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A M A N UA L F O R

W R IT ER S
C O V ERI N G T HE N EEDS OF
AU T H O R S FOR

I N F O R M A T IO N ON R ULES OF W R ITI N G
A N D PR A C TI C ES I N PRI N T I N G

BY

JO H N M A T T HEW S MAN L Y
Head 9f the Department of English
The Univ ersity f
I Chicag o

AN D

JO H N AR T H UR BO W ELL
f the
I Univ er sity f Chizago
o Pr ess

T H E UNI V E RSI T Y O F C H I CA G O PR E SS
C HICAG O . I LLIN O IS
PREFACE

The M anual of S tyle o f the Uni versi ty o f Chicag o


Press origi n a lly p ub li she d a s a guid e fo r p rin ters p roo f
, ,

read ers a n d c opy edi tors w as soon foun d to be s o use


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ful to wri ters fo r the press s ec retari es sten o grap hers


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typi sts an d all other c lasses o fp ers ons in terested in wri t


,

i ng tha t the d em an d fo r i t be came very gre a t a n d the


, ,

volum e h a s pa ssed thr ou gh three e di ti ons e ach m ore ,

volumi nou s than the p rec edi ng Several o f i ts c h ap .

ters however thou gh o f p rim e i nterest to p ri nters a re


, , ,

o f c ompa r a ti vely sli ght v alue to wri ters The p resent .

volum e has therefore been p re pa re d w i th the i ntenti on


, ,

o f su pp ly i ng the i r s p ecia l nee d s .

I t i s b a se d u p on st a nda r d a uthori ti es su pp lem en te d


,

by observati on o f re c ent p r ac ti c es a nd ten denci es am on g


s chol a rs a n d ca reful wri ters Up on many p oin ts re pu
.

t able usage i s o i c ours e divide d ; but fo r p r ac tical p ur


, ,

p oses every news pap er o fce every p rin tin g house has
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to make a choic e an d establi sh a unif orm rule in its prac


tic e Fo r the sam e rea sons the s am e p olicy i s ad o p te d
.

here T he p resent volum e i t i s beli eve d woul d lose


.
, ,

mu ch o f i ts v alue if i t gave all allow able forms an d prac


tic es instead o f givin g in eac h ca se a sin gle standard for m
or p r ac tic e .

A sin gle small volum e cannot c ontain solu ti ons o f all


the p roblem s which may c onfront a wri ter ; but the
V
Vi PR E FACE

authors venture to hOpe th a t f ew ma tters o f imp o rtan c e


h ave been negle c te d a nd th a t this volu m e wi ll b e o f
s erv ic e to wri ter s o f a ll c l a sse s .

A cknowle dgm ent is made o f the assis t an ce re cei ve d


f rom M r A C M cF arlan d gener al su perin ten dent o f
. . .
,

the Univers i ty of Chicago Pres s who contr ibu te d the ,

ma terial fo r ch ap ix The au thor s are also in de bte d to


. .

M rs C N Shup fo r hel pful su ggestions an d very care


. . .

f ul re adin g of the proo fs .

T he s t andar d tex tbooks and author i ti es on the sub

j ects co veie d by thi s wo r k are too num erous to m entio n


'

i n d et ail T he authors can express the i r o bliga tion to


.

these only i n a gener al manner .

J M M . . .

J A P . . .

Septemb er I , 19 13
TABLE OF CON TEN T S
CHAPTE R PAG E

E N GLISH C OMP OSITION 1

II . GRA MM A I ICAL

N OTE S 25

(With a Lis t o f Pitfalls in Dictio n )


III . SPELLIN G ; WITH R ULE S F OR ABB REVIATIN G AN D

C OMP OUNDIN G WORDS 66

IV . CAPITALIZAI ION
86

V . P UNCTUATI ON 1 01

VI . THE USE OF I TALIC 1 23

LETTE R WRITIN G
-
1 29

(With Fo rms)
VIII . HINTS ON THE P REPAR ATION or MANU SCRIPT
THE P RI NTE R 151

I LLUSTRATIONS 1 68

STA GE S THROU GH WHICH A B OOK PASSE S


M AKING 1 76

XI . TYP O G RAP HI CAL P RACTICE S AND TE RM S


MISCELLANE OUS I NF ORMA TION 2 00

211

vii
C HAPTER I

E NGL ISH CO MP O SIT IO N


I WRITING A C RAF T AND AN AR T
.

