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Production and Operation Management in JSPL

(6*135 MW, ACPP)

Under the guidance of

Sagar Sahu

Submitted by


Reg. No.-A13MB2020012

In partial fulfillment of the requirement

For the award of the degree




Operations Management


I hereby declare that the project report entitled (Production and

Operation Management in JSPL 6X135 MW ACPP.) Submitted in partial fulfillment of
the requirement for the degree of Masters of Business Administration to GITAM
UNIVERSITY, VISAKHAPATNAM India is my original work and not submitted for the
award of any other degree, diploma, fellowship or any other similar title of prizes.

Place: Angul Name of candidate: YOGESH KUMAR TRIPATHI

Date: 05/04/2015 Regd. No.A13MB2020012


The project report of Mr. YOGESH KUMAR TRIPATHI Production

and Operation Management in JSPL (6*135MW CPP) is approved and is acceptable in
quality and form.

Internal Examiner External Examiner

(Name, Qualification and Designation) (Name, Qualification)


Certified that this project report titled Production and Operation

Management in JSPL (6*135MW) is the bonfire work of YOGESH KUMAR TRIPATHI,
who carried out the project work under my supervision.






I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to my project guide Mr. (Sagar Sahu,

Lecturer) and without whose sincere guidance and support this project would not have been a
success. Thanking them is a small gesture for the generosity shown.

I am also grateful to Mr. Sagar Sahu and providing me useful information. I am also
indebted to all the employees of the organization for their sincere help and cooperation.

This project is a satisfactory outcome of several days hard work. We are thankful to
the respondent who has given us sample feedback and co-operation during the preparation of
this project.

Finally, I take this opportunity to thank the entire senior executives team and every
associate of this organization, who have helped me directly and indirectly during this period
of project preparation.


Regd. No. A13MB2020012


This is to certify that the project report entitled Production and Operation
Management in JSPL (6*135MW) submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for
the degree of Masters of Business Administration of GITAM UNIVERSITY,

YOGESH KUMAR TRIPATHI has worked under my supervision and guidance

and that no part of this report has been submitted for the award of any other Degree,
Diploma, Fellowship or other similar titles or prizes and that the work has not been published
in any journal or magazine.

Regd. No.-A13MB2020012


(Director Creative)


This is to certify that YOGESH KUMAR TRIPATHI ; MBA student of Certificate

Institution Of Management, GITAM UNIVERSITY,VISAKHAPATNAM has successfully
completed the project as partial fulfillment of the MBA program from dated 01.02.2015 to
06.04.2015. The report entitled: Production and Operation Management in JSPL
(6*135MW) his original work and the same has not been submitted prior to this in any

During the above period we found his to be sincere and hardworking. She followed
the rules and regulations of the organization and was punctual in his attendance. His
performance and conduct was good. He possesses the ability to transform conceptual
knowledge to practical situations.


Name and Designation of H.O.D


Mr. Naveen Jindal is a Member of Parliament, a successful entrepreneur, a sports enthusiast

and a family man. He is the youngest son of the steel visionary and former Minister of Power
in the government of Haryana, India, Sh. O.P. Jindal. At a very young age, he transformed
Jindal Steel& Power Limited (JSPL), a moderately performing company in the steel sector,
into a star performer. JSPL is a part of the about US$ 18 billion diversified O.P. Jindal Group,
which is the fourth largest business entity in India.

After consolidating its position as a leading player in the steel, power, mining and
infrastructure sectors domestically, JSPL has now diversified into the oil & gas sector and
internationally with operations in Africa, Oman, Australia, Madagascar, Indonesia and

Mr. Naveen Jindal is the Chairman of Jindal Steel & Power Limited (JSPL) which is one
of the most efficiently managed steel companies in the world. The company is a part of the
about US$ 18 Billion O.P Jindal Group. The company has the worlds largest coal-based
sponge iron capacity and has established a Rail & Universal Beam Mill, which is
manufacturing the worlds longest 121 meter rails and parallel flange beams & columns in
large sizes for the first time in India.

The company produces economical and efficient steel and power through backward
integration from its captive coal and iron-ore mines. rom the widest flat products to a whole
range of long products, JSPL today sports a product portfolio that caters to varied needs in the
steel market. The company also has the distinction of producing the world's longest 121
metre rails and introducing large size parallel flange beams in India. The company's segments
include iron and steel; power, and others.

The company's manufacturing plants are located at Raigarh in Chhattisgarh, Angul in Orissa
and Patratu in Jharkhand. Its machinery division is located in Raipur. Its coal mines are
located at Dongamahua and Tamnar, Chhattisgarh, iron ore mine at Tensa, Orissa and iron ore
pelletisation plant at Barbil, Orissa. Jindal Steel and Power Ltd was incorporated in the year
1979. In the year 1995, the company forayed into power sector and started a company
namely, Jindal Power Ltd to engage the power sector. In May 1998, the Steel Melting Shop of
the company was shut down due to the explosion. In the year 1999, as per the scheme of

arrangement, the Raigarh and Raipur Divisions of Jindal Strips Ltd were hived off the
company. In October 2009, they reopened the Steel Melting Shop and commenced

In May 2000, the company commissioned Round Caster Unit set up in Raigarh and started
producing Rounds, which import substitution product. Also, the company entered into an
agreement with Maharashtra Seamless Ltd for selling 50,000 MT of Rounds annually. Also,
they forayed into the Infotech sector and launched Infovergix Technologies. In the year 2001,
the company introduced a new value added product namely, Alloy Steel Rounds, which is
used for manufacture of seamless tubes. The company signed an MoU with the Chattisgarh
government to invest Rs 6, 400 crore in various projects in the state over the seven years.

During the year 2003-04, the company started manufacturing Universal beams and structures,
in addition to manufacturing of value added steel products, such as, rounds, billets, blooms
and slabs. In January 7, 2005, the company signed an MoU with Government of
Chhattisgarh. In July 5, 2005, they signed an MoUn with Jharkand Government. Also, they
inked an agreement with S. African, German Company for coal gasification facility at their
proposed six-million-tonne steel plant in Orissa. In November 3, 2005, they signed a revised
MoU was signed with the state Government of Orissa to increase production capacity of
proposed steel plant from 2.00 million TPA to 6.0 million TPA. In the year 2006, the
company inked a joint venture deal with Bolivia for El Mutun development. In March 30,
2007, the company signed an MoU with the Government of Chhattisgarh for setting up 2
million TPA Cement plant and 30 MW Power Plant in Raigarh at an estimated cost of Rs720
crore. In April 2007, the company's Plate Mill of 1.0 million TPA capacity was commissioned
successfully and commenced commercial production.

The company signed an MoU with the Government of Orissa for setting up a 6 Million TPA
Integrated Steel Plant near Kerajang Railway Station in Angul District of State of Orissa at an
estimated cost of Rs 16, 560 rore. During the year 2010-11, the company commenced
production in 0.6 MTPA capacity wire rod mill and 1.0 MTPA capacity bar mill, at Patratu,
Jharkhand. The company through their 100% subsidiary Jindal Steel & Power (Mauritius)
Limited, Mauritius (JSPLM), has acquired Shadeed Iron & Steel Co. LLC (SISCO), a
Company incorporated under the laws of the Sultanate of Oman, in June 2010. The plant has
been commissioned in record time and commercial operations started in December 2010,
three months ahead of its schedule. In May 2010, the company completed the modification in
mini blast Furnace and commissioned the steel melting shop (SMS - III). The company
synchronized the two units of 135 MW each under Phase - I in May and September 2010
respectively. In May 2010, the company completed the A 0.5 MTPA capacity slag grinding
unit at Raigarh, Chhattisgarh. This plant is utilising the slag produced by blast furnace I and
II and clinker, purchased from outside, is mixed with slag to produce cement.

In January 2011, the company completed the 0.6 MTPA medium and light section mill at
Raigarh, Chhattisgarh and commenced production. In March 2011, the company
commissioned the first unit of 135 MW captive power plant in steel plant proposed to be set
up at Angul, Orissa. As of March 31, 2011, the company's installed capacity at its Raigarh

Unit include: 13,70,000 metric tons of sponge Iron; 30,00,000 metric tons of mild steel; 36,
000 metric tons of ferro alloys; 623 megawatts of power; 16,70,000 metric tons of hot
metal/pig iron; 7,50,000 metric tons of rail and universal beam mill; 10,00,000 metric tons of
plate mill, 60,000 metric tons of fabricated structures; 5,00,000 metric tons of cement plant
and 6,00,000 metric tons of medium & light section mill. In January 2012, the company
commissioned the fourth unit of 135MW plant at Dongamahua, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh and
second unit of 135 MW power plant at Angul, Orissa, with this total 6 units are
commissioned in series of 10 units of 135 MW. Jindal Steel Bolivia S.A (JSB), a subsidiary
of the company, was allotted land for setting up of an integrated 1.7 MTPA steel plant, a 6
MTPA sponge iron plant, a 10 MTPA iron ore pellet plant and a 450 MW power plant. The
company is in the advanced stage of implementation of Steel Plant in Angul, Orissa. Also, the
Captive Power Plant in Raigarh, Chhattisgarh is under implementation.

