Laney College -- For AMATYC SML Math Competition Coaching Sessions

v. 1.1, [2/7/2010] – same as 2/16/2009 version, with presentation improvements

Numbers (Part I) -- Solutions

1. The equation a 3 b3 c 3 2008 has a solution in which a , b , c are distinct
even positive integers. Find a b c . [2008S, 22]
Sol: Let a 2x , b 2 y , c 2z . Then x 3 y 3 z 3 251. Since 13 1 , 23 8 ,
33 27 , 43 64 , 53 125, 63 216 , 73 343, we see that x , y , z are at most 6.
Moreover, since 3 64 192 251, the largest of x , y , z must be 5 or 6. Say,
x 6 , then y 3 z 3 251 216 35 , which is 27 8 33 23 . So
x y z 6 3 2 11, i.e. a b c 22 . It is not hard to see that this choice of
x , y , z (and thus a , b , c ) is the only possibility up to reordering.
2. Each bag to be loaded onto a plane weighs either 12, 18, or 22 lb. If the plane is
carrying exactly 1000 lb of luggage, what is the largest number of bags it could
be carrying? [2008S, 82]
Sol: We want to find whole numbers x , y , z to maximize x y z while
maintaining 6x 9 y 11z 500 (same as 12x 18y 22z 1000 ). One should use
smaller bags whenever possible. More precisely, bringing down z by 3 would
reduce 6x 9 y 11z , by 33, which can then be compensated for by increasing x by
1 and y by 3 (because 6 1 9 3 33 ), with x y z increased. So when x y z
is maximized, z must be 0, 1, or 2. Likewise, bringing down y by 2 while
increasing x by 3 has the effect of keeping 6x 9 y 11z 500 while increasing
x y z . Therefore, when x y z is maximized, y must be 0 or 1. Since in
6x 9 y 11z 500 , 6 x and 500 are even, so 9 y 11z has to be even. This implies
that ( y, z) has to be (0, 0) , (0, 2) , (1, 1) . Among them, only the last one would make
500 9 y 11z divisible by 6. This results in x 80 , y 1, z 1, so x y z 82 .
3. Call a positive integer biprime if it is the product of exactly two distinct primes
(thus 6 and 15 are biprime, but 9 and 12 are not). If N is the smallest number
such that N , N 1 , N 2 are all biprime, find the largest prime factor of
N ( N 1)(N 2) . [2008S, 17]
Sol: Observe that a biprime cannot be a multiple of 4. Hence N has to be congruent
to 1 modulo 4 (i.e. of the form 4k 1) , for otherwise at least one of the three numbers
would be a multiple of 4. It follows that N 1 is even. But N 1 is coprime, so
N 1 2 p , with p 2 a prime, and thus N 1 6, 10, 14, 22, 26, 34, …. We
quickly rule out N 1 6, through 26, as either N or N 2 would fail to be a
coprime. Thus N , N 1 , N 2 are 33, 34, 35, with
N ( N 1)(N 2) 3 11 2 17 7 5 . The answer follows.
4. Let r , s , t be nonnegative integers. For how many such triples (r, s, t )
rs t 24
satisfying the system is it true that r s t 25 ? [2008S, 26]
r st 24
Sol: Take the difference of the two equations in the system to get
r(s 1) t (1 s) 0 , i.e. (s 1)(r t ) 0 . Case 1: s 1. Thus the system says
r t 24 and r s t 25 also becomes r t 24 . There are 25 possible triples

