Study of the chain Organic gardening BPREA - Catherine BEAUCLERCQ Year 2005-2006 Summary Summary Summary ................................................. ...................... ............................ .........

2 Market Research ....................... ....................... .................................................. .. 3 The need to eat better ........................................... ............. ........................ 3 ........ behavior of French ......................... ......................... ........................... 4 offers Lille ........... ....... .................................................. ..................... .................... 6 The French offer .... ................................... ............... .................................................. .. 8 Conclusi on .............................................. .............................. .................... ................. 9 Track ................................................. ........................ .......................... ............. 10 Direct Sales Production ............................................. .......... ............................ 10 Direct sales of non-food products .............. ............................ ............................... 11 Sale to institut ions ............................................. ............................. ............. 12 Partners - Operators ............................................... ........... ........................... 14 Regional associations ............................................... .......... ............................... 14 national groups ............................. ................. ......................................... 14 regional institut ions .............................................. ............................ ................ 15 regional outlets ........................................... . ....................................... Providers ............................ ................... 16 .................................................. ...... . 17 Websites offering advantage Address ....................................... . ................... 18 Region ................................................. ....................... ........................... ............ 19 Operations ................................................. ................... ............................... .......... Surfaces ............................ .................... 19 .................................................. ..... ............ 19 Status sub-regional ............................................ . ............................................... 19 Advantages - Limitations Outlook ............................................ ........................... ..... 19 Appendices ................................................. ................... ............................... ......... 22 List of markets LMCU .............................................. ............ .................................. 23 Interview with Martine Carlier ........... .................................. ....................................... 26 Fo rt Green and .............................................. .................... .............................. .............. .................................. ............. 28 Cooperative Norabio ........................................... ....... . 32 organic food stores ............................................ .. ............................... Consumer Co-operatives .........................

..................... 33 .................................. 35 Interview with Da nièle GRAVE ............................................ ....................... ... 36 Interview with Christophe MINNE Steenbecque, March 13, 2005 ............. .................... 38 Telephone interview with Mr. Francis DI NUNZIO December 2004 ............................ 40 p 2 / 40 Market Research Market Research The need to eat better Regularly, the media are sharing the concern of doctors in relation to food of t he French. Indeed, it is a known factors promoting the onset of cardiovascular d isease and cancer (with the genetic factor, tobacco, alcohol and environment). R emember that these diseases are respectively the first and the second leading ca use of mortality english1. Concerning cardiovascular diseases, some of the aggra vating factors are overweight and obesity (300 million obese people worldwide an d one billion people overweight, ie two times more than it was 20 years 2) diabe tes and high cholesterol, all linked to how s'alimenter3. Advertisement in the 20 minutes Friday, June 3, 2005 Regarding cancer€it is less known but it is real "diets consisting of fruits and vegetables in sufficient quantities could prevent at least 20% of all cancers, 30% reduction in cancer of the esophagus and 80% those of the mouth and pharynx '1. These links are well known and information is transmitted. To cite a few exa mples (not exhaustive of course): • • Press: see the articles referenced in the study, Radio every week on France Inter on Saturday afternoon, Jean-Pierre Coffe hosts a show devoted to "good food" Movement organic farmers and institutions: 6th edition, 2005, spring organic widely reported, with animations street for ex ample, local communities see the magazine of the General Council in May 2005 by the North, which devotes its front page to " Eat well to live better, " p 3 / 40 • • Market Research • • State: establishment in 2000, the National Health and Nutrition program over fiv e years, Europe: development of the Week Fraîch'attitude, "to discover or redisc over the fruits and vegetables" (advertising in free newspapers Metro type). However, 60% of French do not remember a campaign on food during the past year. The behavior of French France has in 2003 more than 5.3 million adults are obese (ie on a French one) a nd 14.4 million people are overweight (38% in six years) 4. Why is there such a difference between advice distributed widely on the one hand, and the behavior o f French? Ignorance 5 Only 2.6% of French people know the recommendation to eat at least five fruits a nd vegetables per day. Yet they can not ignore the links between diet and health . In addition, a majority thought that the taste of chemically modified food is now almost equivalent to that of conventional products. The pitfalls of marketing 5 In 10 years, yogurt, fruit jams and low-fat dressings have become regular purcha

ses. Now, researchers believe that replacing fatty foods with low fat cereal but full of processed starch is the bedrock of the epidemic obésité6. In 2004, near ly one in two households bought a product intended to contain the active nutrien ts can positively influence health. 1 bottle of Actimel incorporates the equivalent of 2 sugar per bottle, and clini cal studies show it would swallow 3-5 day to help the truly gut! p 4 / 40 Market Research Paradoxical behavior The French want to eat better while spending less time cooking: the sale of prod ucts "gain time", ready to eat meals and flew (+120% in 9 years for some product s) 5. Attendance at fast food places is very important. For example, McDonald's has sold an average of more than one million meals per day in 2004, in the 1035 outlets of the brand. Advertising on the official site for McDonald's chapter "Balance: Nutrition, kno w, where the feeling is maintained through healthy eating hamburgers. Cure rather than prevention The French take care of themselves rather than prevent disease by upstream: 5 mi llion French people taking statin drugs against cholesterol (+20% per year since their introduction), 46 million boxes sold in 2004. Of the eight drugs that are the most expensive to the health insurance, four are statines7. But should we b lame the French for that? It is well known that only a real political will can c hange things: tobacco, up 29% of its price has lowered sales by 20% (first half 2004). Similarly, road accidents caused 8,000 deaths per year in 2000 against 52 32 in 2004, an average decrease of 10% per year due to increased repression. Lat est example: Following the campaign Medicare "antibiotics, is not automatic", th e requirements have decreased by 16% in 2 ans8. A Marshall Plan for this type would be to consider if we really want to improve the health of the population. p 5 / 40 Market Research Disparities facing food There are inequalities in the diet difficult to combat: the inequalities between North and South, and those between different social groups. "The inhabitants of Nord-Pas-de-Calais are likely to use often potatoes, meat, sausages and snack p roducts, when in Languedoc-Roussillon eat more fruits, vegetables, dairy product s , bread,€fish and confectionery. Thus, 41% of people in our region are overwei ght, against 34% in Languedoc-Roussillon5. On the other hand, a study conducted in schools Lille shows that between 1989 and 1999 the proportion of obese childr en aged 5 years did not change in the families of executives and professionals, but has doubled in sociales9 other categories. Some reasons for hope ... 10 44% of French people have consumed at least one organic product in the past four weeks, but the proportion is the same as for those who have purchased any. Agai n, the difference is noticeable between different occupational groups: two third s of executives and professionals have used at least one organic product, when t he proportion is third among the workers. The main obstacles mentioned were the price (75%) and lack of reflex (59%). Only 18% do not consume organic products f or their stores do not sell. Nearly three out of five French are not normal to p ay more for an organic product, which is quite understandable. The government is yet winners, if the French eat organic. "However, high growth rates for 4 years