The a b ili ty to wri te well ca nnot be i mp rovi se d nor ,

can a ny tre a ti se or te acher p rovid e an em er gen c y re cip e


.

which wi ll en a ble its p o s ses s or to di sp ense wi th lon g an d


m ore or less l a bori ous p repa r a ti on Li ke woo d carving
"
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-
,

p ottery a r chi tec ture a n d a d oz en other f o r m s o f work


, , ,

wri ti ng i s p rima ri ly a c r af t wi th the capaci ty o f b e in g


,

tr ansf orm e d into an a rt I t i s a c r af t when pr ac tice d


.

f or the uses o f dai ly lif e by p ersons o f or di n a ry endow


m ents ; i t i s tr ansf orm e d into an a rt when to e xcellen ce
of c r af tsmanship i s add e d the f or ma t ive prin ciple th at
differentia tes an a rt f ro m a cr af t .

The a rt of wri ting like the other a rts cannot be


, ,

t aught A rt i s in c ommunicable T he c r af t o f wri tin g


. .
,

li ke the other c r af ts can be le a rne d an d Si n c e the p ro ce s s


, ,

o f le a rni ng can be h a stened an d made e a si er by s ugges


tion c ri tici sm an d di re c ti on we may fai rly s ay a s we
, , , ,

s ay i n a ll simil ar ca ses th a t i t can be t au ght We Sh a ll


,
.
,

there fore i n wh a t f ollows de al wi th wri ti ng solely a s a


, ,

c r af t Wherever there i s a n ade qu a te b a si s o f cr af ts


.

ma nship a rt ca n n d or cre a te i ts own i nstru ments a n d


,

m etho d s
The cr aft can b e le ar n e d b y an y on e T he nu m
.

I . . .

ber o f p ersons who ca nnot und er favor able c ondi ti ons


2 A MANUAL FO R WRI TE RS

le arn a ny c r af t is s o s mall a s to be ne gligi ble I n de e d .

the s uc c ess o f William M orri s a n d other s i n d evelo pi n g


a ny and every chance comer i nto a s ki l ful arti s a n i n
c r a f ts so d epen d ent up on te c hn ical e xc ellen c e a s to r a nk

am on g the in d us trial arts a n d the gener a l e xp eri en ce o f


,

mankin d in the tr ansmi ssi on o f a c r af t o r i n du s tria l a rt


thro ugh ma ny gener a ti ons of a sin gle fami ly p rove th a t , ,

a lthough capaci ti es diff er wid ely s o m e capaci ty f or


,

any and every c raf t may b e a ssu m e d f or every norma l


hu man b eing T he c r af t of wri tin g is no e xc epti on to
.

thi s gener al rul e An yone who is wi lli ng to t ake the


.

tr o uble to do so can ac qui re i t .

The fun dam ent a l requi rem ent f or the r apid a n d


e ective l e a rni n g o f every c r af t i s ac t i ve ef f ort on the
pa rt o f the le a rner I n a c e rt ai n sense nothi n g ca n be
t aughtno p ro c ess no c r af t no s ci enc ea ll must be
.

, ,

l ea rne d T he s imp les t p hysica l p ro cesses su c h a s w a lk


.
,

i ng canno t be t aught ; a s lon g as the p upi l ref uses to


,

participa te in the p ro c e s s ref uses to ma ke the effort to


,

w alk i nstru c ti on is f uti le T he c r afts a n d the s ci en c e s


,
.

are even m ore d e pend ent u pon the participat ion o f the
le arner be cause in them the e le m ents o f phys ica l an d
,

m ent al action are more co mpl ica te d an d more h ighly


o r gan iz e d

Uncon s ciou s tr aini ng T here a re to b e s ure


.

some c r af tsan d wri ting is o n e of themwhi c h see m


.
, ,

to b e ac qui re d by c ert ain p ersons wi thout e ffort a n d


wi thout any app rentic eship But i n every s u c h ca s e i t
.
,

w i ll be foun d up on i nvestiga ti o n th a t the c r a f t i nvolves


ENGL IS H CO MP O SI T I ON 3

only sp e cial applica ti ons o f p hysica l c ontr o l or m ent a l


pro ces s es which h ave been ac qui red by ad equ a te p r ac tic e
i n other for m s o f ac tivi ty N o man ever wrote w ell
.

unless he ei th er h ad ac tively tri e d to le a rn to wri te or


h ad a lre ady p r ac tice d i n som e oth er f or m the m ent a l
op er a tions essentia l to goo d wri ti ng .