The company is setting up an integrated steel plant in Patratu in the state of Jharkhand. The
steel plant is expected to be commissioned in second half of 2013. The company is expanding
production capacity of Machinery Division, Raipur, Chhattisgarh from 5,100 to 10,000 metric
tons per annum. During the year, two sheds were completed and the CNC machines have
been commissioned enhancing the production capacity to 9,000 metric tons per annum.
During the financial year 2011-12, two more sheds will be constructed in which cranes will
be installed thereby increasing the production capacity to 10,000 metric tons per annum.

Mr. Jindal has also been ranked among the top ten of India Incs Most Powerful CEOS
2011 list by a survey conducted by IMRB for Economic Times-Corporate Dossier.

Mr. Jindal won the Ernst and Young Entrepreneur of the Year award in the field of Energy
and Infrastructure.

JSPL has been ranked the Second Highest Value Creator in the World by the prestigious
Boston Consulting Group and first in the Mining and Materials industry category.

Jindal Steel & Power Limited was awarded the Forbes Asias Fabulous 50 international
award in 2009 & 2010.

Jindal Steel & Power Limited was awarded the CNBCs Most Promising Entrant into the
Big League at IBLA (Indian business Leaders Award) 2009.

Under the able leadership of Mr. Naveen Jindal, JSPL was rated as the highest wealth
creator in the country for the period 2005-09 and was also rated among Indias 50 best Blue
Chip companies by Dalal Street journal.


1. Introduction

1.1 Classification of turbine

1.2 Model number of turbine

1.3 Turbine theoretical principle

2. Turbine proper

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Critical technical specification and performance

2.3 Stationery Parts

2.4 Rotation parts

3. Turbine governing and protection system


3.2Composition of turbine governing and protection system

3.3Turbine protection system

3.4Coordinated Control System (CCS)

4. References

1. Introduction

Steam turbine is a rotating prime motor to change the heat energy into
mechanical power. There are a lot of advantages of large power, high
speed, high efficiency, smooth operating and longer life. It is used
comprehensively in fossil fuel power plant, nuclear plant and geothermy
power plant. It appeared in 18 century, a 5 horse power steam turbine
was produced by Sweden engineer Laval in 1890, up to now more than
100 years had passed, and 1300MW capacity of single steam turbine had
put into operation in United States.


Fig1-2 Fossil single re-generating heating cycle scheme, T-S drawing

1-boiler; 2-turbine; 3-condenser; 4-deaerator; 5-condensate pump; 6-


1.1 Classification of turbine

Turbine is classified by the casing number (single casing, double casing

and multi-casing), also can be assorted by the shaft arrangement (single
shaft or double shaft)

Table 1-1 Clarification of turbine

Clarlifica Type Brief description


Work Impulse Composed of impulse stagesteam expansion

Principle turbine mainly in nozzlea few expansion in moving

Reacting Composed of reacting stagesteam expansion

turbine in nozzle and moving blades. Part arc admission
can not be usedso regulating stage is simple
or double impulse stage only.

Condensing Exhaust steam discharges into vacuum

turbine condenser, for some small turbine there is no
regenerating system, it is called condensing

Back The exhausting steam is directly used as heat
pressure supply, no condenser is provided, when the
turbine exhausting steam being used as other IP/LP
Thermal turbines work steam, it will be called pre-
feature position turbine.

Regulating A part of extracting steam is used as heat

extracted supply steam and the others are still worked as
turbine regenerating steam, the heat supply steam
pressure will be controlled due to the clients
requirement, it is so called as regulated
extracting steam, some times, there are 1st
regulated extracting steam and 2nd regulated
extracting steam.

Back Back pressure turbine with regulated extracting

pressure steam
turbine with

Reheating The main steam expanded in turbine to a

turbine pressure then all the steam passes thru boiler
reheater to be reheated and flows back to
turbine expanding continuously.

Multi- Some other source steam is fed into

pressure intermediate stage of turbine combined work
turbine with the origin steam, it generally existed in
industrial process to utilize the process steam.

Axial The stages arranged one by one axially, the

turbine steam flow direction is axial, most turbine are of
this type.
Radial The stages arranged one by one radially, the
turbine steam flow direction is radial

Power plant Driving generator, constant speed , generally it

turbine is condensing turbine, sometimes, it is
combined heat supply and electricity generating
turbine(back pressure, extracting turbine)

Industrial Driving fans, pumps, variable speed

Marine Driving vessels impeller, worked in two rotating

Work turbine direction.
Condensing Butterfly valve is fitted on the connecting piping
heat supply between IP and LP turbine, the extracting
turbine pressure is not kept a constant value, but it is
basically proportional with the extracting steam

Main LP turbine Main steam pressure is less than 1.5 Mpa

IP turbine Main steam pressure is 24 Mpa
HP turbine Main steam pressure is 610 Mpa

Super HP Main steam pressure is 1214 Mpa


Sub-critical Main steam pressure is 1618 Mpa


Super- Main steam pressure is more than 22.2 Mpa


Capacity Large Capacity is more than200MW, generally

capacity speaking

Mall Capacity is less than 25MW, in China now


1.2 Model number of turbine

Symbols are used to indicate the turbines basic features, including:

steam parameters, thermal feature and capacity etc.

Chinese turbine model numbering method:

steam para
Rated outputMW

Turbine type

Table 1-2 Chinese turbine type symbol

Type Type
Symbol Symbol

N Condensing CB Back
pressure with

B Back pressure H Marine

C One stage Y Mobile


CC Two stages

Table 1-3 Steam parameter symbol

Turbine Steam parameter Symbol

type example

Condensing Steam pressure/steam N50-8.82/535


Reheating Main steam N135-

pressure/main steam 13.24/535/535

One stage Main steam C50-8.82/0.118

regulating pressure/regulated
extraction extraction steam

Two stages Main steam pressure/HP CC25-
regulating extraction steam 8.82/0.98/0.118
extraction pressure/LP steam
extraction pressure

Back Main steam B50-8.82/0.98

Pressure pressure/back pressure

Back Main steam CB25-

pressure pressure/extraction 8.82/0.98/0.118
with pressure/back pressure

1.3 Turbine theoretical principle

Figure 1-3 Turbine

Super-heated steam generated from boiler enters into turbine then pass
thru annular nozzle (Stationary blades block) and moving blades changing
the heat energy into mechanical power of turbine rotor rotation. The
different work mode turbine has different steam energy changing mode.

1.3.1 Impulse turbine

Work theory

Figure 1-4 Steam flow acting on barrow

According to the mechanics theory, when a moving body impacting a

static or a slower moving body, its velocity will be changed and acts a
force to the rejection body, this force is called impulse force. The extent of
impulse force is proportional with its velocity change and the mass of
body, when the velocity of rejected body being changed, the moving body
makes mechanical work. For example, when high velocity steam impulses
a static barrow, its velocity changed and transfers a impulse force to the
barrow making it goes forward, so it makes mechanical work, this work
equals to the steam kinetic energy change .

As shown in figure 1-5, steam expanses in nozzle 4, pressure decreased,

velocity increased, heat energy transferred to kinetic energy. The high
velocity steam passes thru moving blades 3 makes impulse force, pulls
impeller 2 to rotation making power, this is impulse action theory.

Figure 1-5 Impulse turbine theory scheme

1-shaft; 2-impeller3-moving blades; 4-nozzle

1.3.2 Reacting turbine

Wok theory

According to the Newtons third law, when a body makes an acting force
to another body, it will receive a reactive force which is equal to the acting
force and with an opposite direction. For example, a flight rocket (Figure
1-6) utilizes the reactive force of high velocity gas by burned fuel, jet out
from its end part, this reactive force is called as reacting force. This
theory of making work by reactive force is called reacting theory. An
Egyptian Hero made a reactive steam ball in 120 B.C. (refer to Figure 1-
7), it worked with reacting theory.

Fig. 1-6 Rocket work theory Fig. 1-7 Hero reactive ball theory

1.3.3 Multi-stage turbine

When higher parameter, larger capacity and higher efficiency turbine

developed, single stage turbine is instead of by multi-stage turbine
(Figure 1-8)

Impulse multi-stage turbine scheme Reacting multi-stage turbine

1-rotor;2-diaphragms;3-nozzle 1-Rotor drum;2-moving blades

4-moving blades;5-casing;6-steam chest 3- nozzle;4-dummy piston

7-exhaust chamber;8-gland sealing 5-casing;6-steam chest;7-balance


9- diaphragm sealing; 8-balance chamber;9- exhaust chamber

10-balance hole

Figure 1-8 Impulse and Reacting multi-stage turbine scheme

2. Turbine proper

2.1 Introduction

The Jindal power plant turbine is designed and produced by shanghai

turbine co. Ltd. according to Japan Mitsubishi Co. building block
technology. This turbine is a super high pressure, reheating, double
exhausting flow, single shaft, reacting and condensing turbine, high
efficiency, easily and safe operation, high reliable. The turbine proper is
composed of moving part and stationery part. Moving part includes
blades, impellers, shaft and coupling etc. , stationery part includes steam
chest, diaphragms, gland sealing, bearings, stationery blade retainer etc..
HP and IP parts are arranged in a common casing, their flow passes are
arranged in opposite direction, fresh steam and hot reheating steam inlet

are arranged on the middle area of H/IP casing to decrease the operating
temperature of front and back bearings and decrease the heat stress of
rotor and casing, the steam flow in LP casing is in a double flow and radial
expansion mode, it will decrease the shaft axial dimension and exhaust

There are three bearing supports for this turbine set, HIP rotor and LP
rotor connected rigidly with rigid coupling, this configuration is benefit for
bearings load share, LP rotor is connected with generator rotor by semi-
flexible coupling. The thrust bearing in middle pedestal is the anchor point
of the turbine shaft which expands forward and backward according to
this anchor point. HIP casing expands forward based on the anchor point
of longitudinal and transverse keys. There is an absolute expansion
indicator fitted on front pedestal, total casing expansion is 20-22 mm, LP
outer casing expands backward based on the anchor point of front end of
LP outer casing.

