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Mathematics

Teacher’s Guide

Unit 2

This book was collaboratively developed and reviewed by

educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities.

We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their

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Department of Education

Republic of the Philippines

Mathematics – Grade 10

Teacher’s Guide

First Edition 2015

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Published by the Department of Education

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Consultants: Soledad A. Ulep, PhD, Debbie Marie B. Verzosa, PhD, and

Rosemarievic Villena-Diaz, PhD

Authors: Melvin M. Callanta, Allan M. Canonigo, Arnaldo I. Chua, Jerry D.

Cruz, Mirla S. Esparrago, Elino S. Garcia, Aries N. Magnaye, Fernando B.

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Introduction

This Teacher’s Guide has been prepared to provide teachers of Grade

10 Mathematics with guidelines on how to effectively use the Learner’s

Material to ensure that learners will attain the expected content and

performance standards.

This book consists of four units subdivided into modules which are

further subdivided into lessons. Each module contains the content and

performance standards and the learning competencies that must be attained

and developed by the learners which they could manifest through their

products and performances.

The special features of this Teacher’s Guide are:

A. Learning Outcomes. Each module contains the content and

performance standards and the products and/ or performances

expected from the learners as a manifestation of their

understanding.

B. Planning for Assessment. The assessment map indicates the

type of assessment and categorized the objectives to be assessed

into knowledge, process/skills, understanding, and performance

C. Planning for Teaching-Learning. Each lesson has Learning

Goals and Targets, a Pre-Assessment, Activities with answers,

What to Know, What to Reflect on and Understand, What to

Transfer, and Summary / Synthesis / Generalization.

D. Summative Test. After each module, answers to the summative

test are provided to help the teachers evaluate how much the

learners have learned.

E. Glossary of Terms. Important terms in the module are defined or

clearly described.

F. References and Other Materials. This provides the teachers with

the list of reference materials used, both print and digital.

We hope that this Teacher’s Guide will provide the teachers with the

necessary guide and information to be able to teach the lessons in a more

creative, engaging, interactive, and effective manner.

Table of Contents

Curriculum Guide: Mathematics Grade 10

Unit 2

Module 3: Polynomial Functions..................................................

.............. 82

Learning Outcomes ..............................................................

................................82

Planning for Assessment ........................................................

..............................83

Planning for Teaching-Learning .................................................

..........................86

Pre-Assessment .................................................................

..................................87

Learning Goals and Targets .....................................................

............................87

Activity 1 .....................................................................

...............................88

Activity 2 .....................................................................

...............................89

Activity 3 .....................................................................

...............................90

Activity 4 .....................................................................

...............................90

Activity 5 .....................................................................

...............................91

Activity 6 .....................................................................

...............................91

Activity 7 .....................................................................

...............................92

Activity 8 .....................................................................

...............................94

Activity 9 .....................................................................

...............................99

Activity 10 ....................................................................

............................100

Activity 11 ....................................................................

............................101

Activity 12 ....................................................................

............................102

Activity 13 ....................................................................

............................106

Activity 14 ....................................................................

............................107

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...............................................

....................108

Summative Test .................................................................

......................................109

Glossary of Terms ..............................................................

.....................................114

References Used in This Module .................................................

.......................115

Module 4: Circles ..............................................................

............................. 116

Learning Outcomes ..............................................................

..............................116

Planning for Assessment ........................................................

...................................................................138 Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ............................................................................ .....................129 Activity 4 ........................139 Activity 1 .......... ....................139 Lesson 1B: Arcs and Inscribed Angles ...................................................137 Activity 13 ...........123 Pre-Assessment ................................................ ...........................................136 Activity 11 .............................. ......................136 Activity 12 ................... ..................132 Activity 9 ....................... .................................................. and Central Angles........... .. ..................133 Activity 10 ................................................................................. ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .....132 Activity 7 .................................... .........126 Activity 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................ .....132 Activity 8 ...... ...................................... Arcs.... ....................................................................131 Activity 6 .............. ........................................ ......................................................................................................117 Planning for Teaching-Learning .126 Lesson 1A: Chords................................ .............................. ............................................. ..........................................................140 ..............................................................................................125 Learning Goals and Targets .....................127 Activity 2 ......................................................130 Activity 5 ............................. ............128 Activity 3 ...................................................

..............172 Lesson 2B: Tangent and Secant Segments ...................................................143 Activity 5 ............................................................................................................................146 Activity 9 .................... .... .....................................................................................................................................................................175 Activity 6 .....................................173 Activity 1 ..............................................................155 Activity 2 ..159 Activity 3 ................154 Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ................155 Activity 1 ..........151 Activity 11 .................................... .............. ..................................................... ...........................................................145 Activity 8 .......... ......172 Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ........................................................................................................... ..............................................154 Lesson 2A: Tangents and Secants of a Circle ..............................................161 Activity 5 ..........145 Activity 7 ............174 Activity 3 ...164 Activity 8 ....... ................. .......................................173 Activity 2 . ...176 ........................................................ .................................. ...............Activity 2 ...................................................175 Activity 5 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ....................... .............................................................................160 Activity 4 ..................174 Activity 4 ....................................... ........ ... ................................................................. ........... ........ .... ........................................................................................................................................144 Activity 6 .......................................................................... ............ ............... .........................................................................142 Activity 4 .................153 Activity 12 ............................................................. .........................................................................................................................................................................................................162 Activity 6 ................................................................................................148 Activity 10 ................................................................................................................163 Activity 7 ......................................................................... ...................141 Activity 3 ..................... ........ .................. ............

.........207 Activity 1 ...........................................................................................................209 Activity 4 ....................... the Midpoint Formula........................................................................................180 Summative Test ..208 Activity 2 .................................................................... ..... .... ................................................................................................. .................................................................................... ............................................. ....199 Planning for Teaching-Learning .....................179 Activity 10 ........................................205 Pre-Assessment ..Activity 7 ......189 List of Theorems and Postulates on Circles..................................................... .....................................................................198 Planning for Assessment .....................................210 ...................177 Activity 9 ................................. ...................... ..............191 References and Website Links Used in This Module ................................................ ...............................................193 Module 5: Plane Coordinate Geometry ............................................................................................... ............................ ................................. ...................................208 Activity 3 ..... ................. 198 Learning Outcomes ........................................207 Learning Goals and Targets ........................ ........ ................................................................................................ and the Coordinate Proof .............................................181 Glossary of Terms....................... .. ..........................180 Summary/Synthesis/Generalization .............................................................................................................. ........................ ............207 Lesson 1: The Distance Formula................................176 Activity 8 ...................................................................................

...228 Activity 9 ................................................................................................. .................215 Activity 9 ..........................................................................229 Summary/Synthesis/Generalization .............................237 References and Website Links Used in This Module ...............................228 Activity 10 ............................238 ......................................................... ........................................................................................221 Activity 2 ........ ...220 Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...........................................................227 Activity 8 ...................... .................230 Summative Test ............................ ............................................. ........................................................................................................... ....... ..................................227 Activity 7 ..231 Glossary of Terms .........................................213 Activity 8 .222 Activity 3 ............................................................................................................... ............................................... .............................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................217 Activity 11 ..................................................................... .................................................................................216 Activity 10 .................................. ..................226 Activity 6 .................................................................................... ...........221 Lesson 2: The Equation of a Circle ........................................................... ............................................................ .................Activity 5 .. .................................................................................................. ................................................ . ........................................................ .212 Activity 6 .......223 Activity 4 ....................225 Activity 5 ............................................................................... ....................................212 Activity 7 ............................................................................................221 Activity 1 .............. ....................................

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Unpacking the Standards for Understanding Subject: Mathematics 10 Quarter: Second Quarter TOPIC: Polynomial Functions Lesson: Illustrating Polynomial Functions. How do the mathematical concepts help . Graphs of Polynomial Functions and Solutions of Problems Involving Polynomial Functions Writer: Elino Sangalang Garcia Learning Competencies 1.Module 3: Polynomial Functions A. Performance Standard: The learner is able to conduct systematically in different fields a mathematical investigation involving polynomial functions. Graph polynomial functions 3. Illustrate polynomial functions 2. Learning Outcomes Content Standard: The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts of polynomial functions. Solve problems involving polynomial functions Essential Understanding: Essential Question: Students will understand that polynomial functions are useful tools in solving real-life problems and in making decisions given certain constraints.

solve real-life problems that can be represented as polynomial functions? 82 .

Make a summary table of properties of the graph of polynomial functions (behavior. Sketch plans or designs of objects that illustrate polynomial functions g. number of turning points. 1. Planning for Assessment Product/Performance The following are products and performances that students are expected to come up with in this module. Make a table of signs for polynomial functions 5. location relative to the x-axis) 6.Transfer Goal: Students will be able to apply the key concepts of polynomial functions in finding solutions and making decisions for certain life problems. rectangular open box. List all intercepts of polynomial functions written in both standard and factored forms 3.g. B. Write polynomial functions in standard form 2. Make a list of ordered pairs of points that satisfy a polynomial function 4. Formulate and solve real-life problems applying polynomial functions 7. candle mold) Assessment Map TYPE PreAssessment/ Diagnostic KNOWLEDGE PROCESS/ SKILLS UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE Part I Part I Part I Part II Illustrating polynomial functions (Recalling the definition of polynomial functions and the terms associated with it) Illustrating polynomial functions (Recalling the definition of polynomial . Create concrete objects as products of applying solutions to problems involving polynomial functions (e.

functions and the terms associated with it) Graphing polynomial functions (Describing the properties of graphs of polynomial functions) Products and performances related to or involving quadratic functions (Solving area problems) Graphing polynomial functions (Describing the properties of graphs of polynomial functions) 83 Solving problems involving polynomial functions .

TYPE Formative Summative Assessment KNOWLEDGE PROCESS/ SKILLS UNDERSTANDING Quiz 1: Quiz 2: Quiz 3: Illustrating polynomial functions (Writing polynomial functions in standard form and in factored form) Graphing polynomial functions (Preparing table of signs) Quiz 4: Graphing polynomial functions (Finding the intercepts of polynomial functions) (Finding additional points on the graph of a polynomial function) Quiz 5: Graphing polynomial functions Graphing polynomial functions .

(Identifying the number of turning points and the behavior of the graph based on multiplicity of zeros) (Sketching the graph of polynomial functions using all properties) Solving problems involving polynomial functions (Sketching the graph of polynomial functions using all properties) Part I Illustrating polynomial functions (Recalling the definition of polynomial functions and the terms associated with it) PERFORMANCE (Describing the behavior of the graph using the Leading Coefficient Test) Quiz 6: (Solving real-life problems that apply polynomial functions) Solving problems involving polynomial functions .

Part I Part I Part II Illustrating polynomial functions (Recalling the definition of polynomial functions and the terms associated with it) Graphing polynomial functions (Describing the properties of the graph of polynomial functions) Products and performances related to or involving polynomial functions (Solving problems related to volume of an open rectangular box) Graphing polynomial functions 84 Solving problems involving polynomial functions .

and 3 Illustrate polynomial functions. graphing polynomial functions. Graph polynomial functions Solve problems involving polynomial .TYPE SelfAssessment (optional) KNOWLEDGE PROCESS/ SKILLS UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE (Describing the properties of the graphs of polynomial functions) Journal Writing: Expressing understanding of polynomial functions. Part I items 1. 2. and solving problems involving polynomial functions Assessment Matrix (Summative Test) Levels of Assessment Knowledge 15% Process/Skills 25% Understanding 30% How will I assess? What will I assess? Paper and Pencil Test The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts of polynomial functions.

and 8 1 point for every correct response Part I items 9.functions The learner is able to conduct systematically a mathematical investigation involving polynomial functions in different fields. 7. 11. 6. Rubric for the Output (Open Box) Criteria: Accuracy of measurement (Dimensions) Durability and Attributes 85 . 5. and 14 1 point for every correct response Part II (6 points) Rubric for the Solution to the Problem Criteria: Use of polynomial function as model Use of appropriate mathematical concept Correctness of the final answer Solve problems involving polynomial functions. Product/ Performance 30% How Will I Score? 1 point for every correct response Part I items 4. 13. 12. 10.

3. etc. 5. write polynomial functions in standard and factored form. determine more ordered pairs that satisfy a polynomial function. behaviors relative to the x-axis. recall and apply the different theorems in factoring polynomials to determine the x-intercepts. solve real-life problems (like area and volume. number of turning points. the students are given the opportunity to use their prior knowledge and required skills in previous tasks. deforestation. GeoGebra. 2. In dealing with each activity of this lesson. Lastly. define polynomial functions and the terms associated with it.) that apply polynomial functions. or even Geometer’s Sketchpad.C. Planning for Teaching-Learning Introduction This module is a one-lesson module. revenue-advertising expense situations. investigate and analyze the properties of the graphs of polynomial functions (like end behaviors. write polynomial functions in standard form given real numbers as coefficients and exponents. and two (2) are for solving real-life problems involving polynomial functions. It covers key concepts of polynomial functions. and 7. etc. three (3) of which are for illustration of polynomial functions. They are also given varied activities to process the knowledge and skills learned and further deepen and transfer their understanding of the different lessons. It is composed of fourteen (14) activities. 6. 86 . 4. nine (9) are for graphing polynomial functions. The lesson as incorporated in the activities is designed for the students to: 1. One of the essential targets of this module is for the students to manually sketch the graph of polynomial functions which later on can be verified and validated with some graphing utilities like Grapes.). slow/fast learners. and localized situations/examples). you may prepare your own related activities if you feel that the activities suggested here are not appropriate to the level and contexts of students (for examples.

formulate real-life problems involving these concepts. show the students the picture mosaic below. Objectives: After the learners have gone through this module.As an introduction to the main lesson. They are also expected to investigate mathematical relationships in various situations involving polynomial functions. PRE-ASSESSMENT: Check students’ prior knowledge. and solve these using a variety of strategies. LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS: Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of key concepts of polynomial functions. can you see some mathematical representations? Give some. and understanding of mathematics concepts related to polynomial functions. they are expected to: 1. then ask them the question that follows: In this mosaic picture. and 3. skills. 2. Motivate the students to find out the answers and to determine the essential applications of polynomial functions through this module. solve problems involving polynomial functions. illustrate polynomial functions. 87 . Assessing these will facilitate your teaching and the students’ understanding of the lessons in this module. graph polynomial functions.

not polynomial number 8. 10. 14. not polynomial numbers 5. polynomial 2. not polynomial .Answer Key Part I: 1. B A A D D A A Part II. 12. D 5. 9. l 9 meters and w 18 l 18 9 9 meters. The lot area can be expressed as A(l ) l (18 l ) or A(l ) 18l l 2 . 11. C 3. yielding the maximum area of 81 square meters. polynomial 4. What to KNOW The students need first to recall the concept of polynomial expressions. not polynomial sign 3. A(l ) (l 2 18l ) A(l ) (l 2 18l 81) 81 A(l ) (l 9) 2 81. in vertex form. These will lead them to define and illustrate mathematically the polynomial functions. then 36 2l 2w or 18 l w . (Use the rubric to rate students’ work/output) Solution to the problem Since P 2l 2w . 13. not polynomial 6. B 2. Therefore. A 6. Activity 1: Which is which? Answer Key 1. C 8. polynomial 9. A 4. polynomial 7. and w 18 l . D 7.

10. polynomial because the variable of one term is inside the radical because the exponents of the variable are not whole because the variables are in the denominator because the exponent of one variable is not a whole because the exponent of one variable is negative 88 .

a1x a0 or y an x n an 1x n 1 an 2 x n 2 . where n is a nonnegative integer. a1. a0 .. y ( x 4)( x 1)( x 1)2 . an is the leading coefficient. Activity 2: Fix and Move Them.. an 0.. Then Fill Me Up Answer Key Degree Leading Coefficient Constant Term 2 2 2 3 2 3 5 3 y x 3 5x 3 1 0 4. a1x a0 .. a1x a0 . y x( x 3)( x 3) y x 3 9x 3 -1 0 5... an are real numbers called coefficients. and a0 is the constant term.. ...Let this activity be the starting point of defining a polynomial function as follows: A polynomial function is a function of the form P( x ) an x n an 1x n 1 an 2 x n 2 . Other notations: f ( x ) an x n an 1x n 1 an 2 x n 2 . an x n is the leading term.

y x 4 3x 3 5x 2 3x 4 4 1 4 Polynomial Function 1. f ( x ) 2 11x 2x 2 3 2. y x( x 5) Polynomial Function in Standard Form f ( x ) 2x 2 11x 2 f (x) 2x 3 5 15x 3 3 89 . f ( x ) 2x 5 15x 3 3 2 3.

let them identify the leading coefficient and the constant term. instruct them to classify each polynomial according to the degree. f ( x ) 2x 3 x 2 x 6 4 7 3 1 3. In addition. . 7. f ( x ) x 3 2x 2 x 6 4 4. f ( x ) x 2x 2 x 4 6 1. solving polynomial equations. y x( x 3)( x 4) 2. and graphing by point-plotting. ( x 1) x 3 ( x 2) 6.Activity 3: Be a Polynomial Function Architect Answer Key 7 2 1 x x 4 6 1 7 2. f ( x ) The answers above are expected to be given by the students. Also. What to PROCESS In this section. f ( x ) 2x 3 7 3 1 2 x x 2x 4 6 1 7 2 5. the students need to revisit the lessons and their knowledge on evaluating polynomials. factoring polynomials. Activity 4: Do you miss me? Here I Am Again Answer Key 1. f ( x ) x 3 x 2x 6 4 1 7 6.

3) 4.3) x -1 (x . These are the xvalues when y = 0.y ( x 2)( x 2)( x 2 4) 8. (2x 3)( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) 10. y x( x 1)( x 1)( x 3)( x 3) 3. thus the point(s) where the graph intersects the x-axis can be determined. ( x 2)( x 2)( x 3) 5. and. y 2( x 1)( x 1)( x 1)( x 3) 9. x 3 x 2 ( x 3)( x 3) (2x . y (2x 3)( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) The preceding task is very important for the students because it has something to do with the x-intercepts of a graph. 90 .

0). -3 2.0).0). -4. (-2. 1. 3 y-intercept: 24 -5 144 x y -3 -24 0 24 2 -24 4 144 ordered pairs: (-5. 1. 2. 1. -1. -24). 3. -3. 3 Activity 6: Give Me More Companions Answer Key 1. 3 2. (3. 2. x-intercepts: -4.0). (1. x-intercepts: -5. x-intercepts: x-intercepts: x-intercepts: x-intercepts: x-intercepts: 0. (-3. -3 1. 5. (0. 4. -2.24). (4. -1. (-4. (2-24).144). 4 2 -6 -720 -4 240 . y-intercept: -90 x y 3 .Activity 5: Seize Me and Intercept Me Answer Key 1.144) 2. -2 0.

-0. y-intercept: 0 x y 5 -390 3 . 101. 72).0). (3.7).5.-117). 0). ( 91 4 . -390) 3.0). x-intercepts: -6. 3 . 0). ( (2. 0).5 -101.2 3 72 ordered pairs: (-6. (-3.0).175). (-6. 0. 0). (4. 240). (-0. (-4. (1. 2 4 3 -7 175 -3 -117 1 7 2 -32 ordered pairs: (-7. (5. (0.2). (-5. -720).

0). (0. x-intercepts: -3.axis below the x-axis . 1.y): above the xaxis.(2. (-2. 0). 0). (0. -60). 1680) Activity 7: What is the destiny of my behavior? Answer Key Location of the Point (x. (3.64).1680). (-3. or y 0 ? -5 144 y 0 -4 -3 0 -24 y=0 on the x . -1. 1. (1. (4.64 0. 0). on the x-axis.5. 0). 3 y-intercept: 0 x y -4 1680 -2 -60 -0. 1. (2. (-1.64).-32) 4.5. -60).5 1. or below the x-axis? above the x-axis Value of x Value of y Relation of y-value to 0: y 0.5 1.64 2 -60 4 1680 ordered pairs: (-4. 0. y 0. (-0.

0).0).0). The graph is below the x-axis.axis above the x-axis 1 2 0 -24 y=0 on the x .axis above the x-axis y 0 y 0 y 0 y 0 Answers to the Questions: 1.-2 0 0 24 y=0 on the x . Show the students how to prepare a simpler but similar table. 5. The graph is below the x-axis. 92 . 4. The graph is above the x-axis. and (3. the table of signs. 2. (-4.0) The graph is above the x-axis. (-2.axis below the x-axis 3 4 0 144 y=0 on the x . 3. 6. The graph is above the x-axis. (1.

1. . and 3 . Test Value x 4 x 2 x 1 x 3 y ( x 4)( x 2)( x 1)( x 3) position of the curve relative to the x-axis x 4 -5 – – – – + above Intervals 4 x 2 2 x 1 1 x 3 -3 0 2 + + + – + + – – + – – – – + – below above below x 3 4 + + + + . These are the only values of x where the graph will cross the x-axis.2. Test values are then chosen from within each interval.Example: The roots of the polynomial function y ( x 4)( x 2)( x 1)( x 3) are x = -4. These roots partition the number line into intervals.

or on the x-axis as shown on the next page. We can only be certain that the graph is correct with respect to intervals where the graph is above. we cannot yet determine the turning points of the graph. though. below. 93 .+ above Give emphasis that at this level.

2 3 x 1. 1. 4 2 (b) 3 x . 2 x 4 (c) x Test Value 2x 3 x 1 x 4 y (2x 3)( x 1)( x 4) position of the curve relative to the x-axis -2 – 3 2 Intervals below 3 x 1 2 1 x 4 x 4 . (a) 3 .Activity 8: Sign on and Sketch Me Answer Key y (2x 3)( x 1)( x 4) 1. 1 x 4 .

