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Question 1

I=

V

R

200

20

10 A

P=I 2 R

V2

R

( 10 ) ( 20 )=

(200)

20

2 KW =2 KW

Question 2

lines, therefore carry 3-phase (3-) alternating voltage.

In single phase each voltage line is taken with respect to

neutral because of this single phase (1-) voltage will always

be less than line voltage by 3 .

Single phase AC has advantage that it only requires 2 wires, it

is used when needed to take high voltage and plug something

has to be converted to 1- outlets.

3- power work because 3- conductors (lines) are carrying

currents of the same frequency, but reach their maximum peak

values at different times i.e. when the first conductor is at its

peak output, the other or second conductor is

2

1

3

cycle behind

any given time one of the 3 conductors will be at its peak out

and current will flow consistently. 3- system is better than 1-

because it produce rotating magnetic field for 3- AC motor.

3- electric power is the most economic method of generation

and transmission of electricity, this is accomplished by placing

3 coils 120 apart and be rotated in the changing magnetic

field.

For transmission, current is kept low and voltage high in

distribution side voltage is kept low and current high.

Question 3

Apparent Power(s)

Is the product of voltage and current if the phase difference

between the voltage and current is ignored.

In AC circuits both dissipated and absorbed or returned power

is called apparent power, also the combination of reactive

power and true power is called apparent power, also the

combination of reactive power and true power is called

apparent power, in terms of RMS voltage and RMS current, also

their product is called apparent power. The units are VA

(Voltage*Current) where: 1VA=1V 1 A .

Formulas for apparent power.

S=VI

true power

Or

Apparent Power=

KVA= KW 2+ KVAR 2

Alternative words are real power, actual power, true power or

watt-full power, in DC circuit, power supply is simply a product

of voltage across the load and the current flowing through it

i.e. P=VI, because in DC circuits there is no concepts of phase

angle between current and voltage in other words there is no

power factor in DC circuits, but when it comes to sinusoidal or

AC circuit situation becomes more complex because of the

phase difference between current and voltage, therefore the

average value of power, real Power=VIcos, is in fact one that

supplied to the load, in AC circuit when the circuit is pure

resistive, then the same formula used for power in DC as P=VI.

Formulas for real power.

P=VI

(in DC circuits)

P = VICos (in 1- AC circuits)

P= 3 VLIL Cos

(in 3- AC circuits)

P=3 V I cos

ph ph

P= S2Q2 P= VA 2VAR 2

Units for active power is (W/KW) also this can be written in the

form of words like apparent power. The power that stars

bounce back and forth between the source and the load is

known as reactive power, also the power that merely absorbed

and returned in load due to its reactive properties is referred to

as reactive power.

Reactive power is given by

P = VISin which can be (+ve) for inductive and negative for

capacitor or capacitive load.

Q = VISin

apparent power

Reactive Power=

VAR= VA 2P2

KVAR= K VA 2KW 2

graph below elaborates more, this triangle graph is called

power triangle.

In pure inductive circuit, active power is zero because in

inductive circuit, current lagging from voltage by 90 from

current i.e. the phase difference between current and voltage

is 90., so if the current and voltage are 90 out of phase, then

power (P) will be zero because P = VICos , so if angle between

current and voltage is 90, Q=90 then P = VICos 90 =0

Question 4

(a)

R=50

XL =25

Z in complex form

Z= R+ jXL

= 50+j25

(b)

Vector Form

Question 5

Z1= 5+j20

Z2= 15+j25

15

R1

R2

V

AC

ZT=Z1+Z2

= 5+j20+15+j25

= 20+j45

If current in vector form is I=1 0

Hence:

V=IZ

= I (20+j45)

= (1 0 ) (49.2 66

=49.2 66

Question 6

100m

L1

L3

100m

L2

SIMetrix

AC

LT =

L1L2

+L

L1 + L2 3

LT =

100100

+250

100+100

AC

V

300 mH

100u

L

reactance

XL = 2 F L

= 2 * 50* 0.3

= 94.2

Therefore: Inductive impedance

Z = 94.2 90

Therefore V = ZL *I or I*Z

= 1 0 * 94.2 90

= 94.2 90 V

So here voltage leads current by 90, it doesnt matter which

one you are defining as zero degrees between current and

current by 90.

Question 7

220

670

R1

R2

V

SIMetrix

So: IT = IR1 = VR1

RR1

18

= 230

= 0.078A

RT = R 1 + R 2

230+670

900

2

Hence: Power, PT = I RT

( 0.078 )2 ( 900 )

5.5W

Question 8

RMS is equal to peak voltage times 0.707 or peak voltage

divide by 2 .

So: RMS = Peak value * 0.707

or =

Peak value

2

Therefore:

Peak voltage of 240 VAC

339.5 V

= 240 2

Or

240

0.707

339.5 V

Peak current =

V Peak

R

339.5

100

3.4 A

Question 9

(a)

Inductive reactance XL =

2

6.28

X = 2 FL 2 500.02

(b)

In pure inductive circuit the power is zero because,

the voltage is leading the current by 90 i.e. the phase

difference between current and voltage is 90, so since

power, P = VICos

P = VICos VICos 90 0

(c)

The power factor of the circuit is going to be zero,

because my circuit is pure inductive- capacitive and since

what applies in pure capacitive circuit.