The total length of turbine set is 13.5 m, it located on 9 m operating level,

HP stop valve and regulating valve sets are located on the front end, four
HP flexible steam inlet pipes connect with the related regulating valves
which act by hydraulic actuators.

HP nozzle block includes four. arc nozzle blocks, the entering steam of
each block is controlled by related regulating valves, when in rated load
operation, three valves wide open needed only, the 4th valve will be used
in summer and low main steam condition operation.

HIP casing is a single casing, there are one regulating stage and 13
pressure stages provided in HP turbine, 1st extraction is led after 10th
stage for No.1HP heater. Steam discharged from HP part thru two opens
under the casing and check valve flows to boiler reheater, a part of cold
reheating steam used for No.2 HP heater.

Hot steam from reheater flows thru two pipes connected with reheat stop
valves and interceptor valves driving by hydraulic actuator then enter into

intermediate part connected with rigid pipes. There are 13 pressure
stages in IP part, 3rd extraction is led to deaerator after 7th stage, 4th
extraction is led to No.4 LP heater after 10th stage. Steam flows out from
IP part thru two opens at the IP upper casing connected to LP casing by
two flexible connecting pipes, there is a No.5 extracting open on the lower
part of IP casing for connecting No.5 extracting piping.

LP part is a double flow type, 6th extracting(2XDN356) and 7th

extracting(2XDN500) opens are provided for No.6 LP heater and No.7 LP
heater (located in condenser neck) heating.

There are three pedestals installed in this turbineincluding three turbine

journals, one generator front journal and one thrust bearing, all pedestals
are supported on the ground, in No.1 pedestal (front pedestal), except
journal, main regulating and protection components are installed, such
as: shaft mounted oil pump and emergency trip device etc.

Two reheat stop valves and interceptor valves are located on both side of
turbine, it is able to be free moving following the turbine expansion, the
reheat stop valves and interceptor valves act only when load is less than
30%, when load is more than 30%, it is kept in full open position.

Turning gear device is mounted on the cover of rear pedestal, it is driven

by motor with reduction gear box, turning speed: 7-8 rpm. Start up or
shut down can be performed pneumatically or local operation manually,
Jacking oil system is provided for lower start power of turning gear and
protecting the bearing.

Exhaust hood water spray device is installed in LP casing to spray water

for keeping safety operation when exhaust temperature exceeds 65 .

2.2 Critical technical specification and performance

2.2.1 Critical technical data

Model number: N135-13.24/535/535

Type: Super high pressure, reheating, double
casing, double flow, single shaft condensing

Rated output: 135 MW

Speed: 3000 rpm

Cooling water temperature: 33

LP casing exhaust pressure: 10.13 kPa(a)

Feed water temperature: 245.5

Main steam flow: 417.943t/hr

Steam consumption: 3.094 kg/kWhr

Heat rate: 8550.8 kJ/kWhr

Rotation direction: Clockwise (from turbine to generator)

Shaft vibration (peak to peak) at 3000rpm: 0.076 mm

Shaft vibration (peak to peak) at critical speed: 0.254mm

First critical speed: HIP rotor 1849 rpm, LP rotor 2350 rpm,
generator rotor 809 rpm, exciter rotor
2660 rpm

Frequency range: 48.5- 51.5 Hz

Dimension (LXBXH, above operating floor):13.5X7.84X5.4 m

Total weight: 340 t

2.2.2 Main performance

When work at rated steam parameter, rated back pressure, all

regenerating heaters in operation, the output is 135MW and the
guaranteed heat rate is 8550.8 kJ/kWhr.
When operating at summer, back pressure is 11.87 kPa(a) with 3%
make-up, out put will be 135 MW.
When all HP heater out of service, turbine will still has the capacity
135 MW.

2.3 Stationery parts

2.3.1 IP casing

HP part and IP part are in a common casing (refer to Fig. 2-10),the steam
inlet end of both parts are located at casing central area, one HP retainer
and three IP retainers are installed directly on the HIP outer casing, LP
casing is a double flow construction. There is a IP heat shield installed at
IP steam inlet area to decrease the temperature difference of casing wall.
Opposite arrangement of HP and IP flow pass has an advantage of high
temperature area at the casing middle part decreasing its heat stress. The
two ends of HIP casing are HP steam outlet and IP steam outlet, pressure
is rather lower, leakage will be smaller and the heat influence to bearing is
less. The balance drum decreases the thrust force and makes a good
balance of axial displacement. HIP common casing configuration
decreases turbine length and bearing number.

Fig 2-1 Turbine longitudinal section

HIP cylinder is a horizontal split casing, divided upper and lower parts, its
material is Cr-Mo steel. There are four HP steam inlet nozzles, two of
them are on each part, four flexible pipes link them to regulating valves
outlet, steam supplied from chest into HP casing. Two HP steam outlet
opens located at the lower part near the GV end of HIP casing, two IP
steam inlet opens located at the middle lower part, IP steam outlet opens
located at the upper part near by generator end, some extracting opens
are located at lower part.

There are HP and IP retainers installed in the HIP casing, gland sealing
are provided at the end, opens are provided at both end of casing for
adjusting balance screws.

HIP casing is supported by four flukes casted together with lower casing.
At generator end, these flukes supported by keys which located between
flukes and the pedestal of lower casing, fluke moving on the keys freely.
At the Governor valve (GV) end, the fluke supported also by keys of front
pedestal. At each end, outer casing connected to cylinder and pedestal
with H beam and bolts, pins. These beams keep the casing in a correct
position. The GV end pedestal fabricated together with LP casing to keep
the HIP casing and LP casing in a correct position at axial direction.

GV end front pedestal can freely moving on its frame. Longitudinal key is
provided to prevent it from transverse moving. Enough clearance is kept
between bolts and pedestal to allow axial moving freely.

The advantage of lower fluke support is to erase the weight of lower

casing influencing the split flange bolts and get a good tightness, refer to
Fig 2-2.

Fig 2-2 Casing support type

(a) upper fluke support; (b) lower fluke support; (c) bed plate

2.3.2 HIP retainer ring, balance piston, IP heat shield

Turbine diaphragms are fixed in retainer ring which are fixed in casing. For
extracting regenerating steam to heat feed water, some steam extracting
opens are provided, extracting chamber are separated by retainer rings.
This retainer ring construction possesses benefit of simpler casing, easier
manufacturing and decreasing temperature difference and thermal stress
during start up/shut down and low load condition, but a larger casing in
axial and larger flange.

There are some diaphragms arranged in retainer ring, a large axial

pressure difference force is born by it, especially for HP casing, this load
will transmit to casing. Retainer should be enough rigid, when bearing
large pressure difference, its distortion will not make a danger of friction
between moving parts and stationary parts. Some radial sealing devices
also installed in retainer, the clearance with moving blade shroud will
decrease the steam leakage at the blade tip.

For reactive turbine, the axial force of moving blade is larger, so force
acting to the rotor is also larger, some bosses is designed on the rotor to
balance the axial force. There are three balance drum sealing provided in
HIP casing to seal the related bosses.

IP heat shield is installed at IP steam inlet area to decrease the

temperature difference of casing wall, heat shield is made by Cr-Mo alloy,
divided upper and lower parts, its support type is similar with retainer.

2.3.3 LP casing

LP casing is double flow type, divided inner and outer casing, outer casing
is fabricated by steel plate and composes three sections for being easy
transportation and manufacture then assembled at site, three sections
connected with bolts, after aligned the connecting flange will be welded
for sealing, LP outer casing is designed based on radial diffusion idea,
steam passes special guide device into condenser.

Gland sealing boxes of both side welded directly on the outer casing,
extracting pipe and sealing steam pipe with their shield tube of both side
route along with the inner wall downward go out at condenser neck
connecting to gland sealing balance chamber and cooler. In site erection,
welding of double skin pipe (inner pipe with another outer shield pipe) will
be careful especially when it penetrate wall, all inner and outer pipe welds
will be complete.

Supporting stand of outer casing sit on casing frame, the center of outer
casing and two pedestals will be fixed by lower vertical key, anchor point
of outer casing is fixed with lateral key.

There are two steam extracting in LP casing, No.1 extracting pipe

connects directly with No.1 LP heater in condenser neck, no check valve
and motor valve provided, another extracting pipe passes thru outer
casing, neck connecting with No.2 LP heater, one motor valve provided.

LP inner casing is a casting and fabricate combined construction, fixed

with outer casing with lateral and bottom key supported on outer casing
inner wall plate.