1. y x 3 2x 2 11x 12 (a) -3. 1 x 4 . 4 (b) x 3 .0 + + 2 + + – 5 + + + + above below above (d) 2. 94 x 4 . or y ( x 3)( x 1)( x 4) 3 x 1.

y x 4 26x 2 25 or y ( x 5)( x 1)( x 1)( x 5) (a) -5. 5 (b) x 5 . For example. 5 x 1. 3. . 1. the sign of -(-)(-)(-) = + . -1.(c) x 3 Test Value x 3 x 1 x 4 y ( x 3)( x 1)( x 4) position of the curve relative to the x-axis (d) Intervals 3 x 1 1 x 4 0 2 + + + + -4 + above below x 4 5 + + + - above below Note: Observe that there is one more factor. under y is positive because x 3 . that affects the final sign of y. -1.

x 5 (c) x 5 Test Value x 5 x 1 x 1 4 x 5 y x 26x 2 25 position of the curve relative to the x-axis Intervals 5 x 1 1 x 1 1 x 5 x 5 -6 + -2 + – 0 + + + 2 + + + – 6 + + + + + above below . 1 x 5 . 1 x 1.

above below above 95 .

-2. 5 x 2 . 1 (b) x 5 .(d) 4. 2 x 1. y x 4 5x 3 3x 2 13x 10 or y ( x 5)( x 2)( x 1)2 (a) -5. x 1 (c) x 5 Test Value -6 - x 5 x 2 ( x 1)2 y ( x 5)( x 2)( x 1) position of the curve relative to the x-axis (d) 2 Intervals 5 x 2 2 x 1 -3 0 + + + x 1 2 + + + + + + - .

-1. .+ - - below above below below Note: Observe that there is one more factor. that affects the final sign of y. under x 5 . 96 . For example.. the sign of y is negative because -(-)(-)(+) = .

1 (b) x 3 . y x 2 ( x 3)( x 1) 4 ( x 1)3 (a) -3.5 x 1 x2 x 3 ( x 1) 4 ( x 1)3 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - . 3 x 1. 1 x 0 . 0. 0 x 1.5 0 x 1 0.5. x 1 (c) Intervals x 3 -4 3 x 1 -2 1 x 0 -0. -1.

Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of graph falls to the left continuously without end. The graph goes downward from (-1. they are connected. b.0).+ y x 2 ( x 3)( x 1)4 ( x 1)3 + – – – + above below below below above Test Value position of the curve relative to the x-axis 2 (d) Broken parts of the graph indicate that somewhere below. d. leading term: 2x 3 . then the graph rises to the right continuously without end.0) and at a certain point. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 4. For y (2x 3)( x 1)( x 4) a. it turns upward to (-3. (i) 3 x 1 and x 4 2 (ii) x 3 . then the 2 3 and 1 x 4 2 c. Answers to the Questions: 1.

**e. leading coefficient: 2, degree: 3
**

97

2. For y x 3 2x 2 11x 12 or y ( x 3)( x 1)( x 4)

a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -3, then the

graph rises to the left continuously without end.

b. (i) x 3 and 1 x 4

(ii) 3 x 1 and x 4

c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 4, then the

graph falls to the right continuously without end.

d. leading term: x 3

e. leading coefficient: -1, degree: 3

3. For y x 4 26x 2 25 or y ( x 5)( x 1)( x 1)( x 5)

a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -5, then the

graph rises to the left continuously without end.

b. (i) x 5 and 1 x 1

(ii) 5 x 1 and 1 x 5

c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 5, then the

graph rises to the right continuously without end.

d. leading term: x 4

e. leading coefficient: 1, degree: 4

4. For y x 4 5x 3 3x 2 13x 10 or y ( x 5)( x 2)( x 1)2

a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -5, then the

graph falls to the left continuously without end.

b. (i) 5 x 2

(ii) x 5 , 2 x 1 and x 1

c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 1, then the

graph falls to the right continuously without end.

d. leading term: x 4

e. leading coefficient: -1, degree: 4

5. For y x 2 ( x 3)( x 1)4 ( x 1)3

a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -3, then the

graph rises to the left continuously without end.

b. (i) x 3 and x 1 (ii) 3 x 1, 1 x 0, and 0 x 1

c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 1, then the

graph rises to the right continuously without end.

d. leading term: x 10

e. leading coefficient: 1, degree: 10

Let the students reflect on these questions: Do the leading

coefficient and degree of the polynomial affect the behavior of its

graph? Encourage them to do an investigation as they perform the next

activity.

98

**Activity 9: Follow My Path!
**

Answer Key

Case 1:

a. positive

b. odd degree

Case 2:

a. negative

c. falling to the left

rising to the right

b. odd degree

Case 3:

a. positive

c. rising to the left

falling to the right

b. even degree

Case 4:

a. negative

c. rising to the left

rising to the right

b. even degree

c. falling to the left

falling to the right

Summary table:

Leading

Coefficient:

Behavior of

the Graph:

Rising or

Falling

LeftRighthand

hand

or

Degree:

Even

or Odd

3

2

1. y 2x 7x 7x 12

n 0

odd

falling

rising

5

4

3

2

2. y x 3x x 7x 4

n 0

odd

rising

falling

n 0

even

rising

rising

n 0

even

falling

falling

Sample Polynomial Function

n 0

n 0

4

2

3. y x 7 x 6x

4

3

2

4. y x 2x 13x 14x 24

99

Possible

Sketch

**Synthesis: (The Leading Coefficient Test)
**

1. If the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient

positive, then the graph falls to the left and rises to the right.

2. If the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient

negative, then the graph rises to the left and falls to the right.

3. If the degree of the polynomial is even and the leading coefficient

positive, then the graph rises to the right and also rises to the left.

4. If the degree of the polynomial is even and the leading coefficient

negative, then the graph falls to the left and also falls to the right.

is

is

is

is

You should also consider another helpful strategy to determine

whether the graph crosses or is tangent to the x-axis at each x-intercept.

This strategy involves the concept of multiplicity of a root of a

polynomial function, the one generalized in the next activity.

Activity 10: How should I pass through?

Answer Key

Root or

Zero

Multiplicity

-2

-1

1

2

2

3

4

1

Characteristic

of

Multiplicity:

Odd or even

even

odd

even

odd

Behavior of Graph Relative

to x-axis at this Root:

Crosses or is Tangent to

tangent to x-axis

crosses the x-axis

tangent to x-axis

crosses the x-axis

Answer to the Questions:

a. The graph is tangent to the x-axis.

b. The graph crosses the x-axis.

The next activity considers the number of turning points of the

graph of a polynomial function. 100 . The turning points of a graph occur when the function changes from decreasing to increasing or from increasing to decreasing values.

Activity 11: Count Me In Answer Key Polynomial Function Number of Degree Turning Points Sketch 1. y x 5 x 3 2x 1 x 101 . y x 5 4. y x 4 4 1 4 3 5 0 5 2 x y x 2. y x 4 2x 2 15 y x 3.

0). -1. No. leading term: b.0). and has rounded turns. Important: The graph of a polynomial function is continuous. y x 5 5 x 3 4x x 5 4 Answers to the Questions: a. What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND Activity 12: It’s Your Turn. 5 has multiplicity 1 2 e. x-intercepts: points on x-axis: d. end behaviors: c. Quartic functions: have an odd number of turning points. multiplicity of roots: 2x 4 rises to the left. Show Me Answer Key 1. y ( x 3)( x 1)2 (2x 5) a. y-intercept: point on y-axis: f. (-1. It is not possible. of turning points: 15 (0. 5 2 (-3. no. at most 4 turning points b. ( 5 . c. falls to the right -3.15) 1 or 3 102 .y 5.0) 2 -3 has multiplicity 1. The number of turning points is at most (n – 1). at most 3 turning points Quintic functions: have an even number of turning points. -1 has multiplicity 2. smooth.

103 . we cannot determine the exact values of all the turning points of the graph. no. (1. expected graph: Note: At this stage. multiplicity of roots: x7 falls to the left.g. 40) f. 2 has multiplicity 3 e. end behaviors: c.0). (2. 5 has multiplicity 1. ( 5 . of turning points: 2 or 4 or 6 g. 0). For now.0). expected graph: Note: Broken parts of the graph indicate that somewhere above. 5 . they are connected. we just need to ensure that the graph s end behaviors and intercepts are correctly graphed. it turns downward to ( 5 . 1 has multiplicity 2. 1.0) 5 has multiplicity 1. 0) and at a certain point. 2. leading term: b. We need calculus for this. x-intercepts: points on the x-axis: d.0). y-intercept: 40 point on y-axis: (0. 2 ( 5 . y ( x 2 5)( x 1)2 ( x 2)3 a. The graph goes upward from (1. rises to the right 5 .

3. 0). However. end behaviors: rises to the left. x-intercept: 2 point on x-axis: (2. 4) f. multiplicity 1. falls to the right c. 0) d. x-intercepts: points on the x-axis: d. 0) 2 3 7 has multiplicity 1. (0. has multiplicity 1 (0. we cannot determine whether there are any “flat” parts in the graph. has 2 7. multiplicity of root: -2 has multiplicity 1 e. of turning points: 2x 5 falls to the left. y x 2 ( x 2 7)(2x 3) a. 4. We need calculus for this. expected graph: Note: The graph seems to be flat near x = 1. multiplicity of roots: e. For now. y-intercept: 0 point on the y-axis: f. no. we just need to ensure that the graph s end behaviors and intercepts are correctly graphed. of turning points: 0 or 2 g. rises to the right 3 . leading term: b. 0). 0). y-intercept: 4 point on y-axis: (0. y x 3 2x 2 2x 4 or in factored form y ( x 2 2)( x 2) a. at this stage. ( 7 . end behaviors: c. 0. ( . 0) 2 or 4 104 7 . 0 has multiplicity 2. leading term: x3 b. 7 2 3 ( 7 . no.

.

( 2 . 0). leading term: b. end behaviors: 2x 4 rises to the left. y 2x 4 3x 3 18x 2 6x 28 or in factored form y ( x 2 2)(2x 7)( x 2) a. ( d. 2 has multiplicity 1. 2 has multiplicity 1. 0). no. ( 2 . 1 e. rises to the right c. 2. multiplicity of roots: -2 has multiplicity 1. expected graph: 5. 28) 1 or 3 105 7 has multiplicity 2 . 0).g. of turning points: g. x-intercepts: -2. 7 2 7 . 2 . y-intercept: point on y-axis: f. 0) 2 points on x-axis: (-2. expected graph: 28 (0.

Activity 13: Investigate Deeper and Decide Wisely Answers to the Questions 1. 50% b. a. c. The figure below can help solve the problem. we cannot use the function to predict forest cover during this year.98]. We expect it to give a good approximation of the forest cover but it may not necessarily produce the exact values. Use the regression tool in MS Excel or GeoGebra to determine the best fit polynomial for the data.46%. 24 x x x x 18 18 . The polynomial gives a value of 26. 2.3%. Moreover.7%.2x x x x x 24 .2x 106 . The value given by the table is 23. The domain of the function is [0. Since year 2100 corresponds to x = 200. The given polynomial is the cubic polynomial that best fits the data. This is very unrealistic unless major actions are done to reverse the trend. the polynomial predicts a forest cover of 59. if x = 200. You can find other data that can be modelled by a polynomial.

so x = 14 is not a solution. it is impossible to produce a box if the height is 14 inches.Solution: Let x 18 – 2x 24 – 2x be the height of the box be the width of the box be the length of the box Working Equation: lwh V (24 2x )(18 2x )x V ( x ) (24 2x )(18 2x )x 560 4x 3 84x 2 432x 560 4x 3 84x 2 432x 560 0 x 3 21x 2 108x 140 0 ( x 2)( x 5)( x 14) 0 To meet the requirements. Both will result in the volume of 560 cubic inches. Encourage the students to write their insights. So. Activity 14: Make Me Useful. area of the base (B): B x2 height of the pyramid (h): h x 2 Working Equation: V 1 Bh 3 107 . In this problem. Then Produce Something Answers to the Questions Solution: Let x be the side of the square base of the pyramid. The following questions might be helpful for them: Were you surprised that polynomial functions have real and practical uses? What mathematical concepts do you need to solve these kinds of problems? What to TRANSFER The goal of this section is to check if the students can appl y polynomial functions to real-life problems and produce a concrete object that satisfies the conditions given in the problem. Let them show their appreciation of polynomial functions. the height of the box is either 2 inches or 5 inches.

show the graph of polynomial functions using the following properties: .the intercepts (x-intercept and y-intercept). . turning points.V (x) 1 2 x ( x 2) 3 1 2 x ( x 2) 3 75 x 3 2x 2 25 x 3 2x 2 75 0 ( x 5)( x 2 3x 15) 0 The only real solution to the equation is 5. 108 . Students’ outputs may vary depending on the materials used and in the way they consider the criteria.the behavior of the graph using the Leading Coefficient Test. table of signs. and multiplicity of zeros. So. Summary/Synthesis/Generalization: This lesson was about polynomial functions. the side of the square base is 5 inches long and the height of the pyramid is 3 inches. and solve real-life problems that can be modelled with polynomial functions. You learned how to : illustrate and describe polynomial functions.

– 2 D. 3 Which of the following is NOT a polynomial function? C. How should the polynomial function f ( x ) written in standard form? 1 A. 2. 1 4 D. 1 B. – 4 C. f ( x ) x 2 x 2x 3 11x 4 2 1 C. –2 B. 1. f ( x ) 11x 4 2x 3 x 2 x 2 . f ( x ) 11x 4 2x 3 x x 2 2 1 B. f ( x ) x 1 3 1 5 D. 0 C. f ( x ) x 2x 2 3. f ( x ) x 5 x 3 A. Which of the following could be the value of n in the equation f(x) = x n if f is a polynomial function? A. 3 4.SUMMATIVE TEST Part I Choose the letter that best answers each question. What is the leading coefficient of the polynomial function f ( x ) x 2x 3 4 ? A. f (x ) 2 3 B.

1 D. y (2x 3)( x 1)2 C. f ( x ) x x 2 2x 3 11x 4 2 5. y (2x 3)( x 1)2 B. y (2x 3)2 ( x 1) D. 1 x x 2 11x 4 2x 3 be 2 Which polynomial function in factored form represents the given graph? y A. y (2x 3)2 ( x 1) 109 .

0) and (1. how will the graph behave at the x-axis? A. B. The graph crosses both (0. 0). 0) and is tangent to the x-axis at (0. 0). C. The graph crosses (1. 0). D. 8. The graph crosses (0. You are asked to graph f ( x ) x 6 x 5 5x 4 x 3 3x 2 x using its properties. If you will draw the graph of y x 2 ( x 1) . D. Which of these will be your graph? y y y 2 y 1 1 2 1 -6 -5 -4 -3 . 0) and is tangent to the x-axis at (1.6. y y x x B. Which of the following could be the graph of y x 4 5 x 2 4 ? y y x x A. 0) and (1. 0). C. 7. The graph is tangent to the x-axis at both (0.

-3 -1 -1 -1 1 x -2 O -1 1 .-6 -2 -5 -1 -4 O -3 1 x -2 -1 O 1 x 1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -6 O -1 -5 -4 A.

B. -4 3-3 7 C. 3 -3 B. -2 D. -2 -1 9. 3 n 2 -3 -3 -5 D. x C. what value should be assigned to n to -2 -4 -4 make f a function of degree 7? -2 7 A. -4 -5 -5 110 .-5 -6 -6 Given that f ( x ) 7 x x .

3 7 7 3 .

. 3. D. and 4. n n n n = = = . 2 1 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 O a a a a = = = = 2 3 2 3 . .10. If you were to choose from 2. which pair of values for a and n would you consider so that y = ax n could define the graph below? y A. C. B. .

297. and 6 to form a polynomial function in the form y = ax n. What is the profit at -3 x =150? A. The graph is rising to both left and right. D. C. Php 10. can be modeled by the function P(x) = 0. 3 . 13. D. a a a a = = = = 3 . Your friend Aaron Marielle asks your help in drawing a rough sketch of the graph of y ( x 2 1)(2x 4 3) by means of the Leading -6 Coefficient Test. . The graph is falling to both left and right. 3.125. What values should he assign to a and n so that the function could define the graph below? y x A. B. Lein Andrei is tasked to choose from the numbers –2.= 3 2 4 3 x -1 11. Php 632.001 25x 4 + x – 3.000.28 C. 6 . in thousands of pesos.00 -5 12. -2 where x represents the number of cars sold.959. P. -1 .00 -4 B. Php 3.50 D. B. How will you explain the behavior of the graph? A. Php 75. The graph is rising to the left and falling to the right. The graph is falling to the left and rising to the right. C.000. A car manufacturer determines that its profit. –1.

A drugstore that sells a certain brand of vitamin capsule estimates that the profit P (in pesos) is given by P 50x 3 2400x 2 2000 . Consider this Revenue-Advertising Expense situation. 0 x 32 111 .n = -2 n=6 n=3 n=6 14.

An advertising agency provides four (4) different advertising packages with costs listed below. Rubric for Rating the Output: Point 3 2 1 Descriptor Polynomial function is correctly presented as model. Package A: Php 8.where x is the amount spent on advertising (in thousands of pesos).000. Consider the rubric below. and the correct final answer is obtained. and the final answer is incorrect. (c) Using hard paperboard. write your mathematical solution in getting the new dimensions. 2. Polynomial function is not correctly presented as model. make the two boxes . (d) On one face of the bigger box. other alternative mathematical concepts are used in the solution. An open box with dimensions 2 inches by 3 inches by 4 inches needs to be increased in size to hold five times as much material as the current box. etc. Polynomial function is correctly presented as model. The boxes should look presentable and are durable enough to hold any dry material such as sand. rice grains.00 B. (b) Find the dimensions of the new box.) Task: (a) Write a function that represents the volume V of the new box. Package D: Php 48. appropriate mathematical concepts are partially used in the solution. Package B: Php 16. Additional guidelines: 1.00 C.00 D.000.one with the original dimensions and another with the new dimensions.000. and the correct final answer is obtained.000. (Assume each dimension is increased by the same amount.00 Part 2 Read and analyze the situation below. answer the questions or perform the required task. Then. 112 . Which of these packages will yield the highest revenue for the company? A. Package C: Php 32. appropriate mathematical concepts are used in the solution.

Note to the Teacher: To validate that the volume of the bigger box is five times the volume of the other box. or mongo seeds. Then the dimensions of the new box are x+2 by x+3 by x+4. ( x 2)( x 2 11x 48) 0 Therefore. D 13. The boxes are durable and presentable. rice grains. C 5. Thus. B 4. (Use the rubric to rate students’ work/output) Solution for finding the dimensions of the desired box: Let x be the number to be added to each of length. we have ( x 2)( x 3)( x 4) V ( x ) x 3 9x 2 26x 24 120 x 3 9x 2 26x 96 0 . B 6. the only real solution is x = 2. B 2. the dimensions of the new box are 4 inches by 5 inches by 6 inches. A 7. D 3. Writing these in an equation. width and height to increase the size of the box. Point/s to be Given: 3 points if the boxes have met the two criteria 2 points if the boxes have met only one criterion 1 point if the boxes have not met any of the criteria Answer Key for Summative Test Part I: 1. B 12. A 10. 113 . D 14. C Part II. B 11. from the last equation. Since the volume of the original box is (2 inches) (3 inches) (4 inches) = 24 cubic inches. guide the students to compare the content of both boxes using sand. C 9.Criteria for Rating the Output (Box): Each box has the needed dimensions. then the volume of the new box is 120 cubic inches. C 8.

where n is a nonnegative integer. but an 0. an x n is the leading term. a1.a polynomial function whose degree is 4 Quintic Function .a test that uses the leading term of the polynomial function to determine the right-hand and the left-hand behaviors of the graph Linear Function .. ...a function denoted by P( x ) an x n an 1x n 1 an 2 x n 2 .tells how many times a particular number is a root for a given polynomial Nonnegative Integer . a1x a0 ..zero or any positive integer Polynomial Function . a0 ..any polynomial whose terms are arranged in decreasing powers of x Quadratic Function .point where the function changes from decreasing to increasing or from increasing to decreasing values 114 .a polynomial function whose degree is 5 Turning Point .Glossary of Terms Constant Function – a polynomial function whose degree is 0 Cubic Function – a polynomial function whose degree is 3 Evaluating a Polynomial – the process of finding the value of the polynomial at a given value in its domain Intercepts of a Graph – the points on the graph that have zero as either the x-coordinate or the y-coordinate Irreducible Factor .a factor that can no longer be factored using coefficients that are real numbers Leading Coefficient Test . an is the leading coefficient. .a polynomial function whose degree is 2 Quartic Function .a polynomial function whose degree is 1 Multiplicity of a Root . and a0 is the constant term Polynomial in Standard Form . an are real numbers called coefficients.