Page 1 of 6

2t 2 . 1. 196. 11. 24] Sol: Divide an 3 an an 2 an 1 (n 3)! by an 2 an 3 on both sides to get an an 1 (n 3)! . a7 6 4 2 . If 5 k is the largest power of 5 that is a factor of a100a101. 324. Find the last two digits of the sum of these three perfect squares. which means 2t s 25 (2t )(s 1) 48 . a6 3! a 4 1 . 12. 6. 23. a5 2! a 3 1.e. while t (s 1) 24 r s t 25 says 2t s 25 . t ) (1. 625. i. so (r. thus one of them has to be included.e. with presentation improvements (r. thus 3 2 and a3 2a1 2 a1 a0 a1a0 a1 1 1 1 a1 a4 a3 1! . a4 1! a 2 1. To accommodate the digit 5. find k . and an 3 an an 2 an 1 (n 3)! for n 3 . 9 unable to form a perfect square. [2008S. First. 576. If it’s 324. 784. s. thus 4 3 and a4 3a2 3 1 3 a2 a1 a2 a1 a2 11 a2 a5 a4 2! .e. 841. thus 5 4 and a5 4a3 4 2 8 a3 a2 a3 a2 a3 21 a3 a6 a5 3! . 26 B. which then leads to an 2 an (n 1)an 2 (n 1)(n 3)an 4 . 74 [2008S. Since s 1 . For the digit 5 to appear. i. with the other two perfect squares thus coming from among 289. 5. and so an 2 an 3 an 2 an 3 an 2 (n 3)! an 2 Page 2 of 6 . Cases 1 and 2 combined give 26 triples. So we have . 529. i. Try the first few iterations to see if there is any pattern: an 2 an 3 an 2 an 3 a3 a2 0! . 29 C. thus 324 doesn’t work. 784. then an an 1 (n 3)! becomes an (n 3)! . We have 361 529 784 1674. etc. we include 529. it follows that s 1 24 . thus 6 5 and a6 5a4 5 3 15 a4 a3 a4 a3 a4 3 2 a4 We begin to suspect that an n 1 in general. list all perfect squares formed by three distinct non-zero digits by squaring 10. 196. t ) of this kind.e. with the remaining perfect square thus being 784. we are forced to include 576. a8 7 5 3 1 . For example. 46 E. The resulting list is 169. 34 D. Among them only 324 and 361 contain the digit 3. 1) . The digits 1 to 9 can be separated into 3 disjoint sets of 3 digits each so that the digits in each set can be arranged to form a 3-digit perfect square. s. and thus an (n 2) 1 n 1 . 576. Try 361. If such pattern persists up to an 1 . 729. or 4. 8. 361. ( x 2)(x 24) 0 .For AMATYC SML Math Competition Coaching Sessions v. then the other two perfect squares must be from among 169. a6 5 3 1 .e. A. 729. 256. E] Sol: Approach the problem by brute force. 289. a3 1 0! a 1. i. etc and ruling out those with repeated digits. The system says t (s 1) 24 . [2/7/2010] – same as 2/16/2009 version. with the remaining digits 1.Laney College -. therefore 2t and s 1 form the two roots of the quadratic (2t ) (s 1) 26 equation x 2 26x 48 0 . thus r t . 961. The sequence {an } is defined by a0 a1 a2 1 . 961.1. 2. in order to avoid reusing 3. 529. Case 2: s 1 . i.

So. i. 48] m n 7 m 5n m n Sol: 15 21 105 . 15. 36 [2007F. the result is not in simplest terms: 2 5 39 13 m n 15 21 105 35. 969XXX. 34 D. If the resulting number is the largest such number which is a perfect square. while 172 10x 5 y 211. What is the least number of dimes she could have? [2007F. and thus we compute 9642 929296. 11. worth between $1. Among the one hundred numbers 1 through 100.72 and $2. 35 2x y 42 .e. twenty numbers are multiples of 5.11. 33 C. Likewise 7m 5n is not divisible by Page 3 of 6 . 10. but doesn’t satisfy the required form AMATYC. Since 7 m1055n is not in simplest terms. Since this is a prime. Add any integer N to the square of 2N to produce an integer M . i. This rules out 989XXX. 2. Such numbers do not exceed 989999. 10. so 175 10x 5 y 210. 11. 13. With the pattern now established. find the sum of its digits (that is. 19.Laney College -. 2. 20. We then try 898XXX. 10. 8. 1. For how many such fractions is 15 21 not in simplest terms? [2007F. Use a calculator to get 989999 994. 11] Sol: Let there be x dimes and y nickels. using the same method. 35 x ( x y) 42 . altogether 100! has 20+4=24 factors of 5. 7. Thus x y 24 . 4. at least one of the following conditions is met: (1) N 1 (2) N 1 (3) 4N 1 1 (4) 4N 1 1. Trina has two dozen coins. 14 and n 1. Since 10x 5 y is divisible by 5. in a manner similar to 989XXX. [2/7/2010] – same as 2/16/2009 version. with presentation improvements the induction can be continued to uphold the pattern. 16. …. we do 929999 964. 2] Sol: N (2N ) 2 N 4N 2 N (4N 1) . 7m 5n is divisible by 5. while 9632 927369 is already too small to be of the form 929XXX. all dimes and nickels. 9. 75. only (1) and (2) make sense. 35 E.) 8. The answer follows. 7.e. it follows that a100a101 a101a100 100! We are left with finding how many factors of 5 the number 100! contains. 95.987 . A M A T Y C) A. …. Among these. 50. The same approach can be used to rule out 979XXX.e. 7. the result is in 2 1 19 simplest terms: 15 21 105 .1. We conclude that A cannot be 9. 8. 5. E] Sol: We first try 989XXX. different letters are replaced by different digits). we have m 1. The answer follows. 939XXX. For 929XXX. 100. which is of the form 929XXX. i. it has to be at most 9942 988036. we get 11 x 18. 100 have the factor 5 appearing two times. But it is not divisible by 5 because m is not divisible by 5. 909XXX is also ruled. 919XXX can also be ruled out this way. 32 B. When certain proper fractions in simplest terms are added. 13. Replace each letter of AMATYC with a digit 0 through 9 to form a six-digit number (identical letters are replaced by identical digits. For how many values of N is M prime? [2007F. 4. 20. The answer follows. Assume that 15 and 21 are positive proper fractions in simplest m n terms. As x y 24 . 25. 17. Since 15 and 21 are positive proper fractions in simplest terms. Of these. or 3.For AMATYC SML Math Competition Coaching Sessions v. so if 989XXX is a perfect square. 5. So the least possible value for x is 11 (and thus y 13 .365 . and immediately hit 9482 898704 . which is already too small to be of the form 989XXX. in other cases. This rules out 929XXX.