should not obscure the marginal share of organic food consumption in French (1. 5% of food expenditure in 2000) '11. Offer Lille 12 A question seems legitimate: the supply of vegetables and fruit bio is sufficien t to occupy a significant market share and meet the needs "supposed" to be those of Lille (5 fruits and vegetables per day minimum)? An answer is given on the c ity of Lille, knowing that the inequalities in the supply of organic food availa ble, and Lille is perhaps not representative of what happens in the region. Howe ver, the study was limited to p 6 / 40 Market Research perimeter, since it is difficult to ascertain, beyond, if each store (or point o f sale) referenced offers many organic products. Recall that 55% of consumers of organic products (at least one purchase during the previous month), buying frui t and vegetables at the market as a priority, and 12% in specialty stores. For o ther organic products, is the large area which is the main place of purchase (68 % of consumers). Markets Of the ten market places that make up the city of Lille, three are supplied by o rganic producers, and none by resellers. Some producers do not hesitate to 140 k m to sell their products at Lille. Markets and producers are: • • • Place Sebast opol: Evelyne and Jean-Marie Caruyer Butezi Fives: M. Bethencourt, Place du Conc ert: Odile Bethencourt, JP Cornea. Bio tote This sales system is to provide each week a customer, a basket containing four v egetables and fruit from the region as far as possible. The cart says the exact origin of products, as well as some recipes for cooking them. The system is mana ged by the cooperative Norabio. 350 households of the metropolis currently benef iting from this service. Retailers Of a total of 10 stores specializing in organic products, 7 are located in the l arge central city (about 1/8th the area of the city). No shop is identified in t he neighborhoods south of Lille, Moulins, Fives-Vauban Esquermes and St. Maurice Pellevoisin. The share of fruit and vegetables in these stores is not very high (between 1/5th and 1/10th of stores around, except Vert'tige, whose party holds fresh produce half the store). This can be explained by the fact that some p 7 / 40 Market Research stores are located a short distance markets, which already supplying some of the ir customers with fresh produce. Their suppliers are rather intermediate (Fort V erde and is often cited), and occasionally producers. As for Carrefour Euralille , the organic part of the radius in the produce aisle is 1:25, and the share of fresh ray beam from the diet is 1-15. Local products are rare. Offer française13 Key figures 2004 In late 2004, nearly 540,000 ha of land are cultivated in organic production, in cluding 61,000 hectares in conversion. This total represents 2% of national agri cultural area. This figure was multiplied by five to 10 years (in very large inc rease at first, then stagnation). Concerning the number of certified organic far ms, it amounts to 11,025 to date. This figure has tripled in 10 years. Evolution of the number of organic farms in France

12000 11200 10000 9283 8000 8140 1040 0 11359 11025 6000 4780 4000 3231 2000 3580 4130 6139 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 The rea to of if average area cultivated per farmer is nearly 49 hectares. Regionally, this a is 23.5 ha. One gardener cultivates a larger area (25 ha). A little anecdote underscore the poverty of the organic supply in France: he would devote half French organic dairy supply for the production of yoghurt "Danone's organic" it was really bio14.

p 8 / 40 Market Research The place of France in Europe Several criteria are used to compare France with other European countries: the o rganic agricultural area, the percentage of the surface relative to the total UA A, the number of organic farmers, and the percentage of organic farmers compared to the total. UAA bio Italy Germany France Austria Czech Republic Denmark Finla nd Hungary Portugal Netherlands Belgium Estonia 1 168 212 696 978 517 965 295 000 235 136 178 360 156 692 103 671 85 912 42 610 30 263 24 874 Number of producers 49,489 15,626 11,288 18,576,717 3714 5,071,995 1059 1,560,583,710 % UAA in bio 8.94% 3.70% 1.86% 8.71% 5.50% 6.74% 7.06% 1.77% 2.22% 2.10% 3.02% 1.78% % Organic farms area population of the country total 2.30% 3.31% 1.70% 9.33% 1.87% 6.40% 6.26% 2.57% 0.25% 1.53% 1.46% 1.15% 301 302 356 959 543 965 83 859 78 864 43 075 338 115 93 032 91 831 41 526 45 100 30 528 57 138 000 81 000 000 57 800 000 7 950 000 10 324 000 5 200 000 5 078 00 0 10 280 000 9 860 000 15,340,000 1,600,000 10,100,000 Compared to these four criteria, Italy is ranked first three times, Austria once (and twice a second). France, meanwhile, is the third organic UAA in Europe, kn owing that it is by far the largest country (1.5 times Germany, which is the sec ond largest country). Compared to the percentage figures, France is the eighth c ountry in number of farmers, and the tenth in agricultural area. Conclusion The consumption of organic products is increasing in general, and the French off er is insufficient to meet all needs. It is therefore very promising to get into this niche. In the same time, health problems related to food also increase in the population groups most disadvantaged. There is work to do absolutely that si de, if our concern does not stop at our production ... The government, meanwhile , enormous power to change the food consumption of French. Now you just turn the power within yourself. p 9 / 40 Pathway Pathway Direct Sales Production