The whole world i s in a sense a s chool for wri ters ,

a nd lif e gi ve s dai ly i nstru c ti on i n the c r af t to all who


wi ll li sten a nd p r ac tic e T he u s e o f l angu age an d the
.

organiz a tion o f thou ghtthe only fundam ent als of the


c r af ta re ta ught daily E very n ew obje c t or id e a
.

n am e d i n o ur he ar ing o ers an in cre a se in vo ca bul a ry


'

every well p hr a se d s enten c e i s a lesson i n synonym s i n


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gr amma r a n d i n style ; f ro m i nfa nc y onwa rd we re c e i ve


,

lessons i n c le arne ss i n c oheren c e i n uni ty i n e mp h a si s ;


, , ,

an d alm ost every c onvers a tio n cont ai ns s o m e rhetorica l


d evice o r gure Si n c e wri ting is o nly t alk s et d own
.

on pap er an d even the best and m ost arti stic wri ti ng


,

m erely a sub lima te of the best t alk i t is al most i nevi


,

t a ble th a t anyone who li a s a ssocia te d f ro m i nfan cy w i th


cultiva te d an d i ntelligent p eop le will h ave had su ch a
train ing in l angu ag e a nd i n cl ea r a nd ord erly thi nkin g
as wi ll en able hi m to wr i te d e c ently wi thout s p e cic

trainin g in wri tin g T he word c o mp osi ti on i n c lu d es
.

the or ganiz a ti on a n d exp ression o f thought both or a lly


a n d i n wri ting a n d emp h a siz e s the imp ort a nt f ac t th a t
,

the two a re one



.

3
. S pe cial tr ai n in g u s u ally n e c es s.ar y Why then
are there s o many p ersons who t alk i n c ompa r a bly better
4 A MANUAL FO R WRITE RS

th an they wri te an d so m e who tho u gh they t a lk e a s ily


, , ,

are helpless an d agh a st when they a re c o mp elle d to


wri te Ther e are doubtless many causes whi c h si n gly
or i n c ombi na tion acc ount f or these fac ts O nly a f ew .

of th em can be di s cusse d here i n d et ai l .

In s o m e ca ses p erh ap s the fan ci e d sup erio r i ty o f a


, ,

brilliant t alker s c onvers a ti on to his wri tin g i s m er ely


i llu s ory Hi s t alk if c ri tically c onsid ere d would be


.
, ,

fo und to h ave the s am e d e fe c ts a s his wri ti ng His .

s u cc ess wo ul d be f o un d to d ep en d u p on the low st a n da r d s

o f cri tici s m appli ed to co nvers a tio n up on th a t rel ax e d


,

m ood o f s o cie ty whi c h acc ep t s mere r eadine ss i n retort ,

qui ckn es s wi th a p etried c omm onp l ac e a s the equi valent ,

of wit an d which so metim es c onfus e s the bright swif tne ss


,

o fh i gh p hysical vi t ali ty wi th i ntell ec tu a l bri llian c e .

But we all kno w i ns t an c e s i n whi c h the s up eri ori ty


of the c onver s a ti on to the wri ting is not i llusory T here .

a re men and wom en whose c onvers a ti on i s i nterestin g ,

bri lli ant f a s ci n a ting wi th as hes of wi s d om or p ro


, ,

fo un d sugg estiveness an d whose wri tin g i s a web o f the


,

c omm onp l ac e shot thro ugh wi th str an d s o f d ulnes s


, .

The diff erential caus e in su ch ca ses lies usu a lly i n the


temp er am ent T h ese p ersons e i ther h ave wh a t ps y
.


c ho lo gis ts ca ll s ho rt re ac ti on times or they p osses s
,

torpid min d s whi ch d evelop thei r full Sp ee d an d p ower


o nly un d er s tron
g Stimul ant s Su ch a s the e xci te m ent o f
,

ba t tling wits o r the vi sible p resen c e o f a gallery Of pos


si ble a dmi rers Hab i t too may c l aim i ts pa rt i n the
.
, ,

cause j ust as many wri ters can thi nk only wi th a p en


.
E NGL ISH CO MP O SI T ION 5

in h an d a n d many or a tors can c omp ose thei r eloquent


,

p eri o d s only when they st and an d see or fa n cy they see . ,

an a udien c e bef ore the m so also many bri lliant c onver


,

s atio n ali s ts nee d the fami lia r c on di ti ons o f c onvers a t i on

to set thei r i ntelle c tu a l machi nery in op er a ti on Self .