11. 10. what are the last two digits of the product? A. 2] r st 13 Sol: Subtract the second equation from the first equation to get r(s 1) t (1 s) 1 . 20 B. If m is congruent to 1 mod 3. 20. so s 0 . 25] Sol: AM YC . find the ratio of the largest possible volume of the box to the smallest possible volume. s. 50. m n mod 3. 8. at least one of the three numbers have to be at least 90. The volume is abc (ab)(b bc) (36)(b 63) . 13 are congruent to 1 mod 3. If all three dimensions are positive integers. 9] Sol: This means there are positive integers a . with presentation improvements 7 either. But Y cannot be 9. The answer follows. while the remaining 2. But AM has to be a proper AT fraction. and we only have to compare the three products: Page 4 of 6 . and A 0. 4. How many such triples (r. It follows that the largest and smallest possible values are (36)(1 63) and (36)(9 63) .e. The answer follows. 13. if m is congruent to 2 mod 3. for otherwise the product would be at most (98)(98)(79) 758716 793440. Since the GCF of 36 and 63 is 9. 16. 9. Two cases: Case 1: . If the product is to be as large as possible. then AT ? [2007S. b . Then Y has to be 8. 40 C. t ) satisfy rs t 14 the system ? [2007F. so s 2 . s . 14. 8. Let r . each different letter is replaced by a different digit 0 to 9 to form three two-digit numbers. If AM/AT . We conclude that there are two such triples. 90 [2006F. among AT 100 them the following have two digits: 10. r 13 12. then so is n . 13. c with ab 36 and bc 63 . 7. where each letter represents a different digit. (s 1)(r t ) 1. nor 50.Laney College -.e. i. [2/7/2010] – same as 2/16/2009 version. 5.For AMATYC SML Math Competition Coaching Sessions v. with 4 6 24 combinations. 50 D. therefore AT cannot be 10. It follows that A is 9. so this is the same as saying m n is divisible by 3. Among the eight possible values for m . 11. In the expression (AM)(AT)(YC). There are nine factors of 100. First of all.YC. 20 are congruent to 2 mod 3. 1. this means b is a factor of 9.1. t 4 . so b is a common factor of 36 and 63. while the remaining 2. 3. which gives r 5 . For the twelve possible values for n . 4. for otherwise the product would be at most (89)(89)(89) 704969 793440. 20. 19 are congruent to 1 mod 3. Together we have therefore 48 scenarios. with 4 6 24 combinations. 1. 14 are congruent to 2 mod 3. s 1 1 i. for otherwise the product would be at most (89)(89)(98) 776258 793440. We are left with only (9M)(9T)(8C). 17. We will convince ourselves that this is the largest possible. Case 2: . B] Sol: Try (95)(96)(87) 793440. then so is n . AM/AT is in simplest terms. and the r 2t 13 r t 1 t 14 original system becomes . Two adjacent faces of a rectangular box have areas 36 and 63. and the original system r t 1 2r t 14 s 1 1 becomes . It follows that 7m 5n is divisible by 3. 60 E. Likewise. and t be nonnegative integers. 25. [2006F. and so b 1. But 7m 5n 6(m n) (m n) . So AT is a factor of 100. 1. 11.