Producer Consumer (Farm sales, markets, producer groups, bio-basket, websites) Strengths - constraints Producer: the advantage is of course that the price is set by the producer only. He can fix his own price margins. The disadvantage is the time for sale that ca n be long sometimes for little results. Consumer: The consumer benefit is that i t knows exactly who does the money he gives to his product. The disadvantage can sometimes be the fluctuation of supply following the seasons (eg spring is ofte n a period of transition, and even a slack period for producers in the region: t he end of winter products, products of was not yet harvested). p 10/40 Pathway Direct sales of non-food products Sometimes, producers must purchase certain products to satisfy their customers ( off-peak hours for example, or to present a wider range of products). Supplier (Cooperatives, Wholesalers, Wholesale Markets) Producer and dealer Consumer (Sold at the farm markets, producer groups, websites) Strengths - Constraints Provider: The advantage is, of course, to sell its products. The disadvantage is that the sale to producers is very uncertain and fluctuating. Producer: The adv antage is to offer customers the products demanded by the consumer, even if it i s not the season, and so maintain links are essential when selling direct. The d isadvantage is that the price is not determined solely by the producer, the marg in must sometimes be lower than when it sells its own products. Consumer: The ad vantage is always to find products sufficiency in its traditional supplier. The disadvantage is not able to clearly identify the producer (the label does not re place direct contact). p 11/40 Pathway Sales to institutions Producer Platforms (Fort and Green) Processing plants Cooperatives

Norabio Wholesale Markets McCain, Bio Cambresis Wholesalers MIN Lomme Grde distribution, retail Harmony Nature, Carrefour Consumer Note: italics are recorded examples of institutions (among others). Some of thes e institutions have responded to some questions. The interviews are annexed. Some links have not been transcribed anecdotal on this diagram (direct sales of plants or platforms). p 12/40 Pathway Strengths - Constraints The strengths and limitations are exactly reversed from direct sales to consumer s. Producer: it does not its price, because otherwise it will be difficult to se ll all his goods. Its margins may then be reduced. The advantage is of course to devote himself fully to his profession: production. Preparation: sets her own r ates, because otherwise it is a competitive basis. It can also respond to the de sire of some of its customers wishing to source locally produced food. Schools a re however likely to conflict with local farmers markets if sourcing cheaper pro ducts or earlier. p 13/40 Partners - Operators Partners - Operators Regional associations The Gabnor Group of organic farmers in Nord-Pas-de-Calais. The association brings together all organic farmers, biodynamic and conversion of the region. She is responsible for representing the movement in order to support, develop and make known to in dividuals and institutions. It has a hundred members in 2004. The association is a member of the FNAB. Gabnor; Paradise; Phalempin 59,133. Tel: 03 20 32 25 35. Fax: 03 20 32 35 55. Ma il: info@gabnor.org. Website: www.gabnor.org Aprobio Association for Promotion of organic products in Nord-Pas-de-Calais. This associ ation brings together all the actors of the organic movement in Nord-Pas-de-Cala is: producer groups (style Gabnor), processors, distributors, consumer associati ons, suppliers of goods and services. It is, as Gabnor, to represent the movemen t for individuals, partners and institutions. Aprobio, 4 rue Dormagen, 59350 St André lez Lille. Tel: 03 20 31 57 97. Fax: 03 20 12 09 91. Mail: aprobio@nordnet.fr Website: http://mnelille.org/aprobio.htm National groups FNAB The association includes all the associations of producers from all regions of F rance. It represents the movement at the national level.

Mail: fnab@fnab.org. Website: www.fnab.org Agency Bio The agency Organic is a public interest group bringing together various actors: the ministries of agriculture and ecology, the Permanent Assembly of Chambers of Agriculture, the Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives, the National Union of Processors natural and organic. She is responsible for development, promotion a nd structuring of French farming. Agence Bio, 6 rue Lavoisier, 93100 Montreuil-sous-bois. Tel: 01 48 70 48 30. Fax : 01 48 70 48 45. Mail: contact@agencebio.org. Website: www.agencebio.org p 14/40 Partners - Operators Regional institutions Chambers of Agriculture She is the representative body of all the farming profession. It also provides a dvice to farmers of all kinds. Chamber of Agriculture 140 North Freedom Boulevard, PO Box 1177, 59013 Lille. Te l: 03 20 88 67 00. Mail: contact@nord.chambagri.fr. Chamber of Agriculture of Pa s de Calais 56, Avenue Roger Salengro, BP 39, 62051 Saint Laurent Blangy Cedex. Tel: 03 21 60 57 57. Fax: 03 21 60 57 85. Mail: chambagri62@pdc.chambagri.fr. We bsite: www.pdc.chambagri.fr. Safer Service land development and rural settlement. This property ensures the proper management of farmland, fragmentation of plots, clusters ... 68 Rue Jean Sans-Pe ur, BP 1296 54014 Lille Cedex. Tel. : 03 20 57 93 07. Fax: 03 20 57 83 76. Mail: @ wanadoo.fr SAFER.Flandres.Artois; safer@safer-far.com.fr. Website: www.propri etes-rurales.com. Chamber of Commerce and Industry There is room for each district (Arras, Bethune, Boulogne, Calais, Lens Saint-Om er, Armentieres Avesnes-sur-Helpe, Cambrai, Douai, Dunkerque, Lille-Roubaix-Tour coing, Maubeuge, Valenciennes). Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2, Palais de la Bourse, BP 500, 59001 Lille Cedex. Tel: 03 20 63 79 79. Fax: 03 20 13 02 00. Mail: crci@nordpasdecalai s.cci.fr. Website: www.nordpasdecalais.cci.fr. Local authorities Regional Council€General advice, inter-and communes. Regional Council Nord-Pas-de-Calais Hotel de Region; Rihour Center, 59555 Lille Cedex. Tel. 03 28 82 82 82. Fax 03 28 82 82 83. Mail: balnpdc@nordpasdecalais.fr . Website: www.cr-npdc.fr. General Council of North Street Gustave Delory, 59047 Lille Cedex. Tel. 03 20 63 59 59. Fax 03 20 63 58 47. Mail: mguillemain@cg59.fr . Website: www.cg59.fr. p 15/40 Partners - Operators General Council of the Pas-de-Calais County Hall, Rue Ferdinand Buisson 62018 AR RAS CEDEX 9. Tel: 03 21 21 62 62. Fax 03 21 21 62 99. Mail: contact@cg62.fr. Web site: www.cg62.fr. Regional Centre for Genetic Resources The RMAF is involved to save the old varieties of fruit and vegetables in Nord-P as-de-Calais (lettuce Gotte Loos, Reinette de Flanders ...) and the regional ani mal breeds in low numbers (Boulogne horses and traits of North ... ). Heron Farm, Farm Road Lenglet, 59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq. Tel: 03 20 67 03 51. Fax : 03 20 67 03 37. Mail: crrg@enr-lille.com. Website: www.enr-lille.com.