For decreasing steam leakage, 12-M42 bolts are provided at split face
inside inner casing nearby first stage diaphragm. When lifting upper outer
casing, this 12 bolts should be removed first then remove other 36-M42

For improving inner casing heat stress, stainless cover sheet is provided
on outer wall of inner casing.

LP casing connected with condenser rigidly, there is no load influence on

outer casing and bed plate when condenser pressure change.

There are exhaust guide plates arranged at both end of inner casing, it
combines with outer casing end plate forming a radial diffusion pass, the
velocity energy will be recovered after diffusion to get higher efficiency.
Exhaust hood water spray device is provided outside of exhaust guide
ring, (refer to figure 2-3).

Fig 2-3 Exhaust hood water spray device

1-water inlet pipe; 2- spray tube; 3-last stage moving blade; 4-de-
moisture ring; 5-guide plate

2.3.4 I/LP casing connecting piping

I/LP casing connecting piping led steam from IP casing to LP casing thru
two pipes (refer to Fig, 2-4).

Due to both H/IP casing and LP casing are with itself anchor point, so this
piping will be a flexible one to absorb heat expansion.

Due to the large volume flow, two pipes are provided, it is a balanced
bellow type, four axial bars are provided on each pipe for bearing the
huge vacuum force to prevent this force acting directly to the casing.

Heat displacement or end point displacement will be absorbed by two

axial bellows which is double layer, stainless steel material. Inner guide
pipe is provided for absorbing vibration and noise.

There is one set of flexible bellow provided at LP casing inlet vertical

section for absorbing heat and vacuum displacement to guarantee the
tightness between outer casing and this piping and good connection
between inner casing and this piping.

Fig. 2-4 135MW unit I/LP casing connection piping

2.3.5 HP nozzle group

HP nozzle group (Refer to Fig.2-5, Fig.2-6) is divided to four groups, two
groups in each inner casing and outer casing, each nozzle chest contains
one group meridian plane nozzle. There are 29 nozzles in each group.

Nozzle is manufactured with electric impulse technology having a good

accuracy, no leakage at top and between nozzles, increasing regulating
stage efficiency and unit heat rate, raw material is arc shape forging

Each nozzle group fastened with 31 piece of M27 bolts preventing from

There is sealing ring in nozzle block retainer (refer Fig.2-7), behind it

supported by leaf spring. Sealing strip is provided at blades top and
between nozzle group and rotor to decrease steam leakage.

Fig 2-5 Nozzle group order Fig 2-6 Nozzle group

Fig2-7 HP retainer ring

2.3.6 Steam sealing device

Turbine includes stationery part and moving part, when in operation,

moving part rotates in high speed but stationery part keeping standstill,
clearance should be provided to prevent them from friction, this will make
steam leakage (Fig 2-8), for this reason, steam sealing device should be
installed. According to its location, steam sealing device will be divided
into: gland sealing, diaphragm sealing and shrouding sealing.

Fig. 2-8 Steam leakage in turbine

Gland sealing (Fig 2-9) is provided for preventing HP steam leakage out
to decrease heat loss and protecting lubricating oil pollution. LP gland
sealing is provided for preventing air leaking in casing to keep condenser
vacuum in specified value.

Gland sealing divided H/IP end sealing (governor valve end), H/IP end
sealing (generator end) and LP casing sealing.

These gland sealing are composed of sealing body, sealing ring which
installed in sealing body, fixed with leaf spring, sealing body includes
upper and lower part linked with bolts at split face, lower part positioned
with key and axial position adjusted by shim, sealing ring is tooth
labyrinth type.

Diaphragm sealing is provided for decreasing steam leakage between

stages, keeping the pressure difference. HIP diaphragm sealing (Refer to
Fig. 2-10) is of inserted type casted in diaphragm. The LP casing seal ring
assembled in diaphragm fixed by leaf spring.

2.3.7 Slide pin

Relative expansion and anchor point

When turbine start-up, shut down and load change, its rotor, casing will
expansion or contraction, due to the heat transfer surface of rotor is more
than that of casing and the weight of rotor is less than casing, so, when
unit is heated, the expansion extent of rotor is more than casing, called
positive expansion difference; when being cold, the contraction extent of
rotor is more than casing, called negative expansion difference. The thrust
bearing is the relative anchor point of shaft, it located in middle pedestal.
The anchor point of casing is located at the center of LP exhaust open.
When turbine is heated, HIP rotor expands axially from anchor point
(thrust disk) to regulating valve end and LP rotor expands to generator
end individually.

Slide pin system

When turbine start-up, shut down and load change, its casing
temperature changes, for turbine expansion freely and prevent it from
motion-impeding and keep the alignment of casing and rotor, guarantee
the clearance between moving and stationery parts, slide pin system is
provided (refer to 2-11)

The lateral pin is located under front and rear flukes, between pedestal
and casing fluke, support key (lateral pin) arranged. At the middle area
of HIP lower part both ends, there are alignment H beam arranged to link
with front pedestal, LP outer casing (governor valve end) and connected
by bolts and pin. It guarantees the center of front pedestal, HIP casing

and LP casing is not changed. The longitudinal key between front pedestal
and frame will guarantee the expansion center of turbine stationary parts
is not changed when it moving forward governor valve end, based on the
anchor point of LP casing center.

LP casing is supported on bed plate thru its skirt (support leg) integrated
with lower part, the leg positioned by four keys, its position is as follows:
two axial keys of each end are local at shaft center line to fix casing
lateral position but axial moving freely; two lateral keys of both side to fix
casing axial position but lateral moving freely. LP casing can expanse any
direction freely based on the anchor point of exhaust open, the front
bearing box on LP outer casing contains not only its own bearing but also
the No.2 bearing of HIP casing.

Fig 2-11 135MW turbine slide key scheme

2.3.8 Valve Throttle valve
Throttle valve is casted by Cr, Mo, V steel alloy with enough strength in
higher temperature, it located at both side of turbine vertically.

Its valve is shaped a good profile with less pressure loss, higher efficiency.

When valve is in full open position, self sealing structure will prevent HP,
high temperature steam from leakage, steam leaking from stem flows to
gland sealing cooler.

Pilot valve is provided to decrease the starting lift force. Governor valve

The valve body of governor valve is welded together with that of throttle
valve supported by pedestal oat both side of turbine, its frame is the
anchor point of piping. Governor valve connects turbine by four219x29
flexible pipes.

Governor valve is driven by hydraulic actuator, for decreasing the starting

lift force, a pilot valve integrated with stem is provided. The profile of
main valve disk is a balanced type. The pilot valve is designed to minimize
the starting lift force and a good proportional character. Steady flow cage
is designed at inlet of valve seat, no eddy flow formed and less vibration.
The valves number order is I and IV valves at left side, II and III valves at
right side, view from governor valve to generator. Interceptor valve set

Interceptor valve set includes reheat stop valves and interceptor valves,
its bodies are casted together by Cr, Mo, V steel alloy with enough
strength in higher temperature.

The reheat stop valve is controlled by hydraulic actuator which is under

this valve, when valve is in full open position, self sealing structure will
prevent HP, high temperature steam from leakage, steam leaking from
stem flows to gland sealing cooler.

The interceptor valve is controlled by hydraulic actuator which is above

this valve, before unit load is less than 30 %, it controls the turbine load
together with governor valve, after load is more than 30 %, it is fully
opened, main steam is only controlled by governor valves. There is

temporary filter screen arranged out side of governor valve, for
preventing debris entered, it will be changed with a permanent one after
trial run.

2.4 Rotation parts

Turbine rotation parts means rotors, there are two rotors for this unit, i.e.
HIP rotor and LP rotor, it change the steam dynamic energy to turbine
shaft rotation mechanical energy. The rotor work condition is complex,
high temperature, high speed, it should bear the centrifugal force of
blades, impeller and shaft and heat stress caused by temperature
difference, the un-balanced centrifugal force will make rotor vibration. The
steam impulse force acting on the blades makes huge moment thru
impeller, shaft and coupling transmitting to generator, so rotor should be
high strength and even mass to guarantee safety.

2.4.1 HIP rotor

HIP rotor( refer to fig.2-13) is a integrated rigid forging, no center bore,
compared with that rotor having center bore, the inner face stress will be
decreased half value and the creep stress also much decreased and rotor
life increased.

Fig. 2-12 HIP rotor

HIP rotor is a double flow type, HP and IP steam flow in opposite

direction, supported on two journals, HP flow pass contains one regulating
stage (fir tree root)and 13 pressure stage (T type root, good sealing
effect); IP flow pass contains 13 pressure stages(fir tree root), tooth
groove are machined on related shaft surface for radial sealing.

Extended shaft connected on rotor regulating valve end, main oil pump
impeller mounted on it and linked with trip device spindle. The generator
end connected with LP rotor by rigid coupling using fitted bolts, this
coupling will transmit moment, axial thrust force, lateral shear load and
bend torque. Spacer is arranged between two rotors, it will adjust the
relative position of two rotors to guarantee the clearance between moving
and stationery parts. Rotor is able to be moved axially for take out the
spacer, jack bolts are provided on two couplings.

2.4.2 LP rotor

LP rotor (Refer to Fig.2-14) is a welded construction. LP rotor is a

symmetric double flow type, axial force is balanced.

