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WRITTEN MODULE: 3

Question 1

I=

V
R

200
20

10 A

P=I 2 R

V2
R

( 10 ) ( 20 )=

(200)
20

2 KW =2 KW

Question 2

Three phase voltage is achieved by connecting in 3 wires called


lines, therefore carry 3-phase (3-) alternating voltage.
In single phase each voltage line is taken with respect to
neutral because of this single phase (1-) voltage will always
be less than line voltage by 3 .
Single phase AC has advantage that it only requires 2 wires, it
is used when needed to take high voltage and plug something

delicate like the computer, and for that to happen 3- power


has to be converted to 1- outlets.
3- power work because 3- conductors (lines) are carrying
currents of the same frequency, but reach their maximum peak
values at different times i.e. when the first conductor is at its
peak output, the other or second conductor is
2

and the 3rd conductor is 3

1
3

cycle behind

the cycle behind this means at

any given time one of the 3 conductors will be at its peak out
and current will flow consistently. 3- system is better than 1-
because it produce rotating magnetic field for 3- AC motor.
3- electric power is the most economic method of generation
and transmission of electricity, this is accomplished by placing
3 coils 120 apart and be rotated in the changing magnetic
field.
For transmission, current is kept low and voltage high in
distribution side voltage is kept low and current high.

Question 3
Apparent Power(s)
Is the product of voltage and current if the phase difference
between the voltage and current is ignored.
In AC circuits both dissipated and absorbed or returned power
is called apparent power, also the combination of reactive
power and true power is called apparent power, also the
combination of reactive power and true power is called
apparent power, in terms of RMS voltage and RMS current, also
their product is called apparent power. The units are VA
(Voltage*Current) where: 1VA=1V 1 A .
Formulas for apparent power.

S=VI

true power

Or

Apparent Power=

KVA= KW 2+ KVAR 2

Active Power (P)


Alternative words are real power, actual power, true power or
watt-full power, in DC circuit, power supply is simply a product
of voltage across the load and the current flowing through it
i.e. P=VI, because in DC circuits there is no concepts of phase
angle between current and voltage in other words there is no
power factor in DC circuits, but when it comes to sinusoidal or
AC circuit situation becomes more complex because of the
phase difference between current and voltage, therefore the
average value of power, real Power=VIcos, is in fact one that
supplied to the load, in AC circuit when the circuit is pure
resistive, then the same formula used for power in DC as P=VI.
Formulas for real power.
P=VI
(in DC circuits)
P = VICos (in 1- AC circuits)
P= 3 VLIL Cos
(in 3- AC circuits)
P=3 V I cos
ph ph

P= S2Q2 P= VA 2VAR 2

Units for active power is (W/KW) also this can be written in the
form of words like apparent power. The power that stars
bounce back and forth between the source and the load is
known as reactive power, also the power that merely absorbed
and returned in load due to its reactive properties is referred to
as reactive power.
Reactive power is given by
P = VISin which can be (+ve) for inductive and negative for
capacitor or capacitive load.

Reactive power formulas.


Q = VISin
apparent power

Reactive Power=

VAR= VA 2P2

KVAR= K VA 2KW 2

All these quantities are trigonometric related to each other,


graph below elaborates more, this triangle graph is called
power triangle.

Pure inductive power


In pure inductive circuit, active power is zero because in
inductive circuit, current lagging from voltage by 90 from
current i.e. the phase difference between current and voltage
is 90., so if the current and voltage are 90 out of phase, then
power (P) will be zero because P = VICos , so if angle between
current and voltage is 90, Q=90 then P = VICos 90 =0

Question 4
(a)

R=50

XL =25

Z in complex form
Z= R+ jXL
= 50+j25
(b)

Vector Form

Question 5

Z1= 5+j20

Z2= 15+j25

15

R1

R2
V

AC

ZT=Z1+Z2
= 5+j20+15+j25
= 20+j45
If current in vector form is I=1 0
Hence:
V=IZ
= I (20+j45)
= (1 0 ) (49.2 66
=49.2 66
Question 6

100m
L1
L3

100m
L2

SIMetrix

AC

LT =

L1L2
+L
L1 + L2 3
LT =

100100
+250
100+100

AC
V

300 mH

100u
L

By making current I=1 0 , V= IZ, first find inductive


reactance
XL = 2 F L
= 2 * 50* 0.3
= 94.2
Therefore: Inductive impedance
Z = 94.2 90
Therefore V = ZL *I or I*Z
= 1 0 * 94.2 90
= 94.2 90 V
So here voltage leads current by 90, it doesnt matter which
one you are defining as zero degrees between current and

voltage, in inductive circuit the voltage will always lead the


current by 90.

Question 7

220

670

R1

R2
V

SIMetrix

Current flowing through the circuit is the same.


So: IT = IR1 = VR1
RR1
18
= 230

= 0.078A
RT = R 1 + R 2

230+670

900

2
Hence: Power, PT = I RT

( 0.078 )2 ( 900 )

5.5W

Question 8
RMS is equal to peak voltage times 0.707 or peak voltage
divide by 2 .
So: RMS = Peak value * 0.707
or =

Peak value
2

Therefore:
Peak voltage of 240 VAC
339.5 V
= 240 2
Or
240
0.707

339.5 V

Peak current =

V Peak
R

339.5
100

3.4 A

Question 9

(a)

Inductive reactance XL =

2
6.28
X = 2 FL 2 500.02
(b)
In pure inductive circuit the power is zero because,
the voltage is leading the current by 90 i.e. the phase
difference between current and voltage is 90, so since
power, P = VICos