c ons ci ousness a lso i s a fac tor o f no m e a n imp ort an c e in


, ,

som e ca ses an d o f ten co o p er a tes wi th h a bi t or the l ac k


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of i t Self c ons ciousness li ke any other di str ac t i on o f


.
-

a ttenti on f rom the mai n ac tivi ty may w i th d r a w fro m


,


th a t ac ti vi ty m uch or ne a rly a ll o f one s m ent al p ower .

An entirely different c la ss o f p ersons who sp e ak well


but w ri te b ad ly i n c lu d es those who h ave not p r ac tic e d
wri ting of ten enou gh to be c om e accustom e d to the
m e c h ani cal ac t o f wri t ing I n the i r di stress there a re
.

two main fac tors I n the rst pl ac e the m ent a l p ower


.
,

a vai l a ble f or thi nki ng is dimini she d by the am ount


d r awn o ff to the i nstru m ent an d the ac t o f wri ting an d
to sel f c ons ci ou s observ a ti on o fthei r uns a ti sfac tory men
~

t a l p ro c esses I n the se c ond p l ac e wri tin g i s ne c ess ar ily


.
,

a slower mo de of exp ressi on th a n s p ee ch an d su ch perso ns ,

h a ve not yet le a rne d to think i n the temp o o f wri tin g to ,

d well on a thou ght lon g enough to set i t down a n d then


p ro ceed to the ne x t w i thout losi ng the imp etus o f co n
tin uo us thi nki n g Thi s c l a ss i s ve ry num erous T he
. .

re m e dy fo r the c ondi ti on obvi ously is p ers i stent p r ac tic e


i n wri ti ng .

M a ny i n dividu als in both these c l a sses a re seri ously


h amp ere d i n thei r eff orts to wri te by the f eeli ng th a t wri t
i n g esp e cially wri ti ng f or the p ubli c shoul d be som e
, ,
6 A M ANUAL FO R WRITE RS

thi ng sup ern e sho ul d be a rticially or a t le a st a rtfully


, , ,

de cor a ted th a t o ver the o rigi n a l f orm o f thei r thou ght


,

should b e d r ape d a be autiful ga rm ent calle d style .

Thi s is of c ours e a thorou ghly p ernici ous ide a ; i t h a s


, ,

not only p revente d many f ro m wri ting who mi ght h a ve


wri tten s imp ly a nd agree ably but worse th an th a t h a s
, , ,

bur dened the worl d wi th thous an d s o f pages o f th a t



useless an d b ad p ro duc t known a s n e wri tin g .


F ortun a t ely n e wri tin g is now c on d e mn e d by a ll

who know an d teac hers an d wri ters uni te i n reco gn iz


,

in g th a t style is not a ma tter o f sup ercia l de c or a ti on


but re s id es i n the very f orm i n which the thought i s
c on ceive d Phr a ses th a t d o not t the thou ght are
.

s een to dis gure not to orn am ent i t a n d the re m e d y f or


, ,

a p oo r s tyle is not n e wor d s but a better m o d e o f ,

thinki ng ju s t as the re me dy f or a f eeble shrunken


, ,

bo dy is not c lothe s but physica l d evelopm ent



.

4. W ri ti n g an d thi n ki n g T o wri te w ell is i n fac t


.
, ,

to thi n k or f eel s o methi ng worth s ayin g to gi ve the ,

thought or f e eli ng clea r an d d e ni te f orm a n d then to ,

s ay i t in p re ci sely thi s fo r m E very tre a ti se on wri ti n g


.
,

theref ore m us t b e not a c olle c ti on o f tric ks but fun


, , ,

d amen tally a tre a ti se on thi nki n g A nyone who h a s .

ac quire d the h a bi t of thinki ng c onst antly o f mixin g ,

thou ght wi th hi s obs erv ations an d e motions o f re e c tin g ,

up on the li kenesses a nd differen c es a n d causes o f thi ng s ,

wi ll h ave ide a s i n a bun dan c e w i ll b e a ble to gi ve the m


,

cl ea r a n d d eni te f orm a n d w ill nee d only p r ac tic e a n d


,

a f ew simp le i nstru c ti ons to be c o m e a g oo d wri ter .