or 11. 9. with 2 17 59 78 . and (96)(97)(85). C. 41. A B C is the subset formed by those that are divisible by 3 5 7 105. The answer follows. 79 The answer follows. and r . 16. So a b c d 8u 8v 8(u v) . 7. So there is a positive integer u such that a 3u . 3. Since both A+C and Page 5 of 6 . This equals B #U [# A # B # C # ( A B) # (B C) # (C A) # ( A B C)] . How many positive integers less than 1000 are relatively prime A B to 105? Two integers are relatively prime if their greatest common divisor is 1. 5. 47. 71. D being any of 1. 13. 31. So the c d 3 6 5c 3d 10c 6d 5c 3d 2(5c 3d ) a b 5 10 0 0 5a 3b 0 condition that is equivalent to . 37. respectively. 0. c 3v . 457] B Sol: Let U be the set of all positive integers less than 1000. 53. 5.g. e. But either sum is at least 1 1 2 and at most 9 9 18 . q . with the sum of the other two being 76. 17. 23. Thus we get 999 [333 199 142 66 28 47 9] 457 18. If . 59. and d are all positive integers. How many 4-digit numbers whose digits are all odd are multiples of 11? [2006F. with presentation improvements (95)(96)(87). 73. [2006F. 19. C be the subsets of U containing those that are divisible by 3. 5. for example. [2/7/2010] – same as 2/16/2009 version. so the difference must be –11. from which we identify pairs that sum to 76: 2. d 5v for some positive integer v . 16] a b 5 10 5a 3b 10a 6b 5a 3b 2(5a 3b) Sol: . b 5u .1. B. a b 5 10 0 0 15. 85] Sol: Let ABCD be such a 4-digit number. so one of the three primes must be 2. List all primes smaller than 80 as follows.For AMATYC SML Math Competition Coaching Sessions v. 1. 61. Thus we want whole numbers that are the product of three distinct primes whose sum is 78. Note that 78 is even. Let A .Laney College -. Note that. B . But c d 3 6 0 0 5c 3d 0 5a 3b 0 means a : b 3 : 5 . (95)(97)(86). 7. 17. 4] Sol: 2006 2 17 59 . Then the problem aims to determine C U # (U ( A B C)) . Divisibility of 11 is equivalent to the condition that the difference between the sum A+C and the sum B+D is divisible by 11. c d 3 6 0 0 if a . Likewise. Likewise. thus # ( A B) 66 since 999 15 66 9 . The year 2006 is the product of exactly three distinct primes p . How many other years are also the product of three distinct primes with sum equal to p q r ? [2006F. 43. 67. 11. 29. b . 3. 7. [2006F. with each of A. of which (95)(96)(87) 793440is the largest. A B is the subset of U formed by those that are divisible by 3 5 15 . c . find the smallest possible value of a b c d .

we see (10 1)1003 1003 1003 101003 1003 101002( 1)1 101001( 1) 2  102 ( 1)1001 1003 101 ( 1)1002 ( 1)1003 2 1001 Thus (10 1)1003 1003 101 ( 1)1002 ( 1)1003 10030 1 10029 mod 100. 33 27 . 310 49 . There are thus 12 22 32 42 52 42 32 22 12 85 possibilities. 35 43 .e. 9+1. 311 47 . The answer follows. 314 69 . In the sequence a1 . 317 63 .e. 20. 3+3 Sum = 8: 1+7. 9+7 Sum = 18: 9+9 Both A+C and B+D have to be from the same group. 313 23 . 3+1 Sum = 6: 1+5. 319 67 . The answer follows. [2006F. By the binomial expansion. 5+3 Sum = 10: 1+9. 9+5. 8] Sol 1: 32007 3(32006) 3(91003) 3 (10 1)1003.1. 7+3. Find the tens digit of 32007. a3 . 316 21 . we have 31 3 . we rule out –11 and 11. 37 87 . 5+1. thus A+C=B+D. This shows that a2 . 315 7 . 34 81. i. 38 61. 9. a2 . 36 29 . 3+5. with presentation improvements B+D are even. 312 41 . a2005 Page 6 of 6 . 320 1 . a2 2 . 7+5 Sum = 14: 5+9. 5+5 Sum = 12: 3+9. 32 9 . an an 1 1 . i.For AMATYC SML Math Competition Coaching Sessions v. 5. a4 . [2006F. a3 5 . 3+7. 9+3. 318 89 . It follows that 32007 37 mod 100. The first term is 1 2 . 7+7 Sum = 16: 7+9. … form an 1 an 1 an 2 an 1 an 2 2 a1 a2 a3 1 a2 2 arithmetic sequence with common difference 2 . 3. and for all n 3 . …. a3 . 7. an 1an 2 2an an 2 2an 1an 1 . 7+1. Find a2006 / a2005. So 32007 3 (10 1)1003 (3)(10029) 30087 87 mod 100. 1004] Sol: Divide an 1an 2 2an an 2 2an 1an 1 on both sides by an 1an 2 to get 2an 2an 1 . 32007 87 mod 100. We thus notice that every 20 steps the thing repeats. a1 1 . grouped according to the sum: Sum = 2: 1+1 Sum = 4: 1+3. [2/7/2010] – same as 2/16/2009 version.Laney College -. 5+7. 19. so the a1 term a2006 is 2 (2005 1) 1 2 1004. 321 3 . List all possible ordered pair from 1. 39 83 . 1. Sol 2: Working modulo 100.