P = VICos VICos 90 0
(c)
The power factor of the circuit is going to be zero,
because my circuit is pure inductive- capacitive and since
what applies in pure capacitive circuit.
(d)

Capacitive reactance, XC =
=
159.2

1
L

1
2 FC

1
2 5020106

Question 10

Each phase inductive reactance is:


XL = 2 FL

2 500.05

2 5050103

15.71

(a) The angle between the currents is 120 since the


voltages are also 120 apart from each other, but equal
in magnitude.
(b) Peak Voltage = RMS Voltage * 2 1002 141..4 V
OR
(c)

100
=141. 4 V
0.707

Reactance of each inductor is:


X L=2 FL

Question 11

2 500.05

15.71

When a resistor is placed in series with the power source and a


capacitor is placed in parallel to the same power source, as
shown on the circuit diagram below, this type of circuit forms a
low pass filter.
R
+

Vin

This type of filter is called RC low pass filter again when an


inductor is placed in series with the power source and the
resistor is placed in parallel to that same power source, this
type of circuit forms a low pass filter, circuit below.
L
+
Vin

The cut off frequency of the filter is given by the formula


FCUT OFF=

R
2 L

, this formula applies to the circuit above.

For RC low pass filter, cut off frequency is

FCUT OFF=

R
2 RC

The disadvantage of RC low pass filter is that at high frequency


signal, the impedance of the circuit decreases because of the
capacitor that offer a very low impedance to a high frequency
signal.
In RL low pass filter inductor resist sudden changes in current,
because of this inductors will filter out certain high frequency
signals (depending on the inductance value) and let the lower
frequency pass through unchanged, so due to the inductors

that offers a very high resistance at very high frequency


signals, this make the behaviour of this circuit to be more
reliable than RC low pass filter therefore is the one that I
suggest to be used because of its features.
On below circuit, all low frequencies will be blocked and only
high frequencies will be allowed to go to output.

Vin

Vout
Passive high pass filter

f=

1
2 T

1
2 RC

Question 12
To achieve low frequency RC low pass filter can be used.

Vin

Vout
C

A low pass filter passes all frequencies from zero to the cut off
frequency and blocks all frequencies above the cut off
frequency.
Passive low pass filter, resistor is in series with the output and
the capacitor is in parallel/ shunt configuration, at low
frequencies no current will flow through the capacitor because
of the high impedance of the capacitor, so current pass through
to the resistor to the load as frequency supply increases, the

impedance capacitor decreases at beyond high frequencies the


resistance offer by capacitor will be zero, so the capacitor at
this stage will become a short circuit and all the frequency flow
through it back to the source, hence this type of filter is good
for low pass frequencies.

Question 13
Vin

I
Vr1

R1
200

Vout

V =I (R 1+ R 2)

R2
Vr2 800
0

V R 2=

V R2
R 1+R2

100800
200+ 800

80 V

Question 14
Rt

R1

R2

R3

R4

100

100

100

100

1
1 1 1 1
= + + +
R T R 1 R 2 R3 R4

1
1
1
1
+
+
+
100 100 100 100

0.04

RT =

1
=25
0.04

Question 15

KCL: The sum of the currents entering the node is equal to the
sum of currents leaving the node.

( I a+ I b ) ( I c + I d )=I e

( 24+35 )( 12+18 )=I e

I e= ( I a + I b ) ( I c + I d )

29 A

I a+ I b + I e =I c + I d
5930=I e

I e=29 A

Question 16
Ia

XMM1

Ib

R1

R3

10

30

R2

R4 =

Vs

50 V

20

Using Wheatstone bridge:


Wheatstone bridge is the bridge for measuring ELECTRICAL
RESISTANCE that consists of a conductor joining two branches
of a circuit. By having a voltmeter placed as shown above this
means current flowing through that portion supposed to be
zero, if not R3 must be adjusted until no current flowing
through voltmeter, hence the circuit is balanced (Ia= Ib). This is
achieved when:

VR 2 VR 4
=
VR 1 VR 3

Here R3 is a variable resistor in order to balance the circuit.


To find R4 using Wheatstone bridge:
VR 2 VR 4
=
VR 1 VR 3
Ia . R 2 Ib . R 4
=
Ia . R 1 Ib . R3

From the above equation currents cancel each other, hence:


R2 R4
=
R1 R3

R1=10, R2=20 and R3=30, therefore:


R 4=R 3.

R2
R1

(30)(20)
10

= 60

Question 17
CT

C1

C2

C3

47F

47F

47F

Capacitors connected in parallel are the same as resistors


connected in series, therefore:
CT = C1 + C2 + C3
= 47uF +47uF + 47uF
= 141uF

Question 18
C1

C2

3mF

3mF

C5

C3

CT

4.5mF

6mF
C4

6mF

Question 19
R1

5k
Vs

R2

45 V

10k
R3

7.5k

R1
10V
2A
5K

E
I
R

VR1=IR1 .R1
RT = R1 +R2 + R3
= 5+10+7.5
= 22.5k
Therefore:
VR1=

R1
(VT )
RT

R2
20V
2A
10k

R3
15V
2A
7.5k

Total
45
2
22.5k

Volts
Amps
Omh
s

5
4 5
22.5

= 10V
Similar to VR2 and VR3
VR 2=

10
4 5
22.5

=20V
VR3=

7.5
45
22.5

=15V

Question 20
6V
12V

V1
V2
Va

30 V

I2
Vb

4V
V3

Kirchhoffs voltage law state that:


The sum of all voltages drops around the loop is equal to zero.
Hence: Va - V1 + V2 Vb V3 = 0 or
Va + V2 = Vb + V1 + V3
Therefore Vb = Va + V2 (-V1 V3)
= 30 +12 (-6 - 4)
=52V