal
issue). Thus the 20 defendants failed to get rnatters. (On McCormick, Wolfensohn introduced
Singleton on the stand. Whatever the reason, that himself as the Executive Director - confirmed by
failure illustrates the immunity from public scrutiny Nicky Hager - which puts him close to Parker in the
enjoyed by intelligence officers. On the other hand, command structure.)
the two chaps shown on the cover of this issue did
appear in the courtroom to observe the proceedings. Bruce Miller is the new Officer in Charge of the
They were uninvited; they simply showed up Waihopai station. He replaced Colin Waite recently.
unannounced. Walte was the original OiC having started at
Waihopai in early 1 989. Prior to moving to
Who are these three men? We must turn to THE Waihopai, Miller was the manager of the GCSB
authoritative source to find out about Singleton, and SIGINT Collection Unit which "does the preparatory
Bruce Miller and Hugh Wolfensohn - to the book work for the interception at Waihopai and
"Secret Power" by Nicky Hager. It is worth Tangimoana". His code name in that position was
summarising Nicky's knowledge of them here. "C". Presumably, his new position as an Oi "CO is a
step upwards and into the bleak paddocks of the
Glen Singleton appeared on the NZ intelligence Waihopai Valley.
scene in 1 984. An American intelligence
Officer, he held the post of Director of Colin Waite provides another example of
Policy and Plans at the GCSB from 1 984 to protection of the intelligence establishment
1 987. The NZ government was unaware of from testimony and questioning in our courts
that fact at the time. Singleton's office was of law. He appeared on the stand for the
next to that of the GCSB Director and he prosecution in the 1 996 Waihopai trial (see
had seemingly free access to the director PR 9). When I , as a defendant without legal
(then Colin Hanson). "One of the many things [Prime counsel in that trial, tried to cross-examine
Minister DavidJ Lange did not know about the Waite on the functions of the Waihopai facility,
GCSB . . .was that this new officer was not under the Judge Grace cut me off. I invite the reader to reflect
control of the New Zealand government at all. Paid on the wall of silence around the GCSB that our
in American dollars and living in a house rented for judicial unwittingly helps to maintain. That was a
him by the local United States embassy, Singleton rare opportunity for us as defendants in a court of law
was an employee of an organisation called the to question a knowledgeable spy first hand in order to
National Security Agency (NSA)." ("Secret Power", p establish the facts underpinning our defence against
21) the charges. No hearsay, no rumour, no second­
hand reporting - straight from the OiC's mouth. But it
This i s the man that the 2 0 Waihopai defendants was not allowed; it was deemed irrelevant.
hoped to subject to questioning through their
attorney, Peter Williams, QC. It was not to happen. Less than one year later, 20 arrestees had their
defence cut short by the same judge, this time on the
During the lunch break in the trial, MP Rod Donald basis of hearsay. The testimony of an internationally
called me across the street from the court house to acknowledged authority on the GCSB and SIGINT
introduce me to deux eminence grise (yes, men in (Nicky Hager) was dismissed as hearsay. And
grey suits), Bruce Miller and Hugh Wolfensohn. It testimony by an elected representative of the people,
was a short and unrewarding chat. They were member of Parliament Rod Donald, was dismissed
pleasant and smiling, but with lips sealed to all but as political.
the most superficial chitchat. (In a recent McCormick
TV show, Gary McC and Nicky Hager visited the Meanwhile the Singletons, Wolfensohns, Millers and
GCSB (unannounced) in the Freyberg Bldg in their ilk continue spying under domes and behind
Wellington. They were met by Wolfensohn outside blast-proof doors. But I think we have dented their
the blast-proof doors at the GCSB entrance. After armour. They didnllike having their photos taken.
failing to get any answer of substance out of

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 5

What replaced it?
- Bob Leonard

The tiny star representing the fourth foreign base in This information comes from the magazine New
the ABC letterhead map of NZ has been erased. Scientist (21 February 1 997). The article made no
Black Birch Naval Observatory is kaput (although the mention of the military uses of accurate star maps -
buildings are still there on the mountain). A circle­ the reason behind the fervent opposition to the Black
transit telescope was used there for 1 0 years Birch facility by the peace movement. Trident
mapping real stars for both civilian and military uses. nuclear missiles carried on US nuclear submarines
Peace Researcher published a number of articles on would be guided to their targets by stellar inertial
Black B i rch over the years (our first article was i n guidance, a system that is totally dependent on the
1 984 as observatory construction neared star positiOns generated by observatories like Black
completion). In a 1 989 article (PR 22) we discussed Birch and now, Hipparcos.
the Hipparcos satellite as the way of the future in
star-mapping. (Hipparcos stands for High-Precision In case you had forgotten about Trident nuclear
Parallax Collecting Satellite.) missiles the following quote is chilling: "Even with
civilians aboard, the subs are on active duty and
The Hipparcos satellite was in fact launched in 1989, canry a full stock of weapons". (New Scientist,
but its final orbit was a near disaster because of a 2 November 1 996)
failed rocket motor. Instead of a nice stable
geostationary orbit, the satellite was placed in a That quote is from an article that begins, "The Cold
highly elliptical one that came within only 500 km of War is over. The nuclear threat has faded. And with
Earth at its closest approach. The astronomers had a shortage of enemies to play underwater hide-and­
to cope with the orbit by rewriting the software for seek with, America's admirals can lie back, relax and
controlling t h e satellite and using ground stations all think about what they can do for science".
around the planet to download data. Despite these
formidable problems, the satellite observed over a Perhaps they also think about what science (civilian
million stars and mapped their positions until June astronomers) has done for targeting nuclear
1 993 when Hipparcos fell silent. I n less than four warheads.
years of operation it had collected over one trillion
( 1 012) bytes of data on star positions. The accuracy
of the finally published star positions is up to 1 00

times better than that of the old Black Birch data. It
took over 3 years of massive number crunching
computer power to process the raw data for
publication i n comprehensive star catalogues.


Police Question ABC - Murray Horton

At the height of the 1 980s "ANZUS RoW", when the them could (the only attempt at a proper costing
US was "punishing" NZ for the crime of deciding its came from the Americans themselves).
own nuclear free destiny, the Tasmanian State
government pushed hard to get the Reagan One of the then Labour government's most excitable
government to transfer the US Navy/Air Force proponents of retaining Harewood was Mike Moore
Operation Deep Freeze base from Christchurch (who rose to the giddy heights of Prime Minister for
Airport to Hobart. It never happened and it appears all of eight weeks, in 1 990, when nobody else wanted
that not even the Reaganauts seriously considered it. to lead the hated Rogemaut govemment into
inevitable electoral oblivion). Now old Mad Mike's at
In response, all manner of national and local worthies it again. I n the context of the Antarctic Treaty
ran round plucking figures from the air as to the Consultative Meeting, held in Christchurch in May
purported value of Deep Freeze to the local and 1 997, Moore was once again pushing his favourite
national economy. These ranged as high as $20 barrow of having Christchurch become "the capital of
million. Citizens for Demilitarisation of Harewood, Antarctica" or, at least, the site of the yet to be
ABC's predecessor, asked these politicians to created secretariat for the Antarctic Treaty nations.
substantiate their claims. Funnily enough, none of To back his case, he declaimed: "The Americans are

Peace Researcher 1 3 - August 1997 - Page 6

worth $10m a year to the city' (Press, 30/5/97). Wishart promptly put that into a press release
Where does he get these figures from and can he ("industry sources estimate the value of the GA TT
substantiate them? I f anything, the amount of money Agreement to be $3 billion" or suchlike). That figure
spent in Christchurch by the US military will lessen. has been repeated as gospel ever since. It's as
Why? Because, in 1 998, the US Navy is leaving (to simple as that. Ed.
be replaced by the New York Air National Guard, for
Antarctic flights) and staff numbers are being cut, for On the subject of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative
budgetary reasons. But don't expect that to be taken Meeting, ABC (in the person of Murray Horton) was
into account by Mike Moore or others of his ilk. surprised (flattered?) to be viSited by two detectives,
inquiring if we were planning any protest action
An insight into how these "value of' figures are during the Meeting. We could truthfully say no, we'd
invented was provided by lan Wishart, the noted never even considered any. For the record, our
journalist and best selling author of "The Paradise position is that we have no objection to peaceful
Conspiracy" during CAFCA's "Who Owns The scientific activity in Antarctica. Antarctica per se is
News?" seminar, in August 1996. During the 1980s not our issue. But we very definitely are concerned
Labour government, Wishart was press secretary to about the logistical support operation for that
none other than Trade Minister, Mike Moore. Labour scientific presence (ie Operation Deep Freeze) being
wanted to sell the benefits of GA TT to a sceptical used as a cover for a multi-purpose, medium level
nation. Wishart rang round "benefiCiaries" of GA TT. US military base. Murray was quite happy to invite
He rang the Dairy Board and asked for a the cops into his home to give them a free lecture to
figure. "Haven't got a clue" was the answer. that effect. Their visit wasn't entirely a waste - they
Desperate, Wishart asked for a guess. "Oh, perhaps did bring his milk bottles in for him.
$3 billion".


- Murray Horton

The Minister of Defence, Paul East, has been "Determined to maintain a credible defence force".
kiteflying on the subject of New Zealand returning to He undercuts his own argument by pointing out that,
ANZUS (from which we have been suspended since despite our non-ANZUS status, NZ still has 1 40
1 986, courtesy of our nuclear free policy). East flew separate military arrangements with Australia, of
his kite, appropriately, at a regimental dinner at which the ANZAC frigates are only a part. East also
Hobson Air Base. He described the 1 970s and 80s claims that our ANZUS suspension left us "without
anti-nuclear movement as "irrational" but: "I believe the training, intelligence and security assurances that
that the extreme anti-nuclear swing may be starting ANZUS offered" (Press, ibid). As far as intelligence
to return to the centre...How would New Zealand goes, that's nonsense, for starters. PElrhaps the
react, for example, to the sudden closure of its trade Minister of Defence should read "Secret Power".
routes to South East Asia, China and Japan, because Despite the alleged ban on US intelligence flow to
of a stoush in the South China Sea? (there's those punish NZ during the ANZUS Row, it never stopped
Spratlys again. Eel). How would we react to a at all. And it certainly never stopped flowing from NZ
brushfire war in Asia where we perceived our vital to the US. Waihopai was built as a brand new NZ
interests to be involved? What would we do if there spybase, serving US intelligence, by Lange's nuclear
was an attack on Australia's Northern Territory - even free Labour government at the height of that row.
a small one? . . " (Press, 31/5/97).