P. (2000). Graham. Garces. F.. (2004). P. Quezon City. F.. Schaum’s A-Z Mathematics. MSA Advanced Algebra. J. Philippines: Phoenix Publishing House.References Alferez. Inc. J.A. & Coronel. Quezon City. Cabral. L. Duro.. Makati City. Quezon City. (2008). Quezon City. Advanced Algebra with Trigonometry and Statistics. Minds-on Activities in Mathematics IV. Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press Jose-Dilao. J. KK. Philippines: JTW Corporation Lamayo. (2012). Trigonometry and Statistics. De Lara-Tuprio. L.. I.. Advanced Algebra. R. C. T. Larson. E. & Bernabe. London. Philippines: St... Hands-on.. Philippines: The Bookmark. De Las Penas. A Course in Freshman Algebra.. Marcelo. A. & Hostetler.. F. 115 . J. Inc. B. & Van Zandt. Precalculus. MC. B.. Francisco. J. Mandaluyong City. (2003). Quezon City. T. N. Board Primer in Mathematics. E. & Berry. Philippines: Capitol Publishing House. E.. Orines. R. F. F. & Deauna.. Fourth Year Integrated Mathematics. Philippines: MSA Publishing House Berry. United Kingdom: Hodder &Stoughton Educational. C. Sharp. M. Coronel.. L. A. S. (2003). & Ocampo. C. Philippines: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd Marasigan. (2009). S. F.. Quezon City. & Tupaz. Philippines Uy. Algebra and Trigonometry. L. A. Jude Thaddeus Publications. & Sarmiento. J. (1990). Pasig City. IJ. Quimpo.. M. GE. ML.. (2005).. (2010). R. Villaluna. N. T. F.. C. M. G.

arcs. Performance Standard: The learner is able to formulate and find solutions to challenging situations involving circles and other related terms in different disciplines through appropriate and accurate representations. Arcs. 2. Learning Competencies Derive inductively the relations among chords. and inscribed angles Solve problems involving chords. 6. 3. 7. A. Chords. 5.Module 4: Circles A. Unpacking the Standards for Understanding Subject: Mathematics 10 Quarter: Second Quarter TOPIC: Circles LESSONS: 1. Learning Outcomes Content Standard: The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts of circles. Ternida 1. and Central Angles B. and inscribed angles of circles Illustrate tangents and secants of circles Prove theorems on tangents and secants Solve problems involving tangents and secants of circles Essential Understanding: Essential Question: Students will understand that the concept of circles has wide applications in real life and is a useful tool in problem-solving and . central angles. A. arcs. central angles. 4. central angles. arcs. Arcs and Inscribed Angles 2. and inscribed angles Illustrate segments and sectors of circles Prove theorems related to chords. Tangent and Secant Segments Writer: Concepcion S. Tangents and Secants of a Circle B.

How do geometric relationships involving circles help solve real-life problems that are circular in nature? 116 .in decision making.

arcs. and sectors of a circle Sketch plans or designs of a stage with circular objects that illustrate the use of inscribed angles and arcs of a circle Sketch plans or designs of an arch bridge that illustrate the applications of secants and tangents Deriving geometric relationships involving circles Proof of theorems and other geometric relationships involving circles Formulated and solved real-life problems Assessment Map TYPE PreAssessment/ Diagnostic KNOWLEDGE PROCESS/ SKILLS Pre-Test: Part I Pre-Test: Part I Identifying inscribed angle Finding the length of an arc of a circle given its radius Identifying the external secant segment Describing the opposite angles . 5. 3. and central angles of circles are illustrated A circle graph applying the knowledge of central angles. B. 6. Objects or situations in real life where chords. arcs. 7. 2. The following are products and performances that students are expected to come up with in this module.Transfer Goal: Students will be able to apply the key concepts of circles in finding solutions and in making decisions for certain real-life problems. Planning for Assessment Product/Performance 1. 4.

of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle Identifying the sum of the measures of the central angles of a circle Finding the measure of a central angle given its intercepted arc Finding the lengths of segments formed by intersecting chords 117 UNDERSTANDING Pre-Test: Part I Part II Solving problems involving the key concepts of circles PERFORMANCE .

TYPE KNOWLEDGE PROCESS/ SKILLS Describing the inscribed angle intercepting a semicircle Finding the measure of the angle formed by two secants Determining the number of line that can be drawn tangent to the circle Finding the length of a chord that is perpendicular to a radius UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE Finding the length of a secant segment Finding the area of a sector of a circle Finding the measure of a central angle given its supplement Finding the measure of an angle of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle Finding the measure of an inscribed angle given the measure of a central angle intercepting the same arc Pre-Test: Part III .

Situational Analysis Pre-Test: Part III Situational Analysis Pre-Test: Part III Situational Analysis Pre-Test: Part III Situational Analysis Planning the design of a garden Illustrating every part or portion of the garden including their measurements and accessories Explaining how to prepare the designs of the garden Making designs of gardens 118 .

TYPE KNOWLEDGE Determining the mathematics concepts or principles involved in the design of the garden Formative Quiz: Lesson 1A Identifying and describing terms related to circles PROCESS/ SKILLS UNDERSTANDING Formulating problems that describe the situations Solving the problems formulated Quiz: Lesson 1A Solving the degree measure of the central angles and arcs Finding the length of the unknown segments in a circle Determining the reasons to support the given statements in a two-column proof of a theorem Solving the length of an arc of a circle given its degree measure Quiz: Lesson 1A Justifying why angles or arcs are .

arcs.congruent Explaining why an arc is a semicircle Explaining how to find the degree measure of an arc Explaining how to find the center of a circular garden Solving real-life problems involving the chords. and central angles of circles Finding the area of the shaded region of circles Quiz: Lesson 1B Quiz: Lesson 1B Quiz: Lesson 1B Identifying the inscribed angles and their intercepted arcs Finding the measure of an inscribed angle and its intercepted arc Explaining why the inscribed angles are congruent 119 Proving theorems on inscribed PERFORMANCE .

TYPE KNOWLEDGE PROCESS/ SKILLS Determining the measure of an inscribed angle that intercepts a semicircle Determining the reasons to support the given statements in a two-column proof of a theorem UNDERSTANDING angles and intercepted arcs using two-column proofs Proving congruence of triangles using the theorems on inscribed angles Solving real-life problems involving arcs and inscribed angles Quiz: Lesson 2A Quiz: Lesson 2A Explaining the kind of parallelogram that can be inscribed in a circle Quiz: Lesson 2A Identifying tangents and secants including the angles they form Determining the measures of the different angles. .

arcs, and

segments

Proving theorems

on tangents and

secants using

two-column

proofs

Explaining how to

find the measure

of an angle given

a circle with

tangents

Quiz:

Lesson 2B

Quiz:

Lesson 2B

Solving real-life

problems

involving tangents

and secants of a

circle

Quiz:

Lesson 2B

Identifying the

external secant

segment in a

circle

Finding the

length of the

unknown

segment in a

circle

Proving theorems

on intersecting

chords, secant

segments, and

tangent segments

Explaining why

the solution for

finding the length

120

PERFORMANCE

TYPE

Summative

KNOWLEDGE

PROCESS/

SKILLS

UNDERSTANDING

Drawing a circle

with appropriate

labels and

description

of a segment is

correct or

incorrect

Pre-Test:

Part I

Pre-Test:

Part I

Identifying an

inscribed angle

Finding the

measure of an

arc intercepted

by a central

angle

Pre-Test:

Part I

Part II

Identifying a

tangent

Describing the

angles of a

quadrilateral

inscribed in a

circle

Identifying the

sum of the

measures of the

central angles of

a circle

Describing the

inscribed angle

intercepting a

semicircle

Determining the

number of lines

that can be

drawn tangent to

the circle

Finding the

length of an arc

Finding the

lengths of

segments

formed by

intersecting

chords

Finding the

measure of the

angle formed by

a tangent and a

secant

Finding the

measure of an

inscribed angle

given the

measure of a

central angle

intercepting the

same arc

Finding the

length of a

secant segment

Finding the area

of a sector of a

circle

121

PERFORMANCE

Solving real-life

problems

involving tangent

and secant

segments

Solving problems

involving the key

concepts of

circles

Post-Test:

Part III A and B

Preparing

sketches of the

different

formations to be

followed in the

field

demonstrations

including their

sequencing and

presentation on

how each will be

performed

Formulating and

solving problems

**involving the key
**

concepts of

circles

TYPE

KNOWLEDGE

PROCESS/

SKILLS

UNDERSTANDING

PERFORMANCE

Finding the

measure of a

central angle

given its

supplement

Finding the

measure of an

angle of a

quadrilateral

inscribed in a

circle

SelfAssessment

Finding the

length of a chord

that is

perpendicular to

a radius

Journal Writing:

Expressing understanding of the key concepts of circles

Expressing understanding of the different geometric relationships involving

circles

Assessment Matrix (Summative Test)

Levels of

Assessment

Knowledge

15%

Process/Skills

25%

Understanding

30%

What will I assess?

The learner demonstrates

understanding of key

concepts of circles.

1. Derive inductively the

relations among

chords, arcs, central

angles, and inscribed

angles.

2. Illustrate segments

and sectors of circles.

and 20 1 point for every correct response Paper and Pencil Test . 9. 13. 5. Solve problems involving chords. and 16 1 point for every correct response Part I items 17. 6. and inscribed angles of circles 122 How will I assess? How Will I Score? Part I items 1. 18. Prove theorems related to chords. 8. 12. 19.3. arcs. 11. 7. 3. central angles and inscribed angles 4. 15. central angles. 4. and 10 1 point for every correct response Part I items 2. arcs. 14.

area of a segment and a sector.Product/ Performance 30% 5. Arcs and Inscribed Angles. Lesson 1A is about the relations among chords. Prove theorems on tangents and secants 7. and arc length of a . arcs and central angles of a circle. Solve problems involving tangents and secants of circles Part II items 1 and 2 Rubric on Problem Solving (maximum of 4 points for each problem) The learner is able to formulate and find solutions to challenging situations involving circles and other related terms in different disciplines through appropriate and accurate representations. and Central Angles. Illustrate tangents and secants of circles 6. Arcs. It is divided into four lessons namely: Chords. Part III A Rubric for Sketches of the Different Formations Part III B (Total Score: maximum of 6 points ) Rubric on Problems Formulated and Solved (Total Score: maximum of 6 points ) C. and Tangent and Secant Segments. Planning for Teaching-Learning This module covers key concepts of circles. Tangents and Secants of a Circle.

arcs. find the area of a segment and the sector of a circle. 123 . arcs. and determine the length of an arc.circle. complete the proof of a theorem related to these concepts. and central angles in solving problems. In this lesson. apply the different geometric relationships among chords. (Note that all measures of angles and arcs are in degrees.) Moreover. the students will determine the relationship between the measures of the central angle and its intercepted arc. and central angles of a circle are illustrated and applied. the students will be given the opportunity to demonstrate their understanding of the lesson by naming objects and citing real-life situations where chords.

then ask them the questions that follow: 124 . In all the lessons. apply these in solving problems. They are also given varied activities to process the knowledge and skills learned and further deepen and transfer their understanding of the different lessons. In this lesson. Moreover. They will apply the relationships involving tangents and secants in finding the lengths of segments of some geometric figures. the students will be given opportunities to formulate and solve real-life problems involving tangents and secants of a circle. In this lesson. and prove related theorems. The students will apply these geometric relationships in finding the lengths of segments formed by tangents and secants. the students will make a design of a real-life object where tangent and secant segments are illustrated or applied. the students will determine the geometric relationships that exist among arcs and inscribed angles of a circle. the students are given the opportunity to use their prior knowledge and skills in learning circles. As an introduction to the main lesson. show the students the pictures below. then formulate and solve problems out of this design. The geometric relationships involving tangents and secants and their applications in real life will be taken up in Lesson 2A.The concepts about arcs and inscribed angles of a circle are contained in Lesson 1B. Lesson 2B of this module is about the different geometric relationships involving tangent and secant segments. they will formulate and solve real-life problems involving these geometric concepts. To demonstrate their understanding of the lesson. Moreover. the students will find the measures of angles formed by secants and tangents and the arcs that these angles intercept.

and in your daily life? Entice the students to find out the answers to these questions and to determine the vast applications of circles through this module. and inscribed angles of circles. Objectives: After the learners have gone through the lessons contained in this module. 2. use the relationship among chords. central angles. navigation. PRE-ASSESSMENT: Check students’ prior knowledge. formulate and solve problems involving tangents and secants of circles. and inscribed angles of circles.Have you imagined yourself pushing a cart or riding a bus having wheels that are not round? Do you think you can move heavy objects from one place to another easily or travel distant places as fast as you can? What difficulty do you think would you experience without circles? Have you ever thought of the importance of circles in the field of transportation. carpentry. skills. sports. Assessing these will facilitate teaching and students’ understanding of the lessons in this module. central angles. 3. and 9. 8. find the lengths of arcs of circles. and inscribed angles of circles. use two-column proofs in proving theorems related to chords. identify the tangents and secants of circles. 4. they are expected to: 1. formulate and solve problems involving chords. arcs. 5. 6. 125 . identify and describe terms related to circles. industries. arcs. and understanding of mathematics concepts related to circles. central angles. 7. use two-column proofs in proving theorems related to tangents and secants of circles. find the area of segments and sectors of circles. arcs.

Tell them that as they go through this lesson.38 km Part III (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs) LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS: Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of key concepts of circles. arcs. arcs. Lesson 1A: Chords. C Part II (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs) 1. A 18. B 9. ask them to describe and differentiate these terms. they have to think of this important question: “How do the relationships among chords.67 m 2. Assessing these will facilitate teaching and students’ understanding of chords. and solve these using a variety of strategies. Also. C 7. and describe the terms related to circles by doing Activity 1. A 13. Let them explain how they arrived at their answers. 24. name. A 17. C 8. D 4. A 15. 27. A 3. and Central angles What to Know Assess students’ knowledge of the different mathematics concepts previously studied and their skills in performing mathematical operations. C 19. They are also expected to investigate mathematical relationships in various situations involving circles. formulate real-life problems involving these concepts. A 16. 126 . D 5. A 10. and central angles of a circle facilitate finding solutions to rea llife problems and making decisions?” Ask the students to identify. A 12. and central angles. B 14. D 11. B 2.Answer Key Part I 1. arcs. B 20. C 6.

EJ 3. JEN Questions: a. EJ 4. AN . It is the longest chord. ENL . LNJ 7. 2. Terms related to circle Description 1. diameter It is a segment whose endpoints are on the circle and it passes through the center of the circle. LJE . radius It is a segment drawn from the center of the circle to any point on the circle. chord It is a segment joining any two points on the circle.Activity 1: Know My Terms and Conditions… Answer Key 1. NAE 8. 4. 8. JAN . Recall the definition of the terms related to circles. major arc It is an arc of a circle that measures greater than a semicircle. JN . 127 . LEN . central angle It is an angle whose vertex is at the center of the circle and with two radii as its sides. JLE 5. 6. minor arc It is an arc of a circle that measures less than a semicircle. JLN . AJ . inscribed angle It is an angle whose vertex is on a circle and whose sides contain chords of the circle. 5. EL 6. JNE . JL . 3. EN . 7. LEJ . AE 2. EL . semicircle It is an arc measuring one-half of the circumference of a circle.

1. b. Using the equation a2 b2 c 2 . Activity 2: What is my missing side? Answer Key 1. 2. A semicircle is an arc measuring one-half the circumference of a circle. 5.73 units a 12 units b 4 units b 12. A central angle is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle and with two radii as its sides. 5. A diameter is twice the measure of the radius and it is the longest chord. 4. An inscribed angle is an angle whose vertex is on a circle and whose sides contain chords of the circle. 3. c 10 units c 17.12 units Questions: a. Pythagorean theorem 128 . Show the students the right triangles with different measures of sides and let them find the missing side. 2. 6.Answer Key b. 7. A major arc is an arc of a circle that measures greater than the semicircle. A minor arc is an arc of a circle that measures less than the semicircle.49 units c 12. A chord is a segment joining any two points on the circle. A radius is half the measure of the diameter. 6. 3. 8. 4. Give focus on the mathematics concepts or principles applied to find the unknown side particularly the Pythagorean theorem.

Ask them also to identify the intercepted arc of each central angle. Ask them to perform Activity 3. FAB 105 FB 2.Provide the students with an opportunity to derive the relationship between the measures of the central angle and the measure of its intercepted arc. 105 b. 75 c. 360 . 5. 75 c. 90 e. Activity 3: Measure Me and You Will See… Answer Key 1. 7. a. the angles have a common vertex. 60 d. 360 360 360 Central Angle Measure Intercepted Arc 1. 60 d. 30 2. a. CAD 60 CD . 30 3. 4. students will measure the angles of the given figures using a protractor. In this activity. 105 b. BAC 75 BC 3. Emphasize that the sum of the angles formed by the coplanar rays with common vertex but with no common interior points is equal to the sum of the central angles formed by the radii of a circle with no common interior points. 90 e. Ask them to get the sum of the angles in the first figure as well as the sum of the central angles in the secon d figure. In each figure. 6.

EAD 90 ED 5. Equal 129 . 360 because the measure of the central angle is equal to the measure of its intercepted arc.4. EAF 30 EF 8. 9.

Activity 4: Travel Safely Answer Key a. Ask the students to perform Activity 5. and central angles. let the students give a brief summary of what they have learned so far. arcs. Evaluate students’ responses Before proceeding to the next activities.Present a real-life situation to the students to develop their understanding of arcs and central angles of circles. Let the students read and understand some important notes on chords. Provide them with an opportunity to relate or connect their responses in the activities given to this lesson. In this activity. Tell them to use the mathematical ideas and the examples presented in the preceding section to answer the activities provided. Tell them to study carefully the examples given. 60 b. and central angles. ask them to find the degree measure of each arc of the wheel and also the angle formed at the hub. arcs. let the students apply the key concepts of chords. 130 . What to PROCESS In this section. 60 . the students will identify and name arcs and central angles in the given circle and explain how they identified them. Ask them further the importance of the spokes of the wheel. In this activity.

JGM (or JHM ) Minor Arcs Major Arcs JK KMJ KL KGL LM LJM MG MKG HG HKG JH JMH Note: There are many ways of naming the major arcs. A minor arc is an arc of a circle that measures less than the semicircle. JKM (or JLM ) and 2. Some Possible Answers: LAM . Yes. JAK . Then. b. a circle has many semicircles. arcs. LAK Questions: a. A circle has an infinite set of points.Activity 5: Identify and Name Me Answer Key 1. A major arc is an arc of a circle that measures greater than the semicircle. 7. the arcs that the angles intercept. Therefore. LMH (or LGH ) and LKH (or LJH ). and the lengths of chords. 131 . GAH . In activities 6. let them explain how they arrived at their answers. It is named by using the two endpoints and another point on the arc. and central angles. 3. The given answers are just some of those ways. and 8. A semicircle is an arc with measure equal to one-half of the circumference of a circle and is named by using the two endpoints and another point on the arc. JAH . It is named by using the two endpoints on the circle. ask the students to apply the different geometric relationships in finding the degree measure of the central angles. A central angle is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle and with two radii as its sides. MAG .

2 units 3. JNI . JO and NI .24 units 6. 5. 4. The central angles that intercept the arcs are congruent. JN and OI .24 units Note: Evaluate students’ explanations. Yes. Ask them to complete the proof of a theorem involving the diameter.29 units 8. 2. 113 b. 39 6. 5 units 4. a. The arcs measure 180°.58 units 1.Activity 6: Find My Degree Measure Answer Key 1. JSN and OSI . guide the students as they complete the proof of the theorem. Activity 8: Get My Length Answer Key 5. 67 3. Yes. 4. Each arc or semicircle contains the endpoints of the diameter. 5. 4 7 10. 113 b. 8. 2 7 5. If needed. 39 6. a. 8 units 7. 113 e. 2. 9. . 67 f. 90 48 138 42 132 6. They are vertical angles. NIO . 8 units 2. JSO and NSI . 180 c. NJO . 67 c. JOI . 10. 67 d. chord. Provide the students opportunity to develop their skills in writing proofs. 180 6. Opposite sides of rectangles are congruent. and arc of a circle by doing Activity 9. 90 48 150 42 132 Activity 7: Find Me! Answer Key 1. 7. 3.

132 .

4. NI GI 2. The proof has two parts. EN EG 3. GIU NIU UG UN Given Reasons Definition of perpendicular lines Right angles are congruent. 2. N I G U Prove: 1. Statements U with diameter ES and chord GN .Activity 9: Make Me Complete! Problem: To prove that in a circle. Radii of the same circle are congruent. ES GN GIU and NIU are right angles. 133 . 3. 1. E Given: ES is a diameter of U and perpendicular to chord GN at I. NS GS S Answer Key Proof of Part 1: We will show that ES bisects GN and the minor arc GN. a diameter bisects a chord and an arc with the same endpoints if and only if it is perpendicular to the chord.

mEN mEG 14. 10. substitution 13. 9. mGS m GUS mNS m NUS From 14. GUI NUI From 6. mNS mGS Definition of arc bisector 17. m GUS m NUS From 11. m GUE m NUE angles Degree measure of an arc 12. NUI and NUE are the same angles. GI NI Definition of segment bisector 8. substitution 16. mEG m GUE mEN m NUE From 11. UI UI 6. CPCTC E. U are collinear. GUI and GUE are the same angles. ES bisects GN . 15.Answer Key Proof: Statements Reasons Reflexive/Identity Property HyL Theorem Corresponding parts of congruent triangles are congruent (CPCTC). From 9. definition of congruent 11. 134 . definition of supplementary angles. 5. ES bisects GN . angles that are supplementary to congruent angles are congruent. 12. Degree measure of an arc 15. GIU NIU 7. 10. I.

ES bisects GN at I and the minor arc GN. SSS Postulate CPCTC Angles which form a linear pair and are congruent are right angles. UG UN Reflexive/Identity Property Radii of the same circle are congruent. UIG UIN 7. U with diameter ES . UIG and UIN are right angles. and sector of a circle.Given: ES is a diameter of U. 8. Statements Given 1. IU GN 9. UI UI 4. ES bisects GN at I and the minor arc GN. GI NI Reasons Definition of bisector GE NE 3. Definition of perpendicular lines 5. E N I G U S Answer Key Proof of Part 2: We will show that ES GN . GIU NIU 6. Ask the students to perform Activity 10 and Activity 11. Have the students apply the knowledge and skills they have learned about arc length. ES GN IU is on ES Combining Parts 1 and 2. 135 . the theorem is proven. segment. 2.