It is supported on two journals. It contains 6 stages each flow. Blades use

fir tree root which can bear larger load. There is boss on each outer side
which will be axial displacement measuring surface for checking the
related displacement between rotor and casing when unit first start-up or
after over haul, there are balance bolt holes on inclined surface for rotor
site balance.

Fig.2-13 LP rotor

2.4.3 Coupling

This turbine shaft system is a three bearing support type, HIP rotor and
LP rotor connected by its own integrated coupling ( Refer to Fig 2-14),
this three bearing support system is benefit for load balance of each
bearing, LP rotor and generator rotor connected by semi-flexible coupling(
Refer to Fig 2-15), turbine rotor expansion backward based on anchor
point( thrust bearing in HIP front pedestal), HIP casing based on anchor
point( the crossing point of longitudinal key and lateral key in middle
pedestal) expansion forward. The advantage of rigid coupling for HIP and
LP rotor connection is: simple construction, reliability, large torque being
transmitted, the possibility to transmit axial and radial force, use one
thrust bearing, but the disadvantage is rotors vibration will be
transmitted and influence together, when resonance vibration happening,
difficult to find the cause.

There are main oil pump, journal bearing and control/protection

component, measuring elements provided in front pedestal.

In middle pedestal, journal bearing and thrust bearing are provided, a
temporary, installing used bearing is provided near by oil catch (LP casing
end), and will be removed after installation.

The anchor point of H/IP casing is essentially based on the lateral key and
axial key of middle pedestal, so, middle pedestal does not move in
operation as like front pedestal.

The rear pedestal is also ground supported, compared with middle

pedestal, the difference is that its anchor point is only for pedestal.

Turning gear is provided in rear pedestal, its large gear is mounted on

coupling, for decreasing winding loss and noise special cover is provided.

LP relative expansion indicator is provided in rear pedestal, theoretically

speaking, it indicates only the rotor expansion change, but this change is
related with the clearance between 19th stationary and moving parts

Fig 2-14 HIP/LP rigid coupling Fig 2-15 Semi-flexible coupling

1.2-Coupling; 3-Wave sleeve;

4.5-Bolts; 6-Turning gear

2.4.4 Blades
Blades is divided to moving blades and stationery blades according to its
effect, moving blades are assembled on rotor when it is impinged by high
velocity steam, the steam kinetic energy is transmitted to mechanical
energy to push rotor rotation. Stationery blades are assembled on
retainer, in reacting turbine, it play a role of nozzle and in velocity stage,
it is a guide blade to change the steam flow direction then flow to next
moving blade. Blade consists of blade profile, root and blade tip, refer to
Fig 2-16.

Fig 2-16 Blade configuration

(a) Rolled blade (b) Milling blade

1-shrouding; 2-blade;3-spacer;4-impeller

2.4.5 Bearing

There are two kind of bearing in this turbine: journals and thrust bearing.

Journals bear the weight of turbine and un-balanced force in operation

and fix the radial position to ensure the consistence of rotor center and
casing center also keep the clearance of moving part and casing, gland
sealing, diaphragm of stationery parts. Thrust bearing bears the un-
balanced axial force caused by steam acting to the rotor and ensure the

shaft axial position to guarantee the clearance of moving part and
stationery parts.

Block bearing
Block bearing (refer to fig 2-17) also called main bearing, according to the
different construction, are divided: round journal, elliptical journal, multi-
wedge bearing and tilt bearing. Round journal and elliptical journal are
mainly used in middle and small turbine. Turbine is a high speed machine,
the larger the rotor heavier. Bearing burn out and high vibration are the
main accident.

Fig 2-17 Block bearing

1-upper bush;2-lower bush;3-babbit;4-front oil catch;5-back oil catch;

6- oil catch bolts;7- upper bush pad;8-lower bush pad;9-pad pin;

10-thermometer hole;11- lower bush right pad;12- lower bush left pad

13-left oil inlet hole;14-right oil inlet hole;15-fit bolt;16-pin;17-oil groove

18-oil outlet

Lubrication theory of block bearing

The diameter of journal is always smaller than that of bearing inner
diameter. When stand still, journal falls on the lowest of bush, a oil wedge
existed between journal and bush, oil filled in this wedge and infiltrate
under journal, but no pressure, after turbine starting roll, the oil layer

stuck on journal surface rotates with shaft in same speed, this layer
causes lower layer moving together then the oil in bearing moving layer
by layer, oil moves following shaft from the wide section of wedge to
bottom and accumulated in the narrow wedge clearance forming
pressure, the turbine speed higher, more oil bringing in the wedge, the
pressure higher, when the lifting force is more than its load, journal lifted,
it does not contact the bush directly but separated by oil film called liquid
friction ( refer to fig 2-18)

Fig 2-18 Liquid friction in bearing

(a) form wedge clearance in bearing (b) distribution of oil pressure (c)
axial distribution of oil pressure

Thrust bearing
Thrust bearing is combined with front block bearing (Refer to Fig 2-19), it
consist of thrust disk, flexible balance ring, thrust pad (Refer to Fig 2-20),
pedestal and ancillaries: oil inlet pipe, oil outlet pipe, measure device etc.,
it separates horizontally in upper part and lower part. Oil forms film
between thrust disk and pad , changing dry friction to liquid friction and
bring out quantity of heat, cooling the bearing. Thrust disk forged rigidly
with shaft and machined simultaneously.

When turbine in operation, thrust bearing bears the un-balanced force of

shaft and fixes the rotor position, the center of thrust disk is the anchor
point of the whole turbine shaft related the casing.

Fig 2-19 Block and thrust bearing

1-block bearing; 2-bearing body; 3-thrust disk; 4-thrust pad(working)

5- thrust pad(not work); 6-adjust gasket; 7-oil catch; 8-spring plate;

9-oil inlet hole;10-thmometer hole;11-oil sealing ring

Fig 2-20 Thrust pad

1-oscillating rub; 2-pin hole

2.4.6 Turning gear

The rotor turning gear (Refer to Fig 2-21,22), is used to rotate the rotor at a low
speed while the turbine is shut down, so as to reduce to a minimum the distortion
of the rotor due to uneven cooling of the turbine parts. Turning gear uses two
stage reduction gear box, installed on upper cover of rear pedestal. It uses low
speed, variable frequency motor driving device, speed is variable from 3 to 62.5
rpm, 7-8 rpm is suggested when in initial period. Jacking oil should be supplied
before starting this device.

This device can be remote started and manual operated.

Fig 2-21 Turning gear scheme

1- pinion;2-gear;3-moving-gear;4-turning-gear;5-motor;6-spindle;7-
hand lever;8-safety pin;9-motor position switch;10-boss;11-turbine
shaft;12-screw shaft;13-coupling;14-cable;15-slide valve;16-piston

Fig 2-22 Turning gear scheme

This turning gear device composes of: frequency conversion control

cabinet, solenoid valve control cabinet, engage control device, pneumatic
oil spray valve and air piping, cable etc.


Following modewith automatic emergency shut down function, when

it follows the zero rpm signal of DCS, control system enters the auto
turning mode, as soon as speed reaches 7-8 rpm, turning gear initials
Semi-automatic modewhen speed reaches zero, push button
START initiating this mode.
Inching modemaintenance use, inching button START, shaft
turning some angle.
Manual modewhen failure of air supply, pull out pin, turning shaft
Initiating automatic-pneumatically the oil piping of lube oil system to
spray oil for pedestal.

System operation theory (Fig2-23)

Fig 2-23 Schematic drawing

There is turning gear command function select switch on automatic

control cabinet ,i.e., follow mode, semi-auto mode, inching mode,
manual mode and stop for selection. For example, explained based on
follow mode as follows:

When oil pressure and air pressure are normal, as soon as DCS received
the signal of turbine speed low than 600 rpm, an on/off signal sent to
auto control cabinet, then the cabinet send out command to initiate
cooling air fan and pneumatic oil valve, other systems are in waiting
condition. When DCS receiving a signal of turbine speed lower than 7-8
rpm set point, it sends again a zero speed on/off signal to auto control
cabinet then the cabinet send out pull pout pin signal, pneumatic
actuator pull out the pin of turning gear and feed back to control cabinet,
after it confirming the pin has pull out then orders engage motor moving
step by step and control the engage actuator to perform engage

operation, this operation can avoid gear strike and engaging smoothly,
after engage completed, feed back signal to control cabinet, after 5
seconds delay, 7-8 rpm turning gear started, and after another 5 seconds
delay , stop air supply to engage actuator, waiting for turbine rolling.
When turbine rolling after speed higher than turning speed, the gear is
forced de-clutched, signal feedback to control cabinet, it commands
actuator to pull gear off and pin reset automatically locking the engage
device, signal feedback to control cabinet, after 10 seconds delay, turning
gear finished.


When manual operation, power supply of control cabinet should be

turned off, prevent it from injure operator.
When air supply failure and operating in manual mode on control
cabinet, it should be ordered by turning site person.
When control cabinet is in semi-auto mode, shut down should use
shut down mode.

3. Turbine governing and protection system

3.1 Introduction

For pure hydraulic control system, it controls actuator only based on

turbine speed to change valves opening and control turbine output. This
mode is only effective when operating parameter is fixed, if boiler
pressure changed, control quality is not good. In dynamic condition, for
reheating unit, the inertia is larger, there will be a more delay, control
quality is not also good.