Regional Outlets Markets See attached list. Organic markets Faches Thumesnil The 2nd and 4th Sundays of the month from 10am to 13pm Place: P lace du General de Gaulle Contact: Joëlle Molinaro Fâches Thumesnil City Hall, 50 rue Jean Jaures 59155 Fa ches Thumesnil. Tel: 03 20 62 61 61. Fax: 03 20 62 61 62. LOUVIGNIES QUESNOY 1st and 3rd Sundays of the month from 9 am to 13h Venue: Town Hall Square Contact: Mr Gerard BOULOGNE 1, rue de l'Eglise, 59530 LOUVIGNIES QUESNOY. Tel: 0 3 27 49 32 79. OHAIN 2 Friday per month from 14 to 17.30 Location: 15 rue du Gros Tilleuls Contact: Mr and Mrs Orchard DUJARDIN Bio Ohain, 15 rue du Gros Linden; OHAIN 59, 132. Tel: 03 27 60 22 19. Fax: 03 27 60 22 19. THE BETHUNE HESDIGNEUL The first Saturday of the month from 16h to 18h Venue: To wn Hall Square Contact: Mr Hall FLORKE Hesdigneul the Bethune Town Hall Square, 62196 HESDIGNEU L THE BETHUNE. Tel: 03 21 64 56 00. Fax: 03 21 64 56 40. p 16/40 Partners - Operators WITT 3rd Sunday of the month from 10am to 12pm Location: Indoor Arena Vicart Lou is Contact: Ms. HAWK (Asso. Culture and Leisure Wittoises) 15 rue du Cornet; 62120 WITT. Tel: 03 21 39 25 17. Fax: 03 21 39 25 17. Zudausques The first Sunday of the month from 10am to 12pm Location: Face Tavern Contact: Mr MONCHY (Town Hall) 28 rue de la Mairie, 62500 Zudausques. Tel: 03 21 93 32 64. Norabio Norabio is a cooperative of producers. She buys their products to its members, t hen resells them in the wholesale markets throughout France. It also deals with bio-basket and supply of inputs (see maintenance schedule). Rue Jean-Baptiste Lebas; 59,133 Phalempin. Tel: 03 20 32 25 23. Fort and Green Fort Verde and is a linking suppliers of fresh produce (producer, wholesaler or importer) and buyers (supermarkets, specialty stores) (see maintenance schedule) . Driveway Germany 62,223 Feuchy. Tel: 03 21 15 28 28. Fax: 03 21 15 28 29. Other outlets Occasionally, a few consumer cooperatives (such as Robin bios to Lille in Denain Capucine) and some specialty stores buy their goods from producers, but the amo unt involved is too insignificant to be detailed here. Suppliers Plants: Organic seed Locality "gardener" Ambricourt 62,310. Tel: 03 21 04 85 17. Fax: 03 21 04 97 79. Grains and seeds: 123 Desmazières all Benelux; 62,118 MONC HY THE PREUX. Tel: 03 21 50 48 49. Plants: Two farm Payzons Cross; Neulliac 56,3 00. Tel: 02 97 39 64 93. p 17/40

Partners - Operators Plants and equipment: Norabio Rue Jean-Baptiste Lebas; 59,133 Phalempin. Tel: 03 20 32 25 23. Seeds and plants: Ducrettet 14 rue René Cassin, 74240 Gaillard. Te l: 04 50 95 01 23. Fax: 04 50 95 54 71. Mail: info@ducrettet.com. Website: www.d ucrettet.com seeds and seeds: Seeds Voltz 23 rue Denis Papin, 68000 Colmar. Tel: 03 89 20 18 18. Fax: 03 89 24 42 22. Grains and seeds: germination Rétlfs, 4915 0 Saint-Martin d'Arce. Tel: 02 41 82 73 23. Fax: 02 41 82 86 48. Seeds: 21 rue F abre Clothiers, 57070 Metz. Tel: 03 87 74 07 65. Fax: 03 87 76 34 00. Mail: @ wa nadoo.fr fabre.graines. Website: www.fabre Seed bio-graines.com: 47,360 Biaugerm e Montpezat. Tel: 05 53 95 95 04. Fax: 05 53 95 96 08. Mail: service@biaugerme.c om. Website: www.biaugerme.com Equipment and Supplies: Lhermitte Brothers 2 rue Jean Bart 62114 Sains-en-Gohelle. Tel: 03 21 45 64 00. Fax: 03 21 45 64 01. Bala nces, scales: Weighing Service dissemination 7 Hale Street Plouvier; 59810 Lesqu in. Tel: 03 20 09 78 78. Horticultural Supplies: On halluin SA 21, avenue de l'E urope, BP 13, 59435 RONCQ CEDEX Tel: 03 20 37 37 10.€Fax: 03 20 37 37 70 Mail: i nfo@dhalluin.fr. Website: Strawberry Plants http://dhalluin-sa.com LEBRUN JP & M M; The nightshade; 49730 Varennes s / Loire. Websites offering to benefit Address http://ddaf.nord.agriculture.gouv.fr/liens/generaux.htm http://www.pdc.chambagri .fr/partenairesommaire.htm http://www.pdc.chambagri.fr/annuaire/guide62. htm p 18/40 Region Region Exploitations13 In 2004, 37 farms mainly "organic gardening" are listed on the Nord-Pas-de-Calai s (21 and 15 in the north in the Pas-de-Calais), with operations in more than in 2003. Some farms may have specific features: • Several productions are identifi ed and the operation can sometimes be classified in another category (cow's milk , eggs, tree crops, field crops, mixed with studio specializing in direct sales, goats, crops specialized beef or lamb). The operation is mixed organic / conven tional. Exploitation is also a structure insertion. • • Thus, you can count 46 facilities producing organic gardening in a total of Nord -Pas-de-Calais, distributed as follows: • • • • 20 family farms, 15 integration structures, an experimental station 8 specialty crops (berries , seedlings, nurs ery ...). Surfaces13 Vegetables account for 3% or 110 ha, sole regional bio. The ratio with 37 farms gives an average area cultivated in organic gardening for, 2.97 acres, recognizi ng that family farms are larger on average than the insertion structures. The to tal area under organic is 3 343 ha (174 conversion). Location infra-régionale13 Some major agricultural areas do not include any operator bio: Flanders, the tri angle between Douai, Valenciennes and Cambrai, and the triangle between Boulogne , Montreuil and Bethune. Strengths - Stress - Perspectives If one relates the surface bio population of Nord-Pas-de-Calais (4,017,000 as at 1 January 2002), we obtain a cultivated area of one hectare for organic feed 1, 200 people ... In other words, our region is very backward compared to the natio