(d)

Capacitive reactance, XC =

=

159.2

1

L

1

2 FC

1

2 5020106

Question 10

XL = 2 FL

2 500.05

2 5050103

15.71

voltages are also 120 apart from each other, but equal

in magnitude.

(b) Peak Voltage = RMS Voltage * 2 1002 141..4 V

OR

(c)

100

=141. 4 V

0.707

X L=2 FL

Question 11

2 500.05

15.71

capacitor is placed in parallel to the same power source, as

shown on the circuit diagram below, this type of circuit forms a

low pass filter.

R

+

Vin

inductor is placed in series with the power source and the

resistor is placed in parallel to that same power source, this

type of circuit forms a low pass filter, circuit below.

L

+

Vin

FCUT OFF=

R

2 L

FCUT OFF=

R

2 RC

signal, the impedance of the circuit decreases because of the

capacitor that offer a very low impedance to a high frequency

signal.

In RL low pass filter inductor resist sudden changes in current,

because of this inductors will filter out certain high frequency

signals (depending on the inductance value) and let the lower

frequency pass through unchanged, so due to the inductors

signals, this make the behaviour of this circuit to be more

reliable than RC low pass filter therefore is the one that I

suggest to be used because of its features.

On below circuit, all low frequencies will be blocked and only

high frequencies will be allowed to go to output.

Vin

Vout

Passive high pass filter

f=

1

2 T

1

2 RC

Question 12

To achieve low frequency RC low pass filter can be used.

Vin

Vout

C

A low pass filter passes all frequencies from zero to the cut off

frequency and blocks all frequencies above the cut off

frequency.

Passive low pass filter, resistor is in series with the output and

the capacitor is in parallel/ shunt configuration, at low

frequencies no current will flow through the capacitor because

of the high impedance of the capacitor, so current pass through

to the resistor to the load as frequency supply increases, the

resistance offer by capacitor will be zero, so the capacitor at

this stage will become a short circuit and all the frequency flow

through it back to the source, hence this type of filter is good

for low pass frequencies.

Question 13

Vin

I

Vr1

R1

200

Vout

V =I (R 1+ R 2)

R2

Vr2 800

0

V R 2=

V R2

R 1+R2

100800

200+ 800

80 V

Question 14

Rt

R1

R2

R3

R4

100

100

100

100

1

1 1 1 1

= + + +

R T R 1 R 2 R3 R4

1

1

1

1

+

+

+

100 100 100 100

0.04

RT =

1

=25

0.04

Question 15

KCL: The sum of the currents entering the node is equal to the

sum of currents leaving the node.

( I a+ I b ) ( I c + I d )=I e

I e= ( I a + I b ) ( I c + I d )

29 A

I a+ I b + I e =I c + I d

5930=I e

I e=29 A

Question 16

Ia

XMM1

Ib

R1

R3

10

30

R2

R4 =

Vs

50 V

20

Wheatstone bridge is the bridge for measuring ELECTRICAL

RESISTANCE that consists of a conductor joining two branches

of a circuit. By having a voltmeter placed as shown above this

means current flowing through that portion supposed to be

zero, if not R3 must be adjusted until no current flowing

through voltmeter, hence the circuit is balanced (Ia= Ib). This is

achieved when:

VR 2 VR 4

=

VR 1 VR 3

To find R4 using Wheatstone bridge:

VR 2 VR 4

=

VR 1 VR 3

Ia . R 2 Ib . R 4

=

Ia . R 1 Ib . R3

R2 R4

=

R1 R3

R 4=R 3.

R2

R1

(30)(20)

10

= 60

Question 17

CT

C1

C2

C3

47F

47F

47F

connected in series, therefore:

CT = C1 + C2 + C3

= 47uF +47uF + 47uF

= 141uF

Question 18

C1

C2

3mF

3mF

C5

C3

CT

4.5mF

6mF

C4

6mF

Question 19

R1

5k

Vs

R2

45 V

10k

R3

7.5k

R1

10V

2A

5K

E

I

R

VR1=IR1 .R1

RT = R1 +R2 + R3

= 5+10+7.5

= 22.5k

Therefore:

VR1=

R1

(VT )

RT

R2

20V

2A

10k

R3

15V

2A

7.5k

Total

45

2

22.5k

Volts

Amps

Omh

s

5

4 5

22.5

= 10V

Similar to VR2 and VR3

VR 2=

10

4 5

22.5

=20V

VR3=

7.5

45

22.5

=15V

Question 20

6V

12V

V1

V2

Va

30 V

I2

Vb

4V

V3

The sum of all voltages drops around the loop is equal to zero.

Hence: Va - V1 + V2 Vb V3 = 0 or

Va + V2 = Vb + V1 + V3

Therefore Vb = Va + V2 (-V1 V3)

= 30 +12 (-6 - 4)

=52V

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