The basic reason is input comes only from speed, now, for large capacity
unit, turbine governing system will based both speed (frequency) and
load to control the system.

Fig 3-1 DEH system schematic drawing

For India jindal power plant, DEH (Digital Electric Hydraulic) system (Fig
3-1) is provided. Fire resistant oil will be used in EH system, its work
pressure is 13.8 MPa, having its own independent Fire resistant oil supply
system. Each governor valve provided with a actuator, among them,
actuator of reheat stop valves are on/off type, actuator of throttle valves,
governor valves and interceptor valves are fire resistant oil servo-
actuator, it receive valve position signals (+/- 40mA) from DEH to control
the valve opening, all these actuators using fire resistant oil, single action,
open valve hydraulically, close valve by spring force.

During start up, reset emergency trip pilot valve by turn on solenoid valve
20/RS, then open throttle valve by DEH, after fully open, governor valves
and interceptor valves open by DEH to perform start-up, raise speed and

In over speed protection system, two solenoid valves (20/OPC-1,2) are
provided, when speed higher than 103% rated speed or turbine trip out,
this solenoid valves energized open, fast closing all governor valves to
confine speed raising rapidly.

In Emergency Trip System one fly-ball governor and emergency trip pilot
valve are provided, the work pressure of pilot valve and actuator is
0.7MPa, turbine oil. When speed higher than 108-112 % rated speed, fly-
ball fly out to attack emergency trip lever, act emergency trip pilot valve
to release the protection oil in upper chamber of diaphragm of this valve
then release the oil in header of emergency trip system (AST) oil closing
all throttle valves and reheat stop valves, turbine shut down. There are
another four auto stop solenoid valves, two and one or each, (20/AST-
1,2,3,4) provided, it will receive all protection signals to trip turbine.

3.2 Composition of turbine governing and protection system

According to the function feature, governing and protection system

composes of oil supply part, actuator part and emergency trip part.

Oil supply part includes: oil supply device, cooling system, filter and
regenerating system and oil piping and fittings (oil pipes, accumulator,
rack, etc.).

Actuator part includes: Two sets of actuators of throttle valve, Two sets of
actuators of reheat stop valve, two sets of actuators of interceptor valve
and four sets of actuators of governor valve.

Emergency trip protection system includes: AST-OPC solenoid valve set,

diaphragm valve, emergency trip device, sliding pilot valve, protection
operating device and manual oil spray stop valve.

3.2.1 Oil supply system Function and composition of oil supply system

The main function of oil supply system (Fig 3-2) is supplying work oil for
actuator and keeping its normal physical and chemical properties.

It composes oil tank, motor pump set, control block, oil filter, magnetic
filter, over flow valve, accumulator, cooling system, fire resistant oil
regenerating and filling system, oil tank heater, ER terminal box and
instruments for oil pressure, temperature, level indication, control and

Fig3-2 EH oil system for JSPL power plant Oil device operating principle

Motor HP plug pump extracts fire resistant oil thru filter from oil tank
discharges thru filter, check valve to HP oil header which connected
accumulator then sends oil to actuators and emergency trip system.

Warning: Plug pump needs high quality oil and specified oil
viscosity, before starting oil temperature must me higher than 20

Pump discharge pressure can be set in 0-21 MPa range, for this unit, it
will be 13.8 0.5 MPa.

After starting pump, it operates in 100 l/min full capacity, supplying oil to
system and filling oil to accumulator, when oil pressure reaching set-point
13.80.5 MPa, oil pressure control valve operates variable displacement
mechanism of pump decreasing its flow as soon as the output flow
equaling the consumption, variable displacement mechanism kept on one
position, if system consumption changed, pump flow will follow this
change automatically to keep 13.80.5 MPa oil pressure, when oil
consumption increased instantly, accumulator will supply oil.

There are two independent pumps provided, one operation, one stand-by,
when system needing more oil supply or oil pressure too low due to some
reasons, in this condition, another pump can put into operation
automatically, two pumps can operate same time to supply double flow

Pilot over flow valve is provided as safety valve of oil supply device,
initiate pressure 16.2 MPa.

All return oil from actuator flow to pressure return oil piping (DP) then
thru a filter back oil tank. A self- contained oil treatment system is
provided, Special pump discharges oil from tank through filter, cooler
return back to tank.

There is over pressure by-pass device provided for return filter, when
return oil flow fluctuated (such as system closing suddenly) and return
pressure is more than 0.35MPa, over pressure by-pass device initiated to
protect filter from damage.

There is re-generating system provided to keep oil quality.

Pressure switches of HP oil header will start back-up oil pump

automatically and alarm during oil pressure deflecting normal value and
send out trip signal. Tank oil temperature controller is provided at cooling
water inlet piping of cooler. Hole for installing temperature alarm sensor is
arranged, oil level indicator is mounted on tank side. Main components of oil supply device

Main components of oil supply device includes: oil tank, pumps, filter,
accumulator, return oil filter, oil cooler, heater, circulating pump, re-
generating pump and instrument. Oil tank

The effective volume of oil tank is 910 liters, it fabricated by stainless

steel, sealing tank, manhole is provided. Air filter (oil filling point) and air
dryer mounted on the top filtering the breath air for keeping oil cleaning.
There are magnetic rods in tank for absorbing small ferritic particulate).

Manual drain valve is arranged under tank. Two float type level switches
(alarm and trip) are provided. Control block, over flow valve, hydraulic
parts are mounted at lateral side. A group of heaters inserted into tank on
side for heating when ambient temperature is low than 21 . Oil pump

There are two plug and variable displacement pumps provided, one
operation, one stand-by, two pumps operated together is also permitted,
pumps arranged under oil tank for keeping positive suction head. Control block

Filter Installed on top of


element Check
Over flow valve

To filter
Stop valve
differential To oil tank electric
To system Stop valve

Fig 3-3 Control block

Control block arranged at oil tank side, includes:

HP filter
Two HP filters installs on the outlet piping of pump to filter out the oil into

Over flow valve

Two over flow valves are installed on the HP EH oil outlet piping of pumps
separately for supervising system oil pressure, when system pressure
higher than design value, it open to discharge oil into tank.

oil pump outlet valve

Outlet valve ( manual) installed on outlet piping, downstream of check
valve, it keeps open when in operation, when one trains manual valve

closed, only this train is isolated, but not influence the another one for
normal operation, this isolated train will be maintenance or change

Angle check valve

Two angle check valves are mounted at pump outlet to prevent it from oil
returning back.

Pressure differential transmitter

Two pressure differential transmitters are mounted at pump outlet piping,
it across the HP filter to send out alarm signal, when P is more than 0.35
MPa, alarm signal send out. Accumulator

Fig 3-4 Accumulator

When oil pumps loss power, the accumulator will supply oil to EH system.

Function of the accumulator:

Accumulating energy: It is provided to accumulate system energy by

operated pump supplying HP oil to actuators instantly or periodically,
as an emergency power source to increase the hydraulic unit
Compensation of pressure and flow losses and the leakage
consumption and decreasing the impacting force due to hydraulic
valve sudden close and/or change condition.

Two accumulator subassemblies are mounted on two supporting,

racks. Each rack that mounted with two high-pressure accumulators
and two low-pressure accumulators is located near HP stop valve and
governor valve actuator assemblies. As damper, they contain the fluid
pressure when the load drops quickly. Each accumulator is connected
with a block. This accumulator block can isolated any of these
accumulators through valve for testing, recharging or maintenance. Magnetic filter

There are one set of three permanent magnetic rod on tank top to absorb
the ferritic particulate in oil, it can be moved out for cleaning and
maintenance during unit shut down. Fluid level (71/FL1. 71/FL2)

Fluid level alarm components are mounted on the reservoir top plate.
When fluid level changes, it moves the switch mechanism and causes an
alarm for high, low fluid level. It actuates trip switch at low-low limit fluid
level. Self contained oil circulating cooling and filtering system

Except main oil filter is provided working in normal operating condition,

another oil circulating cooling and filtering system is provided, it
composes two parallel oil coolers and two parallel oil filters working in

abnormal condition to keep the tank oil temperature in normal value and
the specified oil quality. When in normal operation, the main filter effect is
not enough, after a period operation, oil is changed worse, for keeping the
specified oil quality, shut down and oil re-circulating is needed. For
guaranteeing the oil quality and not shut down the unit, this self
contained oil circulating cooling and filtering system is provided.

It can perform on-line oil circulation to purify and cool the oil, even the
servo actuator system is not in work. Oil pump will be started or stop at
ER control cabinet, pump capacity is 40 l/min.

Self contained oil circulating cooling and filtering system includes one
motor pump, two 3 filters, two coolers and solenoid valve for cooling
water control.

Circulating oil pump will be controlled by temperature switch or manually

operated using button on control cabinet.