nal average (1 ha for about 111 people), although the Nord-Pas-Decal is more urb an than rural. For conventional agriculture in Nord-Pas-decals, this report is o ne hectare cultivated to feed three people! p 19/40 Region The advantage of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais is its population density, which allows producers to more easily than in other regions, to focus on direct sales and / o r short circuit. Given the small proportion that organic farming versus conventi onal farming, it appears that this sector of the grocery market is far from reac hing its saturation point. The development of organic agriculture is primarily d ependent on political will at every level of power, to develop this sector. The influence of different groups to promote organic farming at national level so fa r is still insufficient to initiate a real dynamic of regional change of agricul tural practices. However, the knowledge of the average acreage and production in organic agriculture at the European level, it is clear that this sector will gr ow in the near future. p 20/40 Region 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Le Monde, February 23, 2005, "Nutrition and Cancer, the best and the worst. Le M onde, May 15, 2005, "Obesity: Towards a Global Epidemic? . French Federation of Cardiology Epidemiological Survey ObEpi 2003 - Sofres. Le Monde, October 7, 2004 , "the new eating habits of French." Health, lies and propaganda, Soucar Thierry and Isabelle Robard, ed. Seuil, 2004. Alternative Health No. 323, June 2005, "1 billion for anti-cholesterol and 0 for prevention. Amelia Health Insurance On line The Express December 20, 2004, "The precarious weighs heavy." Agency Bio: b arometer of consumption and perception of organic products in France (Nov. 2004) . The data in this paragraph are from meetings with speakers and personal informat ion. They are issued with some reservations (special cases not visited, undetect ed changes or unintentional subjectivity). Agency and organic Aprobio: observato ries economic and FNAB. Website: http://www.novethic.fr/novethic/site/article/in dex.jsp?id=91593 January 1 p 21/40 Appendices Appendices Appendix 1 List :................ markets of Lille Martine Carlier :............ .... Annex 2,€Councillor Responsible for open markets Annex 3: Strong and Green ............... :................ Norabio Appendix 4 Appendix 5 :............... . organic food stores Annex 6: Consumer Cooperatives ............... Appendix 7: ... ............ Mrs Grave, gardening in Wambrechies Annex 8 :................ Mr Minne gardener to Steenbecque Annex 9 :.... ............ Mr. Di Nunzio, garde ner at Favril p 22/40 Appendix 2

List of markets LMCU p 23/40 Appendix 2 p 24/40 Appendix 2 p 25/40 Appendix 2 Interview with Martine Carlier Councillor delegate, outdoor markets June 23, 200 5 The various markets Lille The number of markets in the city of Lille is 13, including 2 in Lomme and one H ellemmes. Some are held several times a week, and their importance varies. The b iggest is of course the Sunday market Wazemmes sometimes causes a few problems i n terms of safety (between 2000 and 3000 people attend the market on Sunday). Merchants The merchants, there are two separate statutes: the subscribers (subscriptions q uarterly), and passengers (payment in lieu). They have no space available, some are present on the markets for many years. A Wazemmes, 140 merchants have signed up and are about 180 passengers. In the future, the mayor would be reversed: 80 % of subscribers to 20% of passengers. The salesman has a lot of power in that a rea. Many growers have complained about not getting good seats on the market, an d not to be accepted by other traders. The mayor is trying to seize the records, so that more space is ceded them, knowing that it will then usher in work prope rly. Only three markets can claim the presence of organic gardeners: Concert Squ are on Sunday (more merchants), Sebastopol on Saturday and Sunday Fives. Growth markets are: Lille Sud, Hellemmes, Mills and St. Sauveur. Future work The council would revitalize some markets, particularly those of Moulins, SaintSauveur and Fives (the week). On one of Moulins, a campaign has been conducted r ecently with merchants to give back a little tone to this market, and a project could be conducted to modify the contract in a night market. On the Saint-Sauveu r, the lack of space is a problem, but that market is very promising because oft en visited and fed by merchants motivated. As for the market of Fives, he will h ave to grow naturally with the changing face of this neighborhood (especially wi th the forthcoming renovation of the Town Hall Square). p 26/40 Appendix 2 Attendance Apart from the figure given above (attendance Wazemmes market), there are no off icial figures on attendance contracts Lille. However, a study was conducted by t he city in 2003 to better understand the traders not sedentary, Lille and their relation to outdoor markets, and customers of the same markets. Here are the mos t prominent figures: • • • • 40% of Lille go to market at least once a week. 10% of customers buy organic products market. 43% of Lille are regular customers (a t least once a week) and 14% are occasional customers. The customer prefers to h ave bio bio traders in all markets rather than a specialist organic market. p 27/40