But Ministers such as East have never let the facts

All this stuff is par for the course for National get i n the way of a good story. This kite has been
Ministers, who had a road to Damascus conversion flown periodically over the years by nostalgiC Tories
to the anti-nuclear cause prior to the 1 990 election, (who contradict their own dogma 'You Can't Turn
because they perceived that issue as the one trump Back The Clock". Actually you can, i f you're a second
card that Labour held over them (the 1 987 election hand car dealer, but that's another story). It deserves
had featured the issue as a key difference between to be publicly shot down once more. New Zealand is
the two parties). Their transparent opportunism nuclear free and ANZUS free. ABC continues to
means that they would backslide into ANZUS as campaign to make it bases free. Only then will the
soon as wink - if the public let them get away with it. American military/intelligence chain have been finally
East has gone on a PR offensive, for example in a broken.
New Zealand Herald article (1 1 /6/97) entitled:

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 7

- Murray Horton


ready to take steps to approach and interview the

PR 1 0 & 1 1 gave a detailed account of the July 1 996
men. Before they did that they were instructed by a
bungled SIS break in at the Christchurch home of
senior Police Office at the Criminal I ntelligence
GATT Watchdog activist, Aziz Choudry, during the
Service of the Police headquarters in Christchurch to
Trading With O u r Lives Alternative Forum (held to
cease the enquiry. That instruction was given on the
coincide with the APEC Trade Ministers Meeting in
basis that no criminal offence had been committed.
Christchurch). The break in was interrupted by fellow
That enquiry then ended. My conclusions are that the
activist and University of Canterbury academic,
actions and procedures which affected the
David Small, who had called round to collect some
complainants were lawful, reasonable and justified.
things from Aziz's house. For their pains, both Aziz
No crime or offence was committed ... The instruction
and David were subjected to police raids on their
from the CIS to cease the inquiry was justified at law
homes, in connection with a very dubious fake bomb
and proper". You draw your own conclusions. (Aziz
(described in police files as being labelled "APEC
bomb"!) left outside the Christchurch City Council asked the Christchurch POlice for an explanation of
their role in all this. They refused to release any
information except for the name of the senior officer
It was a very, very murky affair. The State clammed who ordered the enquiry to cease - he was Detective
up, confirming public and media speculation that it Senior Sergeant Lyall).
was indeed the SIS (they can't even do a simple
The Inspector General's report concluded: "This is a
break in). Rather than revisit the issue, we suggest
summary of my investigations and conclusions. It
you refresh your memory from the PR back issues.
would be improper for me to disclose any further
David Small laid a complaint with the Police
facts or infomnation, whether of an affimnative or
Complaints Authority, which has yet to be resolved.
negative nature, because to do so might compromise
Both David and Aziz also laid complaints with the
the crime detection security and intelligence
Inspector General of Intelligence and Security, the
gathering functions of the NZSIS or the Police and its
first such case under the 1 996 Intelligence and
Criminal Intelligence Section. I n the course of my
Security Agencies Act.
enquiry into those complaints, I interviewed both Mr
Choudry and Dr Small. I was impressed by their
The Inspector General, judge Laurie Greig, came to
forthright cooperation with me. I have no hesitation in
Christchurch in March 1 997, and conducted separate
expressing my opinion that they were entirely honest
"informal interviews" with both men. In June, he
in all the matters we discussed... lt is right to say that,
released his report (the unexpurgated version went to
in my opinion, both Mr Choudry and Dr Small are
the Prime Minister, who is the Minister in Charge of
completely free from blame, responsibility or
the SIS. Bolger declined to release it). The public
suspicion of any criminal conduct in any question
version can be summed up in one word - whitewash.
"I am satisfied that the NZSIS had no part directly or arising out of the inCident of the hoax bomb. Their
characters and reputations remain entirely unaffected
indirectly in instigating, promoting or providing
and unscathed by anything that occurred in that
infomnation to the Police to proceed in any way
incident. In the result then, my conclusion was that
against the complainants in connection with the hoax
the complaint could not be upheld. This was not a
bomb, break in or any other event or incident. I am
case for any recommendation of any fomn of redress
equally satisfied that the NZSIS had no part, directly
or other remedy".
or indirectly, in the hoax bomb. I accept the
assurances of the Director General. Any other
Funnily enough, neither Aziz nor David was satisfied
conclusion would defy reason and credibility".
by this report. They took it back into the political
arena, seeing MPs of several parties and released it
The key event was the break in. The report never
to the media. Aziz said it was "totally predictable and
confimns nor denies that the men found in Aziz's
thoroughly unsatisfactory. Nothing in the report
home were SIS agents. But there is one additional
suggests that the men intercepted on my property by
fact to be found in the report and it is very revealing.
"The Police acted on Dr Small's complaint promptly Dr Small were anything other than SIS operatives. It
does not even raise the question as to who these
and efficiently. Within a short while the vehicle had
men are and what they were doing on my property"
been identified and immobilised. The Police were

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 8

(Press, 20/6/97 , "Activist unhappy at break in report", Aziz was accommodating Alejandro Villamar, who
Greg Jackson). spoke at Trading With Our Lives as a representative
of the Mexican Action Network on Free Trade.
Nicky Hager, author of "Secret Power", also released Immediately after the forum finished, both Alejandro
a statement (20/6/97; "SIS Role In Christchurch and Aziz left on a speaking tour. They were in the
Break In Confirmed"). "I have been informed North Island when police raided Aziz's house in
specifically by colleagues of the agents concemed connection with the hoax bomb (nobody has ever
that it was the SIS which arranged the break in of Mr been charged with that). Maybe the Govemment told
Choudry's home. The story circulating inside the SIS the SIS to see if Alejandro was forging links between
after the agents were caught was that it was not Mr Mexico's Zapatista guerillas and New Zealand
Choudry who was the target, but supposedly some activists, both Maori and pakeha? Dangerous
foreigners. This is presumably the story that was foreigners (it used to be Libyans and Cubans)
given to the Inspector General. However it lacks running guns to Maori radicals used to be a stock i n
credibility as there is nothing to link Mr Choudry with trade o f backbench National MPs - Winston Peters
dangerous foreigners. This is the kind of convenient cut his teeth on that sort of tripe. But now it's
excuse that can be advanced to justify any Mexicans, apparently.
operations against political opponents of the
Govemment. A separate SIS source said to me that The central fact is not that the SIS broke into the
the real reason for targeting Choudry will have been house of a political activist. Although it is a new twist
that the SIS could 'expect a lot of brownie points' that it was not the house of a communist or unionist,
from the Govemment and intelligence allies for but that of someone actively pushing an aHemative
targeting an anti-free trade activis\...(The Inspector to the Govemment's free trade ideology. This is i n
General) is, in effect, accepting that the SIS may well line with the 1 996 Act empowering the S I S to
break into other lawful protesters' houses in future investigate threats to New Zealand's "economic
and that, if it does, the people would be wasting their wellbeing". No, the difference here is that the SIS got
time complaining to him. This confirms public fears caught and identified in the act. It was a cockup. The
that (1996's) new intelligence oversight laws were official channels have performed their time honoured
designed to be ineffective . . . lt would have done far role of covering up and whitewashing the State's
more for public confidence if Justice Greig had covert bungling.
confirmed the SIS was involved and discussed the
serious issue of whether it was acting lawfully". This is far from the end of this saga. The possibility
of further legal action is being explored. PR will keep
And who were these "foreigners" who may have been you posted.
a "legitimate" SIS target?


That 1 996 S I S cockup in Christchurch inspired an Sources have also confirmed that Amalgamated
enormous amount of media interest in the SIS (which Office Services (the mysterious Wellington company
is unusual). It culminated in a two page expose in the to which the registration of the Christchurch getaway
Sunday Star Times (1612197; "Spying on the spies"; vehicle was traced. Ed) was a front organisation for
Anthony Hubbard), which is an absolute goldmine of the Service..."

information. It drew heavily on the investigative

genius of Nicky Hager who, having left the GCSB The feature contained mUCh, much more, of both
shivering naked in "Secret Power's" spotlight, current and historical Significance. It exposed the
decided to turn his attention to the SIS. Nicky was SIS's bugging and surveillance centre (17
determined to get to the bottom of the Christchurch Kaiwharawhara Road, Wellington). Plus some
break in saga. absolute bombshell throwaway details: "And it has
never before been publicly revealed that in the
"After the break in was publicised, says Mr Hager, 1 980s, the former secretary general of the New
the SIS told senior politicians that the operation had Zealand Communist Party, Victor Wilcox, was
been aimed not at Mr Choudry and Dr Small, but at recruited by the 818 ."

possible foreign terrorists. But the only foreigners

invited, says Mr Choudry, were reputable people . . .'1f This feature is a must read for anyone interested
a foreign terrorist came here wanting to throw bombs in a critical overview of the 818. If you haven't
at APEC ministers', says Mr Hager, . obviously they seen it, contact us and we'll send you a copy.
wouldn't go near avowed anti-APEC protesters'. If
this is the case, then the SIS break in appears to be
iIIegal...lntelligence sources have now confirmed that
the break in was an SIS operation: it was, as one
source put it, 'bungled'.
Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 9

Jim Tumer, the then Deputy General Secretary of the
The first Inspector-General of Intelligence and
Public SeIVice Association, wrote in the December
Security, retired High Court Judge Laurie Greig,
1996 PSA Journal: "The SIS has wide powers,
issued a report, in June 1997, clearing the freedom from anything but the most superficial public
Department of Social Welfare's utilisation of both the
accountability, a specific goal of national security,
Security Intelligence SeIVice (SIS) and Government
and a history of bizarre behaviour... What do you do
Communications Security Bureau (GCSB).
in the SIS when approached by a govemment
Complaints had been made about the department
department about domestic political embarrassment?
calling in the spooks, in 1996, to deal with alleged
Tell your caller they obviously have the wrong
leaks of information from its employees. The
number? Explain that domestic political matters are
intelligence agencies are supposed to deal with
specifically not your concern? Apparently not. Being
threats to national security but Margaret Bazley,
short of work, you decide it is appropriate to
Director General of Social Welfare, wanted them to
inteIVene.. ," (It's worth noting that the PSA is the
stop potentially embarrassing material being released
union for the SIS and GCSB spooks. It's further worth
by disgruntled DSW employees, specifically to the
noting that the GCSB was used to sweep the room
Alliance. In May 1996, the GCSB swept Bazley's
used for post-election coalition negotiations between
office and the DSW boardroom for electronic bugs.
National and New Zealand First).
None were found. In September the department
sought urgent S I S help, claiming that disgruntled
Greig's 1997 report said that both agencies acted
Income Support SeIVice (ISS) staff were
both properly and lawfully. It endorsed the use of the
systematically leaking information to the Alliance.
SIS to advise government departments on security,
The SIS briefed senior ISS staff and ran a half day
and the GCSB to electronically protect official
course for staff. The SIS/GCSB involvement became
information from unauthOrised disclosure. His only
known in November and complaints were laid,
critiCism was that DSW management threatened
centring on legislation which is supposed to prevent
staff that the SIS would track down leaks! Alliance
either agency from becoming involved in domestic
MP, Matt Robson, who had laid the complaint,
political matters.
described the report as outrageous, saying the party
had gone from being the complainant to being the
Greig asked the leaders of the Parliamentary parties
target. He said that it set a disturbing precedent that
for their views on the subject. Former Labour PM,
allowed the SIS and GCSB to spy on public seIVants.
Mike Moore, called the revelation "a dangerous
He was particularly angry that Greig had not
development.. a fundamental and radical redirection
approached the Alliance with the allegations that it
of the SIS's role. The SIS should not be used for
was encouraging leaks. On the other hand, Labour
internal issues.. .it is wrong that the SIS should be
leader, Helen Clark, said that she didn't think that the
used to protect National Government interests"
spooks had done anything wrong.
(Press, 18/11/96).