.

area of a triangle. The area of each shaded region was determined by using the A l proportion where A = degree measure of the arc. 4. 3.23 units 7.Activity 10: Find My Arc Length Answer Key 1. 360 Subtract the area of the triangle from the area of the sector. and regular pentagon 136 . b. 3. A l b.29 units Questions: a. 2.04 cm2 40 cm2 Questions: a. ratio. 4. 6. 3. Use the formula for finding the area of a segment and the area of a triangle. equilateral triangle. The area of the sector is equal to the product of the ratio measure of the arc and the area of the circle. 9 cm2 or 28.46 units or 10. 5. 5. area of a segment and the area of a 360 2 r triangle were used and so with substitution and the division property. r = radius of the circle.925 units 5. The proportion .26 cm2 18 cm2 or 56. Area of a circle. 360 2 r l = length of the arc.47 units 8.23 units or 5.85 units 10.52 cm2 52.31 cm2 59. 2.77 cm2 9. Activity 11: Find This Part! Answer Key 1.

.

because they have the lowest budget which is Php4. 3. No. b. They are expected to use the A l proportion to support their explanations. There are two pairs of congruent central angles/vertical angles formed and they intercept congruent arcs. because it has the highest budget which is Php12. a. central angles. a. c. 4. a. Education – 120 Food – 90 Utilities – 45 Savings – 45 Other expenses – 60 d. Yes. 72 b. 6. arcs. and arc length of a circle. Yes. In this activity. The intersection of the perpendicular bisectors to the chord is the center of the circular garden. area of a segment and a sector. Get the percentage for each item by dividing the allotted budget by the monthly income. Activity 12: More Circles Please … Answer Key 1. then multiply it by 360. 60.00 Savings & Utilities. Provide them opportunities to think deeply and test further their understanding of the lesson by doing Activity 12. because the arcs are intercepted by the same central angle. Draw two chords on the garden and a perpendicular bisector to each of the chords.) 360 2 r 5.000. the students will solve problems involving chords .What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND Ask the students to take a closer look at some aspects of the geometric concepts contained in this lesson. 3. It should be given the greater allocation because it is a very good investment.00 b. 137 . Education.500. (Evaluate students’ explanations. Even if the two circles have the same central angles. Education. the lengths of their intercepted arcs are not equal because the 2 circles have different radii.768 cm c. regular pentagon 2.

and sectors of a circle. arcs. give a short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson.625 cm 26. and central angles.625 cm 19.e. ask them to formulate and solve at least two problems involving arcs. Refer to the Assessment Map. miscellaneous fee. using the circle graph that they made. Then.625 cm2 245. Activity 13: My Real World Answer Key Evaluate students’ product. arcs. 138 . Also. and other fees.16 cm2 490.3 cm 39. ask them to make a circle graph showing the different school fees that students like them have to pay voluntarily like Parents-Teachers Association fee. In this activity. central angles. Item Education Food Utilities Savings Other expenses Sector 654.083 cm2 Arc Length 52. instruct them to formulate and solve problems out of these objects or situations.16 cm Before the students move to the next section of this lesson. What to TRANSFER Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of circles by doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 13. school paper fee.3125 cm2 245. Ask them also to write a journal about their understanding of chords. the students wi ll name 5 objects or cite 5 situations in real life where chords.25 cm 19.3125 cm2 327. and central angles of a circle are illustrated. You may use the rubric provided. Then. You can ask the students to work individually or in group. Ask them to explain how they applied their knowledge of central angles and arcs of circle in preparing the graph. Supreme Student Government fee.

Moreover. the students were asked to name objects and cite real-life situations where chords. and arc length of a circle. In this lesson. area of a segment and a sector. The students should be able to explain how they identified and named these angles and intercepted arcs. and determine the length of an arc. arcs and central angles of a circle. Lesson 1B: Arcs and Inscribed Angles What to KNOW Let the students relate and connect previously learned mathematics concepts to the new lesson. arcs. tell them to think of this important question: “How do geometric relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles facilitate solving real-life problems and making decisions?” Start the lesson by asking the students to perform Activity 1. and central angles in solving problems. arcs and inscribed angles. the students determined the relationship between the measures of the central angle and its intercepted arc. and central angles of a circle are illustrated an d the relationships among these concepts are applied. They were also given the opportunity to apply the different geometric relationships among chords. 139 . find the area of a segment and the sector of a circle. As they go through this lesson. In this activity. the students will identify in a given figure the angles and their intercepted arcs. arcs.Summary/Synthesis/Generalization: This lesson was about chords. complete the proof of a theorem related to these concepts.

2.Activity 1: My Angles and Intercepted Arcs Answer Key Angles Arc That the Angle Intercepts MSC MC CSD CD MSD MD MGC MC DGC CD MGD MD 1. Give the students opportunity to determine the relationship between the measure of an inscribed angle and the measure of its intercepted arc by performing Activity 2. The students should be able to realize in this activity that the measure of an angle inscribed in a circle is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (or the measure of the intercepted arc is twice the measure of the inscribed angle). There are 6 angles and there are also 6 arcs that these angles intercept. Determine the chords having a common endpoint on the circle. The two radii are the sides of the angle and the center of the circle is the vertex. An angle intercepts an arc if a point on one side of the angle is an endpoint of the arc. 3. The chords are the sides of the angle and the common endpoint on the circle is the vertex. Determine the arc that lies in the interior of the angle with endpoints on the same angle. Determine two radii of the circle. 140 .

The measure of LDW is one-half the measure of LW . 2. 141 . 3. 4. An inscribed angle is an angle whose vertex is on a circle and whose sides contain chords of the circle.Activity 2: Inscribe Me! Answer Key Possible Responses 1. m WEL 60 . mLW 60 The measure of the central angle is equal to the measure of its intercepted arc. m LDW 30 5. 6.

) The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the degree measure of its intercepted arc. the students will determine the relationship that exists when an inscribed angle intercepts a semicircle.Answer Key 7. 3. Draw other inscribed angles of the circle. m MUT 90 c. 142 . In this activity. 5. (Check students’ drawings. Activity 3: Intercept Me so I Won’t Fall! Answer Key 1. Each angle measures 90°. If an angle is inscribed in a circle. They should be able to find out that the measure of an inscribed angle that intercepts a semicircle is 90°. a. then the measure of the angle equals one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (or the measure of the intercepted arc is twice the measure of the inscribed angle). Activity 3 is related to Activity 2. The measures of inscribed angles intercepting the same arc are equal. The measure of an inscribed angle intercepting a semicircle is 90°. m MOT 90 b. 2. m MNT 90 The measures of the three angles are equal. 4. Determine the measures of these angles and the degree measures of their respective intercepted arcs.

Develop students’ understanding of the lesson by relating it to a reallife situati on. Go farther from the house until the entire house is seen on the eye piece or on the LCD screen viewer of the camera.…. 143 . Activity 4: One. 3. 80° 40° New location where Janel could photograph the entire house with the telephoto lens 2. Two. Ask them to determine the mathematics concepts that they can apply to solve the problem presented in Activity 4. Say Cheese! Answer Key 1. Relationship between the central angle or inscribed angle and the arc that the angle intercepts.

CAL . m 2 62 e. and 7. and the examples presented in the preceding section to perform the succeeding activities. ALC . 6. LAE . m 5 124 h. LCA . and apply th e theorems pertaining to these geometric concepts and other mathematics concepts in finding their degree measures. In these activities. m 9 62 4. LCE and LAE d. ACE c. mLE 128 144 . Provide the students opportunities to explain their answers. Activity 5: Inscribe.Before proceeding to the next section of this lesson. a. m 7 28 b. a. LCE . they will identify the inscribed angles and their intercepted arcs. Provide them with an opportunity to relate or connect their responses in the activities given to their new lesson . m 8 62 c. mAE 52 b. Let the students read and understand some important notes on the different geometric relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles and let them study carefully the examples given. ACE . a. mAC 128 d. CAE . Intercept. CAL b. m 6 56 i. then Measure Answer Key 1. m 1 28 d. What to PROCESS Give the students opportunities to use the different geometric relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles. let the students give a brief summary of the activities done. and AEC 2. m 3 62 f. ALC and AEC 3. mCL 52 c. m 4 56 g. Arcs and Inscribed Angles. Ask the students to perform Activities 5.

mTM 116 b. a. a. m BDC 26 c. a. 4. m TIA 105 b. m CAR 65 b. mBC 52 d. m DCA 38 d. m MEA 32 e. m ABD 38 c. m TAM 58 a. x 5 b. Equal or Twice As? Answer Key 1. m GAO 25 2. m BAC 26 Activity 7: Encircle Me! Answer Key 1. If inscribed angles intercept the same arc. 3. then the angles are congruent. m ACB 48 4. m GOA 80 d. m DRM 55 . m RDM 35 b. BAC BDC and ACD ABD . mMA 64 c.5 c. m FAI 82 5. a. mOA 150 b. mAR 115 e. 2. m ARC 57.Activity 6: Half. x 7 b. mCD 108 3. mAE 116 d. mAD 76 a.5 a. mAC 115 d. m ACR 57. 5. mOG 50 c.

m DMR 90 d. mRD 180 145 . mDM 110 e.c.

This activity would further develop their skills in writing proofs which they need in proving other geometric relationships. ask the students to complete the proof of the theorem on inscribed angle and its intercepted arc.In Activity 8. Case 1: Q Given: PQR inscribed in S and x PQ is a diameter. Activity 8: Complete to Prove! Problem: To prove that if an angle is inscribed in a circle. 146 R . then the measure of the angle equals one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (or the measure of the intercepted arc is twice the measure of the inscribed angle). Prove: m PQR S 1 mPR 2 P Draw RS and let m PQR x .

4. m PSR mPR Transitive Property 9. PQR QRS Definition of isosceles triangle The base angles of an isosceles triangle are congruent. The measure of a central angle is equal to the measure of its intercepted arc. PQR inscribed in S and PQ is a diameter. mPR 2x 10. QS RS Radii of a circle are congruent.Answer Key Statements 1. 1 mPR 2 Substitution Multiplication Property of Equality What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND Provide the students with opportunities to think deeply and test further their understanding of the lesson. m PQR m QRS 6. m PSR 2x 8. QRS is an isosceles . Reasons Given 2. m QRS x 7. The measures of congruent angles are equal. Let them prove the different theorems on arcs and inscribed angles of a circle and other geometric relationships by performing Activity 9 and Activity 10. mPR 2 m PQR 11. Transitive Property 5. Moreover. . ask the students to solve the problems in Activity 11 for them to realize the wide applications of the lesson in real life. m QRS The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of its remote interior angles. 3.

147 .

Case 2 Given: KLM inscribed in Prove: m KLM O. Addition Property A. Proof: m KLN Statements Reasons 1 1 mKN and m MLN mMN 2 2 1 1 mKN mMN or 2 2 1 m KLN m MLN mKN mMN 2 m KLN m MLN m KLM m KLN m MLN mKN mMN mKM 1 m KLM mKM 2 Angle Addition Postulate Arc Addition Postulate Substitution Answer Key 1. Case 3 Given: SMC inscribed in Prove: m SMC The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (Case 1). 1 .Activity 9: Prove It or Else …! Answer Key 1. 1 mKM 2 To prove: Draw diameter LN.

mSC 2 To prove: Draw diameter MP. 148 .

PR AC Prove: Proof: PQR ABC Statements . m PMS m SMC m PMC or m SMC m PMC m PMS Angle Addition Postulate mPS mSC mPC or Arc Addition Postulate mSC mPC mPS 1 1 mPC mPS or 2 2 1 m PMC m PMS mPC mPS 2 1 m SMC mSC 2 m PMC m PMS 2. respectively. PR and AC are the intercepted arcs of PQR and ABC . Given: By Subtraction Substitution In T.Proof: m PMS Statements Reasons 1 1 mPS and m PMC mPC 2 2 The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (Case 1).

1 mAC 2 Substitution m PQR m ABC Transitive Property PQR ABC Angles with equal measures are congruent.Reasons Given PR AC Congruent arcs have equal measures. mPR mAC 1 m PQR mPR and 2 1 m ABC mAC 2 m PQR The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc. 149 .

W and N are supplementary. To prove: Draw WY . Substitution Definition of right angle Quadrilateral WIND is inscribed in Y . Proof: Statements Reasons GML intercepts semicircle GEL. and m DYW mDW mWI mIN mND mDW 360 . Proof: Statements Reasons The sum of the measures m WYI m IYN m NYD m DYW 360 of the central angles of a circle is 360. Prove: GML is a right angle. m NYD mND . The measure of a central angle is equal to the m WYI mWI . mGEL 180 1 mGEL 2 1 m GML 180 or m GML 90 2 GML is a right angle. 2. IY . measure of its intercepted arc. Prove: 1. NY .3. I and D are supplementary. m IYN mIN . Given: Given The degree measure of a semicircle is 180. GML intercepts semicircle GEL. and DY . m GML 4. The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc. Given: In C.

Substitution mDNI mDWI 360 Arc Addition Postulate 150 .

Reasons The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc. m W m I m N m D 360 m I m D 180 360 m I m D 180 I and D are supplementary.Answer Key Statements m DWI 1 1 mDNI and m DNI mDWI 2 2 1 1 mDNI mDWI or 2 2 1 m DWI m DNI mDNI mDWI 2 1 m DWI m DNI 360 or 2 m DWI m DNI 180 m DWI m DNI W and N are supplementary. Substitution Addition Property Definition of supplementary angles Activity 10: Prove to Me if You Can! C Answer Key 1. Given: Prove: Proof . By Addition Substitution Definition of supplementary angles The sum of the measures of the angles of a quadrilateral is 360.

MT and AC are chords of and MC AT . and CAT are inscribed angles. MCA ATM and CMT CAT 4. MT and AC are chords of D and MC AT . ASA Congruence Postulate 151 T . M D H A Reasons Statements 1. MCA . 2. ATM . CHM THA D. CMT . Given Definition of inscribed angle Inscribed angles intercepting the same arc are congruent. 3. CHM THA .

Given: I In Reasons Given Reflexive Property Inscribed angles intercepting the same arc are congruent. 5. Given: Quadrilateral DRIV is inscribed in E. RVD and RVI are right triangles.Answer Key 2. 6. 7. Definition of semicircle Inscribed angle intercepting a semicircle measures 90° Definition of right triangle Hypotenuse-Angle Congruence Theorem C A. RV is a diagonal that passes through the center of the circle 2. SE NE and SC NT . RIV and RDV are semicircles. RV RV 3. RV is a diagonal that passes through the center of the circle. R E DV IV Prove: Proof: RVD RVI Statements 4. RVD RVI Prove: V D 1. . RDV and RIV are right angles. DRV VRI 3.

2. Congruent arcs have equal measures. mSE mNE and mSC mNT 4. SE NE and SC NT N Reasons If two arcs are congruent. mSE mSC mEC and mEN mNT mET Arc Addition Postulate 152 . SE NE and SC NT 3. then the chords joined by their respective endpoints are also congruent.S CSE TNE A T E Proof: Statements Given 1.

d. there is only one chord that can be drawn parallel and congruent to another chord in the same circle. 153 . 3. CE TE 7. The legs of an isosceles triangle are congruent. 72° b. c. a. 4. 38°. PS = 6 in.. Hence. 6. the diagonals of the parallelogram are also the diameters of the circle. QS = 2 in. Then. The length of RS is the geometric mean of the lengths of PS and QS . CSE TNE Substitution Reasons Definition of Congruence Definition of chord of a circle Inscribed angles intercepting congruent arcs are congruent. connect the other endpoints of the sides of each angle to form the diameter. b. SSS Congruence Postulate Activity 11: Take Me to Your Real-World! Answer Key 1. Draw chord CT . a. Rectangle. EC ET 3.. If EG is drawn. and MN 4 3 in. 2. In a circle. Mang Ador has to draw two inscribed angles on the circle such that each measures 90°. Hence. the viewing angles of Joanna and Juliana measure the same as the viewing angle of Clarissa. The point of intersection of the two diameters is the center of the circle. ECT ETC 5. CET is an isosceles triangle. The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc. and Juliana intercept the same arc. Definition of isosceles triangle. RS = 2 3 in. mEC mET 2. 36°. 5. the viewing angles of Joanna. PQR is a right triangle. 4. each inscribed angle formed by the adjacent sides of the parallelogram intercepts a semicircle and measures 90°. Clarissa. RT 4 3 in.Answer Key Statements 1. Moreover.

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization: This lesson was about arcs and inscribed angles of a circle. and explain how they applied these concepts in preparing the design. Activity 12: How special is the event? Answer Key Evaluate students’ product. Ask them also to write a journal about their understanding of arcs and inscribed angles. ask them to formulate and solve problems out of the design they made. Then. In Activity 12. Tell them to include in the design some circular objects that illustrate t he use of inscribed angles and arcs of a circle. ask the students to make a design of a stage where a special event will be held. Refer to the Assessment Map. You can ask the students to work individually or in groups. In this lesson. they were given the chance to formulate and solve real-life problems involving these geometric concepts out of the product they were asked to come up with as a demonstration of their understanding of the lesson. apply these in solving problems.Before the students move to the next section of this lesson. You may use the given rubric. Moreover. 154 . What to TRANSFER Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of the geometric relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles. the students were given the opportunity to determine the geometric relationships that exist among arcs and inscribed angles of a circle. give a short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. and prove related theorems.

Connect S and T by a line segment. Label the 3. Draw line m such that it intersects point of intersection as T. the radius of a circle that is drawn to the point of tangency is perpendicular to the tangent line and is also the shortest segment.Lesson 2A: Tangents and Secants of a Circle What to KNOW Assess students’ prior mathematical knowledge and skills that are related to tangents and secants of a circle. Start the lesson by asking the students to perform Activity 1. This activity would lead them to some geometric relationships involving tangents and segments drawn from the center of the circle to the point of tangency. Use a compass to draw S. S at exactly one point. That is. 2. 155 . Activity 1: Measure then Compare! Answer Key 1. What is TS in the figure drawn? TS is a radius of S. This would facilitate teaching and guide the students in understanding the different geometric relationships involving tangents and secants of a circle.

Mark four other points on line m such that two of these points are on the left side of T and the other two points are on the right side. N. PTS. find the measures of MTS . 5. and Q. How do the measures of the four angles compare? The four angles have equal measures. P.4. 6. This time. Label these points as M. NTS . Each angle measures 90°. Repeat step 2 to 5. The four angles. Name this point V. AVS . DVS . 156 . and EVS have equal measures. Each angle measures 90°. respectively. draw line n such that it intersects the circle at another point. Using a protractor. BVS . and QTS .

Draw MS . NS . PS . and QS . 8. and QS .7. MS . 157 . PS . Using a ruler. TS . How do the lengths of the five segments compare? The lengths of the five segments. PS . NS . Whereas. The shortest segment from the center of a circle to the line that intersects the circle at exactly one point is the segment perpendicular to the line. and QS are not equal. Recall that the hypotenuse is the longest side of a right triangle. MS . the other segments become the hypotenuses of the right triangles formed. What do you think is the shortest segment from the center of a circle to the line that intersects it at exactly one point? Explain your answer. NS . find the lengths of TS .

Ask them to perform Activity 2 and Activity 3. then the measure of the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs. If two secants intersect in the interior of a circle. Let the students realize the following geometric relationships: 1. then the measure of each angle formed is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc. (Note: Relate this to the relationship between the measure of the inscribed angle and the measure of its intercepted arc. If two tangents intersect in the exterior of a circle.Provide the students with opportunities to investigate relationships among arcs and angles formed by secants and tangents. 3. If two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle. then the measure of the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs.) 2. then the measure of an angle formed is one-half the sum of the measures of the arcs intercepted by the angle and its vertical angle. 158 . If two secants intersect on a circle. then the measure of th e angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs. 4. then the measure of the angle formed is one-half the measure of the intercepted arc. 6. If a secant and a tangent intersect in the exterior of a circle. If a secant and a tangent intersect at the point of tangency. 5.

ECF.Activity 2: Investigate Me! Answer Key 1.43 m AGD 21. Which lines intersect circle C at two points? AD. we only consider this.13 159 .87 m ADG 34.87 m ECF 111. and AGD AD ACF . DG. ACG. There are still other angles with G as the vertex but for the meantime.14 DCE DE ACD AD ACF AF ECF EF AGD AF and AD m ACG 68. EAG. DAG .43 m ACD 111. G as the vertex? AGD. AE. DCE D as the vertex? ADG. we consider these angles. DAB AD DAE DE DAG DEA EAG EFA ADF AF 4. DCA . There are still other angles with D as the vertex but for the meantime. and AGD AF 5.43 m EAG 90 m DAB 55. we only consider this. DAB. How about the lines that intersect the circle at exactly one point? BG 2. 3. There are still other angles with A as the vertex.14 m DCE 68.57 m DAG 124. ADF . DAE and DCE DE DAB . but for the purpose of our new lesson. C as the vertex? ACD. m DAE 34. What are the angles having A as the vertex? DAE.

mAD 2 m DAB mEFA 2 m EAG 9. m RST S. Determine the measure of the central angle that intercepts the same arc.14 mDEA= 248. Yes. m RST 1 mRVT mRT 2 8.14 mEFA= 180 mDE= 68. then mDE 2 m DAE . 8. 7. 1 mST 2 6. RST is a central angle of 4. Since m DCE mDE .86 mAF= 68.Answer Key 6. mAD= 111. m BGD 1 mAD mAF 2 Activity 3: Find Out by Yourself! Answer Key 2. The measure of the central angle is equal to the measure of its intercepted arc. Yes.86 mEF= 111.86 m DCE 2 m DAE mDE 2 m DAE . m RST 1 mRT mNT .

2 10. m RST 1 mRT mMN 2 160 . Yes. m RST 1 mRT mMN 2 12. Yes.