ENGL IS H CO MP O SIT I ON 7

III N TE LLE C TUA L E QUIPllEN T


.

The i ntelle c tu al equipm ent n ec e s s a ry f or c o mp osi


ti on or al or wri tten i nvolve s two fac tors a store o f
, , ,

i nteresting ma terial a n d the p ower o f thi nki ng c le a rly


an d i nteresti ngly .

I t i s not ne c ess a ry th a t the ma terial Shoul d be very


gre a t i n am ount So me c h armi ng an d even gre a t
.

wri ters h ave h ad li ttle knowledge an d co mpa r a ti vely


few imp ort ant id e a s I t is o f c ourse d esi r a ble th a t
.

there Should be enough knowle dge o f som e o n e subj e c t


to make i t worth whi le f or your au di en c e to a tten d to
wh a t you h a ve to s ay The part icula r n a ture o f the
.

ma teria l is o f even less imp ort an c e th an the am ount .

There i s p erh ap s no p ossi ble subje c t of thought or f eelin g


, ,

whi ch has a rouse d the i nterest of one hu man being th a t


i s not capa ble of i nteresting many The fun dam ent al re.

quiremen t o fa well store d mi n d i s th a t i ts ma terial should


-

c onsi st not o f c olorless re c ord s o f thi ngs re ad and he a r d


,

an d f elt an d seen nor of rem em bere d p hr a se s in whic h


,

others h ave e m bo die d the i r re ac ti ons to the manif old ele


m ents o f lif e but of s in c ere p ers on al re co rd s c olore d by
, ,

p erson al thought an d f eelin g e ac h c onn ec te d wi th multi


,

tu d es of other re c or d s wi th whi c h i t has so m e afn i ty .

The m o d e o f thi nkin g i s obvi ously of mu ch m ore


imp ort anc e than the am ount or the n a ture of the
ma terial I t not only p rovides the ma teria l but a s
. .

, ,

we h ave just seen d etermin es to a l a rge e x tent the


,

n a ture o f i t The enrichm ent of the min d then i s


.
, ,

fundam ent ally d ep end ent up on thi nking succ essfully .


8 A MANUAL FO R WRITE RS

1 . The p rim e c on di t ion o f s uc


Active r eceptivity .

ces sf ul thi nkin g i s p erh ap s a n a tt i tu d e o f wh a t may be


, ,

calle d ac ti ve re c e p tivi ty Thi s i nvolves not only
.

alertnes s of mi nd to o bserve an d to seek a n d re adi ness ,

to re c ord o b s erva ti ons e mo ti ons b i ts of knowledge f ro m


, ,

books a nd fro m men but su ch an a tti tud e a s cau s es


,

a ll the ide as whi c h alre ady inh a bi t the mi n d to be a le rt


to f orm s om e as so cia ti on wi th the ne wc om er I n to o .

ma ny mind s a n ew ide a i s re c eive d a s a str anger is in a n


E ngli sh hotel not a s a newc om er is i n a boo m to wn in
,
-

the West .

Geni us is the capaci ty fo r maki n g n ew an d v a lu a ble


c om bin a ti ons E dga r All a n Poe cert ai nly one o f the
.
,

most origi na l o f m en held th a t origi n ali ty i s capa ble o f


,

cultiva tio n by p ro c esses which i nvolve ac tive re ce p ti vi ty


a s thei r p rin cipal ele m ent Wi lli am Ki ngd on C liff or d
.


i n hi s es s ay o n The C ondi tions of Intelle c tu a l Develo p

ment as serts th a t the p ri ncipa l c on di tions are two one ,


p osi ti ve an d o n e ne ga ti ve T he p osi tive c on di tion
.
,

he s ays is th a t the mi n d shoul d ac t r a ther th a n a ss imi
,

l a te th a t its a tti tu de shoul d be o n e o f c re a ti on r a ther


,

th a n o f ac qui si ti on T he nega tive c on di tio n is


.

p l a stici ty : the avoidanc e o f all su c h c ryst alliz a t i on a s


i s imme dia tely suggested by the envi ron m ent A mi n d .

th a t would grow must let no ide a s be c o m e p er ma nent


e xc ep t su ch as lead to ac tion To w a r d a ll others i t m ust .

mai nt ai n a n a tti tu d e of absolute re c ep tivi ty ; admi tti n g


a ll bei ng m odi ed by all but p erma nently b ia sed by
, ,

none T o be c om e c ryst alli z e d xe d i n opin i on a n d


.
,
E NGL ISH CO MP O SI T I ON 9

m o d e o f thought is to lose the g re a t ch ar ac te ri stic o f


,


li f e by whic h i t i s di stin gui she d f rom i n anima te n a ture
,
.