Newsflash! The S I S still spies on people! Before Wrong. The SIS doesn1 like to think of itself as
the 1996 Act its a n n ual "report' to Parliament only useless (although everybody else does). So it is
had to reveal how many interception warrants were running around trying to find activities to justify its'
issued during the year in question. But now it must continued existence. One place where it has found a
also add in the number of warrants carried over from home is the previously unpublicised Combined Law
the previous year. The 1997 figures are: five issued Agen c y Group, made up of the police, customs,
during the year, and three carried over. immigration, the Serious Fraud Office and the SIS. In
that capacity it has twice popped u p in the media -
But the Cold War is over (we won, remember). So, once in connection with a specialist team launching
presumably all the old SIS spies who used to sit an Asian youth strategy to stop the spread of Asian
outside the Soviet Embassy all day and night will be gangs throughout NZ; and the other in connection
redundant now, right? (The May 1997 TV1 with the saga of the Chinese scientist caught trying to
McCormick show, with Nicky Hager, showed the SIS smuggle NZ apple tree cuttings out of the country.
sUIVeillance house oppOSite the Embassy, in
Wellington's Karori. It was easy to pick, said Nicky. But the SIS isn1 completely reduced to spying on
All the trees and bushes had been trimmed to a Asian malefactors in schoolyards and orchards.
uniform height to allow a clear line of sight. As for the There's still the threat of "terrorism'. June saw the
now Russian Embassy - an affable fellow wandered three day Exercise Guardian 97 in Wellington. POlice
out and invited both Nicky and Gary McCormick Commissioner Peter Doone said it was part of the
inside). annual training cycle for Government agencies that

Peace Researcher 1 3 - August 1997 - Page 1 0

would jointly deal with a terrorist crisis - the police, longstanding hearty dislike of the SIS. How do we
military, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, know? I nformation crops up in the strangest of
Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, and the places. The Christchurch Mail, a twice weekly
SIS. Hopefully in the event of real terrorism, the giveaway, with an utterly reactionary editorial line
country won't have to depend on the SIS - it was and Alan Duff columns to match, ran an obituary
absolutely nowhere to be seen when French State (8/5/97) entitled: 'S91 Warwick Maloney, a dinkum
terrorists bombed the Rainbow Warrior and killed cop". Among several sidesplitting anecdotes from the
Femando Pereira, in Auckland in 1 985. They were early 1 970s (who did put the elephant shit in the desk
caught by old fashioned pOlice work. drawer of the staff senior sergeant?) was this gem:
... intensive investigation failed to turn up the identity

This merging of spies and police is being seen of the ... person who penetrated the local office of the
throughout the Western world, most prominently i n Security I ntelligence Service, run by a failed and
t h e US, where the C I A and FBI are working together gullible ex-cop with master cop aspirations. Whoever
much more closely. The reason is the sarne - what it was flooded the office with high grade intelligence,
are the spies going to do now there's no namely that the Russians were planning to destroy
'international Communist threat'? the Canterbury wheat crop with a deadly ray and the
Japanese and Chinese were plotting to invade
In fairness to the cops, it should be pointed out that, Australia and New Zealand simultaneously'.
at least at the rank and file level, they have a


One consequence of the highly controversial 1 996
was lucky enough to be picked and had its first
Intelligence and Security Agencies Act was the
reading in June 1 997.
creation of a special intelligence and security
agencies committee (see previous issues of PR for
"My bill aims to correct the aberration represented by
coverage of the Act, opposition to it, and discussion
the Intelligence & Security Committee Act and
of the committee). This is not to be confused with a
reassert, in relation to intelligence and security
Parliamentary select committee - it can only consist
matters, the supremacy of Parliament and its
of the hand picked appointees of the Prime Minister
proceedings at all stages. It is remarkable this
(who is Minister in Charge of the SIS). In other
statutory committee should have been established at
words, 'indoctrinated' people. The committee is
headed by the PM and the Leader of the Opposition
the very time when, with the passing of the Cold War
is an automatic member. Bolger nominated Deputy
era, it can be least justified. It's very existence
PM, Winston Peters, and Minister of Foreign Affairs,
denigrates Parliament.
Don McKinnon. Helen Clark nominated former
Labour PM, Mike Moore. ACT leader Richard "The I&SC Act removed from select committee
Prebble had wanted to nominate former Minister, consideration and/or scrutiny items of business that
Peter Dunne, but dipped out. normally have been referred to a select committee
and vested that responsibility in a closed statutory
Prebble, a former Labour senior Minister has no faith committee, compriSing the Prime Minister, the Leader
in the SIS: 'When the Gulf War was on we got better of the Opposition and their nominees. It is highly
information from CNN than we did from them. I can't inappropriate in a democracy such as New Zealand,
ever remember getting anything that it couldn't have that the one person who combines the office of Prime
got from Time magazine' (Dominion, 23/5/97). So Minister and the Minster in Charge of the S/S also
now we know what SIS agents do all day - they read chairs a body that ought to be more independently
Time. Funnily enough, in the famous 1 980s episode examining the activities of the intelligence and
of the SIS agent who left his briefcase at a security agencies.
Wellington bus stop, it wasn't Time but Penthouse
that was found in it. It's a terrible job but somebody's "Not satisfied with this control the Prime Minister also
got to do it. has the power to approve the committee nominees,
including that of the Leader of the Opposition. My bill
The committee wasn't created until nearly a year restores to its rightful place parliamentary scrutiny of
after the passage of the ISA Act. Alliance MP, Rod the activities of the intelligence and security
Donald, led a move to get the committee abolished agencies" (Rod Donald, press statement, 1 3/6/97).
and its functions transferred to a regular select
committee. This was defeated, with Labour voting What does the new committee do? Well, the public
with the Government. Not content to let it rest there, won't find out, because it conducts its business in
Rod presented his own private Member's Bill to have private. But at its first meeting, on an undisclosed
the committee abolished. Private Members' Bills only date, it decided to add $546,000 to the SIS's annual
make it to the floor of the House by ballot - Rod's

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 1 1

Denis Doherty is the national coordinator of the
games. BASC was a huge piece of land in the middle
Australian Anti Bases Campaign Coalition, ABC's
of Rockhampton which had been transformed into a
Australian counterpart. Due to Australia's continued
massive military base with over 500 tents, hundreds
membership of ANZUS, Denis and co have a lot
of vehicles, both US and Australian, helicopters and
more to do than us. The AABCC organised protests
satellite dishes.
against the massive US/Australian military exercise,
Tandem Thrust, held in central and northern As US and Australian personnel anived at or left the
Queensland in March 1997. Courtesy of our nuclear base, they passed large banners and placards which
free fall from grace, New Zealand is no longer messages like "Tandem Thrust practices invasion,
welcome at these exercises. Too bad. Ed. not defence" and "Save the reef from war games
grief' (the reef being the Great BatTier Reef. Ed).
Four days of successful protests in Rockhampton Protesters were courteous to the military, offering
against the Tandem Thrust military exercises ended them leaflets specially prepared for American and
on Saturday, March 1 5. As the date for the protests Australian forces.
drew close, tropical Cyclone Justin was deepening
off Cairns. Huge seas and heavy winds threatened The fence around the base had been reinforced by
the war games. Military aircraft and ships headed for masses of barbed wire. This provided a convenient
safer places. site to display over 200 signed certificates of support
for the protests against Tandem Thrust. Australian
But the cyclone weakened and the seas subsided. soldiers brought cordial and biscuits out to the
Military authorities declared that "Operation Tandem protesters, having first carefully arranged for Channel
Thrust is on again", with a few minor adjustments. 9 cameras to be in place to film it.
The amphibious landings were put back a few days.
The protests went ahead too.
The military claimed the gesture showed they were
tolerant of protest. Demonstrators retorted that
Vigil Aussie soldiers clearly agreed that they shouldn1 be
taking American orders to invade but should be
The first event, on Wednesday (March 1 2) , was a defending our Great Banier Reef.
vigil at the gates of the Base Administration and
Support Centre (BASC) in Rockhampton, the University Forum
administrative centre for the Tandem Thrust war
On Wednesday afternoon a forum attended by about
"'Continued from previous page ••. 80 people was held at the University of Central
Queensland. Despite much thundering against the
. . . budget of $9,968,000. "To spend on what? We will protests by the Rockhampton Chamber of
never know, because the (committee) is not Commerce, the Mayor and the local National Party
accountable to Parliament..." (ibid). Subsidies and State and Federal MPs, all declined to put their views
handouts are dirty words to the free market to the students. The Australian military has a policy
ideologues in power - except when it comes to the of refusing to debate with peace activists. All this
spies. Don1 worry if your budget isn1 enough - have gave the impression that Tandem Thrust is
some more. Perhaps they need to send their agents unsustainable and impossible to support.
on a refresher course on breaking and entering. And
in light of one agent's inability to shake off a pursuing As a result, the forum proceeded with only one view
academic, the taxpayer had better shout the SIS a put from the platform -- opposition to Tandem Thrust.
gym as well. They're obviously unfit. Too much However, several university staff members who were
sitting round reading Time. former members of the Australian and Canadian
military had been running a campaign via the
Rod's bill was defeated in July, not proceeding past university's e-mail to have the forum stopped. They
its second reading. The vote was 1 06-13, meaning attended and fiercely supported Tandem Thrust from
no MPs other than Alliance ones voted for it. Jim the floor of the forum.
Bolger said, in the debate, that the SIS is necessary
because: "Unfortunately there are nasty people i n the Local environmental activist Pat O'Brien outlined the
world" (NZ Herald, 1 017197). He added that the SIS is environmental reasons for stopping Tandem Thrust,
now saving us from m oney launderers and foreign and the President of the Rockhampton Democrats,
terrorists disguised as refugees. Ed). Mrs Fay Lawrence, discussed the nuclear issues

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 12

arising from the presence of a nuclear submarine in On Friday evening, a prayer service was held at the
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Denis Doherty of the gates of the base. The last event was on Saturday
Anti-Bases Campaign spoke about the political and morning, a small gathering of all involved and an
military reasons for the exercise, stressing that the evaluation of the protests.
Tandem Thrust was designed to practice co­
operative invasions of Asia-Pacific countries. A Few Can Do So Much

Occupation The general consensus was that the protest was

successful, showing how just a few can do so much.
On Thursday morning, protesters occupied a huge Representatives from Brisbane, Sydney, Maitland,
roundabout south of Rockhampton. With US forces Nimbin and Perth travelled to Rockhampton. Two
approaching from the south after coming ashore in activists from Tahiti were among the demonstrators
Gladstone, protesters thought both the people of who withdrew from the protest because they feared
Rockhampton and the military would see all their being stranded in Rockhampton if the cyclone and
banners. Roughly three to one of the civilian vehicles floods cut the roads.
passing supported the protesters -- but strangely not
one military vehicle was seen. Demonstrators later Evidence of widespread support for the protests
leamt that police had established a roadblock 40 kms included the many certificates of support that were
south and diverted all military traffic so they would collected and donations which came from all round
not pass the protest. Locals were astonished because the country. In addition, demonstrations were held in
the road that military traffic was diverted onto is other centres in solidarity with the Rockhampton
rough and dangerous. actions.

Australian forces were coming from Townsville to the Perth activists boarded a warship en route for
north so protesters moved north to blockade the best Tandem Thrust and in Brisbane, pickets were staged
road into the Shoalwater Training area. Army at the Defence Department on Friday, March 7 and
helicopters located the protesters and the Australian again on March 14. In Sydney on March 4, protesters
convoy was diverted onto another road. The military occupied the foyer of the Defence Department during
were forced to go over 1 00 kms out of their way, a lunchtime protest while outside others handed out
again over rough and dangerous roads. leaflets and collected petition signatures to a
background of banners, placards and cardboard
A combined force of ten men and women "armed" dugongs (an endangered marine mammal, "the cow
with cloth banners was sufficient to make the might of the sea". Ed). On March 1 5 , activists took the
of the US and Australian forces tremble. protest against Tandem Thrust to the waters of
Sydney harbour.
We also had a land and water action against the USS
Friday was planned as a more dramatic day on which Independence when it came into Sydney harbour in
protesters d irectly confronted the military. "We April (it is a nuclear capable aircraft carrier that had
arrived at BASC military base at 7am and proceeded been involved in Tandem Thrust). It came in 24
to block the main gate with our banners," protesters hours earlier than expected and with little notice we
report. "The response surprised us. Vehicles stopped only managed to get 20 people on land and in the
immediately and military police directed vehicles to water one yacht, two zodiacs (inflatables) and six
another gate. kayaks. But we got good media coverage and we got
one person onto the warshi p twice and off again, with
"So we proceeded to block another entrance. The no arrests.
same response occurred. Then one soldier took
exception to our people and drove through the The impact of the demonstrations and protests will
banner which wrapped itself around the windscreen be that another Tandem Thrust in 1 8 months will be
and forced the driver to stop. He nearly struck the less likely, and if it does happen, much more strongly
military police and was quickly arrested and led resisted.
away. This all took place in front of the media's

"After this two us of walked right into the base and

asked to speak to the commander. We waited
politely for 40 minutes and then we warned the
authorities that we were coming in. We then walked
in. They responded with military police, Australian
Protective Services (which guard military
installations, including Australia's numerous US
spybases. Ed.) and the Queensland Police, a force of
over 25 massed to arrest just two protesters!"