There are two EH oil coolers provided, tube type, installed in self
contained oil circulating cooling and filtering system to keep oil
temperature in specified range. Re-generation device

When the purity, water content and acidity of oil do not fulfill the specific
value, re-generation device will be put into service to improve its quality


Fig 3-5 Fire resistant oil re-generation device Return oil filter Fiber


One 3return oil filter is arranged in return oil piping beside tank, Movable
cover is designed for easy changing filter cartridge. To oil
tank Electric
heater Orifice

Electric heater is arranged horizontally in tank bottom, when oil

From filter pump
temperature is low than 21 ,it put into operation controlled by digital
thermometer; when temperature is higher than 56 and oil level is low
heating turn off. Fire resistant oil

Following turbine capacity increasing day by day, steam temperature also

increased and hydraulic oil pressure also increased, so, for preventing fire
accident, traditional lube oil should not be used. Fire resistant oil is

introduced, its normal working temperature is 20-60, its specification,
please refer to related document. Procedure for safety handling

Avoiding breath in or take in mouth, no smoking and eating, in working

area, not contacting with skin as possible. If fire resistant oil dropping on
insulation surface, moving it off immediately, Do not dropping it on cable
as possible to prevent from corrosion the insulation layer. If dropping in
eye, go to hospital and washing it immediately.

3.2.2 Actuator

Fig 3-6 Electro-hydraulic servomotor

Electro-hydraulic servomotor (actuator) (Fig 3-6) is a important
component in DEH. In spite of turbine capacity 600NW, 300MW, 200MW,
125MW, its work theory is the same.

Fire resistant oil acts to open valve, but closing valve is by spring force.
Oil cylinder of the actuator is single side in type, it connects with a control
block, on which isolating valve, quick release valve and check valve are
installed, , There are two kind of basic actuators, when adding different
devices, that is, on/off actuator and control actuator.

In order to decrease the impingement force between valve disc and seat
when actuator closed quickly, hydraulic cushion device is designed to
change the accumulated kinetic energy to fluid energy. Electro-Hydraulic servomotor

Electro-Hydraulic servomotor consists of: one permanent magnetic torque

motor and one two stages hydraulic amplifier. The first stage is includes:
one double nozzle and a baffle plate which fixed on armature middle point
and partly blocks the nozzles hole to form two changeable orifices, the oil
pressure controlled by the plate link to the second slide valves ends
separately which is a four ways type, the outlet oil flow is proportional
with the mouths opening. There is filter installed in the servomotor,
cleaning once time one year at least. Linear Variable Differential Transmitter (LVDT)

Fig 3-8 LVDT work principal

LVDT is an electro-mechanical transmitter, it creates a electric signal

direct proportion with displacement, i.e., transmitting the actuators
displacement (the displacement of throttle valve) to electric signal and
feed back to servo-motor amplifier compared with the signal from
computer, the D-value after amplification sent to servo-amplifier to drive
electro- hydraulic converter and throttle valve. It composes three circular
coils and a magnetic rod which fixed on actuator rod, this magnetic rod
inserted in coils to form connecting with coil by magnetic field, the inner
coil is a primary coil, motivation of AC, the outer two are secondary coil
opposite series connection, the induced potential in the two outer coils is
opposite, its output is the D-value, when the magnetic rod is at the
middle position, output equals zero, called zero position it is the center in
mechanical adjusting; the output of LVDT is a AC signal, before it
superimposes with the actuator position signal, it should be rectified.

The output circuit of LVDT is designed with a cam effect, when actuator
raising to a specified point, after this point steam flow almost not
increasing again and no proportional feed back signal. When the position
required signal increased over this point, position feedback signal no
longer increasing, position D-value will no reach zero, therefore, after
actuator enters the cam effect range, smaller D-value input potential can
still quickly move the actuator to fully open, the cam effect point is

60 Dump valve

Fig 3-9 Dump valve

Dump valve (Fig 3-9) is installed on hydraulic actuator control block,

when turbine accident need trip out turbine, emergency trip device acts to
release the safety oil pressure then the HP oil in lower chamber of
cylinder flow thru dump valve released.

There is a slide valve in dump valve which lower chamber connected with
actuators lower chamber, at slide valve bottom there is a small orifice to
let a few pressurized oil flow to its upper part, on the upper oil chamber
of slide valve, two mouths are existed: one connected to emergency trip
oil thru a check valve; another connected to actuator piston upper
chamber thru a needle valve, adjusting the opening of needle valve can
change the pressure upon slide valve, at normal operating condition, the
oil force adding spring force is larger than the slide valve upward HP oil
force, slide valve pressed on seat, and close the mouth to return piping.

For stabilizing the HP oil pressure to increase the stability of control
system, HP dump valve is provided, includes: adjusting lever, spring,
small slide valve, piston, big slide valve, plate spring etc.

HP dump valve installed in HP oil piping, HP oil enters lower chamber of

the big slide valve, the upward force balanced with pistons down ward
force which based on the spring force, adjusting lever to change clearance
of small slide valve, then force acting to piston changed finally, HP oil
pressure will be kept 2.0 MPa approximately.

When control HP oil pressure fluctuating, it can be buffered by plate


3.2.3 Emergency trip system

Fig 3-10

For preventing the turbine operation from critical accident caused by
some equipment abnormal operation, Emergency Trip System (ETS) is
provided (Fig 3-10). It trips out turbine to guarantee turbine safety.
During abnormal condition, ETS supervises some operation parameters of
turbine, when it excesses its limits, this system closes all steam inlet

Three trip devices provided

Emergency manual trip hand lever;

Mechanical emergency trip device;
Four solenoid trip valves controlled by ETS, it receives trip signals of
impotent parameter, as soon as four solenoid trip valves receiving trip
signal, they release safety oil and control oil immediately, closing
throttle valve, reheat stop valve and governor valve, interceptor valve,
turbine emergency shutdown.

System function

Trip function

When speed is more than 110% emergency trip acts, turbine emergency
shut down (mechanical over speed Fig 3-11)

Fig 3-11 ETS schematic drawing

When any one of following monitored parameters excesses operating
limits, ETS acts (failure open) turbine trip solenoid valve (20/AST), safety
oil drained thru solenoid valve, closing reheat stop valve and emergency
control block is initiated, control oil pressure is lost, throttle valve,
governor valve, interceptor valve are closed, turbine emergency shut
down(Fig 3-12):

Turbine speed reaching 110%

Axial displacement excess 1.2 mm
Rotor related expansion excess the specific value(+8 mm, -3 mm)
Bearing return oil temperature excess 75
Lube oil pressure is less than 0.0196 MPa(g)
Condenser vacuum is less than 0.080 MPa
Shaft vibration excess 0.254 mm
Remote trip signal

Fig 3-12 Emergency Trip System (ETS)

If another accident occurred, operator confirms tripping is necessary, or
needed shut down in normal condition, trip out can be performed to pull
the local crank on the front pedestal or push the trip button in central
control room dumping the safety oil and control oil, tripping the turbine.

Electric over speed emergency trip out: in load rejection condition, when
turbine speed is more than 103 %, over speed solenoid valve acts after
receiving the signal from electric over speed emergency trip device to cut
off control oil supply of governor valves and interceptor valves, and
connecting the control oil to oil return piping (the control oil pressure in
this time is called OPC pressure), over speed solenoid valve closed quickly
to increase the kinematic stability of turbine set. Extracting check valves
are closed when OPC pressure is lower by sequential control system. After
turbine speed decreased to a specified value, electric over speed solenoid
valve resets, opening the governor valves and interceptor valves.

Oil injection test function

For testing the emergency trip device on line, but not in over speed
condition, providing the oil injection testing function

Emergency trip testing function

There are two testing methods for emergency trip test: raising turbine
speed, initiating emergency trip; injecting oil into emergency device to
increase the trip weight and eccentricity, initiating trip out.

Turbine reset function

Pulling the crank on turbine front pedestal or pushing manual reset button
in central control room can reset the emergency trip device.

Description of ETS components

AST-OPC solenoid valve component

AST-OPC solenoid valve component consists of: two parallel over speed
protecting solenoid valves (20/OPC-1,2), two check valves ,four parallel
and serial Auto Stop emergency Trip solenoid valves (20/AST-1,2,3,4) and
one control block, this component arranged in HP fire resistant oil system.

It is controlled by OPC and AST of DCS, in normal operation, the two OPC
solenoid valves are de-energized closed (FC), isolating the oil releasing
piping, oil pressure in actuator piston lower chamber of governor valve is
established, when speed is higher than 103% rated speed, OPC signal
send out, this two OPC solenoid valves are energized open, the oil in OPC
oil header return back to EH oil tank and the related dump valves open
quickly, governor valves closed quickly.

Four parallel and serial arranged AST solenoid valves (20/AST-1,2,3,4) are
controlled by Emergency Trip System (ETS), in normal operation , these
valves are energized close, isolated the oil drain pass, there is oil pressure
established under actuator piston of throttle valve and governor valve, in
emergency condition, Signal send out , these four solenoid valves are de-
energized open, the oil in AST oil header return back to EH oil tank and
the related dump valves open quickly, throttle valve and governor valves
closed quickly.

Four AST solenoid valves are arranged parallel and serially to guarantee
turbine operating safely and reliably. AST/1 and AST/3 arranged parallel,
AST/2 and AST/4 arranged parallel also then two sets arranged serially,
any solenoid valve acts will release the pressurized oil of AST header
guarantee turbine safety. When reset needed, any solenoid valve set of
these two sets closed, the oil pressure in AST header will be established,
turbine will be in a waiting start condition.

AST oil piping and OPC oil piping are connected with two check valves, it
is designed that when OPC solenoid valve acting, AST header pressure is
not influenced, and when AST solenoid valve acting, OPC header pressure
will be released also.