2. MP PMR . MP M and P. NP KOM . Give emphasis to the geometric relationship the students applied in finding the measure of the angle. KN K and N. m KLM 50 . There are other angles formed but only these are considered. Each line intersects the circle at two points. Provide them with an opportunity to relate or connect their responses to the activities given in their lesson. KLM is formed by two tangent lines. Let the students read and understand some important notes on tangents and secants of a circle and study carefully the examples given. KN and MP. Activity 4: Tangents or Secants? Answer Key 1. if there are any. 3. KN NKS .Let the students give their realizations of the activities done before proceeding to the next activities. LKN. tangents and secants of a circle. and NKS. 5. In this activity. What to PROCESS In this section. Each line intersects the circle at exactly one point. PMR. let the students use the geometric concepts and relationships they have studied and the examples presented in the preceding section to answer the succeeding activities. KPM KLM 6. KL K. Present to the students the figure given in Activity 4. mNP = 30 161 . LM M 4. KL and LM. KOM is formed by two secant lines. KM KLM . Provide them opportunities to compare their answers and correct their errors. They should be able to determine also the unknown measure of the angle formed by secants intersecting in the exterior of the circle. Each is formed by a secant and a tangent. the students should be able to identify the tangents and secants in the figure including the angles that they form and the arcs that these angles intercept. LMP.

x 6 b. 162 . In this activity. m ABC 40 2. mMC 71 6.In Activity 5. a. m WER 62. AT 19 What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND Let the students think deeply and test further their understanding of the different geometric relationships involving tangents and secants of circles by doing Activity 6. mPW 125 b. m PRW 62.5 f. m WRE 27. x 10 b. m WER 62. Let them also determine the lengths of segments tangent to circle/s and other segments drawn on a circle. mAR 55 5.5 d. Ask them to support their answers by stating the geometric relationships applied. ST 19 c. m MQL 40 3. they will apply these geometric relationship s in solving problems.5 c. a. RT 19 d. provide the students with opportunities to apply the different geometric relationships in finding the measures of the angles formed by tangents and secants and the arcs that these angles intercept. m PQO 61 m PQR 119 8. m PTR 47 m RTS 133 4. Activity 5: From One Place to Another Answer Key 1. m RPW 27.5 e.5 9. a. OR 4 85 RS 24 KS 4 85 24 7. mCG 65 c. PQ 6 4 5 10.

5 If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle. DU 6 3 NRO is not congruent to DUN . m ILT 38 . then the two segments are congruent. The angle that I will make with the lighthouse must be less than 55°. Provide the students with opportunities to prove theorems involving tangents and secants of circles. TL 26 . m DUO 131 e. The lengths of their sides are not equal. m RON 90 . m P 55 m R 55 m S 55 b. If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle. b. a.Activity 6: Think of These Relationships Deeply! Answer Key 1. The radius of a circle is perpendicular to a tangent line at the point of tangency. Let them perform Activity 7. m RTL 52 d. provide hints. m NRO 59 d. CY 7. Guide the students in writing the proof. m ITL 52 .5 d. then the two segments are congruent. LI 24 . 5. LTR LTI by HyL Theorem. AL 16 a. NRO NUD c. CX 7. 5 55 m 6. RO 5 . LU is tangent to I. a. m NDU 41. DZ 3 c. If needed. 3. DN 12 . b. SC is also tangent to I. 4. m RON 90 . 2. 163 . SZ 6 b. c. a. RL LI .

164 Betweenness and Congruence of Segments Right angles are congruent. Given: Prove: AB is tangent to C at D. Reflexive Property SAS Congruence Postulate CPCTC . D and E are the points of intersection of tangent line AB and C is not true. Given: RS is a radius of PQ RS Prove: PQ is tangent to S. To prove: Draw QS . AB CD To prove: a. AB CD 2.Activity 7: Is this true? Answer Key 1. Draw AC b. S at R. Assume AB is not perpendicular to CD and AB AC Proof: Statement Reason AB is not perpendicular to CD and AB AC . Assumption E is a point on AD such that DE 2DA Ruler Postulate DA AE CAE CAD AC AC CDA CEA CD CE CD CE D and E are on C.

Definition of circle A tangent intersects the circle at exactly one point.The lengths of congruent segments are equal. Only one line can be drawn on a circle that is tangent to it at the point of tangency. .

Proof: Statement Reason Radii of the same circle are congruent. Reflexive Property Hypotenuse-Leg Congruence Theorem CPCTC MS LS EL LS and EM MS . Prove: EM EL To prove: Draw MS . QS >RS Q is not on S.Answer Key Proof: Statement RS is a radius of Reason S and PQ RS . No other point of a tangent line other than the point of tangency lies on a circle. Given The shortest segment from the center of a circle to a line tangent to it is the perpendicular segment. 3. A line tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius. PQ is tangent to S at R. Given: EM and EL are tangent to S at M and L. ES ES ESM ESL EM EL 165 . A tangent intersects the circle at exactly one point. and ES . LS . respectively.

.

4.

a. Given:

RS and TS are tangent to

and intersect at the exterior

Prove:

m RST

V at R and T, respectively,

S.

1

mTQR mTR

2

To prove: Draw RV , TV , and SV .

Proof:

Statement

SVR SVT

m RVS m RSV 90 and

m TVS m TSV 90

m RVS m TVS m RVT

m RVT 90 x 90 x

Reason

(Proven)

Acute angles of a right

triangle are complementary.

Angle Addition Postulate

Substitution

180 2x

The measure of a central

angle is equal to the

measure of its intercepted

arc.

The degree measure of a

circle is 360.

Substitution and Addition

Property of Equality

Angle Addition Postulate

mTR 180 2x

mTQR mTR 360

mTQR 180 2x

m RSV m TSV m RST

m RSV m TSV x x

By Substitution and Addition

2x

m RST 2x

Transitive Property

mTQR mTR 180 2x 180 2x

2 2x

By Substitution and

Subtraction

166

Answer Key

By Substitution

mTQR mTR 2 m RST

1

m RST mTQR mTR

2

b. Given:KL is tangent to

Multiplication Property

O at K.

NL is a secant that passes through

O at M and N.

KL and NL intersect at the

exterior point L.

Prove:

m KLN

1

mNPK mMK

2

To prove: Draw KM , MO , and KO .

Let m MKL x so that m MKO 90 x and m KMO 90 x .

Proof:

m NMK

Statement

Reason

The measure of an

inscribed angle is one-half

the measure of its

intercepted arc.

The measure of the

exterior angle of a triangle

is equal to the sum of the

measures of its remote

interior angles.

The measure of a central

angle is equal to the

measure of its intercepted

arc.

1

mNPK

2

m NMK m MKL m NLK

m KOM mKM

167

m KOM 2x

The sum of the

measures of

complementary angles is

90.

The sum of the

measures of the interior

angle of a triangle is 180

Addition Property

mKM 2x

Transitive Property

m MKL m MKO 90

m KMO m MKO m KOM 180

2 m MKL mKM or m MKL

1

mKM

2

1

mNPK 1 mKM m NMK m MKL

2

2

m MKL m NLK m MKL

m NLK

m NLK

1

mNPK mKM

2

c. Given:

Multiplication Property

By Subtraction

By Substitution

AC is a secant that passes

through T at A and B.

EC is a secant that passes

through T at E and D.

AC and EC intersect at the

exterior point C.

Prove:

m ACE

1

mAE mBD

2

168 .To prove: Draw AD and BE .

1 mPS mQR 2 To prove: Draw RS . Given: PR and QS are secants intersecting in the interior of V at T. PS and QR are the intercepted arcs of PTS and QTR . The measure of an inscribed angle is onehalf the measure of its intercepted arc. Prove: m PTS 169 Reason The measure of the exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of its remote interior angles.Answer Key Proof: Statement m ADE m DAC m ACE 1 mAE and 2 1 m DAB mBD 2 1 mAE 1 mBD m ADE m DAB 2 2 m ADE m DAC m ACE 1 1 m ACE mAE mBD or 2 2 1 m ACE mAE mBD 2 m ADE 5. By Subtraction Addition Property Transitive Property .

.

Transitive Property 1 mPS mQR 2 MP and LN are secant and tangent.Proof: Statement Reason The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc. 1 mPS 1 mQR or 2 2 1 m QTR mPS mQR 2 m QTR m PTS m QTR m PTS 6. respectively. M. 1 mMP and 2 1 m LMP mMKP . Given: Prove: Substitution The measures of vertical angles are equal. 1 mPS and 2 1 m QSR mQR 2 m QTR m PRS m QSR m PRS The measure of the exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of its remote interior angles. and intersect at C at the point of tangency.

Let m NMP x so that m OMP 90 x and m OPM 90 x .2 m NMP To prove: Draw OP and OM . 170 .

By Substitution and Subtraction By Factoring mMP mMKP 360 mMKP 360 2x mMKP 2 180 x m LMP 90 90 x or m LMP 180 x Angle Addition Postulate Substitution mMKP 2 m LMP 1 m LMP mMKP 2 Multiplication Property Before the students move to the next section of this lesson. The sum of the measures of complementary angles is 90. The sum of the measures of a triangle is 180. Addition Property Transitive Property mMP 2x Substitution mMP 2 m NMP 1 m NMP mMP 2 Multiplication Property The degree measure of a circle is 360.Answer Key Proof: Statement m MOP mMP m NMP m OMP 90 m OMP m OPM m MOP 180 m MOP 2x Reason The measure of a central angle is equal to the measure of its intercepted arc. give a short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask them also to write a journal about their understanding of tangents and secants .

Refer to the Assessment Map. 171 .of a circle.

Moreover. The lesson provided the students with opportunities to derive geometric relationships involving radius of a circle drawn to the point of tangency. In this activity. the students will formulate and solve problems involving tangents and secants of circles as illustrated in some real-life objects. Let them perform Activity 8. investigate relationships among arcs and angles formed by secants and tangents. Summary/Synthesis/Generalization: This lesson was about the geometric relationships involving tangents and secants of a circle. they were given the chance to prove the different theorems on tangents and secants and demonstrate their understanding of these concepts by doing a practical task. You can ask the students to work individually or in a group. Their understanding of this lesson and other previously learned mathematics concepts and principles will facilitate their learning of the wide applications of circles in real life. Activity 8: My Real World Answer Key Evaluate students’ product. the angles they form and the arcs that these angles intercept. You may use the rubric provided.What to TRANSFER Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of the different geometric relationships involving tangents and secants of circles by doing a practical task. and apply these in solving problems. 172 .

These mathematical skills are prerequisites to learning the geometric relationships involving tangent and secant segments. x 2 3 3. Ask the students to explain how they arrived at the solutions and how they applied the mathematics concepts or principles in solving each mathematical sentence. they have to think of this important question: How do geometric relationships involving tangent and secant segments facilitate solving real-life problems and making decisions? Provide the students with opportunities to enhance further their skills in finding solutions to mathematical sentences previously studied. x 12 Questions: a. Checking these will facilitate teaching and students’ understanding of the geometric relationships involving tangent and secant segments. x 9 2. x 6 4. x 8 8. x 4 5 5. let them identify the tangent and secant lines and the chords. x 5 7. Let them perform Activity1. x 9 9. Applying the Division Property of Equality and Extracting Square Roots b.Lesson 2B: Tangent and Secant Segments What to KNOW Find out how much students have learned about the different mathematics concepts previously studied and their skills in performing mathematical operations. Let the students relate this to the succeeding activities . x 3 5 10. This activity has something to do with the lesson. the students will solve linear and quadrati c equations in one variable. name all the segments they can see. Then. Division Property of Equality and Extracting Square Roots Present to the students the figure in Activity 2. Tell them that as they go through this lesson. and describe a point in relation to the circle. In this activity. x 5 6. Activity 1: What is my value? Answer Key 1. 173 .

AT . 2. In this activity. (Emphasize this idea. JL A point outside the circle Ask the students to perform Activity 3 to determine the relationship that exists among segments formed by intersecting chords of a circle. use math freeware like GeoGebra in performing the activity.tangent. AE . ET . In this activity.secant.8 units d.Activity 2: My Segments Answer Key 1. LN . Activity 3: What is true about my chords? Answer Key 1-2. JL . NA = 4. the students might not be able to arrive at the accurate measurements of the chords due to the limitations of the measuring instrument to be used. If two chords of a circle intersect.02 units 4.8 units c. AS . the students will determine the mathematics concepts or principles to solve the given problem. 174 . The product of BA and TA is equal to the product of MA and NA . 5. a. 3.95 units b. then the product of the measures of the segments of one chord is equal to the product of the measures of the segments of the other chord. AJ .) Present to the students a situation that would capture their interest and develop their understanding of the lesson. Let them perform Activity 4. 3. EL AS . JS . 4. MA = 1. BA = 2.chords NE . If possible. TA = 2.

5. Pythagorean theorem Ask the students to summarize the activities done before proceeding to the next activities. the students will name the external secant segments in the given figures. What to PROCESS Let the students use the different geometric relationships involving tangent and secant segments and the examples presented in the preceding section to answer the succeeding activities. Tangent and Secant Segments. In Activity 5. AK . 6.67 km 2. tangent. External secant segment. FG . d = 27. IM and IL TS and DS OS IR LF and WE IH . DC 175 . Let the students read and understand some important notes on tangent and secant segments and study carefully the examples given. EF . 4. 2. This activity would familiarize them with the geometric concept and facilitate problem solving. Activity 5: Am I away from you? Answer Key 1. Provide them with an opportunity to relate or connect their responses in the activities given to their new lesson. 3. IJ .Activity 4: Fly Me to Your World Answer Key 1.

secant segments. b. 3. x 10.64 units 6.8 units x 15 units x 2 10 6. 10. tangent segments.57 units b. and external secant segments were applied. a. 4. Activity 6: Find My Length! Answer Key 1.Have the students apply the different theorems involving chords and tangent and secant segments to find the unknown lengths of segments on a circle and solve related problems. x 8 units x 8 units x 9 units x 5 units x 6. Evaluate students’ responses. 7. Activity 7: Try to Fit! Answer Key 1. XU = 8 units 176 . Ask the students to perform Activity 6 and Activity 7. The theorems on two intersecting chords. 5. 9. VU = 4. 2. Possible answer: 2.32 units x 4 units Questions: a. 8.5 units x 4.

Proof: Statement Reason 1 mBE and 2 1 m BDE mBE 2 The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc. Given: Prove: AB and DE are chords of intersecting at M. Inscribed angles intercepting the same arc are congruent. C AM BM DM EM To prove: Draw AE and BD . Activity 8: Prove Me Right! Answer Key 1. m BAE BAE BDE AME ~ DMB EM BM AM DM AM BM DM EM Multiplication Property 177 . secant segments.What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND Test further students’ understanding of the different geometric relationships involving tangent and secant segments including chords by doing Activity 8 and Activity 9. Let the students prove the different theorems on intersecting chords. and external secant segments and solve problems involving these concepts. tangent segments. AA Similarity Theorem Lengths of sides of similar triangles are proportional.

Supplements of congruent angles are congruent AA Similarity Theorem Lengths of sides of similar triangles are proportional. O at N. KM intersects Prove: KM KN KL Reason Inscribed angles intercepting the same arc are congruent. Given: Prove: DP and DS are secant segments of T drawn from exterior point D. 2 To prove: Draw LM and LN . 178 . respectively of O drawn from exterior point K. Given: Multiplication Property KL and KM are tangent and secant segments.Answer Key 2. DP DQ DS DR To prove: Draw PR and QS . Proof: Statement QPR RSQ and PQS SRP DQS DRP DQS ~ DRP DP DS DR DQ DP DQ DS DR 3.

Substitution Angle Addition Postulate Transitive Property Angles with equal measures are congruent. AA Similarity Theorem Lengths of sides of similar triangles are proportional. 1 mLN and 2 1 m LMN mLN 2 m NLK m LMN m NLK Transitive Property Angles with equal measures are congruent. The measure of the exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of its remote interior angles.” . NLK LMN m LNK m NLM m LMN m LNK m NLM m NLK m KLM m NLM m NLK m LNK m KLM LNK KLM MKL ~ LNM KM KL KL KN KM KN KL 2 Multiplication Property Activity 9: Understand Me More … Answer Key 1. then the product of the lengths of one secant segment and its external secant segment is equal to the product of the lengths of the other secant segment and its external secant segment. She used the theorem “If two secant segments are drawn to a circle from an exterior point.Answer Key Proof: Statement Reason The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc. Janel.

2. 179 . The point of tangency of the two light balls from the ceiling is about 44. 3. Gate 1 is 91.72 cm. Anton needs about 1967. b.53 cm of string.65 m from the main road. a.

tangent. the students will make a design of an arch bridge that would connect two places which are separated by a river. You may use the rubric provided. Refer to the Assessment Map. 180 . Ask them also to write a journal about their understanding of tangent and secant segments. and chords of a circle. and secant segments. The students are expected to formulate and solve problems involving tangent and secant segments out of the design and the measurements of its parts. These theorems were used to solve various geometric problems. In Activity 10. You can ask the students to work individually or in a group. secants. identify tangent and secant segments. Understanding the ideas presented in this lesson will facilitate their learning of the succeeding lesson s. The lesson provided the students with opportunities to derive geometric relationship involving intersecting chords. Let them perform Activity 10. Summary/Synthesis/Generalization: This lesson was about the different geometric relationships involving tangents. and prove and apply different theorems on chords. Tell them to indicate on the design the different measurements of the parts of the bridge. 20 m wide. What to TRANSFER Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of tangent and secant segments including chords of a circle by doing a practical task. Activity 10: My True World! Answer Key Evaluate students’ product.Find out how well the students understood the lesson by giving a short test (formative test) before proceeding to the next section.

AG C. which is an inscribed angle? A. QVT D.SUMMATIVE TEST Part I Choose the letter that you think best answers each of the following questions. D. C. What is mAD if m DFG 65 ? 65° 115° 130° 230° 3. RST B. PQR C. F below. QST 2. AG is a diameter. B. DE B. BD D. In the figure on the right. In A. 1. Which of the following lines is tangent to below? A. AE 181 F as shown in the figure .

about how long is the arc? A. and III 5. 2.4 cm C. An arc of a circle measures 72°. 3. m B m D 180 III. 180 D. m A m C 180 II. If mDF = 166 and mDE = 78. 7. What is the length of AS in the figure on the right? A. What kind of angle is the inscribed angle that intercepts a semicircle? A. I and III C.4.768 cm D. II and III D. Which of the following is true about the angle measures of the quadrilateral? I. Line AB is tangent to m ABF ? A. 480 B.4 units 117 130 B. 6. what is 182 . 122 C at D. I. units 10 9 9. II. obtuse C. I and II B.54 cm 6. If the radius of the circle is 6 cm. units D. What is the total measure of the central angles of a circle with no common interior points? A. m A m C 90 A. 120 7. 88 D. 14. 360 C.92 units C. 44 B. acute 8. 61 C. 1.884 cm B. Quadrilateral ABCD is inscribed in a circle. straight B. right D.

and AE = 10 cm. what is m PRE if m PUE 56 ? A. In O on the right. mHT = 45 and the length of the radius is 8 cm. In the figure below. 124 E P U R 12. What is the area of the shaded region in terms of ? T A. TA and HA are secants. 22. A L T E H what is the length of AH in the given figure? A. one 11. 12 cm 2 H 183 8 cm . In U on the right. 34 D. LA = 8 cm. 28 C.10. four B. If TA = 18 cm. 56 B. How many line/s can be drawn through a given point on a circle that is tangent to the circle? A. two D. 20 cm C. 8 cm 2 D.5 cm 13. three C. 18 cm B. 24.5 cm D. 6 cm 2 C. 10 cm 2 45° B.

O .

14 units D. 8 2 units C. Find the area of the smaller segment of the garden determined by a 90 arc. 2 m2 B. find m ULK . 77 B. 84 C. 16 2 units 17. In the circle on the right. If m LUC 96 and U L 96° 77° C S K 16. 103 T R S. 2 m2 C. what is RT if QS = 18 units and VW = 4 units? A. 16 S B. 96 D. A circular garden has a radius of 2 m. 4 2 m2 184 . 4 2 units B. In S on the right. Quadrilateral LUCK is inscribed in m UCK 77. 74 C.14. A. m2 D. A. what is the measure of SRT if AST is a semicircle and m SRA 74 ? A. 154 A 15. 106 D.

60° B. 67. 150° 30° 19. What is the length. 1.18.5 Part II Solve each of the following problems. Mr. 45 C. 120° D. What is the distance between the centers of the pulleys if the radii of the bigger and smaller pulleys are 10 cm and 6 cm. 22. Mary designed a pendant. the 16 segments between the two concentric semicircles are each 0. What is the measure of the arc at the bottom of the pendant? A. Then. 80 cm2 B. 320 cm2 C. What is the measure of each angle formed at the center? B. and the portion of the rope tangent to the two pulleys is 50 cm long? 185 . 800 cm2 D. A rope fits tightly around two pulleys. 75° C. 135 A. If the chain is extended as shown in the diagram on the right. he divided the board into 20 congruent sectors. It is a regular octagon set in a circle. Karen has a necklace with a circular pendant hanging from a chain around her neck. of the shortest iron needed to make the arch? 2. Show your complete solutions. Suppose the opposite vertices are connected by line segments and meet at the center of the circle.7 meter long. In the design. it forms an angle of 30° below the pendant. respectively. 1 600 cm2 20. The chain is tangent to the pendant. Jaena designed an arch for the top part of a subdivision’s main gate.5 D. Mang Jose cut a circular board with a diameter 80 cm. in whole meters. Suppose the diameter of the outer semicircle is 8 meters. What is the area of each sector? A. The arch will be made out of bent iron.

your teacher. Goal: To prepare the different student formations to be done during a field demonstration Role: Student assigned to prepare the different formations to be followed in the field demonstration Audience: The school principal. and your fellow students Situation: Your school has been selected by the municipal/city government to perform a field demonstration as part of a big local event where many visitors and spectators are expected to .Rubric for Problem Solving 4 Used an appropriate strategy to come up with a correct solution and arrived at a correct answer 3 Used an appropriate strategy to come up with a solution. but a part of the solution led to an incorrect answer 2 Used an appropriate strategy but came up with an entirely wrong solution that led to an incorrect answer 1 Attempted to solve the problem but used an inappropriate strategy that led to a wrong solution Part III A: GRASPS Assessment Perform the following.

arrive and witness the said occasion. arcs. tangents. In particular. The principal of your school designated one of your teachers to organize and lead the group of students who will perform the field demonstration. your teacher instructed you to include arrangements that show geometric figures such as circles. Being one of the students selected to perform during the activity. your teacher asked you to plan the different student formations for the field demonstration. and secants. Your teacher also asked you to make a sketch of the various formations and include the order in which these will be performed by the group. 186 .