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 1 3

Shoalwater Bay, near Rockhampton and within the
Tandem Thrust was also criticised from another,
marine park, has for decades been a focus for
unexpected, quarter - the Christchurch Press. An
conservation groups because of its coastal
editorial entitled "Protecting the reef' (6/5/97) said:
wildemess. During Operation Tandem Thrust, about
•... The (Great Barrier) reef is listed as a World
4,000 US troops came ashore in the area. The
Heritage marine park and is protected by an act of
department also told the marine park authority it
Parliament designed to ensure that Its unique
wanted to use underwater explosives there.
qualities are not spoilt. The push to ignore that
Conservationists were aghast. Any extenSive blasting
protection is continuing. The latest offender IS the
would damage the dugongs, marine turtles and
Australian Department of Defence. It sought to have
humpback dolphins for which the bay is an important
foreign warships discharge waste at Shoalwater Bay,
habitat· ...
the site of March's Operation Tandem Thrust, a Jomt
military exercise with the United States.

Recent issues of PR have followed the were relocated to Clark, and promptly

�tt���� �lII�
titanic struggle of the people of Okinawa

! fell ill with gastrointestinal disorders
to rid themselves of an overwhelming ! uL \'-'" and skin rashes. Environmentalists
US military presence. A struggle which blamed it on contaminated water from
put the entire US/Japan military
ff/ I: tf l: HJ W wells dug in Clark - the relocation site
relationship into jeopardy. It was
sparked by the 1 995 brutal rape of a 1 2
1 tI \ \ W � used to be the major motorpool and
vehicle maintenance area of the
year old Okinawan schOolgirl by US base. But Bruce Byers, US Embassy
military personnel. The American military keeps press attache in Manila, says the US won't be
shooting itself in the foot in Japan. The latest crime cleaning up any toxic wastes at Clark, nor does it
was that of a U S sailor who was arrested at accept that the former base was the source of any
Yokosuka Naval Base, in April 1 997, for allegedly toxic wastes. He said that the US government has
beating his Japanese girlfriend on the base. He "no legal authority· to undertake the clean up after it
pleaded provocation, saying she bit his penis (don't relinquished its authority to the Philippines
ask). But that same month, the Japanese government in 1 991 (Philippine Daily Inquirer,
Government caved in under relentless US pressure 1 6/5/97: ·Not ours: US disowns toxic wastes").
(and ignoring massive protests around the country)
by renewing the l ease on all American bases, However, there are Filipinos who want to re-establish
including those on Okinawa. the US military presence. Several politiCians and
generals have been noisily campaigning for the
And PR has documented the toxic legacy of nearly a bases to be re-established, under the aegis of the
century of US military bases in the Philippines (the 1 951 Philippines/US Mutual Defense Treaty, which
only Asian country to have been an American supposedly commits the US to defend the Philippines
colony). The bases were closed and the US military from extemal aggression. The context for this is the
left, as a consequence of the historic 1 991 multi-national dispute over the Spratly Islands, in the
Philippines Senate vote not to renew the bases South China Sea. It gets virtually no coverage in the
treaty. But the consequences won't go away, and are
NZ media (but it would if Tuku Morgan went there),
still hurting people years after the closure. yet has the potential to erupt into a good old
fashioned shooting war involving the navies of
The gigantic Clark Air Force Base, in central Luzon, several rival Asian countries -Philippines, China,
was closed by the 1 991 Mt Pinatubo eruption Brunei, Malaysia, Taiwan and Vietnam. The Spratiys
(volcanoes don't wait for Senate votes). The ongoing are mere rocks - the prize is the expansion of the
Pinatubo-related floods and lahar (mudslides) that winners' Exclusive Economic Zone and what lies
strike every wet season, killing people and destroying within it, such as oil. Most recently, the Philippines
every1hing in their path, are predicted to continue and China have been spanring over Scarborough
until at least 2006. In 1 994, 1 7,000 displaced families Shoal (Huangyan Dao to the Chinese), which is right

Peace Researcher 1 3 - August 1997 Page 14

on the limit of the Philippines' EEZ.. The US has But the Nuclear Free Philippines Coalition wamed
made it clear that it does not regard the Treaty as that all the drumbeating about "the Chinese threat"
committing it to defending the Philippines should war was designed to condition Filipino public opinion into
break out over the SpraUys or other contested reefs accepting the US military back on its soil, and with an
and rocks. expanded role.

Some Manila columnists have suggested that the US NFPC pointed out that the two countries were
re-establish a naval presence at Subic, but as a port, negotiating a new Acquisition and Cross Servicing
not as a base. They also claim that China's Agreement (ACSA) which could allow naval access
assertiveness vis a vis contested territory is precisely to 22 Filipino ports. ACSA could also allow the US to
because the US no longer has a military presence in establish bases, with no Senate agreement required,
the Philippines. But Thomas Hubbard, the US because they would be sanctioned by executive
Ambassador, has said that it has no interest in re­ agreements. And, in a new move, both govemments
establishing permanent bases there, because the US are working on a Status of Forces Agreement (the
is satisfied by the very frequent US Navy visits and very thing that has caused such bitterness in Japan,
joint military exercises. As the Philippine Daily especially Okinawa, and South Korea). This would be
Inquirer editorialised (31/5/97; "An embarrassing considerably more far reaching than its previous
invitation: US rebuff'): equivalents, which only applied within Subic and
Clark. The US has been lobbying hard to prevent
"Actually, activists and other attentive observers criminal cases involving US servicemen being tried
have long viewed the frequent port calls and joint in Filipino courts. The Philippines govemment's
exercises with suspicion, and have analysed these as refusal to grant this led to the cancellation the 1 997
violations of the vote that put an end to US military "Balikatan" annual jOint exercise. But Manila is
presence here . . . l n this day and age when US military reported to be weakening under US pressure to grant
bases are being closed down all over the planet, diplomatic immunity to US servicemen taking part in
Senator Francisco Tatad's proposal that the 'difficult jOint military exercises in the Philippines.
and emotional' issue of the return of American
presence on Philippine soil be put to 'an informed And New Zealand companies, riding the coattails of
and enlightened debate' is nothing short of ridiculous. their Australian Anzac frigate partners in seeking
The senator forgets, or perhaps pretends to forget, Filipino warship building contracts as part of
that the matter was settled on September 16, 1 991 , President Ramos spending $US2 billion over five
by 1 2 members of the chamber to which he now years to modernise the Filipino military (see PR 1 2
belongs. There is absolutely no reason to review it, for details), would be well advised to steer clear of
notwithstanding Chinese incursions into islands being getting New Zealand involved in what could very
claimed by the Philippines in the SpraUys and in the easily become a shooting war between several of our
Scarborough Shoal..." Asian neighbours, allies and trading partners.

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 1 5

- M urray Horton

The Asia/Pacific region was rocked by the crisis that went from wouldbe peacemaker to cold blooded
erupted in Papua New Guinea in March 1 997. warmonger. It bodes ill for any future peace plans
General Jerry Singirok, the commander of the that, as Singirok's replacement, Chan appointed
country's military, d e manded the resignation of the Brigadier General Leo Nuia, known as The Butcher
Prime Minister, Sir Julius Chan and two other senior of Bougainville for his atrocities there (including
Ministers, and a commission of inquiry into the using Australian helicopters to dump the bodies of
Government's awarding of a $US36 million contract murdered rebel suspects into the sea).
to a shadowy mercenary transnational corporation
(all transnational corporations - TNCs - are What's so special about Bougainville that it's worth
mercenary. The only difference was that this one was all this terrible cost? Simple - it is blessed/cursed with
literally so). Chan responded by firing Singirok, and the Panguna copper mine, one of the world's very
refusing to go. Singirok, in turn, refused to leave his biggest and richest mines of any kind. The
barracks and insisted that Chan and his colleagues environmental devastation wrought (including whole
resign. This mutiny from the very top fomented a rivers destroyed by millions of tonnes of tailings and
major popular uprisin g in the capital, Port Moresby toxic waste), and the lack of any Significant financial
(fuelled by a whole raft on other causes, such as benefit to the Bougainvilleans led to the revolt in the
institutionalised corruption, coupled with first place. The BRA initially demanded several
institutionalised poverty and unemployment). There billion dollars in compensation - when that led to an
was rioting and looting, and a very near armed ironfisted response from faroff Port Moresby, the
confrontation betwee n the Army and the police (who Bougainvilleans upped the ante and fought for
stayed loyal to the Government). The pressure paid independence (it was only a 1 9th century colonial
off - Chan, and his colleagues, literally surrounded in carveup between Britain and Germany that led to
Parliament, agreed to "stand aside" (but not actually Bougainville being lumped in with PNG. Racially and
resign). An acting P M was appointed, the demanded geographically, n is part of the Solomon Islands,
commission of inquiry was created, and the crisis which is only a few kilometres away. The BRA has
subsided. By May, the commission had cleared Chan announced that an independent Bougainville will be
to the extent that he claimed vindication, and renamed Mekamui - "holy").
resumed his post, i n time for the June general
election. Despite being both fired and replaced, And Pang una is owned by Bougainville Copper Ltd,
Singirok remained ensconced in his barracks. which is owned by Conzinc Rio Tinto of Australia
(CRA) , which in tum is owned by Rio Tinto Zinc
Bougainville, Panguna, Rio Tinto (RTZ) of Britain. Most recently, RTZlCRA have
merged to become Rio Tinto. This British behemoth
So what was this all about? In a word, Bougainville. is the biggest single mining TNC in the world and one
The war of murderous suppression and blockade of the very nastiest. In New Zealand, it owns
being waged against the people of Bougainville since Comalco and its controversial Bluff aluminium
1 988 has taken a high human toll - thousands killed; smelter. Whole books have been written about Rio
mass illness and starvation caused by the inhuman Tinto and the definitive one is "Plunder", by Roger
blockade; and systematic human rights abuses by Moody (PARTIZANS/CAFCA, London, 1 99 1 ) . It
the undisciplined P N G military - murder, torture, covers everything you need to know about this
random atrocities. The full gamut of twentieth century company - in Bougainville, New Zealand, and the
counter insurgency h orror. Chan had come to power rest of the world. Panguna has been closed since the
promising peace but had reverted to outright war, war of independence started, and both Rio Tinto and
manipulated by an out of control military who ran the PNG govemment were loath to see such a major
their own unauthorised operations (such as moneyspinner sitting idle. Pang una has been
ambushing Bougainville Revolutionary Army [BRA] described as "the jewel in Rio Tinto's crown" .
negotiators retuming home from intemational peace
talks). Chan was deeply angered by the military's The BRA certainly understands the mine's worth as a
inability to defeat a ragtag yet extremely effective bargaining chip, and has indicated that it would be
guerilla army. That too has been the story of the prepared to allow it to reopen after talks are held on
twentieth century. So, within a few short years, Chan independence. Francis Ona, the President of the

