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You are on page 1of 8

Physics Dept.

PART IIB

1.

2.

QUANTUM MECHANICS

3.

DO EACH PROBLEM IN A SEPARATE BLUE BOOK. On the cover of the blue book write

only the letter that has been assigned to you (NOT YOUR NAME) and the problem number.

4.

5.

The exam was designed to be done in three hours, but you will have up to four hours, should

you need them.

Some Physical Constants

Gravitational constant

Speed of light in vacuum

Permeability of free space

Permittivity of free space

Planck's constant

Electron charge

Electron mass

Proton mass

Bohr magneton

Boltzmann's constant

Stefan-Boltzmann constant

Universal gas constant

Avogadro's number

G

c

o

o

h

e

me

mp

B

k

R

NA

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

6.673 10-11

2.998 108

4 10-7

8.854 10-12

6.626 10-34

-1.602 10-19

9.109 10-31

1.673 10-27

9.274 10-24

1.381 10-23

5.671 10-8

8.314

6.022 1023

1 eV

=

1.602 10-19 J

1 erg =

10-7 J

1 cal

=

4.184 J

1 gauss =

10-4 T

lu

=

(mass of C12 atom) /12 = 1.66 10-27 Kg

1 atm =

1.013 105 N/m2

N.m2/kg2

m/s

T.m/A

C2/N.m2

J.s

C

kg

kg

J/T

J/K

J/m2.s.K4

J/mol.K

/mol

Part B

QM #1

2

magnetic field B , as shown in the figure. The particles are kept at fixed positions at points P1

and P2 , respectively. Their magnetic moments are given by the expressions: 1 1S1 , and

(a) (6 points) Determine the eigenenergies and eignfunctions of the system assuming that

the particle do not interact.

(b) (6 points) Draw an energy diagram and indicate all the transitions induced by an AC

electromagnetic field (angular frequency ) that flip either the spin of particle 1 or the spin

of particle 2, but not both. Calculate all the possible values of .

Now assume that the particles interact weakly via a perturbation Hamiltonian of the form:

H A 1 3cos2 S1z S2 z . Here, A is a constant, is the angle that the line joining P1 and P2

forms with B , and S1z and S 2 z are the z-components of the spins S1 and S 2 , respectively.

(c) (7 points) Determine the new eigenenergies of the system.

(d) (6 points) Draw the new energy diagram. Calculate the new values of the angular

frequencies for the transitions of part b

S2

P2

S1

P1

Part B

QM 2

negative x direction on a 1-dimensional delta function potential:

U (x) = K(x)

(a) (5 points) Write down the general solutions for the wave functions in the

regions x 0 and x 0.

(b) (10 points) Match the wave functions and their derivatives at x = 0.

(c) (10 points) Find the fraction of particles that is transmitted and the fraction that is reflected.

Part B

QM #3

The Hamiltonian of a Helium atom (ignore spin) can be written in terms of the

Hamiltonian of two Hydrogen atoms and the Coulomb interaction of the two

electrons as follows

2

2

2

2

2

= p1 Ze + p2 Ze + e

H

2m

r1

2m

r2

r12

where Z = 2 and r12 = |~x1 ~x2 | denotes the distance between the two electrons.

(a) (4 points) Determine the energy eigenvalues and eigenstates of the unperturbed Hamiltonian (r1,2 = |~x1,2 |),

2

2

2

2

0 = p1 2e + p2 2e

H

2m

r1

2m

r2

(b) (8 points) Show that the expectation value of V = e2 /r12 with respect to

the groundstate wavefunction of H0 reads

h

5Ze2

e2

i=

r12

8a0

(c) (4 points) Consider the Coulomb interaction, V = e2 /r12 , a small perturbation and determine the ground-state energy to first non-vanishing order in

perturbation theory.

(d) (9 points) Use the Variational method to estimate the ground-state energy

As a suitable trial function use

of the Helium atom described by H.

(~x1 , ~x2 ) =

,

e

a30

where denotes the variational parameter. Compare your result with the one

obtained in part c).

Note:

The following expansion of 1/|~x1 ~x2 | in terms of spherical harmonics Ylm may

be useful (r1,2 = |~x1,2 |):

P

r1l

1

m

m

Y

(

,

)Y

(

,

)

;

r

<

r

2

2

1

1

1

2

l+1

l

l

l,m 2l+1 r

1

2

= 4 P

r2l

1

m

|~x1 ~x2 |

(2 , 2 )Y m (1 , 1 ) ; r1 > r2

l+1 Y

l,m 2l+1 r

1

coordinates reads (a0 is the Bohr radius)

(~x) = Rnl (r)Ylm (, ) ; En =

Z 2 e2

2a0 n2

with

R10 (r) =

2Z 3/2

3/2

a0

1

eZr/a0 ; Y00 (, ) =

4

Z

n!

xn eax dx = n+1

a

0

Z

eax

xeax dx = 2 (ax 1)

a

2

Z

x

2

2x

x2 eax dx = eax

+ 2 + 3

a

a

a

Part B

QM #4

0 = h

H

(

a1 a

1 + a

2 a

2 ) ,

which experiences a weak perturbation of the form

= (

H

a1 a

1 a

2 a

2 + a

2 a

2 a

1 a

1 )

(a) (6 points) Determine the energy eigenvalues and eigenstates of the unperturbed

0 , and discuss the degree of degeneracy of the ground-state, first,

Hamiltonian, H

second, and third excited states.

(b) (12 points) Calculate the effect of the perturbation on the energy of the three

second excited states to first and second order perturbation theory and discuss the

degree of degeneracy of the energy levels after perturbation.

(c) (7 points) Calculate the shift in energy of the four third excited states at first order

perturbation theory and discuss the degree of degeneracy of the energy levels after

including this shift.

Part B

QM #5

unperturbed quantum system and En0 (n 1, 2, 3,) are the corresponding eigen

energies. A perturbation V is then introduced. Derive an expression for the

energy level of a non-degenerate eigenstate m up to second order in . Argue

that the second order term always lowers the energy of a non-degenerate ground

state.

treated using perturbation theory. The eigenstates of a hydrogen atom are labeled

by three quantum numbers (n,l,m). (We will ignore the spin degree of freedom.)

(b) (5 points) Calculate the first-order perturbation to the energy of a hydrogen

atom in the ground state.

(c) (6 points) Derive an expression for the first-order perturbation to the ground

state wavefunction.

1

2

0

| n010 | z | 100

|2

2e

0

En010 E100

n 1

2

Part B

QM 6

field

is in a constant magnetic

(a) (5 points) Find the probability P(0) for measuring the spin to be +1/2 along the y

axis at t=0.

(b). (10 points) Write down and solve the Schrodinger equation.

(c). (10 points) Find the probability P(t) for measuring the spin to be +1/2 along the y

axis at a later time t.

Hint: the Pauli matrices are

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