Si nc e stu dy an d e xp eri en c e a re the two sourc e s o f


ma teria l an d of style the a tti tud e o fwhi ch we h a ve been
,

Sp ea ki ng is ne c ess a ry fo r e ach Som e p ersons f e a r to


.

Sp oi l thei r origi n ali ty by re ading They wi sh to thi nk .

an d s ay wh a t h a s never been thou ght or s aid bef ore ,

an d they fe a r th a t re adi ng wi ll make the m s ee wi th the


eyes thi nk wi th the mi n d s an d sp e ak w i th the voic es o f
, ,

others T he e ffort to avoid c omm on ide a s o f ten re s ul ts


.

i n mi ssin g c omm on s ense But in d ep en d ently o f th a t


-
.
,

da nger i t shoul d be re mem bere d tha t if we live in huma n


, ,

so ci ety o ur ide a s a re stimul a te d an d organi z e d by the


,

id e a s of others whether we will or not an d i t i s better


, ,

to be i nuen c e d by a n able thi nker th an by a mul ti tu d e


o f loose t a lkers Wh a t counts i n re ading is the w ay in
.

which o n e re ad s .

2 . R eading R e adi ng Shoul d furni sh not only ma


.

terials f or thoug ht but c entr al id e a s f or the orga ni z a


,

ti on o f our id e a s an d the grouping of those f ugi ti ve


,

imp ressi ons those pa ssing e m otions whi c h a re not the


, ,

le a st imp ort ant pa rt o f a wri ter s equipm ent T o be .

n a tur a l does not m e an to susp en d thi nki ng to for get a ll


.
,

th a t re adi ng a n d e xp eri en c e an d re e c tion h a ve wri tten


i n he a rt an d mi n d N othin g i s m or e b a rren f or the
.

p urp oses of e xp ressi on th an the he art th a t has not


Sh are d i n the enrichm ent o f the whole n a ture T he .

n a tur a l l angu age o f pa ssi on is the c ry E m oti on m ust .

be enriche d by a sso cia ti on wi th id e a s be fore i t can yi el d


10 A MANUAL FO R WRITE RS

b eauty o r p o wer i n li ter a ture But pa s sive re adi n g fur


.

ni she s n o thi ng but ma terials whether thes e be m ere ,

fac ts or id ea s f or mula te d by other s Persons who r ead


,
.

pas s i vely h a ve the h abi t o f s eei ng thi ngs i n f orm s


c rea ted by the mi nds o f o ther s a n d of sp e aki n g i n
p hr a se s th a t a re not thei r o wn When they loo k a t a .

pic ture o r a l an d scap e o r he a r a p oe m o r s ee a p l ay


, , ,

they summ o n to thei r aid not thei r i ntellig en c e but thei r


m em ory ; a n d n o t o nly the phr a ses they u s e to express

th ei r em oti ons an d ju dgm ents but the very ju dgm ents


,

and e motions the m selve s are the work o f others T he .

long di sus e d machi nery of tho ught an d fe eli ng r efu s e s


-

to turn o f i t s elf an d m ust be p ush ed r o un d by the h a n d s


o f a noth er .

R e adi ng must be al ert s ympa thetic curi ous T he


, ,
.

m ost prot able book s are tho s e th a t i rri t a te tho s e wi th ,

which we di s agre e But they mu s t be re ad not wi th


.
,

s c orn an d aloofnes s but sympa the tica lly th a t is wi th


, , ,

a n i ntense d e s i re to as cert ai n e xac tly wh a t the wri ter


thi nks an d why M oreover re re adin g i s o f ten n eces
.
,
-

s a ry T he re ad er who n ever re r ead s a book be fore


.
-

he h a s h ad tim e to f orget i t ha s n o t yet ac qui re d the


h a bi t o f r eading .