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1 997 - Page 16

Bougainville Interim Govemment, said: "We truly (presumably Sand line was named by its macho men
believe that all of Bougainville is under threat of in honour of President Bush's "line in the sand" that
destruction by these foreign companies of he punished Saddam Hussein for crossing, by
mining ...We are standing for independence because invading Kuwait and setting off the Gulf War).
only through independence all these mines will be Private armies don� come cheap - for the supply of
under control.. .. (Time, 1 0/3/97; "Resolute Rebel"). 90 black Angolan/South African warrant officers and
Francis Ona is fully aware of the advantages of 35 white officers, plus helicopter gunships, and a
modem technology. Dismissing as "propaganda" giant Antonov aircraft to transport the whole lot into
PNG claims that he wants to lead Bougainville back and around PNG, Sandline charged $US36 million. It
to a "Year Zero" a la the Khmer Rouge, he replied: " I actually received $US18 million in advance (and is
a m talking t o you b y mobile phone. Is that Year demanding the rest, despite the "job" not being
Zero? It is powered by hydro electric power. We will done). When the PNG military rebelled and kicked
be a modern country" (NZ Herald, 3/4/97). out the mercenaries, $US400,OOO in cash was found
on the British commander, Lieutenant Colonel Tim
Sandline International Spicer. And the gunships, which would have been the
first of their kind in PNG, have never arrived.
Australia seized them en route and they continue to
By 1 996 the war had reached a stalemate.
sit at an Australian air force base until
The PNG military, completely driven from
their ownership and legality are
the island at the start of the conflict, was
back in large areas. But it was not in
control of the island, the BRA was
One of the most disgraceful things about
undefeated, and most crucially, Panguna
the whole shabby affair was that the
remained closed and firmly in BRA hands.
Govemment diverted money from other
Troops were committing atrocities against
parts of the economy to pay for it - from
civilians, and losing the will to fight.
defence, road maintenance, police, education,
Bougainville had become PNG's Vietnam. So it was
transport and Intemal Revenue. The Government
time for a new, and desperate, throw of the dice -
also secretly siphoned tens of millions from the sale
foreign mercenaries (this seems to be Chan's
of its mineral and oil interests to pay the hit men.
personal style. He and his family are major
This unbudgeted expense has cost the PNG
shareholders in a security company run by two
economy so severely that Ministers have estimated it
Australians, which hired and armed Australian police
will take up to six years to recover and has incurred
and former anti-terrorist soldiers for two secret para­
the wrath of both the International Monetary Fund
military operations in PNG).
and the Wond Bank, major funding agencies for
In 1 996, contact was made with a number of
transnational "security companies' (mercenaries to
you and me) , and PNG was soon engaged in secret "Repossess The Panguna Mine"
negotiations with Sandline Intemational, which is
intimately bound up with Executive Outcomes, both So what services were the mercenaries being
of London (see below for details of who they are, contracted to provide? The cover story was that they
what they do and to whom they do it). It's worth were simply going to train PNG special forces on how
pointing out that General Singirok, who had been to win what Spicer referred to, in best British Army
wounded on Bougainville, was no angel - he was patronising tone, as "a nasty little war" (NZ Hera/d,
intimately involved in setting up the mercenary deal 4/3/97). That seemed implausible, so they allowed
(hence the mercenaries' strong sense of betrayal that, yes, the mercenaries would actually go to
when Singirok turned against them). Bougainville - but only in a training role. That was
rendered equally unbelievable by their request to
And the prize of Panguna was dangled from the have hospitals in northern Australia put on standby to
outset. Rupert McGowan, an assistant director of treat wounded mercenaries. It soon became obvious
TNC broker Jardine Fleming, of Hong Kong, first that their intended role was to do the actual fighting,
travelled to PNG to advise the Government how it theoretically in "surgical strikes" by crippling the BRA
could buy a stake in Panguna from Rio Tinto. Very (including killing its leadership), in reality by good old
soon he was allegedly acting as an intermediary fashioned terrorising and killing anyone who got in
between the Government and Sandline, and their way. The closely guarded PNG/Sandline
transferring money on behalf of the mercenaries. contract (31/1/97), which was exposed when the
Indeed proof emerged at the commission of inquiry crisis blew up, was extremely clear on Sandline's job:
that the mercenaries were paid via Hong Kong. 'to conduct offensive operations in Bougainville in
McGowan's role was unmasked at that inquiry and he conjunction with PNG defence forces to render the
was suspended by Jardine Fleming, pending BRA military ineffective and repossess the Panguna
investigation. mine".

By the beginning of 1 997, the PNG government and And Panguna was the prize. Throughout its
Sandline were ready to come to a secret deal numerous dirty little wars in Africa, Sandline

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 17

International/Executive Outcomes has been involved offensive to repair the damage - one result was
in securing control of valuable mines and actually TVNZ's 60 Minutes screening an Australian piece, in
getting a cut of the mineral spoils by way of payment June 1 997, depicting Sandline as professional
(see below for details). Firstly, Panguna served a soldiers who clean up the Third World's messes, all
strategic military purpose - one proposed Sandhne to the highest First World military standards, with
tactic was to capture it, thus luring the BRA there to sympathetic English academics saying that this is the
fight them, rather than chasing guerillas all over pointer to the future. At its most mawkish it featured
Bougainville. But it was also very much a glittering Sand line promo clips of its "gentlemen soldiers of
prize in the usual sense too - and not only for the forlune" singing karaoke!
foreign mercenaries. Whilst secretly setting the stage
for the mine's recapture, the Government moved to Mercenaries - Global Overview
buy out Rio Tinto's share of Bougainville Copper, the
mine's owner (Rio Tinto wasn't that silly). The Which brings us to the final
Government and the mercenaries stood to have a question who are these
nice little joint venture eamer. In his testimony to the mercenary TNCs and who is
commission of inquiry, Spicer denied that Sandline behind them? Time (26/5/97;
had shown any interest in the mine - but counsel 'Soldiers For Sale") detailed some
aSSisting the inquiry produced an August 1 996 letter of them: Executive Outcomes
from him to the PNG Defence Minister suggesting (intimately connected with
just such a joint venture to "reopen and operate the Sandline) - founded by apartheid
Bougainville mine once recovered" (Press, 4/4/97). era, former South African military officers, fought i n
Angola and Sierra Leone; Vinnell Corporation - partly
Despite producing what Herald correspondent Mary­ owned by an American merchant bank, whose
Louise O'Callaghan headlined as a "wishy washy chairman is a former US Defense Secretary, trains
report" (4/6/97) the commissioner, Australian judge Saudi Arabia's national guard; and Levdan, an Israeli
Warwick Andrew, had no doubt about the Pang una firm which trained troops and bodyguards for the
connection: "Take its section on the suspicious Congolese President, who then spent up large on
increase in the price and volume of Bougainville Israeli weaponry. Notice how trouble follows these
Copper shares traded on (one day in February 1 997). guys around - in June 1 997, both Sierra Leone and
This occurred at a time when only the key Congo erupted with coups and civil wars.
protagonists knew of the Sandline contract...No
reason, other than knowledge of the State's plans to The most succinct and revealing study of these hired
recapture the Panguna mine has been suggested for guns came from Louis Cauchy in the April 1 997 L 'A ut
the demand for BCL shares, the Andrew report Journa/, of Canada. Some extracts:
states. 'There were relatively few people who
knew. . . and amongst those who knew, fewer still who 'In January 1 993, in the city of Soyo, Angola's most
would have had the financial resources to buy large important petrochemical centre that was also right in
parcels of shares. In these circumstances it stretches the middle of an area wracked by war, the Canadian
credibility to think that the demand for shares ...was company Ranger Oil spent $C30 million financing a
unconnected'". cleanup operation by Executive Outcomes, a South
African mercenary army. At the request of the
Of course, this m u rderous little scheme came to Luanda government and in exchange for important
nought. It was exposed, there was huge regional and oil concessions in the Soyo region, the Alberta oil
national uproar and a combined military/civilian company also financed the assassination of
uprising led to the hired killers being members of Jonas Savimbi's UNITA guerrilla army.
unceremoniously being kicked out of the country. A The killings were carried out by some 500 former
reality check is n e cessary - the military did not members of the South African armed forces recycled
suddenly endorse Bougainvillean independence and as mercenaries (this is extremely ironic, as UNITA
peaceful co-existence. Its sense of honour was
was the creature of South Africa and the West earlier
offended and there was a widespread belief, amongst
in the interminable Angolan civil war. Ed),
both soldiers and civilians, that foreign mercenaries
had no place in an internal dispute, that the business
•At a time when the Canadian politico-financial
of oppressing and killing PNG citizens (albeit ones
establishment is denouncing any attempt to tie
who vehemently don't want to be) should be left up to
Canadian foreign investment to human rights, a brief
PNG. There isn't much of an anti-war, pro­
look at some of the directors of Ranger Oil is quite
Bougainville independence movement discernible in
revealing. Waming: hold on to your seats, this gets

The Government had to blame somebody for the

'On the board of Ranger Oil we find Edgar M.
uprising - it left the military well alone and sent police
Bronfman, president and CEO of Seagram and also
to raid arrest and harass various NGOs.The inquiry
' president of the World Jewish Congress; John A.
found nothing amiss, Chan resumed office, and
Rae, executive vice-president of Power Corporation;
Spicer, back in London, pronounced Sandline ready
Simon Reisman, president of Trade and Investment
to finish the job if requested. Sand line went on a PR

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 18

Advisory Group Inc.; Lord Colin B. Moynihan, the ex­ connected with Sandline's PNG operation are listed
Under Secretary of Energy in Great Britain during the on the Vancouver Stock Exchange as having
Thatcher and Major governments who is presently substantial interests in Diamond Works, led by Tim
with CMA Associates; not to mention a half dozen Spicer. Ed).
other businessmen from Canada and the United
States. "It should be noted that Anthony Buckingham - as
director of Diamond Works - has been called upon to
"Executive Outcomes, the mercenary company that advise upon how to handle the Native communities
carried out the Ranger Oil contract, was set up in who are dealing with this company's planned mining
1 989. It was incorporated in South Africa by one projects in the North-West TerritOries and the Yukon.
Eeben Barlow and in England by Anthony Now there's a thought to give you goosebumps!
Buckingham - who also owns Heritage Oil, a British
petroleum company which helped Ranger Oil to " Ivanhoe Capital Corporation, whose head office is i n
finance the Soyo cleanup. This was at the very Singapore, has t h e same Vancouver address as
moment that the apartheid regime was beginning to Diamond Works: 200 Burrard Street. Along with
falter in South Africa (they were planning their Robert Friedland, Diamond Works has bought a 40%
future!). Note that Anthony Buckingham is a interest in the Lihir project in Papua New Guinea: the
businessman with close ties to Sir David Steel , the largest known unexploited gold deposit outside of
former leader of the British Liberal Party. South Africa. The Lihir project and Mount Kare
project (also in Papua New Guinea) are essential for
"For his parl, Eeben Barlow is a former killer with the economic "recovery" of this former Australian
apartheid's death squads; along with Lafras Luitingh, colony.
one of his former colleagues in the South African
special forces, he recruited the five hundred "They are especially essential for the re-election of
mercenaries to satisfy Ranger Oil's needs in Angola. Sir Julius Chan (Chan has been dubbed the country's
"elected dictator"). So guess who landed in Papua
"The need to guarantee payment from the New Guinea at the beginning of March ... Executive
governments of the 31 countries with which it does Outcomes, that's who! (for the modest fee of $36
business, several of whom are on the verge of million for a three-month cleanup contract!). It is
bankruptcy, led EO to set up a company called perhaps worth noting that the Diamond Works office
Branch Energy. This company was intended to run in England is located at 535 Kings Road in downtown
the oil installations, gold, copper or diamond mines London, which just happens to be the address of. . .
that cash strapped countries like Angola and Sierra Executive Outcomes!
Leone give EO rights to in lieu of hard currency.
Executive Outcomes: "Kill Everyone"
The Canadian Connection
"Executive Outcomes is the most important of over
90 private armies presently active in Africa. These
"Why am I telling you this? armies, whose directors may live in the United
Because Branch Energy, the States, Belgium or France, are in fierce competition
vampiric camouflage of this to corner the lucrative market in repression. Their
private army, has just been clients include many dictators who, not daring to arm
purchased by a Canadian their own people, have let their national armies
company, Carson Gold, which is deteriorate.
owned by the Canadian financier
Eric Friedland. Following this purchase Friedland "Armies by the name of Saracen International, Stuart
made sure to change Branch Energy's name to Mills International, Shibata Security, Bridge
Diamond Works, and it was registered as such with Resources, Corporate Trading International, Alpha
the Vancouver Stock Exchange on October 21 st, Five or Military Professional Resources Incorporated
1 996 under the acronym DMW. And who should (MPRI), work hard to make themselves key players
appear on the board of directors of the Canadian in areas where, hypocritically, even the United
company Diamond Works? None other but Anthony Nations relies on them to do its dirty work.
Buckingham, along with Branch Energy's former
executive director Michael Grundberg and one "And they know how to exploit strategiC interests. For
Beverly Downing. The latter is also in charge of instance, when the peace accords were being signed
administration and corporate development at in Angola, President Clinton threatened to cut off aid
Ivanhoe Capital Corporation, which is owned by if a contract the Angolan State had given to
Robert Friedland, Eric Friedland's brother. I n 1 994 Executive Outcomes was not handed over to an
Ivanhoe Capital Corporation was called the "poisoner American firm. That's how MPRI landed the contract
of the Americas" by Multinational Monitor because of to train Angola's armed forces (foreign mercenaries
the environmentally destructive methods it uses to were involved in Zaire's 1997 civil war, with Mobutu's
get gold out of the ground around the world (several undisciplined Serbs committing atrocities against
people intimately