3 The sketches of the different formations are accurately made and the sequencing is systematic but not presentable. 1 The sketches of the different formations are made but not accurate and the sequencing is not systematic. presentable. and the sequencing must also be systematic. and the sequencing is systematic. Part III B Use the prepared sketches of the different formations in Part III A in formulating problems involving circles. 187 . Rubric for Sketches of the Different Formations 4 The sketches of the different formations are accurately made. then solve.Products: Sketches of the different formations to be followed in the field demonstrations including the order and manner on how each will be performed Standards: The sketches of the different formations must be accurate and presentable. 2 The sketches of the different formations are not accurately made but the sequencing is systematic.

D 11. 5 Poses a more complex problem and finishes all significant parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably. B 2. 4 Poses a complex problem and finishes all significant parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably.Rubric on Problems Formulated and Solved Score 6 Descriptors Poses a more complex problem with 2 or more correct possible solutions and communicates ideas unmistakably.O. A 5. B . D 4. 2 Poses a problem and finishes some significant parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably but shows gaps on theoretical comprehension. shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or processes. D 9. and provides explanations wherever appropriate. 2012 Answer Key Part I 1. D 6. A 12. 1 Poses a problem but demonstrates minor comprehension. 3 Poses a complex problem and finishes most significant parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably. not being able to develop an approach. C 8. shows comprehension of major concepts although neglects or misinterprets less significant ideas or details. C 13. A 10. #73 s. Source: D. B 3. shows indepth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or processes. B 7. shows indepth comprehension of th e pertinent concepts and/or processes.

14. C 15. D 19. 35 m 2. B Part II (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs) 1. D 17. A 20. D 16.16 cm Part III A (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs) Part III B (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs) 188 . A 18. 50.

r is the 360 2 r radius of the circle. where A is the degree measure of an arc. Degree Measure of a Minor Arc – the measure of the central angle which intercepts the arc External Secant Segment – the part of a secant segment that is outside a circle Inscribed Angle – an angle whose vertex is on a circle and whose sides contain chords of the circle Intercepted Arc – an arc that lies in the interior of an inscribed angle and has endpoints on the angle 189 .GLOSSARY OF TERMS Arc – a part of a circle Arc Length – the length of an arc which can be determined by using the A l = proportion . and l is the arc length Central Angle – an angle formed by two rays whose vertex is the center of the circle Common External Tangents – tangents which do not intersect the segment joining the centers of the two circles Common Internal Tangents – tangents that intersect the segment joining the centers of the two circles Common Tangent – a line that is tangent to two circles on the same plane Congruent Arcs – arcs of the same circle or of congruent circles with equal measures Congruent Circles – circles with congruent radii Degree Measure of a Major Arc – the measure of a major arc that is equal to 360 minus the measure of the minor arc with the same endpoints.

Major Arc – an arc of a circle whose measure is greater than that of a semicircle Minor Arc – an arc of a circle whose measure is less than that of a semicircle Point of Tangency – the point of intersection of the tangent line and the circle Secant – a line that intersects a circle at exactly two points. A secant contains a chord of a circle Sector of a Circle – the region bounded by an arc of the circle and the two radii to the endpoints of the arc Segment of a Circle – the region bounded by an arc and a segment joining its endpoints Semicircle – an arc measuring one-half the circumference of a circle Tangent to a Circle – a line coplanar with the circle and intersects it at one and only one point 190 .

If an angle is inscribed in a circle. then the measure of the angle equals one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (or the measure of the intercepted arc is twice the measure of the inscribed angle). Theorems: 1. Arc Addition Postulate.List of Theorems And Postulates On Circles Postulates: 1. a diameter bisects a chord and an arc with the same endpoints if and only if it is perpendicular to the chord. In a circle or in congruent circles. then the angle is a right angle. 3. The measure of an arc formed by two adjacent arcs is the sum of the measures of the two arcs. then the angles are congruent. 191 . 6. If two inscribed angles of a circle (or congruent circles) intercept congruen t arcs or the same arc. 5. 2. then it is perpendicular to the radius draw n to the point of tangency. If a line is perpendicular to a radius of a circle at its endpoint that is on the circle. At a given point on a circle. In a circle or in congruent circles. In a circle. then its opposite angles are supplementary. 2. 9. two minor arcs are congruent if and only if their corresponding chords are congruent. 7. If a line is tangent to a circle. 8. If an inscribed angle of a circle intercepts a semicircle. two minor arcs are congruent if and only if their corresponding central angles are congruent. 4. If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle. one and only one line can be drawn that is tangent to the circle. then the line is tangent to the circle.

If a tangent segment and a secant segment are drawn to a circle from an exterior point. 15. then the measure of the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs. If two chords of a circle intersect. 17. If two secants intersect in the interior of a circle. 16. 18. 12. then the measure of an angle formed is one-half the sum of the measures of the arcs intercepted by the angle and its vertical angle. then the product of the measures of the segments of one chord is equal to the product of the measures of the segments of the other chord. If two secant segments are drawn to a circle from an exterior point. then the two segments are congruent. 11. then the square of the length of the tangent segment is equal to the product of the lengths of the secant segment and its external secant segment.10. 14. then the measure of th e angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs. If two tangents intersect in the exterior of a circle. then the measure of each angle formed is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc. If a secant and a tangent intersect at the point of tangency. then the product of the lengths of one secant segment and its external secant segment is equal to the product of the lengths of the other secant segment and its external secant segment. 192 . 13. If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle. then the measure of the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs. If a secant and a tangent intersect in the exterior of a circle. If two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle.

. Malloy. Cooney. (2008) AMSCO’s Geometry.. Jones. Prentice Hall Middle Grades Math. (2009) cK-12 Geometry. & McCracken.. Charles. Inc. Clemens.DEPED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS THAT CAN BE USED AS ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR THE LESSON ON CIRCLES: 1.. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies. & Schulman. McGraw-Hill Geometry. S. Clements. Geometry. 193 . J. Gantert. P. C.. Department of Education. O’Daffer. A. Inc. & Dossey. (1998). (1990). USA: Prentice-Hall. Infinity. B. & Flores. Inc. (2002). Texas Geometry. G.. Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall.. T. Third Year Mathematics. R.. Cifarelli. Department of Education. Johnson A. M. Prentice Hall Geometry Tools for a Changing World. D. New Jersey: PrenticeHall. M.W.. NJ. Worktext in Mathematics III. L.. Hall B. (1992) Addison-Wesley Geometry Teacher’s Edition. NY. I.. E. New York: McGraw-Hill Division. V. Inc.. USA: AMSCO School Publications. Johnson. Renfro. Flexbook Next Generation Textbooks.R. References And Website Links Used in This Module: References: Bass. 2. L. Boyd. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Callanta. Chapin.. Inc. Moseley.. Bass. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.. Landau. E. USA: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike. Hall. (2008).I. Farmington. H. A. Inc. (2012) K to 12 Curriculum Guide Mathematics.F. X. G. L. Distance Learning Module (DLM) 3. (1997). M. Module 18: Circles and Their Properties. D. & Wood. Tools for Success. R. Boston.J. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) Learning Guide. (2008). Makati City: EUREKA Scholastic Publishing. A. Module 1 and 2: Circles. Upper Saddle River. F. Math in My World. L. Inc. C. & Kennedy. K. (1999). L. Philippines.. D.

Inc. (2014). P. Smith.ck12.com/arccentralangletheorem.html Math Open Reference. Cliffs Notes.7/ CK-12 Foundation. Ohio: Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Retrieved from http://www.mathopenref.mathopenref.4/ Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.html Math Open Reference.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8. Retrieved from http://www.. Central Angle.com/arc. K. Schaum’s Outlines Geometry (4th ed. (2014). Keedy. R. (2009). M.. Cliffs Notes. Retrieved from http://www. Retrieved from http://www. and Thomas.mathopenref. C. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. A. (2013). M.com/math/geometry/circles/arcs-andinscribe d-angles Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Applications and Connections.W.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8. L. Koss. cK-12 Inscribed Angles.html 194 . Retrieved from http://www. Nelson. and Tangents. Retrieved from http://www. Inc. (2009).. L.cliffsnotes. Arc Length.html Math Open Reference. (1992) Addison-Wesley Informal Geometry. Arcs and Inscribed Angles. Segments of Chords. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.mathopenref.com/arclength..8/ CK-12 Foundation. & Bittinger. cK-12 Secant Lines to Circles. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.) USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies. C. S.ck12. (2009). S. (2009). cK-12 Tangent Lines to Circles. Course I. B.Rich. Central Angle Theorem.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8. Wilson.ck12. Retrieved from http://www.com/circlecentral.. (2013).cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/circles/segments-of-chordssecants-tange nts Math Open Reference. Website Links as References and Source of for Learning Activities: CK-12 Foundation. Arc. (1993) Mathematics. Westerville. Secants.

htm 195 . (2014). (2009). Retrieved from http://www. Free Math Worksheets. Sector. Circle Theorems. Tangents.math-worksheet. Arc Length and Sector Area.org. Retrieved from http://www. Secants. Inscribed Angles.com/circleinscribed. Secant-Tangent Angles.org. Retrieved from http://www.mathopenref.mathopenref.com/circle-theorems. (2014). Chord.org/arc-length-and-sectorarea math-worksheet. Geometry Lesson Page.mathopenref.com/chord. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center.html Math Open Reference. Retrieved from http://www. Free Math Worksheets.onlinemathlearning. (2014).org.html Math Open Reference. Retrieved from tangents OnlineMathLearning. Retrieved from http://www. (2009).org/secant-tangent-angles math-worksheet. (2012).com/arcsector. (2014). Free Math Worksheets.html math-worksheet.mathopenref.Math Open Reference.org.org/inscribed-angles math-worksheet. (2009).html Math Open Reference. (2009).com/segment. Retrieved from http://www.com. Donna. Tangents.math-worksheet. Chords. (2009). Formulas for Angles in Circles Formed by Radii. Retrieved from http://www. Intersecting Secants Theorem.html Math Open Reference.html Roberts.regentsprep. (2013).org/Regents/math/geometry/ GP15/CircleAngles. Segment.math-worksheet. Retrieved from http://www.com/secantsintersecting. Retrieved from http://www. Inscribed Angle.mathopenref. Free Math Worksheets. Retrieved from http://www.

(2014). Nikon D500 presentada officialmente.offshoretechnology. Retrieved from http://www.org. Circular Quay.com/product-66751-ArtBoards.com/2012/08/21/facebook-fact-cowboysnow-world s-team/ GlobalMotion Media Inc. (2014).hisupplier. (2012) .en.com/ guide/circularqua y-sydney-harbour-to-historic-hunters-hill/photos HiSupplier.c om/features/feature1674/feature1674-5.ebay. Retrieved from http://www. Geometry.au/itm/Commodore-Holden-CSA-Mullins-pursuit-magwheel-17-inch -genuine-4blok-34-/221275049465 Fort Worth Weekly.. Shandong Sun Paper Industry Joint Stock Co.Website Links for Videos: Coach. Commodore Holden CSA Mullins pursuit mag wheel 17 inch genuine .com/2009/04/nikon-d5000-presentada-oficialmente/ 196 . Facebook Fact: Cowboys Are World’s Team.Ltd. and Chords.com/watch?v=jUAHwJIobc Khan Academy.fwweekly. (2013).com/ eBay Inc. Slip-Sliding Away.khanacademy.com Online Inc. NCEA Maths Level 1 Geometric reasoning: Angles Within Circles.youtube. Secants.youtube. Retrieved from http://www. Angles and Arcs Formed by Tangents. Circles. Retrieved from http://www.sophia. Retrieved from http://www.org/math/geometry/cc-geometrycircles Schmidt.4blok #34.html Kable. Seasonal Colors Flowers and Plants.everytrail. (2009). (2014). Retrieved from http://www. Sydney Harbour to Historic Hunter s Hill Photos. Learn. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem.org/topics/circles Website Links for Images: Cherry Valley Nursery and Landscape Supply. (2014). Retrieved from http://materiageek. Retrieved from http://www. (2012). Retrieved from https://www. Larry.cherryvalleynursery.com. Retrieved from http://pappapers. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.html Materia Geek.com/watch?v=I-RyXI7h1bM Sophia.

Retrieved from http://www.html Tidwell.co.com/2012/03/02/home-sweet-house/ Weston Digital Services. CHAINS AND SPROCKETS. Rainbow Stripe Hot Air Balloon.jpg Regents of the University of Colorado. (2014).com. Retrieved from http://www.flowerpicturegallery.org/view_activity.dreamstime. Retrieved from http://fwrm. Industrial Pulleys.teachengineering. (2012).php?url= collection/cub_/activities/cub_navigation/cub_navigation_lesson07_activity1. FWR Motorcycles LTD.jpg. Home Sweet House. Retrieved from http://youveneverheardofjentidwell.com.uk/index. Retrieved from http://thumbs.html shadefxcanopies.php?main_page=index&cPath=585&zenid=10omr4he hmnbkktbl94th0mlp6 197 .com/sambhav-transmission/industrial-pulleys. (2014). Nautical Navigation. Jen.Piatt.x ml Sambhav Transmission. Retrieved from http://www.com/z/rainbow-stripe-hot-air-balloon-788611. Garden Pergola Canopies. Dreamstime. Andy.com/v/halifax-publicgardens/Circu lar+mini+garden+with+white+red+flowers+and+dark+ grass+in+the+middle+at+Halifax+Public+Gardens.indiamart. Flower Picture Gallery.

Callanta . Performance Standard: The learner is able to formulate and solve problems involving geometric figures on the rectangular coordinate plane with perseverance and accuracy. The Distance Formula 2.Module 5: Plane Coordinate Geometry A. Learning Outcomes Content Standard: The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts of coordinate geometry. Unpacking the Standards for Understanding Subject: Mathematics 10 Learning Competencies Derive the distance formula Quarter: Second Quarter Apply the distance formula to prove some geometric properties Topic: Plane Coordinate Geometry Illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a circle Determine the center and radius of a circle given its equation and vice versa Graph a circle and other geometric figures on the coordinate plane Solve problems involving geometric figures on the coordinate plane Lessons: 1. The Equation of a Circle Writer: Melvin M.

Essential Understanding: Essential Question: Students will understand that the concepts involving plane coordinate geometry are useful tools in solving real-life problems like finding locations. distances. How do the key concepts of plane coordinate geometry facilitate finding solutions to real-life problems involving geometric figures? 198 . mapping. etc.

Writing the equation of a circle given the center and the radius 16. parallel and perpendicular lines. etc 3. distance. Sketch of a municipal. Formulating and solving real-life problems involving the equation of a circle 199 . Writing the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and vice-versa 17. Solutions to problems involving the distance and the midpoint formulas 9.Transfer Goal: Students will be able to apply with perseverance and accuracy the key concepts of plane coordinate geometry in formulating and solving problems involving geometric figures on the rectangular coordinate plane. slope and equation of a line. Equations and problems involving mathematics concepts already learned such as coordinate plane. Determining the missing coordinates corresponding to the vertices of some polygons 8. Planning for Assessment Product/Performance The following are products and performances that students are expected to come up with in this module. Solutions to problems involving the equation of a circle 19. Finding the distance between a pair of points on the coordinate plane 4. Describing the figure formed by a set of points on a coordinate plane 7. Finding the radius of a circle drawn on a coordinate plane 13. Graphing a circle given the equation 15. Determining the missing coordinates of the endpoints of a segment 5. Coordinate Proofs of some geometric properties 10. Formulating and solving real-life problems involving the distance and the midpoint formula 12. angles. 1. Determining the equation that describes a circle 18. Determining the center and the radius of a circle given the equation 14. city. B. Ground Plan drawn on a grid with coordinates 2. Finding the coordinates of the midpoint of the segment whose endpoints are given 6. or provincial map on a coordinate plane with the coordinates of some important landmarks 11. polygons.

Assessment Map TYPE PreAssessment/ Diagnostic KNOWLEDGE PROCESS/ SKILLS UNDERSTANDING Pre-Test: Part I Pre-Test: Part I Pre-Test: Part I and Part II Identifying the distance formula Determining the distance between a pair of points Solving problems involving the Distance Formula including the Midpoint Formula. and the Equation of a Circle Illustrating the distance between two points on the coordinate plane Illustrating the midpoint formula Illustrating the midpoint of a segment Defining coordinate proof Identifying an equation of a circle Determining the coordinate of a .

point given its distance from another point Determining the coordinates of the midpoint and the endpoints of a segment Describing the figure formed by a set of points Determining the coordinates of the vertex of a geometric figure Finding the length of the radius of a circle given the endpoints of a diameter Finding the center of a circle given the equation Finding the equation of a circle given the endpoints of a radius 200 PERFORMANCE .

TYPE Formative KNOWLEDGE PROCESS/ SKILLS UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE Pre-Test: Part III Situational Analysis Pre-Test: Part III Situational Analysis Pre-Test: Part III Situational Analysis Pre-Test: Part III Situational Analysis Determining the mathematics concepts or principles involved in a prepared ground plan Illustrating the locations of objects or groups Explaining how to prepare the ground plan for the Boy Scouts Jamboree Making a ground plan for the Boy Scouts Jamboree Writing the equations that describe the .

situations or problems Solving real-life problems Quiz: Lesson 1 Identifying the coordinates of points to be substituted in the distance formula and in the midpoint formula Identifying the figures formed by some sets of points Identifying parts of some geometric figures and their properties Solving equations Quiz: Lesson 1 Finding the distance between each pair of points on the coordinate plane Finding the coordinates of the midpoint of a segment given the endpoints Plotting some sets of points on the coordinate plane Naming the missing coordinates of the vertices of some geometric figures Quiz: Lesson 1 Explaining how to find the distance between two points Explaining how to find the midpoint of a segment .

inequalities.Describing figures formed by some sets of points Explaining how to find the missing coordinates of some geometric figures Solving real-life problems involving the distance formula and the midpoint formula Using coordinate proof to justify claims 201 Formulating equations. and problems .

TYPE KNOWLEDGE PROCESS/ SKILLS UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE Writing a coordinate proof to prove geometric properties Quiz: Lesson 2 Quiz: Lesson 2 Quiz: Lesson 2 Identifying the equations of circles in center-radius form or standard form and in general form Determining the center and the radius of a circle Explaining how to determine the center of a circle Graphing a circle given the equation written in center-radius form. Explaining how to graph circles given the equations written in centerradius form and general form Writing the equation of a circle given the center and the radius Writing the equation of a circle from .

including the Midpoint Formula.standard form to general form and vice-versa Explaining how to write the equation of a circle given the center and the radius Explaining how to write the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and vice-versa Solving problems involving the equation of a circle Summative Post-Test: Part I Post-Test: Part I Post-Test: Part I and Part II Post-Test: Part III A and B Identifying the distance formula Determining the distance between a pair of points Solving problems involving the Distance Formula. and the Equation of a Circle Preparing emergency measures to be undertaken in times of natural calamities and disasters particularly typhoons and floods .

Illustrating the distance between two points on the coordinate plane Determining the coordinate of a point given its distance from another point 202 .

TYPE KNOWLEDGE Illustrating the midpoint formula Illustrating the midpoint of a segment Defining coordinate proof Identifying an equation of a circle PROCESS/ SKILLS Determining the coordinates of the midpoint and the endpoints of a segment Describing the figure formed by a set of points Determining the coordinates of the vertex of a geometric figure UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE Preparing a grid map of a municipality Formulating and solving problems involving the key concepts of plane coordinate geometry Finding the length of the radius of a circle given the endpoints of a diameter Finding the center of a circle given the equation Finding the equation of a .

circle given the endpoints of a radius SelfAssessment Journal Writing: Expressing understanding of the distance formula. 203 . coordinate proof. midpoint formula. and the equation of a circle.

The learner is able to formulate and solve problems involving geometric figures on the rectangular coordinate plane with perseverance and accuracy. Illustrate the centerradius form of the equation of a circle. 8. 3. Graph a circle and other geometric figures on the coordinate plane. and 13 . How will I assess? Paper and Pencil Test How Will I Score? Part I items 1.Assessment Matrix (Summative Test)) Levels of Assessment Knowledge 15% Process/Skills 25% Understanding 30% Product/ Performance 30% What will I assess? The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts of plane coordinate geometry. Determine the center and radius of a circle given its equation and vice versa. Apply the distance formula to prove some geometric properties. 4. Derive the distance formula. 7. Solve problems involving geometric figures on the coordinate plane.

