In his study of 'legetai phrases' in Thucydides (this fascicle,
p. 347) Professor Westlake translates X1Xt£h£x0q at II 48, 2 and
57, 1 by 'it was even said' (similarly J. de Romilly). The idea of
'even', however, does not seem to fit into the context. It is much
easier to connect X1Xtwith Mars and to take the particle as conveying
the idea of something factual or natural (in German 'denn auch'):
at 48, 2 it emphasizes the fact that after the sudden appearance
of the plague a special explanation was to be expected; at 57, 1 it
stresses the connection between the quick withdrawal of the
Peloponnesians and the infection of the city. For this use of cf.
Verdenius-Waszink, Aristotle, On Coming-to-be and Passing-azvay,
3 ff. ; for cf. Denniston, G.P., 299, Verdenius, Mnemos. IV
10 (1957), 298 (on Pl. Meno 96 d i). Some further examples are
Hdt. IX 94, 3 (at 61, I Mars X1Xtis to be preferred as the lectio
difficilioy), Thuc. I 2, 4 ('even' is less appropriate, for it was quite
common to send colonists to Ionia), Hipp. 7 irc fine (wrongly
translated by Jones and Diller), Arist. Met. 1046 a 17-18 (Tricot
wrongly 'meme'), Men. Dysc. 627 (S. L. Radt, Mnemos. IV 25,
1972, 144, seems to me wrong in taking x1Xtto emphasize 7tÉ7t"rCùXEV
ZEIST, Homeruslaan 53 W. J. VERDENIUS


As soon as Odysseus returns from the Land of the Dead, Circe
gives him advice and warning about the adventures still ahead of
him (y 37 ff.), beginning with the Sirens. The means by which
these creatures lure men to their doom is their enchanting song-and
a sudden unnatural calm of the wind which impedes escape from
listening range. But what they offer, as distinct from their means
of attracting attention, is knowledge: at least for Odysseus, they
offer a full telling of the events at Troy and of all other matters:
18yev 8' oasa 'e7r'L\ 8 , (I9I).
The nature of the Sirens is much disputed 1), but their promise
is quite clear. It is possible that they might have offered different
allurements to different victims 2), but Homer does nothing to

370-74 develops the notion.0"rYjv è7tt Tou a6ocvaTOUX1Xt x«1 §[. IV 530-1... deliberate. Ap. OT 70-1. As a result of his curiosity. The ambiguity is. But this time. The pile of men rotting on their bones is a vivid enough touch. This has been the cause of his one grievous mistake to date. Total knowledge 3) focuses squarely on Odysseus' weakness. 603-4. but Strabo (IX 419) touches on that: 3È q$qyov6qv YEvÉ:crÐ1XL cpa6i IYu6??. Polyphemus answers OvTis and his neighbors go away saying d ae . even though the small island where they first landed offered all the resources needed for survival (t 152 ff..424 encourage such speculation. So too in Circe's advice to Odysseus we hear 7tuаtLÉvCùvas reflecting both notions: the bones of men rotting away / the bones of men who have satisfied their curiosity. one can surely hear the participle of men who have found the answer. in the place where the oracle was subsequently to be located. and took it to be derived from 7tuÐÉ:crÐ1XL: cf. I believe. with the Sirens. assumes that (and derived from 7túÐCù. Odysseus then rejoices w5 6voy' X1Xt A similar . but 7tuаtLÉvCùvpoints to another idea as well. Circe now warns him about the perils of heeding the Sirens. Odysseus will be more cautious-but he still insists on hearing their song. There is the troublesome quantity of the u. Such word plays are very much in the spirit of the Odyssey. where the ambiguity resides in accentuation rather than quantity. and there are many supporting witnesses thereafter 5). 7 reP'8i Pwoi yvu8ovacv 45-6). The tradition of Apollo slaying the Python. which was then left to rot.'rot': so the account in h. six crew-members were eaten by Polyphemus and the curse of Poseidon invoked for the destruction of the rest.7tà «05 7tuÐÉ:crÐ1XL.). for example Soph. Hom. Despite the difference in the quantity of the u. His curiosity is as much a part of his character as his resourcefulness 4). and it is interesting that these same two verbs were a source of uncertainty among the ancients in another context: the name and all its derivatives.!xx6?ou. of course. curiosity. His explanation need not be correct. is Odysseus' deception of Polyphemus about his name: 04 (c 366-70). namely going over to the island of the Cyclopes.8' ocr"rE6cpLV6iS 7tuÐotLÉ:vCùv. and describes the evidence: 7toÀue. xExÀ?crÐ1XL 8i x1Xt X1Xt <6xw &. It need only show the obvious association in the popular mind between the two words. etc. The best example. Exi?TOia6occ81 7tp<. Rhod. AP. But the popular etymology linked the name with the function of the Delphic oracle. The poet continues his extended pun when the other Cyclopes ask I y( a' x«elvei 86xep (406).