Diaphragm valve

Fig 3-13 Diaphragm valve

Diaphragm valve links with LP turbine oil system and HP fire resistant oil
system, when turbine over speed, the emergency trip device take action
or emergency trip device sends out trip signal, the oil pressure in the
mechanical over speed manual trip header released, diaphragm valve
opens, AST oil header pressure released, throttle valve, governor valve,
reheat stop valve and interceptor valve closed, turbine shut down,
guarantee its safety.

When turbine in normal condition, the safety oil in turbine LP oil system
filled on upper chamber of diaphragm, against the force of the spring,
keeping the valves in close position, isolating AST system from the
drain piping, ordering the HP/LP auto closer and the actuator of HP/LP
governor valves put into operation.

The action of both the mechanical over speed trip device and manual trip
slide valve or any independent one will release or decrease the safety oil
pressure in turbine oil system, the compression spring open the
diaphragm valve, AST oil returns to EH oil tank, all valves closed.

3.3 Turbine protecting system

3.3.1 Introduction

Turbine is a huge precision machine, work environment is serious:

Operating under high pressure and high temperature;

3000 rpm speed;
Clearance between moving parts and stationery parts is limited,
only some mm.
The capacity of turbine is developed larger, parameter is higher, thermal
system is more complex, it cost is higher and higher, any accident will
cause a huge economic losses, so turbine operation should be supervised
carefully, turbine should be protected safely.

Following protection should be provided for turbine:

over speed protection;

Condenser vacuum lower;
Lube oil pressure lower;
Shaft vibration protection;
Turbine axial displacement protection;
Generator cooling system protection;
Manual trip out;
Power lost protection;
Others by turbine and generator manufacturers;

Another protection required as follows:

Extracting steam reverse flow protection;

LP casing high temperature protection;
Prevention of water damage to turbine;
Turbine high back pressure protection.

Except above mentioned turbine design safety protection requirement,

there are also another protection demands: lube oil tank level low
protection, condenser water level high protection, reheating steam
temperature high protection, control oil pressure low protection, bearing
lube oil temperature high protection etc

The main auxiliaries feed water pump is provided with protection device,
such as: axial displacement protection, lube oil pressure low protection
and shaft vibration protection.

Over speed protection

It is a critical device, In normal operation, the turbine shaft torque which
transferred from steam energy is balanced with the deeded torque of
generator, turbine operated in 3000 rpm, but in load rejection or other
reasons turbine trip out condition and in large load changing condition,
the torque balance will not be maintained, turbine speed increased
quickly, if action is not adopted, the consequence is serious, such as:
bearing pedestal loosing, blades damage, casing damage, reliable
protection system should be provided, for large capacity turbine, three tip
system are normally provided..

Condenser vacuum low protection

If condenser vacuum damaged, turbine heat efficiency will be decreased,
otherwise, low vacuum will cause turbine exhaust temperature higher
then LP casing temperature higher, pedestal raising, shaft vibration, it also
causes reacting degree increasing, axial force increasing to damage thrust
bearing, so, vacuum low protection is also a critical protection function.

. Low lube oil pressure protection
Low lube oil pressure protection is also a critical protection function. When
turbine rotor rotes with high speed, it is supported by bearing using lube
oil, if oil pressure is low, dry friction will happen between shaft and bush,
the babbit alloy will be burned, vibration increased, even moving parts
tough with stationery parts, it is not permitted absolutely. As soon as lube
oil pressure decreased to a safety value, AC motor emergency oil pump
will be started immediately, if failure of this starting, DC pump will be

Axial displacement protection

The clearance between turbine moving parts and stationery parts is
limited, only some mm, in starting or load change period, turbine will bear
large axial force, the force larger the displacement more, when the
displacement excess the limit, the moving parts and stationery parts will
contact together or burning thrust bearing, so, supervision and protection
the axial displacement is necessary. There are two kind of axial
displacement protection: rotor related to anchor point in pedestal and
rotor related casing, that is, expansion difference, including: HP casing, IP
casing and LP casing.

Turbine vibration protection

Vibration is unavoidable in turbine operation, but excess vibration is not
permitted. The cause of vibration will be rotor unbalance, some rotating
parts lost, loose of pedestal, bearing cover not fastened, casing expansion
restrained, rotor heated bending etc, the protection target is avoiding
turbine damaged due to excess vibration.

Except the above mentioned items, The protection of preventing

extracting steam from flowing back is also impotent, when turbine trip
out, all throttle valves and reheat stop valves are closed, but the
condenser and most part of turbine are in a vacuum condition, the
extracting steam will flow back into turbine causing, turbine speed still
increasing, especially the steam stored in deaerator, so preventing steam
back flow device is provided, as soon as turbine tripped, check valve are
closed immediately, prevent it from steam returning.

3.3.2 Periodically testing of turbine protection system

Turbine protection system is a critical protection measurement to

guarantee turbine safe and normal operation. As the turbine capacity is
larger and larger, damage of protection system will cause enormous
losses so the accuracy and reliability of protection equipment is very

According to operating experience, following equipment or devices will be

tested periodically;

Throttle valve, Governor valves tightness test, before and after

overhaul and before over speed test;
Throttle valve, Governor valves moving test, weekly
Low lube oil pressure testing, weekly;
HP starting oil pump, AC/DC emergency lube oil pump starting,
HP exhaust check valve, extracting piping check valves interlock
test, before unit cold starting;
Extracting piping check valves, HP emergency drain valve open test,
ETS protection test and HP heaters protection test, before unit cold
Turbine and its auxiliaries interlock test, before unit cold starting;
Condensate pump, EH oil pump, vacuum pump, LP heater drain
pump, etc. back up pump change over, weekly;
(10) Back up BFP change over, monthly;
(11) Over speed test, after overhaul and unit planned maintenance
and protection system maintenance;
(12) Manual trip out testing, before each cold starting

3.3.3 Turbine major protection and control device and supervision


71 Turbine major protection

Mechanical over speed protection;

Electro-over speed protection;
Axial displacement protection;
Vacuum low protection;
Lube oil pressure low protection;
EH oil pressure low protection;
Shaft vibration protection;
turbine expansion difference protection; (not trip, normally)
Bearing metal temperature high protection; (not trip, normally)
Thrust bearing temperature high protection; (not trip, normally)
Boiler, turbine coordinate protection;
Local manual and remote trip protection;
Over speed protection;
Heat stress control protection;;
Load confine protection;
Main steam pressure control protection;
Water levels of HP/LP heaters and deaerator protection;
LP casing burst diaphragm;
Inter-lock of extracting check valve and HP exhausting check valve
Inter-lock Protection of prevention of water damage to turbine
Inter-lock protection of HP/LP by-pass system; Major supervision parameters of turbine

Turbine speed, turning gear current;

Turbine rotor eccentricity and vibration;
Turbine expansion difference and casing expansion;
Turbine shaft axial displacement;
casing heat stress, metal temperature, throttle valve and reheat stop
valve body metal temperature;
Governing stage and extracting steam pressure, temperature and
metal temperature;
Main steam, reheating steam and IP/LP discharge steam pressure and
Main steam flow, main feed water flow, condensate flow;
Thrust bearing, journal bearing metal temperature, lube oil
temperature, return oil temperature;
Lube oil, safety oil, EH oil ,Jacking oil pressure;
Throttle valve, governor valve, reheat stop valve and interceptor valve
position indicator;
Condenser, HP/LP heaters, deaerator, drain tank, oil tank level

HP/LP bypass valve position and temperature. Turbine major governing and control device

Turbine control system;

Lube oil and EH oil temperature control device;
Gland sealing steam supply pressure, temperature control device;
Condenser, HP/LP heaters, deaerator water level control devices;
HP/LP by-pass system control device;
Drainage control device;
Deaerator pressure and water level control device;
Feed water pump control device;

3.4 Coordinate Control System (CCS)

Coordinate Control System (CCS) is a critical one in full power plant

automatic control system.

The function of Coordinate Control System is boiler and turbine receive

the load command, coordinated together to satisfy the load requirement
of net work and guarantee the power plant safe operating. It consists of
master control system, boiler fuel control system, boiler air flow control
system, feed water control system and steam temperature control
system, in turbine aspect DEH system is provided.

Generally speaking, the function of CCS will composed with as follows:

Load change rating limitation

Generally speaking, the outside load command is to change the electric
power, it is a step signal, the load change rate should not be more than
the specified unit load change ability, normally it will be 3-5% rated

Maximum load limitation

Load command can not be more than the maximum permitted unit load,
so, in load command handing device, a calculating circuit which calculates
the maximum permitted unit load based on the related auxiliaries
operating condition will be provided.

Run back protection

When some auxiliaries damaged, regardless the outside load requirement,
unit load should decreased to a specified level to guarantee unit operating
safely and continuously, the run back rate will be limited according to the
damage condition.

Turbine follow control mode (pressure control by turbine)

At turbine follow control mode, main steam pressure is controlled
automatically by turbine control loop, and the boiler load is control
manually by operator.

Unit actual output holding function

When some unit auxiliaries operated in a limited condition or some major

mass flow (such as fuel flow, feed water flow and air flow) are not
matched with load command, The unit actual load command is confined
by the high limit and low limit of unit load command, If reason of
malfunction is not clear, holding load will be taken to avoid accident