18. 6. 11. 9. 12. 14. and 19 1 point for every correct response Part I items 2. and 20 1 point for every correct response Part II items 1 and 2 Rubric on Problem Solving (maximum of 4 points for each problem) Part III A Rubric for the Prepared Emergency Measures Rubric for Grip Map of the Municipality (Total Score: maximum of 6 points ) Part III B 204 Rubric on Problems Formulated and Solved (Total Score: maximum of 6 points ) . 15. 16.1 point for every correct response Part I items 5. 17. 10.

the students will illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a circle. In Lesson 1 of this module. Introduce the main lesson to the students by showing them the pictures below.C. particularly finding the distance between objects or points. the students will graph and describe geometric figures on the coordinate plane. They will also perform varied learning tasks to process the knowledge and skills learned and to further deepen and transfer their understanding of the different lessons in real-life situations. They will also learn about the midpoint formula and its applications. In learning the equation of a circle. Planning for Teaching-Learning This module covers key concepts of plane coordinate geometry. the students will use their prior knowledge and skills through the different activities provided. the students will solve problems involving the equation of a circle. GeoGebra). determine the center and the radius given its equation and vice-versa. The second lesson is about the equation of a circle. namely: The Distance Formula and the Equation of a Circle. and show its graph on the coordinate plane (or by using the computer freeware. Moreover. then ask them the questions that follow: 205 . the students will derive the distance formula and apply it in proving geometric relationships and in solving problems. It is divided into two lessons. This is to connect and relate those mathematics concepts and skills that students previously studied to their new lesson. More importantly. In this lesson.

9. 5. give/write the center-radius form of the equation of a circle. could you give the right information the next time somebody asks you the same question? Entice the students to find the answers to these questions and to determine the vast applications of plane coordinate geometry through this module. 4.Look around! What geometric figures do you see in your classroom. 6. name the missing coordinates of the vertices of some geometric figures. 206 . and other structures? Have you ever asked yourself how geometric figures helped in planning the construction of these structures? In your community or province. find the distance between points. derive the distance formula. houses. solve problems involving geometric figures on the coordinate plane. roads. 8. 2. 3. they are expected to: 1. graph a circle and other geometric figures on the coordinate plane. bridges. school buildings. and 10. was there any instance when a stranger or a tourist asked you about the location of a place or a landmark? Were you able to give the right direction and its distance? If not. Objectives: After the learners have gone through the lessons contained in this module. determine the coordinates of the midpoint of a segment. determine the center and radius of a circle given its equation and vice versa . 7. write the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and vice versa. write a coordinate proof to prove some geometric relationships.

8. B 19. 7. and solve these with perseverance and accuracy. D 2. These will facilitate teaching and students’ understanding of the lessons in this module. A 13. 4. and understanding of mathematics concepts related to the Distance Formula. 100 km 2. B Part II (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs) 1. . A 14. the Midpoint Formula. 3. the Coordinate Proof. C 17. B 15. formulate real-life problems involving these concepts . D B D A C 16. 9. Answer Key Part I 1. skills. C B B B 12. 10.PRE-ASSESSMENT: Assess students’ prior knowledge. and the Equation of a Circle. C 18. C 6. C 11. D 20. 5. x 4 2 y 9 2 9 Part III (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs) LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS: Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of key concepts of plane coordinate geometry.

the Midpoint Formula. and the coordinate proof facilitate find ing solutions to real-life problems and making decisions? Let the students start the lesson by doing Activity 1. Tell them that as they go through this lesson. These will facilitate teaching and students’ understanding of the distance formula and the midpoint formula and in writing coordinate proofs. they have to think of this important question: How do the distance formula. and the Coordinate Proof What to KNOW Check students’ knowledge of the different mathematics concepts previously studied and their skills in performing mathematical operations. Ask them to use the given number line in determining the lengths of segments.Lesson 1: The Distance Formula. Let them explain how 207 . the midpoint formula.

2) AC + CE = AE e. d. d. 2.21 units 208 . Tell them to explain how they arrived at each length of a side.1) AB + BC = AC. AB EG . Activity 1: How long is this part? Answer Key 1. 6. Counting the number of units from one point to the other point using the number line or finding the absolute value of the difference of the coordinates of the points b. In Activit y 2. Yes.they used the coordinates of points in finding each length. AD = 10 4 = 14 DA = 4 10 = 14 BF = 6 9 = 15 FB = 9 6 = 15 Students’ understanding of the relationships among the sides of a right triangle is a prerequisite to the derivation of the Distance Formula. Emphasize in this activity the relationships among the segments based on their lengths. the distance between the endpoints of segments whose coordinates on the number line are known. 5 units 12 units 12 units 2 13 units 7. AB BC . Yes. and the significance of these to the lesson. The two segments have the same lengths. 4 units 4 units 6 units 2 units 3 units 1 unit a. 4. 2. 3. The absolute values of the difference of their coordinates are equal. By counting the number of units from one point to the other point using the number line or finding the absolute value of the difference of the coordinates of the points c. Activity 2: Why am I right? Answer Key 1. AC CE . provide the students opportunity to recall Pythagorean theorem by asking them to find the length of the unknown side of a right triangle. 3. 4. 5. CD DG . d.

4 = 0 9 = 9 3.0 = 9 0 = 9 km Answer: 9 km The distances of the houses of Jose. That is. 4 5 units 8. respectively Distance from Emilio’s house 9.4 = 0 3 = 3 9 km.0 to Emilio’s house 9.4 = 0 9 =9 Answer: 9 km Distance from Jose’s house 0. distance from City Hall 0. In this activity. Let students relate their understanding of the Pythagorean theorem to finding the distance between objects or points on the coordinate plane. 3 km. Emilio.4 to Emilio’s house 9.4 to Plaza 3. This would help them understand the derivation of the distance formula. and Diego from each other can be determined by applying the Pythagorean Theorem. Activity 3: Let’s Exercise! Answer Key 1. 10 km. distance from City Hall 0. By applying the Pythagorean theorem. 2.5.4 – City Hall 3.87 units The length of the unknown side of each right triangle is obtained by applying the Pythagorean theorem.0 to Gasoline Station 9. Ask the students to perform Activity 3.4 – Plaza 9. 0.4 to City Hall 0. let the students find out how the coordinates of points can be used in finding distances between objects.4 209 .0 – Jose’s house 9. Jose’s house 0. If possible. 6. 9 km. By finding the absolute value of the difference of the coordinates of the points corresponding to Emilio’s house and the City Hall and Jose’s house and the Gasoline Station.12 – Diego’s house 3. 2 63 units 15.4 – Emilio’s house 0. 6 2 8 2 c 2 . they will be presented with a situation involving distances of objects or points on a coordin ate plane. c = 10 km.94 units 6.0 to Gasoline Station 9. distance from Jose’s house 0.0 = 0 9 = 9 4.0 – Gasoline Station 5.

12 3 2 122 c 2 . AB = 10 units 210 x .0 to Diego’s house 3. Activity 4: Let Me Formulate! Answer Key 1.85 km Jose’s house 0. y y 2. the students should be able to com e up with the Distance Formula starting from two given points on the coordinate plane . C 8. Pythagorean Theorem can be applied.37 km Emilio’s house 9. c = 153 km 12. Hence.4 2 9 2 c 2 . BC AC . In this activity.1 . Ask them to perform Activity 4. the triangle contains a 90-degree angle. c = 10 km Provide the students opportunity to derive the Distance Formula.4 to Diego’s house 3. x x y 3. c = 97 km 9.12 6 2 8 2 c 2 . Right Triangle. By determining the coordinates of the point of intersection of the two lines AC = 6 units BC = 8 units 4.

y

5. C x1,y 2

AC = x1 x 2 or x 2 x1

BC = y1 y 2 or y 2 y1

2

2

2

AB = x 2 x1 y 2 y1

AB =

x2 x1 2 y 2 y1 2

x

Before proceeding to the next activities, let the students give a brief

summary of the activities done. Provide them an opportunity to relate or connect

their responses in the activities given to their new lesson. Let the students re

ad

and understand some important notes on the distance formula and the midpoint

formula and in writing coordinate proofs. Tell them to study carefully the

examples given.

What to PROCESS

In this section, let the students apply the key concepts of the Distance

Formula, Midpoint Formula, and Coordinate Proof. Tell them to use the

mathematical ideas and the examples presented in the preceding section to

answer the activities provided.

Ask the students to perform Activity 5. In this activity, the students will

determine the distance between two points on the coordinate plane using the

Distance Formula. They should be able to explain how to find the distance

between points that are aligned horizontally, vertically, or neither.

211

**Activity 5: How far are we from each other?
**

Answer Key

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

8 units

15 units

11.4 units

13 units

6.4 units

6. 13 units

7. 10.3 units

8. 11.66 units

9. 13.6 units

10. 12.81 units

a. Regardless of whether points are aligned horizontally or vertically,

the distance d between these points can be determined using the

Distance Formula, d x2 x1 2 y 2 y1 2 .

following formulas can also be used.

Moreover,

the

a.1) d = x 2 x1 , for the distance d between two points that are

aligned horizontally

a.2) d = y 2 y1 , for the distance d between two points that are

aligned vertically

b. The Distance Formula can be used to find the distance between two

points on a coordinate plane.

Let the students apply the Midpoint Formula in finding the coordinates of

the midpoint of a segment whose endpoints are given by doing Activity 6. This

activity will enhance their skill in proving geometric relationships using coord

inate

proof and in solving real-life problems involving the midpoint formula.

Activity 6: Meet Me Halfway!

Answer Key

3.

9,9

7,8

4,4

4.

4,1

1.

2.

6.

7.

8,9

5,4

15 15

8. ,

2 2

9. 8,7

3 5

5. ,

2 2

10. 5,4

212

**Provide the students opportunity to relate the properties of some
**

geometric figures to the new lesson by performing Activity 7. Ask them to plot

some set of points on the coordinate plane. Then, connect the consecutive points

by a line segment to form a figure. Tell them to identify the figures formed and

use the distance formula to characterize or describe each. Emphasize to the

students the different properties of these geometric figures for they need this

in

determining the missing coordinates of each figure’s vertices.

Activity 7: What figure am I?

Answer Key

1.

2.

y

y

x

x

3.

4.

y

y

x

x

213

5.

6.

y

y

x

x

7.

8.

y

y

x

x

9.

10.

y

y

x

x

214

S 0.0 P a. the students will name the missing coordinates of the vertices of geometric figures in terms of the given variables. Quadrilaterals LIKE.0 M 3a. . and #3 are triangles. b 3. #7. ΔABC and ΔFUN are isosceles triangles. Quadrilaterals LIKE. DATE. Activity 8: I Missed You But Now I Found You! Answer Key 1. LOVE. Quadrilateral WIND is a trapezoid. and #9 are quadrilaterals. and SONG are rectangles because each has two pairs of congruent and parallel sides and contains four right angles. ΔGOT and ΔFUN are right triangles because each contains a right angle. A a. c 6. SONG. #6.a. The figures formed in #1. and BEAT are parallelograms. Quadrilateral WIND is a trapezoid because it has a pair of parallel sides. and BEAT are parallelograms because each has two pairs of congruent and parallel sides and has opposite angles that are congruent. c 2. LOVE. evaluate students’ responses. c 5. V a. b 4. d E b. Quadrilaterals LIKE and LOVE are squares because each has four sides congruent and contains four right angles. Activity 8 provides the students opportunity to develop such skill. ΔABC and ΔFUN are isosceles because each has two sides congruent or with equal lengths. LOVE and SONG are rectangles. It has five sides. LOVE. #2.0 D a. SONG. e. DATE. Quadrilaterals LIKE. The figure formed in #10 is a pentagon. The figures formed in #4. b. b What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND 215 For questions a-d. #8. ΔGOT and ΔFUN are right triangles. DATE. In this acti vity. Each figure has four sides. d. V 3a. DATE. #5. O a b. An important skill that students need in writing coordinate proof is to name the missing coordinates of geometric figures drawn on a coordinate plane. Quadrilaterals LIKE and LOVE are squares. c. W b. Each figure has three sides. Quadrilaterals LIKE.

a. 2 2 Since a c c a . 4 presented. No. explanations to their answers 2 based on the solutions 3. and the coordinates of the 2. 4.Ask the students to take a closer look at some aspects of the Distance Formula. a. x = 21 – if N is in the first quadrant midpoint were determined by x = -3 – if N is in the second quadrant using the midpoint formula. 7. y = 15 or y = -9. the students will solve problems involving t hese mathematics concepts and explain or justify their answers. If the expressions are evaluated. 5 Students may further give b. 100 km b. Since the study shed is midway between the two school buildings. It is actually an isosceles triangle. 5 hours 8. and the Coordinate Proof. the Midpoint Formula. Luisa and Grace are both correct. then FS = AT. a. a. 90.8 m. then it is about 178. b. The distance between the two buildings is about 357. The distance between A and C is 2a while the distance between A and B or B and C is a 2 . 3.9 m away from each. This is obtained by dividing 357. Provide them with opportunities to think deeply and test further their understanding of the lesson by doing Activity 9.8 by 2. In this activity. The triangle is not an equilateral triangle. . Luisa and Grace will arrive at the same value. Yes.70 c. Activity 9: Think of This Over and Over and Over … Again! Answer Key The values of x were obtained by using the distance formula 1. 99 km 5. 6. FS c a 2 b d 2 and AT a c 2 b d 2 . 9. Possible answer: To become more accessible to students coming from both buildings. 7.

Ask the students to write a coordinate proof to pro ve the particular geometric relationship. and the different mathematics concepts already studied in coming up with the coordinate proof. Let them realize the significance of the Distance Formula. the Midpoint Formula. Rectangle.b. Develop further students’ understanding of Coordinate Proof by asking them to perform Activity 10. 216 . The quadrilateral has two pairs of opposite sides that are parallel and congruent and has four right angles.

2 2 2 a b MC 0 0 2 2 2. Show that MC MC LG a2 b2 4 4 a2 b 2 2 0 a 2 b 0 2 a2 b 2 1 LG 2 . then PR QS . Show that PR QS . 1 LG . PR QS and PR QS . Hence.Activity 10: Prove that this is True! Answer Key 1. If PR QS . PR b a 2 c 0 2 b2 2ab a2 c 2 PR a2 2ab b2 c 2 QS b a 2 c 0 2 b a 2 c 0 2 b2 2ab a2 c 2 QS a2 2ab b2 c 2 Therefore. the diagonals of an isosceles trapezoid are congruent.

the median to the hypotenuse of a right 2 triangle is half the hypotenuse. Therefore.a2 b 2 2 1 LG . MC 217 . Hence.

2 2 b a c PQ 0 c 2 2 2 2 b a c 2 2 PQ b 2 2ab a2 c 2 2 2 2 b a c QR 0 0 2 2 2 2 b a c RS 0 0 2 2 2 2 b a . Show that PQ QR RS PS .3.

218 . PQ QR RS PS and PQRS is a rhombus. c 2 2 QR 2 2 b a c 2 2 b2 2ab a2 c 2 2 RS b 2 2ab a2 c 2 2 2 2 b a c PS 0 c 2 2 2 2 b a c 2 2 PS b2 2ab a2 c 2 2 Therefore.

2 b a BT a 0 2 2 2 a b a 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 3a b 2 2 BT 9a2 b 2 2 2 2 a b CS a 0 2 2 2 2 3a b .4. Show that BT CS . If BT CS . then BT CS .

219 . BT CS and BT CS . Therefore. ADC is a right angle and ABCD is a rectangle. B is along the line parallel to the y-axis. Also. And that A is along the y – axis. Hence. then b = 0. AC BD b a 2 c 0 2 a b 0 2 c 0 2 b2 2ab a2 c 2 a2 2ab b2 c 2 b2 2ab a2 c 2 a2 2ab b2 c 2 2ab 2ab 4ab 0 Since a > 0. 2 2 CS Therefore. Equate the lengths AC and BD to prove that ABCD is a rectangle. 9a2 b 2 2 5. the medians to the legs of an isosceles triangle are congruent.

Refer to the Assessment Map. Tell them to explain why the landmarks they have indicated are significant in their community and to write a paragraph explaining how they selected the coordinates of these landmarks. the Midpoint Formula.6. and the use of Coordinate Proofs by doing a practical task. 2 Before the students move to the next section of this lesson. They wil l indicate on the map some important landmarks. In this activity. midpo int formula. Let them perform Activity 11. give a short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. the students will make a sketch of the map of their municipality. city. Using the coordinates assigned to the different landmarks. and then determine the coordinates of each. CG 1 LE . What to TRANSFER Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of the Distance Formula. You can ask the students t o work individually or in group. and the coordinate proof. or province on a coordinate plane. the students will formulate then solve problems involvi . Show that CG LE 1 LE 2 b 0 2 c 0 2 LE b2 c 2 2 2 a b a c CG 0 2 2 2 2 2 b c 2 2 CG b2 c 2 2 Therefore. Ask them also to write a journal about their understanding of the distance formula.

ng the distance formula and the midpoint formula. 220 . You may use the rubric. Activity 11: A Map of My Own Answer Key Evaluate students’ answers. They will also formulate problems which require the use of coordinate proofs.

and the coordinate proof. a. Lesson 2: The Equation of a Circle What to KNOW Find out how much the students have learned about the different mathematics concepts previously studied and their skills in performing mathematical operations. Emphasize to the students that the process they have done in producing a perfect square trinomial is also referred to as completing the square. Add the square of one-half the coefficient of the linear term. 4. b. In this activity. t 5 2 49. find the distance between points. Activity 1 of this lesson will provide them opportunity to recall these concepts. r 7 121. Tell them that as they go through thi s lesson. and solve problems involving the different concepts learned in this lesson. the students will determine the number that must be added to a given expression to make it a perfect square trinomial and then express the result as a square of a binomial. 221 . r 11 2 2 324. 5. the students were given the opportunities to formulate then solve problems involving the distance formula. They should be able to explai n how they came up with the perfect square trinomial and the square of a binomial.Summary/Synthesis/Generalization: This lesson was about the distance formula. they have to think of this important question: “How does the equation of a circle facilitate finding solutions to real-life problems and making decisions?” Two of the essential mathematics concepts needed by the students in understanding the equation of a circle are the perfect square trinomial and the square of a binomial. Factor the perfect square trinomial. name the missing coordinates of the vertices of some geometric figures. Checking these will facilitate teaching and students’ understanding of the equation of a circle. Activity 1: Make It Perfect! Answer Key x 2 2 2 25. determine the coordinates of the midpoint of a segment. Use the distributive property of multiplication or FOIL Method. the midpoint formula. write a coordinate proof to prove some geometric relationship s. and the applications of these mathematical concepts in rea l life. the midpoint formula. c. The lesson provided the students with opportunities to derive the distance formula. More over. 4. x 18 1. 3. 2. the use of coordinate proofs.

.

s 6 36 2 7. x 4 2 8. 25 625 . 2 9 3 . w 2 4 2 1 1 9. v 4 2 10. the stud ents will be presented with a situation involving the equation of a circle. 11 121 . Let them find the distance of the plane from the air traffic controller given the coordinates of the point where it is located and the y-coordinate of the position of the plane at a particular instance if its x-coordinate is given. Ask them to perform Activity 2. ask them to descr ibe . In this activity.Answer Key 9 81 6. . Furthermore. . t 64 8 2 2 Provide the students opportunity to develop their understanding of the equation of a circle.

75 or y = -49.4 When x = -20. When x = 5. When x = -30. 222 . The path is circular.83 or y = -45.7 or y = -47.75. It is not possible for the plane to be at a point whose x coordinate is 60 because its distance from the air traffic controller would be greater than 50 km. Let them realize that the distance formula is related to the equation defining the plane’s path around the airport. y = 48.the path of the plane as it goes around the airport.4 When x = 15. Ask them to perform Activity 3. y = 40 or y = -40. And that the distance of a point from th e center of a circle is also the radius of the circle. x 2 y 2 2500 Provide the students opportunity to come up with an equation that can be used in finding the radius of a circle. y = 47.83. 4. Challenge them to determine the equation that would define the path of the plane.7 or y = -47. Answers Key 3. y = 49. y = 45. No. In this activity.99 or y = -48. the students should be able to realize that the Distance Formula can b e used in finding the radius of a circle.99. When x = 15. Activity 2: Is there a traffic in the air? Answer Key 1. y = 47. 50 km 2. When x = 10.

0 . 8 units 2.6 to the center of the circle is less than 8 units. Answer Key y 1. then r x 2 y 2 or x2 y 2 r 2 . No. 6. its distance from the center is equal to the radius.8 . x 3. 2 to the center of the circle is more than 8 units. because the distance from point N 9. 8 0 = 8 5. 8 units. because the distance from point M 4. 8. Yes. the circle will pass through 0. If a point is on the circle.Activity 3: How far am I from my point of rotation? A. 223 . and 0. Since the distance d of a point from the center of the circle is d x 2 y 2 and is equal to the radius r. No. 4. 8 because the distance from these points to the center of the circle is 8 units.

81 units. r Before proceeding to the next activities.7 . If P x . because the distance from point M 7. Note: Evaluate students’ explanations. then x2 x1 2 y2 y1 2 r 2 becomes x h 2 y k 2 r 2 . y is a point on the circle and C h . d x2 x1 2 y 2 y1 2 . Answer Key 1. 8. Since the distance of the point from the center of the circle is equal to the radius r. Yes.6 to the center of the circle is more than 7. its radius can be determined by using the distance formula. the circle will pass through 2. No.81 units. let the students give a brief summary of the activities they have done. equation of a circle. then x2 x1 2 y2 y1 2 or x2 x1 2 y2 y1 2 r 2 . 5.7 . 4 because the distance from each of these points to the center of the circle is 61 units or approximately 7. Provide them with an opportunity to relate or connect their responses in the activities given to their new lesson. 224 . 61 units or approximately 7. Let the students read and understand some important notes on equation of a circle.B.81 units y 2. Tell them to study carefully the examples given. and 3. What to PROCESS Let the students use the mathematical ideas they have learned about the equation of a circle and the examples presented in the preceding section to perform the succeeding activities.k is the center. If the center of the circle is not at the origin. 61 units or approximately 7.81 units. x 3. 4.