Appendix 3 Fort and Green Maintenance and visit June 7, 2005 Gregory Smith Presentation structure And Fort Green, a company created in 1997 and based in Feuchy near Arras, is a l ogistics hub and commercial acting on the Nord-Pas-de-Calais. Its role is to col lect one side fresh produce from the region (or elsewhere) to send, ready to be consumed in the distribution points. She was soon specializing in fruits and veg etables (7 years, they accounted for 95% of products handled). The ambition of t he company and its director, Gregory Smith, is now expanding trade in processed products handmade in the region. Some figures and milestones Initially the company started with very few resources: materials used (60m ² fri dge only), gathered a few grants to the regional council and other communities, and one employee. As and when it has expanded to now operate with 26 employees, or 18 UTH. Since February 2003, the company moved into new premises in the indus trial zone Artoipôle,€on 2000 m² (200m ² of offices). 1800T fresh produce throug h it each year in the local production increases by 1% per annum (in fruit and v egetables). The turnover amounted to 3,000,000 euros ½. The company is environme ntally friendly: the building frame is made of wood instead of iron, and seven b ins are used for sorting waste: cardboard, wood, office paper, plastic, ink cart ridges, food waste and finally, disposal. Supply Wherever possible, the supply is live and in priority to regional producers. The n, when it is not possible, the company is through cooperatives, wholesalers or importers. Indeed, some products are, for example, Chile or New Zealand. Many al so come from Belgium. The receipt of goods The products are approved on a cold platform of 400m ², where they will hold up to 48 hours (work-in-time). This platform consists of two receiving dock for tru cks, and dock trucks for smaller regional producers. The temperature inside the platform is 8 to 9 ° on average. It also contains smaller fridges p 28/40 Appendix 3 for bananas (13 °) for fragile products (4) and very fragile and ultra cool (1). The humidity is also monitored within this space. Since 3-4 years, the products are tracked from the producer, until they leave the platform by a strict tracea bility. Labels identify the product, from the day of harvest and the day of depa rture. Packaging Products For this operation, the products are no longer subjected to cold temperatures. B ut it will happen more than a morning, between the time from the fridge, and the entry into refrigerated truck. The space has four packaging lines. The products come in bulk on them. They are controlled, calibrated and weighed, then placed in trays. A machine then covers them in plastic film. The tray is then controlle d by a person who then affix the appropriate label on the product and then place it in a box and put the latter must, once full, on a pallet. It will then be sh ipped and transported to the customer. The platform contains two shipping docks. Customers They are forty in number to be very regular (two deliveries per week), ten less regular (one to two deliveries per week), and another ten to buy on time. A negl

igible proportion of customers are individuals, often people who come Feuchy sin ce the creation of the structure. Customers are three types: the mass distributi on (60-65%), retailers (25-30%) and wholesalers (the rest). The products are not the same according to the plaintiffs. For the mass distribution (and only), pro ducts are shipped in trays only (no bulk). They are of different types: • Sets: ratatouille (eg a tray containing an eggplant, a zucchini, two tomatoes, two oni ons, a pepper), fire pots, baby purees, soups. Uni-vegetable trays: 60-70 refere nces are available. They may for example contain six apples, two artichokes, six potatoes ... • For wholesalers, it is only the large volumes that are shipped in bulk (eg 40 bo xes of carrots, 40 crates of potatoes and 20 boxes of turnips). A new law, which should be implemented shortly, will require retailers to check the products to be sold in bulk to ensure that they are from organic farming. Thus, it is likely that soon, some customers wondering what type of product change notices for fai ling to perform these checks. They may then be orientated towards products in tr ays. Deliveries are made especially in the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and the surrounding departments (02-80-51-52-76 ...). p 29/40 Appendix 3 Development and Diversification The day of June 7 was a meeting between the producers of processed products in t he region, and customers. Indeed, following strong demand from retailers and sup pliers, and Fort Green has decided to expand its range of services to them. Howe ver, not to encroach on the terrain of its competitors (such Bonneterre, Swiss L ife, Biocoop ...), the choice of products is processed and resold local preferen ce: France cake tradition based in Tourcoing€Bio-based Cambrai Cambrai (dry food ), La Brasserie des Moulins d'Ascq, located in Villeneuve d'Ascq, Plantéo and mi lk products: EARL Warapot (No-offset), Etikebio (Morbihan) and cheese from Val d ' Ormèze (Ardèche). After a market study launched in October and lasted three m onths, the decision was taken. A new employee has arrived (Cyril Ducroq) which w ill deal with select suppliers and to market such products. The three main areas are as follows: dairy products, local products and processed products (see atta ched). Interest and disadvantages of the structure For producers, the interest to go through such a structure, is obviously to stre amline its sales: a single point of delivery, which does not move in all directi ons for small quantities, one bill ... For customers, interest is the same in th e other direction: a single daily delivery frees time for anything else, particu larly the presence in the store. Indeed, it is increasingly requested by custome rs (and it also avoids that some products "do not disappear into the woods"). In particular, the stores located in Lille (three very important: Label Life Marcq en Baroeul, Taste and season in Villeneuve d'Ascq, Lille Nature and Harmony) co me with great difficulty, because of traffic, so it is bring one better with a l arge delivery truck. The advantages of a single contact are also having to make an order, an invoice, a set radius, it helps to have less inventory, and improve s cash flow. The disadvantage of the structure (declared by the director himself ), is that becoming interim, it will be worse than commercial suppliers manufact uring the product themselves. p 30/40 Appendix 3 p 31/40