but at the same time he describes the Sirens' usual lure as curiosity: ut homines ad earum saxa discendi cupidi- tate adhaerescerent. As Athene pleads Odysseus' case to Zeus in the first book. In the Eastern traditions which Germain cites. Cicero (de fin. perhaps the hypnotic quality of their song is related to the drone of the bee (note . V 18. 'Sirenen' in RE III A (1927).ψ 326: �δiν�ων should refer properly to the swarming of bees). Homer. (1X62) 6). . Steiner & R. Germain. 203-18. BRIGHT 1) For a full review of evidence and theories see Zwicker's art. See also G.the bee. and we should not forget that Odysseus uses wax (beeswax?) to protect his crew from hearing. The ambiguity-perhaps pun is a proper name for it-in Circe's description of the Sirens thus adds emphasis to the link between Odysseus' looming weakness. the meadow of flowers in which they live. where three points are made about Odysseus: his wanderings. to link these creatures to the widespread cult of bees as sources of knowledge and inspiration. and the death which both produce. whatever the peril 7). The Ulysses Theme2 (Ann Arbor 1968). 91-97) works from the association of Σεiρ�νand σεiρ�ν. The warning comes appropriately enough as Odysseus returns from a trip to the Land of the Dead. B. 49) saw the offer as geared to Odysseus' nature: vidit Homerus probari fabulam non posse.ZEU. this time also involving a difference in vowel quantity. 5) See Lauffer's exhaustive treatment of etymological problems in his article 'Pytho'. she concludes with Ti v6 oi "r6crov ?3Úcr1X0. 425 effect. 3) G. Hom. stay to die and rot. URBANA. Those who heed the call of the Sirens and stop to learn. 124. points to a possible meaning of πoλúτρoπo. the purpose of which was likewise to gain knowledge. implies that the song's sweetness in itself might have been enticement enough for some. 288-308. si cantiunculis tantus vir irretitus teneretur . and his sufferings at sea: each of these. Merc. Certainly there are enough terms suggesting bees to make the idea plausible: their name. 2) W. but something of the old association with bees remains. how much he learned about others. incidentally. University of Illinois DAVID F. 552-563) are even more clearly in this tradition. Fagles. the acquisition of knowledge made possible (if not inevitable) by the Sirens. scientiam pollicentur . It seems likely that the place . 569-580. TAPA 101 (1970). The Sirens and the Temptation of Knowledge (in G. 4) Note the opening verses of the poem. Stanford. K. The Sirens are presumably not envisioned as winged (else they could pursue their victims). the associations with both knowledge and death are prominent. Gresseth. or that a Roman might have turned more readily at an offer of power than knowledge. The Homeric Sirens. The Thriae whom Apollo offers to Hermes (h. his curiosity which has already caused several deaths. their µελ�γηρυν öπα.. RE XXIV (1963). A Collection of Critical Essays [Englewood Cliffs 1962]. centers around the name Odysseus..

In point of fact. It crops up at VS 481. inepta. Eunapius has recourse to the adjective ÐELCÚ3"fJç (in the compara- tive). however. I suspect his verdict is congenial to those who have had much to do with the Vitae Sophistayum. Photius 3) condemned Eunapius' mania for adjectives ending in Two of the examples cited do not occur in the extant writings of Eunapius. Rank. encountered in a late papyrus. Cobet missed this one. Hence. Perhaps the adjective was a coinage by Priscus? The verb 7tpOX1X"r1XXéCù is registered by LSJ as a falsa lectio for in Galen (13. in a passage reporting Priscus on the subject of philo- sophical disputations. Schoedel for his helpful suggestions on this note. The Name of Odysseus in Steiner & Fagles (above. 52-70). 3). NOTES ON EUNAPIUS 1) "Stilo et oratione utitur (ut omnes fatentur) affectata. they will have been in lost parts of his historical work. 8). The other epithet is This one is not in LS] at all. Dimock. esp. who devoted more time to Eunapius than most. II7). Kfhn. Thus Cobet 2). 598 K).426 MISCELLANEA was called Pytho before any Apolline association: hence the aetiology to link the place-name to Apollo. 7) I should like to thank my colleague W. 6) Cf. there are lexical gleanings to be had. and also an example (again in the comparative) from Justin Martyr 5). n. Cobet regarded it as a variant on which is employed by Polybius (34. retained the 7tpOcrX1X"r1XXÉCù form condemned by the Lexicon. 10. a new word for the Lexicon. R. One of these is which occurs in a fragment of Eunapius preserved by the Suda 6). See further L. E. LS] cite only this reference. Another word missing from LSJ is tLLcrOCPLÀ6croq¡oç. 52 ff. this particular example can be seen in Philo judaeUS 7) (2. LSJ give only the adverbial form (used in the sense of 'by divine decree'). One of these two examples is It is used of tears. However. 106-121 (originally in The Hudson Review 9. At VS 459. The problem recurs in a passage . et (quod pessimum est) obscura et caliginosa". Ph. Etymologiseering en verwante verschijnselen bij Homerus (Assen 1951). Cobet accumulated a number of these adjectives under the rubric "Eunapius finxit de suo".1 [Spring 1956]. putida. G. To this lonely reference (and the citation of LSJ is in- accurate) 4). one can add the present passage of Eunapius. There is more.