Furthermore. tell them to explain how to graph a circle given its equation in different forms.0 Radius: 10 units y y x x 2. Strengthen students’ understanding of the graphs of circles through the use of available mathematics freeware like Geogebra. Activity 4: Always Start at This Point! Answer Key 1. Then.6 Radius: 9 units 4. given its equation. Ask them to explain how they determined the center and the radius of the circle. the students will determine the center and the radius of each circle. the students will be asked to graph the circle . 1 Radius: 7 units y y x x 225 . Center: 5.In Activity 4.0 Radius: 7 units 3. Center: 7. Center: 0. Center: 0.

k and the radius of the circle is r. If the given equation is in the form x 2 y 2 r 2 . b. the students will write the equation of a circle given the center and the radius. 4. If the given equation is in the form x h y k r 2 . The center is at 2 2 h. Note: Evaluate students’ responses. the center is at the origin and the radius of the circle is r. the center is 2 2 at h. then graph. If the given equation is in the form x 2 y 2 Dx Ey F 0 . x y 144 2.3 Radius: 8 units 6.Answer Key 5. 5. Center: 5. Activity 5: What defines me? Answer Key 2 2 1. Ask the students to perform Activity 5. k and the radius of the circle is r. x 2 2 y 6 2 81 x 7 2 y 2 2 225 x 4 2 y 5 2 50 x 10 2 y 8 2 27 . 3. This time. Determine first the center and the radius of the circle defined by the equation. Center: 4. 8 Radius: 11 units y y x x a. Ask them to explain how to determine the equation of a circle whether or not the center is the origin. transform it into the form x h y k r 2 .

Write the equation in the form x h y k r where h. k is the center and r is the radius of the circle.a. Write the equation in the 2 2 2 form x y r where the origin is the center and r is the radius of the circle. 2 226 2 2 . because the two circles have different radii. b. No.

x 2 y 2 4 x 96 0 4. x 2 y 2 8 x 8y 0 Activity 7: Don’t Treat this as a Demotion! Answer Key 1. challenge them to find a shorter way of transforming equation of a circle from general form to standard form and vice-versa. Activity 6: Turn Me into a General! Answer Key 1. x 1 2 y 4 2 64 Center: 1. x 2 y 2 8 x 18y 47 0 7. 4 Radius: 10 units Radius: 8 units 2. x 2 y 2 4x 8y 16 0 6. ask them to explain how to transform the equation of a circle fro m one form to another form and discuss the mathematics concepts or principles applied. x 2 y 2 4y 45 0 3. x 2 y 4 100 x 2 2 y 2 2 36 5. x 2 y 2 14x 15 0 2. x 2 y 2 12x 2y 44 0 8.4 4. x 2 y 2 10x 10y 23 0 5. Furthermore. x 2 y 2 16x 14y 112 0 9. At this point. 10. x 2 Center: 0. . x 2 y 2 10y 11 0 Note: Evaluate students’ explanations.Activities 6 and 7 provide students opportunities to write equations of circles from center-radius form or standard form to general form and vice-versa.

x 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 y 4 3 3 2 1 Center: . Grouping the terms. 2 Radius: 4 2 units Radius: 3 units a. then applying completing the square. 3 3 Radius: 2 units 5 3 6. addition property of equality and factoring. x y 9 2 2 5 3 Center: .2 Radius: 6 units 3.Center: 2. 227 . 2 2 y 2 32 2 Center: 5.

(Evaluate students’ responses/explanations. The GeoGebra freeware can also be used for verification. 3.k) and radius r. x 3 2 y 8 2 81 x 10 2 y 7 2 36 or x 10 2 y 5 2 36 2. Notice that -9 cannot be expressed as a square of another number. Activity 9: Find Out More! Answer Key 1. Yes. 4. x 2 y 2 6x 8y 32 is not an equation of a circle.b. 5. No. x 2 y 2 9 4x 10y can be written as x 2 2 y 5 2 20 . No. because point 11. Provide them with opportunities to think deeply and test further their understanding of the equation of a circle by doing Activities 8 and 9. x 3 y 4 100 b. 2. x 2 y 2 8x 14y 65 0 is merely a point. Addition Property of Equality. No. d. Follow the advice of PDRRMC. and F in the general equation of a circle. 3x 5y 7 4. Square of a Binomial c. Using the values of D. Completing the square. to find the center (h. What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND: Ask the students to have a closer look at some aspects of the equation of a circle. The radius must be greater than 0 for a circle to exist. x 2 y 2 Dx Ey F 0 . x 5 2 y 5 2 13 2 2 a.6 is still within the critical area. 3. Give more focus on the real-life applications of the equation of a circle. Yes. Its graph is not also a circle. Activity 8: A Circle? Why not? Answer Key 1. c. E. x 2 y 2 2x 8y 26 0 can be written as x 1 2 y 4 2 9 .) 228 .

Activity 10: Let This be a Part of My Scrapbook! Answer Key Evaluate students’ answers.Wise and Global Tower c.Global Tower 1. Many possible answers. In Activity 10. Ask them also to write a journal about their understanding of the equation of a circle. Before the students move to the next section of this lesson. x 5 y 3 81 2 2 Global Tower . 7 .Answer Key 6. R efer to the Assessment Map. 229 . Yo u can ask the students to work individually or in a group.8 .Wise Tower 2. 12. the students will paste some small pictures of objects on grid paper and position them at different coordinates.3 . Evaluate students’ responses. Then. give a short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Using the pictures and the circles dra wn on the grid. What to TRANSFER Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of the equation of a circle by doing a practical task. Wise Tower . they will formulate problems involving the equation of the circle.2 .Star Tower 6. the students will draw circles that contain these pictures. Let them perform Activity 10. and then solve them. You may use the rubric.x 3 y 6 16 2 2 Star Tower . a.x 12 y 3 36 2 2 b.

they were given the opportunity to formulate and solve real-life problems involving the equation of a circle through the practica l task performed. determine the center and the radius of a circle given its equation and v ice versa. 230 . Their understanding of this lesson and other previously learned mathematics concepts and principles will facilitate their learning of other rela ted mathematics concepts.Summary/Synthesis/Generalization: This lesson was about the equation of circles. write the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and vic eversa. graph circles on the coordinate plane. and solve problems involving the equation of circles. The lesson provided the students with opportunities to illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a circle. Moreover.

Suppose San Quintin is 20 km away from San Rafael. d y 2 y1 D.7 and 5. 4 5 4. Let M and N be points on the coordinate plane as shown in the figure below.10) C. ST 2 QS QT 5. ST QS QT D. 13 231 . 7 5 C.5 and C 5. Which of the following is true about ST? A. (-15.16) 3. 4 7 D. (9. which of the following would give the distance between the two points? A.SUMMATIVE TEST Part I Choose the letter that you think best answers the question. The distance between points M x . d x2 x1 2 y 2 y1 2 B. d x2 x1 2 y 2 y1 2 2. the coordinates of the point corresponding to San Rafael is (1.4). -7 B. 1 is 10 units. d x2 x1 C.16) B. 1. On the same map. -3 C. ST QS QT C. Point Q is the midpoint of ST . Which of the following could be the coordinates of the point corresponding to San Rafael? A. (17. Which of the following is NOT a formula for finding the distance between two points on the coordinate plane? A. 4 . ST 2 QS QT B. (17.10) D. What is the xcoordinate of M if it lies in the second quadrant? A. y x If the coordinates of M and N are 5. -1 D. A map is drawn on a grid where 1 unit is equivalent to 2 km. 7 4 B.

A. D.6)? 6 13 9 6 6 13 9 6 . C. What is the length of a diagonal of the rectangle? A. 9 . 20 C. 7. 10 2 7. B. . 3 . 2 2 2 2 6 9 13 6 6 9 13 6 . and D 2. 2 2 2 2 9. The endpoints of a segment are (-5. (2. What are the coordinates of its midpoint? A. 3 .12).7) C. (-7.2) and (9. (7. 8 5 A.2) and E(6. 16 B.13) and Q(9. x 3 2 y 2 2 252 x 2 2 y 3 2 52 8. respectively. x 2 2 y 3 2 252 x 2 2 y 3 2 52 C.10)? D. . What is the distance between points D(-10. D. 3 and a radius of 5 units? A. Which of the following would give the coordinates of the midpoint of P(-6.2) 10. I 10.6 .6. The coordinates of the vertices of a rectangle are W 2.6 . B. (7. N 10.5 B.5) D. Which of the following equation describes a circle on the coordinate plane with a center at 2.5) B.

2 10 B. and N(-4. 15 11. What proof uses figures on a coordinate plane to prove geometric properties? A.8 . 1 .4) are connected consecutively? A. 2 .8).10). 5 2 C. 12 D.2). Trapezoid B. 2 10 D. The endpoints of a diameter of a circle are E 6. What figure is formed when the points K(-2.2 . Two-Column Proof 14. A. L(8. O 5. and T 10. The coordinates of the vertices of a triangle are G 4.C. Rectangle 232 . Direct Proof D. 106 12. Indirect Proof C.8 and G 4. Square D. Parallelogram C. Coordinate Proof B. 10 2 10 13. What is the length of the segment joining the midpoint of GT and O? A. 3 10 D. M(6. 58 C. What is the length of the radius of the circle? B.

0. Andres Jose Town Hall Juan Emilio Who lives the farthest from the Town Hall if it is located at the origin? A. (26. Andres.2a B. the coordinates of the first speed camera are (-2. What are the coordinates of the third speed camera? A.a 2 C. Emilio. (26. Andres C. (22. (22.16) C. Three speed cameras were installed at different points along an expressway.15. Emilio D.a 3 D.8). 2a. Suppose the second camera is exactly between the other two and its coordinates are (12. what are the coordinates of P? A. On a map drawn on a coordinate plane. 0. Juan 233 . and Juan live in different barangays of Magiting town as shown on the coordinate plane below. 17.12) D.12) B.4). In the equilateral triangle below. Jose B.0 0. Jose.16) 16.

can the signal of the tower be transmitted? Rubric for Problem Solving 4 . Show your complete solutions. If the phone user came from a place whose coordinates are (2.7).-3) D.18. x 2 2 y 7 2 25 x 2 2 y 7 2 5 Part II Directions: Solve each of the following problems. The equation that represents the transmission boundaries of a cellular phone tower is x 2 y 2 10x 2y 199 0 . What is the equation of the circle that defines the boundary up to which the messages can be transmitted? 2 2 A. A tracking device that is installed in a mobile phone indicates that its user is located at a point whose coordinates are (18. in kilometers. In the tracking device. 2 2 2 2 x 4 2 y 3 2 50 x 4 2 y 3 2 50 20. each unit on the grid is equivalent to 7 km. x 2 y 7 5 D.-2) C. 2 . If the radio signal’s origin is located at a point whose coordinates are (-2. What is the equation 19. (3. 2 2 B. x 1 y 2 50 D. What is the greatest distance.-3) B. B. x 2 y 7 25 C. (9.14). 1. (2. A radius of a circle has endpoints 4. x 1 y 2 50 C. (2.-10) .3 and 1 that defines the circle if its center is at the second quadrant? A. What is the center of the circle x 2 y 2 4x 6y 36 0 ? A. A radio signal can transmit messages up to a distance of 5 km.6)? How far has he travelled? 2.

Used an appropriate strategy to come up with correct solution and arrived at a correct answer 3 Used an appropriate strategy to come up with a solution. but a part of the solution led to an incorrect answer 2 Used an appropriate strategy but came up with an entirely wrong solution that led to an incorrect answer 234 1 Attempted to solve the problem but used an inappropriate strategy that led to a wrong solution .

235 . These include the positioning of the different two-way radios and antennas for communication and coordination among the members of the Radio Group. you were tasked to prepare emergency measures that you will undertake to reduce if not to avoid losses of lives and damages to properties during rainy seasons.Part III A: GRASPS Assessment Perform the following. losses of lives and damages to properties have occurred. presentable. As chairman of the Radio Group. These shall be used as the need arises. Standards: Grid map of your municipality showing the locations of the different two-way radios and antennas The emergency measures must be clear. and systematic. Emergency Measures to be undertaken in times of natural calamities and disasters 2. For the past years. your municipal mayor designated you to chair the Radio Group of the Municipal Disaster and Risk Management Committee to warn the residents of your municipality of any imminent natural calamities and disasters like typhoons and floods. Because of this. relevant. and appropriate. The municipal government gave your group a number of two-way radios and antennas to be installed in strategic places in the municipality. Goal: To prepare emergency measures to be undertaken in times of natural calamities and disasters particularly typhoons and floods Role: Radio Group Chairman of the Municipal Disaster and Risk Management Committee Audience: Municipal and Barangay Officials and Volunteers Situation: Typhoons and floods frequently affect your municipality during rainy seasons. The grid map of the municipality must be accurate. Products: 1. You were also asked to prepare a grid map of your municipality showing the positions of the twoway radios and a ntennas.

Rubric for the Prepared Emergency Measures 4 The emergency measures are clearly presented. appropriate. and systematic. 2 The emergency measures are clearly presented but not relevant to the situation and not systematic. Rubric for Grid Map of the Municipality 4 The grid map is accurately made. relevant to the situation. and presentable. not relevant to the situation. 2 The grid map is not accurately made but appropriate. 1 The emergency measures are not clearly presented. 3 The emergency measures are clearly presented and relevant to the situation but not systematic. 3 The grid map is accurately made and appropriate but not presentable. and not systematic. 1 The grid map is not accurately made and not appropriate. Part III B .

Rubric on Problems Formulated and Solved Score 6 5 4 3 Descriptors Poses a more complex problem with 2 or more correct possible solutions and communicates ideas unmistakably. shows comprehension of major concepts although neglects or 236 . shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or processes. and provides explanations wherever appropriate. then solve. shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or processes. Poses a complex problem and finishes most significant parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably. shows indepth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or processes. Poses a more complex problem and finishes all significant parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably. Poses a complex problem and finishes all significant parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably.Use the prepared grid map of the municipality in Part III A in formulating problems involving plane coordinate geometry.

O. B 13. #73.Score Descriptors misinterprets less significant ideas or details. B 15. 56 5 km 2. C 3. A 5. B 6. C 19. not being able to develop an approach. C 17. C 4. D 8. Distance Formula – an equation that can be used to find the distance between any pair of points on the coordinate plane. C 20. 2012 Answer Key Part I 1. C 18. . D Part II (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs) 1. D 7. C Part III A (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs) Part III B (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs) Glossary of Terms Coordinate Proof – a proof that uses figures on a coordinate plane to prove geometric relationships. Poses a problem and finishes some significant parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably but shows gaps on theoretical comprehension. 2 1 Source: D. A 12. Poses a problem but demonstrates minor comprehension. A 16. s. B 9. 15 km 11. The distance formula is d x2 x1 2 y2 y1 2 or PQ x2 x1 2 y2 y1 2 . B ]10. C 2. C 14.

y1 x x2 y1 y 2 . The midpoint of P x1. Midpoint Formula – a formula that can be used to find the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment on the coordinate plane. y 2 are points on a coordinate plane. 2 2 237 . y1 and Horizontal Distance (between two points) – the absolute value of the difference of the x-coordinates of two points Midpoint – a point on a line segment that divides the same segment into two equal parts. and Q x2 . if P x1.Q x2 . y 2 is 1 .

The general equation of a circle is x 2 y 2 Dx Ey F 0 . where D. The Standard Equation of a Circle – the equation that defines a circle with center at (h. DepEd INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS THAT CAN BE USED AS ADDITIONAL RESOURCES: 1. Inc. E. Makati City: EUREK A Scholastic Publishing. Module 20: Distance and Midpoint Formulae 2.. Callanta.R. F. A. C.. Third Year Mathematics. Module 2: Plane Coordinate Geometry References and Website Links Used in This Module: References: Bass. (2008) Glencoe McGraw-Hill Geometry. I.. B. k) and a radius of r units. Johnson. 238 .. Module 3: Plane Coordinate Geometry. (2008) Texas Geometry. Inc. L. Hall. E. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) Learning Guide. USA: Prentice-Hall. Charles. Vertical Distance (between two points) – the absolute value of the difference of the y-coordinates of two points. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) Learning Guide. M. Bass. L.The General Equation of a Circle – the equation of a circle obtained by expanding x h 2 y k 2 r 2 . Johnson. Module 22: Equation of a Circle 3. Inc. B. Worktext in Mathematics III. (1998) Prentice Hall Geometry Tools for a Changing World... and F are real numbers. Boyd. It is given by x h y k 2 2 r 2. & Flores. Third Year Mathematics. Boston. Plane Coordinate Geometry. D. NJ. Malloy. Distance Learning Module (DLM) 3. M. A. Hall. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies. C. & Wood... D. & Kennedy. Plane Coordinate Geometry. (2012) Infinity. EASE Modules Year III. E. 4. R. Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Clemens. M. USA: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike. L. L. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. J. Jones. A. Philippines. K. Cooney. O’Daffer. & Bittinger. J. M. NY. C. Moseley. R. Inc. & Schulman. New York: McGraw-Hill Division.. Upper Saddle River. A. USA: AMSCO School Publications..Chapin. P. F. (1997) Prentice Hall Middle Grades Math. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. D. (1993) Mathematics. Ohio: Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. L. (2008) AMSCO’s Geometry. S. M.W. Westerville. L. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Inc. Nelson. Department of Education.. & Thomas. Inc. R. Rich. Smith. V. Wilson. Keedy. L. Inc. Cifarelli. (1999) Math in my World.. X. H. (1990) AddisonWesl ey Geometry. K. A.. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. 239 . Gantert.. Clements. Renfro. W. T. (1992) Addison-Wesley Geometry Teacher’s Edition. C. (2009) cK-12 Geometry.. B. P. Flexbook Next Generation Textbooks. Inc. (2012) K to 12 Curriculum Guide Mathematics.G. Koss. S. (1992) Addison-Wesley Informal Geometry. Tools for Success. & Dossey. Landau.. (2009) Schaum’s Outlines Geometry Fourth Edition.. Course I.. S. Applications and Connections.. & McCracken. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. I. G.

com/coordgeneralcircle.htm Roberts.com/ coordbasiccircle. Retrieved from http://www. Basic Equation of a Circle (Center at 0. Retrieved from http://www.org.org/math/geometry/ cc-geometrycircles/equation-of-a -circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem 240 .org/using-equations-of-circles Math-worksheet." Purplemath.org/Regents/math/geometry/GCG3/ Ldistance. Retrieved from http://www. Retrieved from https://www.mathopenref. Retrieved from http://www.cliffsnotes.html Math Open Reference. Retrieved from https://www. "Conics: Circles: Introduction & Drawing.htm Website Links for Videos: Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem.regentsprep.com/math/geometry/coordinate-geometry/distance-formula Math Open Reference.org/writing-equations-of-circles Roberts.org.org/math/ geometry/ccgeometry-cir cles/equation-of-a-circle/v/completing-the-square-to-write-equationin-standard-f orm-of-a-circle Khan Academy.math-worksheet. Retrieved from http://www.khanacademy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem. Retrieved from http://www. Midpoint Formula. Midpoint of a Line Segment.regentsprep.khanacademy. Retrieved from http://www. Equation of a Circle.purplemath. (2014). (2009).math-worksheet. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center. Donna. Distance Formula. (2012). Elizabeth.khanacademy. Using equations of circles.mathopenref. Writing equations of circles. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center.com/modules/ circle. Retrieved from http://www.html Math-worksheet.cliffsnotes. (2014). Geometry Lesson Page.com/math/geometry/coordinate-geometry/midpoint-formula CliffsNotes.org/Regents/ math/geometry/GCG2/ Lmidpoint. Geometry Lesson Page.org/math/geometry/ cc-geometrycircles/equation-of-a -circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem Khan Academy.Website Links as References and Sources of Learning Activities: CliffsNotes. Retrieved from http://www. Donna. Completing the square to write equation in standard form of a circle.0). (2012). Retrieved from https://www.htm Stapel. (2009). (2013). (2013). Midpoint of a Line Segment. General Form (Center anywhere).

Retrieved from http://sf. Images.org.Khan Academy.htm funcheap. Picture from. Pictures of.org/math/geometry/ cc-geometrycircles/equation-of-a -circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem Ukmathsteacher.html Sloan.funcheap. Retrieved from http://wordfromthewell.com/philippines/pangasinan/pangasinanmap. Cell Tower Development – How Are Cell Tower Locations Selected? Retrieved from http://blog. Chengdu to Kangding. (2005).com.com/watch?v=QPIWrQyeuYw Website Links for Images: asiatravel. Retrieved from http://www.com/hostelling-internationals-world-travel-101-santaclara/glo be-map-wallpapers_5921_16001/ Hugh Odom Vertical Consultants. (2012).com/gps+tracking+device+pt-10+series. Current "1991" Air Traffic Control Tower at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport – 2012. Chris. eleven40 theme on Genesis Framework· WordPress.com.com/cell-tower-development-how-are-cell tower-locations-selected/ LiveViewGPS.com/2012/11/14/your-mind-is-like-an-airplane/ 241 . Retrieved from http://www. Pangasinan Map.org/Asia/Photo/ 9Sichuan_China_Image/3Chengdu_Kangding_China. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem.liveviewgps.thebrokerlist. Retrieved from http://airchive. Retrieved from http://www.khanacademy. (2014). (2012). Retrieved from http://www. Retrieved from http://www.com.com/html/airplanes-andairpo rts/amsterdam-schipol-airport-the-netherlands-/current-1991-air-trafficcontrol-t ower-at-amsterdam-schiphol-airport-2012-/25510 wordfromthewell.downtheroad. Your Mind is Like an Airplane. GPS Tracking PT-10 Series. globe-map-wallpapers_5921_1600[1]. Retrieved from https://www.jpg DownTheRoad. Core 1 – Coordinate Geometry (3) – Midpoint and distance formula and Length of Line Segment.asiatravel.youtube. China Photo.youtube.com. Inc.com/watch?v=qTliFzj4wuc VividMaths. Distance Formula.

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