Annex 4 Cooperative Norabio telephone interview May 11, 2005 Frederick Born and Natasha Geldron Presentation Norabio is a cooperative of producers of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. It counts some sixt y members throughout the region, mainly in fruits and vegetables and little meat . The activities of the cooperative bio Norabio The three main activities are: • Supply of inputs for members only: pesticides ( organic of course ...), seeds and seedlings, as well as packaging for the transp ort of goods. Sales of bio-tote on the city of Lille. This sales method allows 3 50 customers benefit from a basket a week. The delivery, which takes place on tw o days of the week is done primarily in relay points (eg, shops ...), but also b y bicycle on the city of Lille. This system sometimes requires the purchase of p roducts from outside the cooperative to ensure continuity of service. The sale o f products of members on the wholesale markets throughout France, and occasional ly abroad. For 2004, for example, 830 pallets are removed from the cooperative: 500 vegetables, 230 fruits (apples and pears, the equivalent of 250 tons), 65 pa llets 35 pallets of endive and potatoes. Regarding the latter product, it should also be noted that the bulk (250 tons in 2004) is sold directly to processors ( chips ...). • • p 32/40 Annex 5 Food stores Toubio, meeting of May 18, 2005 Toubio is a shop selling organic food as well, as clothing, recycled paper, natu ral paints, environmentally friendly products ... Indeed, the head of the shop w as important to offer something more than the food and cosmetics. Regarding the supply of fresh vegetables, purchasing is done through "Biofresh, Antwerp wholes aler. Indeed, it is very difficult, depending on the person who founded the stor e to stock up on organic vegetables in France. The producers are not organized e nough to allow them a real boost to the bio. Currently, organic producers in the region are much more direct selling from the pure production sold to wholesaler s. It is difficult for the manager to talk about the evolution of its turnover, as it is only three years the structure has been created. The spring meeting with Denis, Director, May 25, 2005 The Source is a restaurant with a menu based on fish, vegetarian dishes, soups a nd other products made of vegetables and minimally processed grains.€It is the o nly restaurant in Lille to provide menus composed solely of products from organi c farming. The Source also has a smaller portion devoted to the sale of food and cosmetics. The structure was created in about 1977, and is currently working 9 people. The supply of fruit and vegetables is through Fort and Green. The report (surface) between the radius and other expenses is approximately 1 to 5. The fi rst thought of Denis was saying "bravo" for my initiative, as organic farming re ally need actors in the region. First, he told me he had to know that the demand far exceeds the regional supply of fruits and vegetables. Then, he counseled me determine what I wanted to do: live "sufficiency" in producing and selling my w ork myself, and then produce at maximum, I do focus on that goal, saying that's how that would grow bio ...

Harmony Nature, June 7, 2005 meeting Harmony Nature is one of three major food stores in the city of Lille. On 300m ² , products are sold to food and cosmetics, as well as books and towels. The stor e was renovated seven years there. p 33/40 Annex 5 The supply of vegetables and fruits is via Fort and Green, and on time, with pro ducers (JM. Butezi, L. Desbuisson, B. Leroy). Local products are preferred. Yet, on the counter, the origin of products is this: Number of products offered Vegetables Fruits Region France Abroad August 1 February 11 18 13 For example: beans come from Egypt, Holland cucumbers, carrots from Italy, Spain cabbage, potatoes and garlic to Israel from Argentina. For fruit, apples from A rgentina, Chile kiwis, bananas from Ecuador, Cameroon and mangoes. The eggs come from Department 49. The charge radius is one seventh of the total sales area of the store. More and more publicity is made around the store by various intermed iaries: Publication in magazines specializing in small print, directory advertis ing green (collection of all the locations of organic sales in the region, edite d by Aprobio) updated website, mailing the client file, trade fair participation in Lille bio autumn advertising to prescribers (physicians, naturopaths, physio therapists), and finally, getting the label "food", awarded by the city of Lille in his campaign on good dietary practice. Regarding prescriptions, the store is increasingly asked to respond to the needs of people who may be deprived of a c ertain category of foods. The question may arise whether this increase is due to an increase in people with allergies, or else better detection of them. For exa mple, people allergic to gluten can no longer eat products containing wheat (som e react from a certain amount, but others react to the mere presence of this pro duct). Many others are allergic to dairy products. Harmony Nature meets their ex pectations by offering menus that meet their problems. As for the brakes to the consumption of certified organic products, they are of several kinds. Are mentio ned in bulk, the French paradox (people know they have to eat better but still s eek the cheapest product), the fact that treatment is preferred to avoid the dis ease, and ignorance (the prices of products Organic is not exorbitant given the benefits they bring (15-20% for fruits and vegetables, a little more for dairy p roducts and meat)). p 34/40 Annex 6 Consumer Cooperatives Capucine, telephone interview May 11, 2005 Capucine is a consumer cooperative in Nord-Pas-de-Calais, logging more than 300 members, and has existed for 23 years. It is located on the city of Denain. It i

s more or less the same role as a store of organic products, but its members are its only clients. Thus, the profit margins are much smaller. The products offer ed are mainly food (fresh or packaged) and to a lesser extent, cosmetics, mainte nance and food supplements. In the fruit and vegetables, the vendors are, wherev er possible, regional producers, or where appropriate, wholesalers. It is the sa me for dairy products. The members are regular users,€some weekly, others monthl y, and they come from the nearby region or are more distant (Saint-Quentin, Maub euge). Given the number of years of existence, it is mainly earmuff that can rec ruit members. Robins bios, site visit May 11, 2005 Robin is bios a consumers' cooperative located in the MNE in Lille. The operatio n of Robins bios is the same as that of Capucine. It is structured as follows: t he members pay a deposit (made at the breakdown of membership) which amounts to 46 . Then, for a fee of 10 per year and some volunteer hours (5-6 hours / yea r), members can come to shop as in a traditional store. The products are sold ex clusively food. Fruits and vegetables are mostly bought from a wholesaler, altho ugh there is some willingness to work directly with producers. However, this sol ution is more difficult to implement because the cooperative operates primarily with volunteers. Robbins bios is currently undergoing restructuring and expects shortly a point person. p 35/40 Annex 7 Interview with Danièle GRAVE Wambrechies, April 24, 2005 Operational position and historical The operation is seen in the village of Wambrechies, about twenty miles north of Lille, at 168, rue de Linselles. It is four hectares, which is acquired last he ctare leased (lease of 9 years) CHR Lille, the others being owned. The operation existed for four generations and in 2004 celebrated its 50 years of market pres ence of Halluin. The house is located on the farm. Workforce Currently, three persons of the same family working in continuous operation (bot h parents and daughter). The father of Mr. Grave still gives raids, and an emplo yee comes every year on the operation between March and October. Both spouses en suring the operation and come from vegetable. Production and Marketing The only vegetable production is, without processing. Marketing is done in two m odes, direct: Markets: Tuesday morning at Saint André les Lille on Saturday morn ing at Halluin (large market where hundreds of stalls are counted). For the firs t three people are needed to ensure the sale of goods brought in by traffic. On Saturday morning, four people work on the market Halluin, requiring the transfer of products, and more traffic, the journey of one or two vans. The sale on the farm: two nights a week, the products are sold directly on the farm, and this pa ttern of flow about equal to a market. Means of production The campground has 3000 m² of greenhouses, all with metal structures. For exampl e, the last purchased (in 2000, then the same in 2001, the same price), consisti ng of two tarps, poles and pipes, a dimension of 7.5 * 36 (* 2) have 65 cost 000 F (or approximately 10,000). Almost all plants used are bought from Daniel Fra ncis Frelinghien, because they are better than those that could be produced on t he farm. Only products are planting cherry tomatoes, pumpkins and zucchini. 2 co ld rooms are installed for the conservation of carrots and turnips. p 36/40