Peace Researcher 1 3 - August 1997 - Page 19

civilians, before being defeated by Laurent Kabi/a's PNG People Show How To Lick LIe
victorious anny. Ed).
The "renowned strategist and war theoretician" Martin
"Around the world, but most notably so in Africa, we Van Creveld (quoted in the Press, 2712197; "The
are seeing the privatisation of water, electricity, gas Diamond Dogs of war - 'peace-keeping' services for
and public services followed by the systematic hire", Stuart McMillan) has written: "Much of the day
privatisation of violence, the rise of mercenary to day burden of defending society against the threat
armies. The most important of these, Executive of low intensity conflict will be transferred to the
Outcomes, has on occasion been paid by misused booming security business and indeed the time may
funds from the . . . IMF ($C1 5 million in Sierra Leone) come when the organisations that comprise that
and also by the concession of important deposits of business will, like the condottieri of old (mercenary
oil, diamonds, copper, etc. In May 1 995 two South armies led by military entrepreneurs), take over the
African mercenary pilots, Arthur Walker and Carl State". Which overlooks the point that in conflicts
Alberts, approached a Sierra Leone military such as Bougainville's, there is no threat to "society"
commander about their difficulties telling the rebels - only to the operations and megaprofits of mining
from the civilians in their air attacks around TNCs and the local elite who comprise the client
Freetown, the country's capital. government.

"'Kill everyone!" was the simple answer. And Low Intensity Conflict (LlC) was the post­
so that's what they did. This bloody anecdote Vietnam warfare invented by the US to stop
was reported by the journalist Elizabeth its boys having to come home in body bags.
Rubin in the February 1 997 issue of Instead it would train and aid the local
Harpers. It tells a lot about the scorched m ilitary, and more importantly, create
earth methods used by that band of South African paramilitary death squads to fight its "nasty little
killers in Executive Outcomes. Primarily composed wars" in countries such as the Philippines. The
of former members of the assassination and privatisation of death squads and hit teams, with the
espionage unit set up by the apartheid regime, EO is global deployment of well paid and heavily armed
a veritable privatised murderer's multinational. mercenaries (invariably former professional soldiers),
is the logical sequel to that. But the strategy came an
"Eeben Barlow, the main director of EO, was almighty gutser in PNG. They were powerless
formerly in charge of the South African special against the angry citizenry of a democracy (however
forces' 32nd battalion. He is also a former agent with imperfect) who rose up and non-violently threw them
the Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB) , which is the out on their ear. And, in the June 1 997 general
euphemism for the death squads who were charged election, the voters of PNG gave their verdict - after
with eliminating apartheid's enemies. Barlow worked 29 years in politics and two terms as Prime Minister,
for the CCB in Western Europe, trying to discredit the Sir Julius Chan lost his seat. So did the Defence
African National Congress and setting up shell Minister and the Minister elevated to Acting PM in
companies to get around anti-apartheid sanctions Chan's temporary absence.
and sell South African arms. Barlow set up Executive
Outcomes in 1 989, which enabled him and his And Bougainville came to New Zealand - literally. In
cronies to survive the dissolution of the CCB by July, dozens of Bougainvilleans, from all sides of the
President F. W. D e Klerk in 1 99 1 . war, were temporarily uplifted from the tropics and
deposited in the frozen midwinter setting of Bumham
"According t o L e Monde Diplomatique (October Military Camp, outside Christchurch, for inter­
1 996), the privatisation of the South African security Bougainvillean negotiations hosted by NZ,
forces goes back to 1 978, and was inspired by the preparatory to full peace talks with PNG. (And if you
CIA's strategy of "farming out" intelligence gathering think that NZ is an "honest broker", I suggest you re­
and covert operations to "private" groups in order to read "Secret Power's" frequent references to New
maintain the illusion of distance between those who Zealand spying on Bougainville via Waihopai and
carry out these bloody acts and those who order Tangimoana and assorted frigates. I guarantee
them. This was exactly the kind of service that Burnham was thoroughly bugged and every call, fax
multinationals like Ranger Oil, De Beers, Diamond and e-mail out of those talks intercepted by NZ and
Works, etc. needed to maintain a social calm in Australian intelligence).
those areas where they carry out their savage
exploitation of natural resources, areas where often The world owes a hearty vote of thanks to the
the local population is becoming more and more courageous people of PNG. They have shown us the
sensitive to environmental and social concerns... simple answer to this ugly phenomenon, this
Yesterday it was i n Angola and Sierra Leone, today imported killer virus that breeds and spreads in the
in Zaire and Papua New Guinea... " tropiCS. In the memorable words of the Rolling
Stones' song, "You've got to scrape that shit right off
your shoe". PNG showed the rest of us how to do it.

Peace Researcher 1 3 - August 1997 Page 20

- Bob Leonard
Peace Researcher initiated a letter to the Union of
have positive reactivity coefficients and lack
Concerned SCientists (UCS) in the United States to
containments. ") There is no indication in the letter
ask their opinion of the nature of the explosions that
that the UCS attempted to correct the "discounting"
destroyed one of the Chernobyl nuclear reactors in
by the nuclear Industry that a nuclear explosion in a
1 986. PR-9 contained an article describing
reactor would destroy any reactor regardless of its
substantial evidence that the explosions were nuclear
design or the existence of a containment. This pOint
and not chernical or steam explosions. We can
was strongly made by Amott and Green as
confirm that both the UCS and the US government
described in our article in PR-9: " . . . no containment
consider that the Chernobyl accident involved at
could ever survive a nuclear explosion, however
least one nuclear explosion. .
ineffiCient the 'bomb' might be". The RUSSian reactor
deSigners seem to have accepted the possibility of
The UCS is the leading independent watchdog
an uncontrollable nuclear reaction: "The loose-fitting
concerned with safety in the Arnerican nuclear
2000 tonne RBMK pile-cap acted in effect as a
industry. They have a long history of campaigning
'safety valve' by prematurely terminating the chain
for nuclear safety and we considered that their
reaction. This reduced the energy of the explosion
evaluation of the articles we reviewed in PR-9 would
and hence fission product release. It also confined
be of considerable interest. Portions of the UCS
damage to Unit 4, sparing three adjacent reactors
response, written by nuclear safety engineer David A.
and two highly radioactive spent fuel stores".3
Lochbaum, are quoted here:

Arnott and Green went on to state emphatically that

"The data presented in the Martinez-Val paper'
western reactors were also susceptible to nuclear
is consistent with the findings reported in
explosions. And on this point David Lochbaum of
NUREG-1250, 'Report on the Accident at the
UCS seems to concur: "There were several
Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station,' the official
invaluable lessons to be learned from Chernobyl.
United States government inquiry into the
The plant was found to be in non-conformance with
accident and its domestic implications. For
several safety regulations . . . . These precursors are
example, Figure 4.3 from NUREG-1250
found in numerous minor incidents at nuclear power
indicates that integrated energy depOSited into
plants in this country [USA], yet our regulators fail to
the fuel to be approximately 1 ,400 cal/gm
recognize the importance of these warning signals. "
[calories per gram]. For the core loading, this
represents approximately 1 ,1 1 2 gigajoules or
Peace Researcher is disappointed that UCS would
0.265 kilotons. These results compare very
state "regulators fail to recognize the importance of
closely with the values reported by Martinez­
these warning signals". It is naive to think US
regulators don't know preCisely what they are doing
when they whitewash the "containment" issue. Arnot!
"In your letter, you SOlicited our opinion on the
and Green's conclusion applies equally to the US
nature of the Chemobyl explosions. I agree
regulators: " . . . Chernobyl was not enough to jolt the
with the conclusions presented in the Martines­
AtomiC Energy Authority into preferring scientific
Val paper. I also hasten to point out that the
integrity to the vested interests of the nuclear power
official US inquiry also pointed to the second
explosion being a 'nuclear explosion', although
the industry term for such an event is a
'prompt critical excursion'.' Thus, it is
1. Martinez-Val, J.M. et al. 1 990. An analysis of
officially recognized that Chernobyl was
the physical causes of the Chernobyl accident.
essentially a nuclear explosion." [Emphasis
Nuclear Technology, 90:371-378.
added, ed.]
2. The nuclear explosions that destroyed
Hiroshima and Nagasaki were also "prompt critical
"Your letter indicated that if the nature of the
excursions". This is nuclear industry nukespeak at its
Chernobyl accident were clearly understood,
the implications for the nuclear industry would
3. Arnott, D.G. and R.D.Green. 1 992
be substantial. Unfortunately, we have not
Chernobyl: unique safety valve for a reactor nuclear
found that to be the case. The lessons of
explosion. Proc. of a national conference: "the legacy
Chernobyl were largely discounted due to
of Chernobyl - Lesson for the U.K.".
differences between the RUSSian RMBK design
and western reactors (e.g., the RMBKs

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1 997 - Page 2 1

- M urray Horton

New Zealand has only ever been graced by one US helicopters... Motorcade routes were sealed off hours
Presidential visit, that of Lyndon Johnson, way back in advance as police teams with metal detectors
in the 1 9605. That was i n the midst of the Vietnam checked and rechecked culverts, drains, bridges and
War and was part of the 'All the way with LBJ" hedges. Secret Service agents drove around in four
hysteria whipped up by the US and its client wheel drive vehicles, complete with blacked out
governments (such as the Holyoake one here). windows and communications aerials .. "(New