Annex 7 Full production-land, outdoor The production is extremely diverse: artichokes (1 line), thyme, onions and shal lots, garlic, radishes, cauliflower, broccoli, peas, beans (as P17), rhubarb, le ttuce, spinach, beetroot seedlings mounds of carrots (a lot more practical for t he crop), potatoes (Charlottes, Mona Lisa, Adora). Strengths - constraints A visit to the farm during the open house organized by the CIVAM me a lot: a rel atively small area, it is possible to support a family without any foreign finan cing is needed (work with outside of one spouse for example). This farm had a ve ry professional side (housing, although situated on the farm is absolutely indep endent, for example). Of course, the fact that she is in office for four generat ions plays a significant role, since the customer is already acquired. The next "negative" is that the operation is not Organic, and therefore the performance m ay be easier to obtain in conventional culture on such a surface (4 ha). p 37/40 Appendix 8 Interview with Christophe MINNE Steenbecque, March 13, 2005 The farm is situated 6km ½ of the dwelling on the edge of a forest, hence the st rong presence of deer and rabbits in the neighborhood, sometimes causing damage to crops. But this allows the farmer to maintain a unique biodiversity in the fo rest. Christopher Minne, keen gardener, decided to start its operation in 2001 a t age 45. Previously, he held a bike shop, which he owned. The holding of 6 hect ares has originally been purchased equally between two operators in organic gard ening. On the plot of Mr. Minne, is a pool and 1.5 acres are used (two greenhous es 60m in total). A portion of the parcel is used to produce the "natural fertil izer" (ie, no direct commercial return. It is a trap nitrates, so they do not de scend into the ground). Besides the pool and exploitation, the plot contains a l arge hangar nine for storage and personal Mr. Minne (in case of rain in particul ar), and a small shelter for Gustav, the donkey. The initial investment, which m ust be consistent according to Mr. Minne were distributed as follows: 20 000F/ha for the land, plus 15 000F/ha to redeem the right to operate, almost 100 000F 2 .5 ha . The materials cost about the same. Mr. Minne has received no government subsidy, as a farmer "unconventional", but a zero-interest loan association Aven ir, 80 000F repayable over 5 years. Investments have been made through the sale of his bicycle shop. The first loan was made at the hangar, it becomes necessary . Mr. Minne hopes to get a European grant (ETC contract ...), following are acti ons for the maintenance of biodiversity (among other things made with the mainte nance of the pond). Mr. Minne production is sold mainly in the form of baskets. About 80 were sold this year, delivered on Saturday by Mr. Minne itself. The pro duction limit of the plot is about a hundred baskets. Mr. Minne buys about a qua rter of sales. The cost is about 60 baskets per acre. Word-of-mouth has helped d evelop this activity, which began with 10 baskets sold. In late 2004, Mr. Minne sold about 90 baskets. The frequency is from January to December, subscription c ancellations are expected beginning of each year, even if they are then offset b y the arrival of new customers. The cart sells for an average of 10.5 , but its value varies with the seasons. At first, Mr. Minne sold part of its production to the cooperative NorABio, another restaurant, and distributed a dozen baskets, then it is the latter mode of sale was the most interesting. Mr. Minne organize s receptions school groups. p 38/40 Appendix 8

Regarding the technical problems encountered, Mr. Minne wished to clarify that a technician is always available at Gab'Nord (currently Mr Delebecque) to assist in the installation and advise later. Mr. Minne is now director of Gab'Nord. The wife of Mr. Minne was employed by La Poste, which ensures a fixed monthly incom e. The benefits of this are minimized by the fact of being alone to ensure the o peration of the parcel. Indeed, family life is reduced from the time of installa tion, it is necessary also sometimes work on Sundays. Working couple would perha ps provide a family life in the workplace. For two weeks, Mr. Minne tries to org anize his tours on Saturday in order to complete them to 13h instead of 17h befo re. p 39/40 Annex 9 Telephone interview with Mr. Francis DI NUNZIO December 2004 After redundancy, M. Di Nunzio, not from the farming community, has taken the op portunity offered to him by his former employer to train in organic farming. The training took place over two years, in Alsace. The first year, Mr. Di Nunzio ha s passed through a biodynamic farm, and the second in gardening. These courses o n large farms have allowed him to know what he would not do (too large farms) .. . It has for some years now 3000 square meters of farmland in Avesnois where he could also build a house type "HQE" in self-construction. On this ground, 1500 s quare meters are cultivated, with 150 m tunnel. Mr. Di Nunzio also has fifty hiv es. Regarding the activity and income, Mr.€Di Nunzio advised me to diversify my knowledge, because it is very difficult to live solely on vegetables. Personally , make honey and the bread allows "round off his income. He sells them to market organic Louvignies-Quesnoy. As for initial investments, they are "indispensable ". Mr. Di Nunzio took his severance pay and the savings he had made during his p revious professional life to settle. It has also benefited from interest-free lo an association for agricultural projects Future "unconventional". p 40/40