Zealand Herald, 1 3/3/97; 'Big guns may test our

Well we're going to get another one. None other than security"; John Andrews). The America's Cup
Bill Clinton is coming to Auckland, in November shemozzle adds another dimension to the security
1 999, as one of those attending the annual APEC scenario - Auckland harbour will be home to scores
Leaders Summit. His visit will coincide with the start of lUXUry craft, 'some bigger than the Royal New
of the America's Cup series, being raced off Zealand Navy's frigates" (ibid), which will be bristling
Auckland, so it is expected that he will take in some with their own anti-pirate armouries, such as
yachting. It will also be just after New Zealand's next machineguns and rocket launchers. Security experts
general election, and will be getting into the Last are concerned at the prospect of those waterborne
Days of the Second Millenium, so all in all it should weapons falling into "the wrong hands" and being
be some party. used against the downtown hotels hosting the APEC
leaders. It would make a great movie.
Clinton is only one of the 1 8 national leaders coming.
Security for all of them will be like nothing New Filipinos describe their traditional politicians as
Zealand has previously seen. At least 2,000 New epitomising The Three Gs - guns, goons and gold.
Zealand cops will be on 24 hour duty to protect them. Well the 1 999 APEC Summit will see plenty of the
But that's not the half of it. All will be bringing their guns and goons. What about the gold? How much is
own security entourages who, in the usual manner for this going to cost the New Zealand taxpayer?
Asian autocratic regimes, will be armed and twitchy. Including security, the final bill is expected to be $28
But security around US Presidents is something else
again - Clinton's travelling circus is estimated to A l l this has ramifications for New Zealand political
include more than 330 Secret Service agents. They activists of all persuasions. Kiwi cops have already
will provide the biggest test for New Zealand's shown, at the 1 995 Asian Development Bank and
hallowed rule for visiting VIPs - no guns. The CHOGM conferences, both in Auckland, that they
Americans are adamant on their Godgiven, global can be as thuggish as any of their overseas
right to bear arms to protect their President and have counterparts. Add to the mix a whole raft of other
already intimated that if New Zealand doesn't come security and intelligence agencies, and they'll be
to its senses, then Clinton won't come (thus depriving falling over themselves to bludgeon, suveil,
Bolger, or whoever the Prime Minister is in 1 999, of a intimidate or set up anyone who "threatens" the
wonderful photo opportunity). The betting is that New hallowed event.
Zealand will buckle and let the SS boys carry their
guns (and thus provide a precedent for the other The bungled SIS break in at the home of
security entourages who will press for the same Christchurch activist Aziz Choudry (see elsewhere in
right). There is a h istory of this, most famously during this issue) took place in the context of GATT
a 1 960s Wellington visit by an American bigwig. An Watchdog organising an alternative forum on free
SS agent dropped his pistol in public, in a crowded trade to coincide with the July 1 996 APEC Trade
street, right at the feet of a student leader during an Ministers' Meeting. When the 1 999 APEC security
anti-war demo. O n e can imagine what would have details were revealed, GATT Watchdog warned that:
happened if the student had picked it up.
' ... the New Zealand government will use 'dirty
Clinton's 1 996 Australian visit provides some inkling tactics' to put down legitimate, lawful dissent against
of what is to come. 'In the days before the visit, the opponents of APEC in Auckland in 1 999. It also
Americans flew in two C5 Galaxy transport planes warns of massive disruption to the lives of ordinary
laden with security gear including armoured plated Aucklanders in order to present a 'false image' of
Lincolns, vehicles so heavy they cannot be driven New Zealand society to the international officials and
ongrassed surfaces , and as many as six media expected to be present for the APEC meeting.

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 22

..... APEC is anti-democratic, unaccountable and 'Security' is now defined as 'the making of a
driven by the interests of big business. Anyone who contribution to New Zealand's international well-being
may in any way try to expose the myths of free trade or economic well-being; and the protection of New
is likely to be labelled a 'threat to national security' Zealand from acts of espionage, sabotage, terrorism,
by the Government. The kind of stability and security and subversion, whether or not they are directed
which the Government wants to offer visiting from or intended to be committed within New
dignitaries to the 1 999 meeting and potential Zealand'. Given that one of the Government's central
overseas investors is a Clayton's version. It is not tenets is a commitment to market refornns and
based on o pen debate, genuine participatory through GAIT and APEC, trade and investment
democracy and equality. It is built on secrecy, liberalisation, it seems that those who challenge this
economic extremism, and the exclusion of increasing economic recipe are deemed to be threats to security
numbers of people from taking part in determining and fair game for SIS surveillance and harassment.
the kind of development that they want for And the heavy-handed tactics of the Police at
themselves and their children." CHOGM and ADS meetings show that they too are
being used to provide the muscle to protect New
"GAIT Watchdog, a non-governmental group which Zealand's free market economy . . ... (press release,
advocates fair trade and lobbies against unrestricted 24/6/97; "The Shape Of Things To Come:
trade and investment liberalisation, is writing to the 'Unprecedented Security' for 1 999 Auckland APEC
Minister in C harge of Security and the Minister of Meeting: NZ Government Dirty Tactics Warning").
Police seeking assurances that people engaged in
legitimate protest activity against APEC will not be For those concemed about the broader implications
targeted with anti-democratic tactics by intelligence of both APEC and free trade in general, contact
agencies and the Police. GA TT Watchdog, Box 1905, Christchurch, NZ, ph
(03) 3662803; fax (03) 3668035; e­
..... Last year's operations directed against GAIT A subscription
Watchdog make us believe that the Government is to its newsletter, The Big Picture, costs $15 per year.
far more concerned about people VOicing alternative The definitive NZ book on the subject is "The Cost Of
views on free trade than it is in 'terrorist' threats. Our Free Trade: AotearoalNew Zealand At Risk", by
only 'crime' was to challenge the APEC agenda as Dennis Small. Send $20 to CAFCA, Box 2258,
promoting socially unjust and environmentally Christchurch, NZ.
unsustainable outcomes. New legislation passed last
July (1 996) gives the SIS a carte blanche to surveil
any group or individual considered to be a threat to
'national security'.

Peace Researcher 1 3 - August 1 997 - Page 23

- M urray Horton


This cynical old adage (first applied by President

early cables was alarmist: 'Embassy and (CIA)
Roosevelt to particularly repellent American client
station believe Congo experiencing classic
dictators in Latin A merica) was never truer than with
Communist effort to take over government. Whether
the unlamented President Mobutu Sese Seko, who
or not Lumumba actually commie or just playing
murdered and looted for over 30 years in his
commie game ... anti-West forces rapidly increasing
benighted Zaire (now renamed the Democratic
power in Congo ... may be little time avoid
Republic of the Congo by new leader Laurent Kabila.
another Cuba'.
Whether he will be any better is another story). Along
with Presidents Marcos of the Philippines and
"Washington fell for it - it made Devlin's advice that
Suharto of Indonesia, Mobutu personified the
Lumumba be replaced an 'urgent and prime
staggering kleptocracy that has so bedevilled Third
objective' and Devlin was given a $US1 00,000
World nations inflicted with dictatorships that serve
cheque to see that it happened. Mobutu rejoined the
Western strategic interests.
army, from where he consolidated the power base he
needed to overthrow and murder Lumumba. And so
As Mobutu was forced out of Kinshasa by Kabila's
the Cold War came to Zaire, where 70% of the non­
victorious army, Western politicians and media fell
Communist world's cobalt and a stash of other
over themselves to proclaim how they'd always been
minerals were locked in the ground.
opposed to him. But Mobutu had stayed in power so
long precisely because he was "our" son of a bitch.
"Though he styled his leadership on Nicolae
When the Cold War got hot in Africa, he was in the
Ceaucescu in Romania and Kim 11 Sung in North
thick of it. For example he was heavily involved in
Korea, Mobutu became the West's main man in post­
the terrible civil war that is still devastating
colonial Africa, which meant there was no
neighbouring Angola. But once the Soviet Union was
international criticism of his excesses; ridiculous
no more (and the superpowers' proxies, the Cubans
amounts of aid money were thrown at him ... "
and South Africans, pulled their troops out of Angola)
he was merely an embarrassment to the West.
Lawrence Raymond Devlin fills a page of references
in NameBase, the definitive American database on
Mobutu was a d irect creature of the CIA. Some
the CIA. His postings included 1 957-60 in Belgium
details are given in the New Zealand Herald (31 /5/97;
(the woeful colonial power in the Congo), Laos from
"Heart of Evil"; Paul McGeough; from the Sydney
1 963-70 (during America's overt and covert war in
Morning Herald): Indochina), and Zaire, off and on, from 1 960-89. He
typifies the operatives who secretly implemented the
"Zaireans looking for somewhere to lay the blame for
American policy of installing and maintaining in
the Mobutu excesses could try Washington. . . At age
power any murderous, thieving Third World son of a
25 Mobutu quit t h e army with the rank of sergeant
bitch so long as he was "our" son of a bitch. In the 30

m jor. As a journalist he went to Europe where, in
years that Mobutu was in power, the US supplied
1 959, he befriended the man who would make him
Zaire with $US1.S billion in economic and military
king - CIA operative Lawrence Devlin. These were aid, most of which was stolen by Mobutu. Successive
dangerous times. Washington and Moscow were dug
US presidents actively helped Mobutu quash
in for the Cold War and the Rightwing Mobutu
provincial seceSSionist rebellions and ignored their
wanted to challenge the popular Leftist Patrice
own advisors who recommended pressing for
Lumumba for the post-colonial leadership of Zaire.
democratisation and Mobutu's retirement. The long
suffering people of Zaire and neighbouring countries
"Certain that Zaire was ripe for an East-West stoush,
paid with their lives and their wealth because of that
the CIA assigned Devlin to Kinshasa. One of his policy. Mobutu is gone but that evil legacy will last a

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 24

long time. And you can bet that the CIA will be Only now is the CIA opening its books a fraction on
working hard to ensure that the new leaders do some of its worst crimes - and then only after more
nothing to impede Westem economic or strategic than 40 years. In 1 997, it has declassified 1 ,400
interests. pages (out of 1 80,000) on the coup it engineered in
Guatemala in 1 954. That overthrew the nationalist
As for Mobutu, his old mates in Western intelligence and mildly Leftist Arbenz government and sparked
agencies looked after him to the end. The South several decades of some of the most brutally
African Secret Service helped him smuggle $NZ58 repressive regimes anywhere in the world. By the
million in cash, and diamonds plus million more, into time a negotiated settlement was reached, in 1 996,
South Africa before his downfall. Mind you, by the Guatemalan military had killed more than
Mobutu's kleptocratic standards, that is chicken feed. 1 00,000 civilians in its dirty war, backed by the US.
Even though these files represent less than 1 % of
Anthony Lewis wrote, in the New York Times those held on the coup, they still shed light on it - the
(reprinted i n the International Herald Tribune, 26- policy explicitly approved 58 assaSSinations,
27/4/97; "Made by the CIA: Mobutu and Other including that of Arbenz, if necessary (the CIA claims
Disasters"): they weren't). The only reason that any Guatemalan
coup files were still available to be declassified was
"'Mobutuism is about to become a creature of because they had been the subject of a 1 982
history', Mike McCurry, the White House spokesman, Freedom of Information Act request. Files on other
said . . .washing America's hands of its SOB at long CIA atrocities from the 1 950s and 60s - such as the
last. I would like to be around when a presidential Iranian coup that overthrew the Mossadegh
spokesman says, 'CIA corruption of other countries' government and installed the Shah; secret missions
policies is a creature of history'". against Sukarno's Indonesia; and a coup against
Guyana - have all been destroyed.


When Saddam Hussein was tying u p the which followed, according to a Washington source
revolutionary mullahs of Iran in a particularly bloody familiar with the intelligence world, the caller,
war from 1 980 to 1 988, he was the darling of the presumably an Iraqi security officer, displayed an
West (rather like Hitler when he was only extensive knowledge of the CIA's plans for a coup in
slaughtering Communists). He was showered with Iraq and the names of those involved. He concluded
Western arms and intelligence. But he ceased to be by suggesting the CIA pack its bags and go back to
"our" son of a bitch when he invaded Kuwait in 1 990. Langley, its headquarters outside Washington .. ."
He then became another sort of blessing for the US - (Press, 3/5/97: "Saddam, the CIA, and an abortive
with its military/intelligence empire desperately plot"; Patrick Cockburn, from The Independent).
looking for new enemies with the collapse of the
Soviet Union, Saddam fitted the bill exactly. Despite Despite this fiasco - the worst and most public defeat
his overwhelming defeat in the Gulf War, he is still for the CIA since Vietnam - the US keeps pouring
Demon of the Month and whenever US presidents taxpayers' money into covert operations to overthrow
feel testosterone defiCient, they fire off a few Cruise Saddam. Responsibility for the 1 996 blood bath rests
missiles at Baghdad so that the American public can with George Tenet, who was CIA Deputy Director,
shout "Alia boy. Way to go". and who has risen to be Director in 1 997 (replacing
George Deutch; Anthony Lake withdrew his
Actually Saddam has outwitted the best efforts of the nomination under Republican pressure). The general
CIA since that war. The most spectacular example of perception among outside analysts is that Saddam
that came in 1 996 when his omnipresent security suckered the CIA and that the whole Agency
forces wiped out CIA fostered opposition within the operation was completely penetrated by I raqi
military, and then he sent his tanks into Iraqi intelligence. This view was expressed most
Kurdistan and completely eradicated the whole vast succinctly in the New Zealand Herald (1 4/5/97; Close
apparatus that the CIA had established on Iraqi soil Cover, Jim Hoagland), under the headline " New CIA
since 1 99 1 . That debacle ended with the American boss a victim of Saddam sting":
spooks fleeing in panic over the nearest border, with
hundreds of I raqi operatives left to their fate (torture "The CIA has spent six years and $US1 1 0 million
and imprisonment at best, instant death at worst) . trying to overthrow Saddam Hussein in the most
expensive sustained failure in Agency history. Iraq is
"Iraqi intelligence was triumphant. As CIA operatives the Bay of Pigs in unending free fall, with fresh
were evacuated to Guam, the CIA officer in charge humiliation looming around the comer. The Agency
(of the operation) in Amman, the Jordanian capital, could not stop throwing money at the Saddam
received a telephone call from Baghdad from a man problem if it wanted to. Refusing to admit defeat, the
who asked for him by name. In the conversation White House orders this international embarrassment

Peace Researcher 1 3 - August 1997 - Page 25

to avoid being accused of doing nothing about Iraq. in Jordan and Kuwait. Senators who normally line up
This year (1 997) covert operations against Iraq will to rail at executive agencies for wasting taxpayer
cost about $US5 million, the price tag for ineffective money have kept quiet on the CIA debacle ....
propaganda broadcasts by clandestine radio stations


very own SIS is struggling to stay in business by the
This was the headline on a particularly insightful and
joining with the police and other law enforcement
pithy article by John Carlin of The Independent (UK),
agencies (see elsewhere in this issue), the CIA is
reproduced in the Press (1 9/4/97). Some quotes:
moving into a convergence with the FBI. The latter is
the big winner in this, stealthily building a physical
"Since the devastating revelation in 1 994 that the
presence in over 20 foreign countries (including
drunken sybarite Aldrich Ames, a senior CIA officer,
Australia, but not NZ), with plans to add another 20+
had sold secrets to the KGB which led directly to the
by 1 999. The former Communist countries of Eastem
execution of at least ten CIA informers in Russia, the
Europe are the FBI's big growth area, purportedly to
Agency has been afflicted with one disaster after
battle the Russian and other organised crime mafias
another. . . . Harold Nicholson, who was more senior
that have exploded onto the scene since the collapse
than Ames, also confessed to having sold secrets to
of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. In 1 995
the Russians (Nicholson was recently sentenced to
the FBI and State Department opened the
over 20 years in prison. cd). Before that there were
Intemational Law Enforcement Training Academy in
flaps in France and Germany after the CIA's clumsy
Budapest, the Hungarian capital. In 1 996 it trained
efforts to branch out into economic espionage. The
cops from Albania to Ukraine. Wolf concludes:
Agency's links to human rights violations in Honduras
and the publication of the CIA's 'torture manual' also
"The disturbing implications of a growing CIA-FBI
hurt (the CIA has recently made public training
marriage are very clear. Moreover it seems clear that
manuals that it used with at least five Latin American
the CIA's role has not declined as the FBI's
security agencies in the early 1980s. They outlined
international involvement has grown. The merger of
methods of psychological torture to coerce
purposes has not led to shrinkage but to expansion.
information. cd). Under interim Director John Deutch,
The likely result: More meddling abroad, not less".
who quit in December (1 996), an efforl was made to
clean out the stables. The outcome . . .was that 1 ,000
of the CIA's 3,000 overseas informants have been
'scrubbed' off the books, about 1 00 of them because
they had engaged in torture, kidnapping and Any Consolation?
murder. . .
If it's any consolation to the CIA, it's not the only US
"Here are the real life words of Daniel Patrick intelligence agency to have recently leamed that it
Moynihan, the venerable Democratic senator from employed traitors. In May 1 997, it was revealed that
New York, in a television interview. . .Asked whether the FBI is investigating six former West Berlin
he felt the CIA should be abolished, he replied: employees of the National Security Agency (NSA,
'There is a sense in which it has been abolished. ultimate boss of the NZGCSB, and recipient of
There have been seven directors or acting directors Waihopai's output). The KGB allegedly paid them to
in six years. That's not an organisation. That's an betray secret NATO internal communications codes,
institutional collapse' . . . at the end of the Cold War. The Secure Telephone
Unit is still used by NATO and German intelligence -
"David Wise, a Washington author who has written the betrayal means that Russian intelligence now has
eight non-fiction books about the CIA, (says): 'The access to NATO's innermost communications. And in
Cold War is over but it's not at all clear that the CIA June 1 997, Earl Pitts, a former FBI agent, was
has retooled. The m indset remains fixed on the Cold gaoled for 27 years for selling secrets to
War Soviet target, now the Russian target. They are Soviet/Russian intelligence from 1 987-96.
not very experienced at dealing with terrorism,
organised crime, narcotics traffic or nuclear
proliferation, all of which areas they might
concentrate on'"

Covert Action Quarterly (# 60, Spring 1 997) has a

fascinating article by its Director of Research, Louis
Wolf, entitled: "The New National Security Merger:
Law Enforcement and Intelligence". Just as NZ's

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 26

- Bob Leonard

Sam Day is a leading figure in the US Campaign to If he is held for his full period of sentence, 1 8 years,
Free Mordechai Vanunu. He was in Christchurch in he is likely to be hopelessly insane on release. This
late June to help publicise Vanunu's long isolation in treatment is inhumane and amounts to torture.
an Israeli prison and to give the New Zealand Groups in many countries, including the US, UK,
campaign a boost. Sam spoke in a total of seven Canada, Australia and New Zealand are pressuring
centres during his short NZ tour. the Israeli prime minister to release Mordechai
In a well-attended public meeting at the WEA Sam
gave a moving biography of Mordechai Vanunu, the Larry Ross of the Nuclear Free Peacemaking
man who in 1 986 in Sydney quietly spilled the beans Association organised Sam Day's public address in
about Israel's nuclear weapons capability. He was Christchurch and is helping to form a local group to
entrapped and kidnapped shortly thereafter by agents support Vanunu and press for his release from
of Mossad, the Israeli intelligence agency, and has prison. A goal of the group is to raise funds to send a
been in solitary confinement for over 1 0 years since New Zealand representative to a weeklong mobile
his trial. He was convicted of espionage, treason and vigil in Israel in late September. Sam emphasised
breach of the oath of secrecy that he took when he the vital importance of having Nuclear Free NZ
began work at the Dimona nuclear weapons facility in represented at the vigil at the Dimona weapons
Israel's Negev desert. facility, at Ashkelon prison where Vanunu is being
held, and at the Knesset (Israel's parliament).
Sam Day himself has been in prison (including a
month in solitary -he didn't say why) a number of If you want to make a donation, volunteer to help
times in the US for protesting against US nuclear or want more information, Larry can be contacted
weapons. Sam emphasised the urgency of getting at P.D. Box 18541, Christchurch 9.
Vanunu released because his years of confinement
were taking a toll on his sanity. He is becoming
paranoid and less responsive to those dedicated to
helping him.

About Peace Researcher

Peace Researcher is published quarterly by the Anti-Bases Campaign, Christchurch. The

editors are Murray Horton and Bob Leonard (Warren Thomson is on overseas leave). Our
journal covers a range of peace issues with emphasis on foreign military bases and
intelligence topiCS. Contributed articles will be considered for publication based on subject
matter and space requirements. We are particularly interested in reports of original
research on peace topics in Aotearoa and the wider region of Australasia and the Pacific.
Our address is:

Peace Researcher
P.O. Box 2258
Aotearoai New Zealand

Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 27

Yes, it's true. The ABC's very own Warren Thomson, Warren was relieved to get only a fine and not
co-editor of Peace Researcher, our Waihopai something like community service or periodic
campaigner, and the man who has singlehandedly detention. We made sure that his fine was paid
saved the Blenheim police station and court from before he fronted up at intemational departures.
closing down throughout this decade, has buggered
off to the Far East. Actually, having removed the What this means for Peace Researcher is that
ridiculous colonial mentality that afflicts New Warren will obviously not be co-editing it. M urray
Zealand, right down to how we describe the world, Horton joins Bob Leonard as co-editor while he's
he's gone to the Near North West. From our end of away.
the planet Asia is certainly neither Far nor East (and
what we persist in calling the Middle East is really the What it means for the ABC is that our high profile
Wild West). and indefatigable Waihopai campaigner is sidelined
until midway through 1 998. For those of you reading
To be specific, Warren has gone to Bangkok, to this who received a letter from Warren soliciting
teach English in a business college for nearly a year. money, followed shortly thereafter by his hasty
He applied for the job, was interviewed in Auckland, departure for exotic Asian climes, rest assured that
got it and flew to Thailand, all in very short order. the two events are in no way connected. As his last
Getting the job was a surprise to everyone, most of ABC task before leaving, he did a superb job
all h imself. He is an experienced teacher, with years fund raising for the legal costs of the Waihopai 20
in a variety of Christchurch secondary schools, and (including himself). Any money not used in that will
an expertise in teaching English as a second be put towards the ongoing Waihopai campaign.
language. It was all done in such a mad rush that his
starring role in the Waihopai court case (see main And to the spies and cops - if you find any testicles
story in this issue) came less than a fortnight before dangling on the Waihopai fence in the next 1 2
his departure. Although he was singled out for harsh months, Old Gingemuts has got the perfect alibi.
treatment by Judge Grace, as a Waihopai recidivist,

Since its rebirth in 1 994, Peace Researcher has been
also Foreign Control Watchdog and the Philippines
laid out by Marty Braithwaite. He worked on it in his
Solidarity Network of Aotearoa's Kapatiran
own time and for minimal reward. It's thanks to him
(Solidarity) plus innumerable flyers and leaflets for
that it has become such a professional looking
CAFCA, ABC and related groups.
newsletter. Unfortunately, the pressure of being a
fulltime union official, plus time consuming university
So he is a great loss, not only to ABC, but to the
work (studying law), has meant that Marty can no
broader movement. We offer heartfelt thanks for
longer do it.
years of a job done extremely well. All that we ask is
that you don1 forget us when you're Mr Justice
Not only has Marty laid out PR for several years, but

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Peace Researcher 13 - August 1997 - Page 28