3. L i
f e The a tti tud e tow a r d lif e a n d its exp eri en c e s
.

should not differ essentia lly f ro m th a t towa r d the wo rl d


o f books A c tive re c ep ti vi ty i s d eman d e d everywhere
.
.

M ost of u s live i n a leth argy h a lf the tim e a n d i n m or e


th a n h alf o f o ur faculti e s The pa rt s o f our b ein g t ake
.

turns i n somnolen c e When the i ntelle c t works the


.
,
E NGLIS H CO MP O SIT I ON II

sensib ili ty rep oses an d the intelli ge n ce goes to sle ep


,

as soon as the he a rt aw a kes T he self is never aw ake


.

as a whole We h ave d etermi ne d the times an d the


.

thin gs to wh ich the intelligen c e m ust a ttend At other .

m oments a nd f or other obje c ts we make no us e o f i t ;


an d yet i t is the univers a l i nstrum ent tted fo r a ll the ,

p henome na an d m om ents o f li f e T o wri te o f li f e o n e


.

m ust h ave li ve d an d observe d lif e a s he w a s li vi ng


,
.

T he b a si s o f i nventi on i s observa t ion a nd re e c ti on A ll .

the si tu a ti ons an d e m oti ons o f c o me dy a n d tr age dy a re


accessi ble to e ac h of us even if in mi nia ture ; an d the
,

c onstru c ti ve imagi n a ti on ca n use a magnie d e m otion


or eve nt a s su cc ess fully a s the gre a t emotio n or event to
which i t is a n alogous I f o ur e xp eri en c e i s s ma ll thi s i s
.
,

not be cause we h a ve m et f ew events but be cause we ,

ret ai n f ew imp ressi ons We li ve our days di s c onne c te d ly


. .

E vents pa ss over us a nd e m ot ions di e N othi ng is co n .

tin uo u s i n us but un c ons ci ous h a bi ts a n d automa t ic


ac ti on s We f eel pa ssi vely a n d uni ntelli gently li ke
.
, ,

brutes E vents stri ke u s p le a se us woun d us ; we


.
, ,

rejoic e we suffer a nd th a t i s all we know o f the experi


, ,

en ce There remain for m ost o f us from all our sorrows


.

a nd our p le a sures only vague images whic h a re soon ,

too i n di sti n c t f or the uses of li f e or o f li ter a ture .

4. A p ro c e s s o f i n te rpr e tation T he applica tion o f


.

ac tive i ntelli gen c e to all the observa tions sens a ti ons , ,

a nd e moti ons o f lif e d oes not imp ly dry a n a lysi s a n d


f or mal cl a ssica ti on but p erson a l re ac ti on to eve ry
,

stimulus I t i s re a lly only a Simp le ac t o f i nterp ret a ti on


.
,
12 A MANUAL FO R WRITE RS

suc h a s a b a by makes of the manifol d imp r essions th a t


throng up on him At rst these a re to the b aby not
.

even p erc ep ti ons but m ere s en s e imp ressi on s o f color


,
-

, ,

of soun d of he a t o f p ress ure o f t a ste o f o do r o f p le a s


, , , , ,

ure of pai n E ach imp re s sion i s sepa r a te i n i tself an d


,
.
,

t aken alone be a rs no i ntelligi ble m ess age f rom the outer


,

world Th a t there a re obje c ts the i nfa nt knows not ;


.
,

he kn ows o nly imp ressi ons an d sen s a tio ns But a s i n .


,

hi s li ttle br ai n imp re s s i ons th a t belong toge ther n d


,

o n e a nother qu ickly a n d uni t e to f or m a p er c e p t o f a n

obje c t the work of i nterp ret a tion goe s on H ow fa r i t


, .

g oes de termi ne s the i ntelle c tu al life o f the i nf ant a n d the


adult i nto w ho m he develop s In som e mi n d s the worl d .

r emains a hu ddle o f unrel a te d obje c ts an d events ; in


others i t is a rich f abric wo ven c lo s e of dark an d light ,

of p leas ur e an d pai n o f goo d an d evi l , .

III . WHA T TO W RITE AB OU T


I . The s ub j e ct It might be s upp ose d th a t a nyone
who w i she d to wri te would know wh a t he wi she d to
-

wri te about But many m erely w i s h to Wri te T o


. .

r ecomm end th a t su ch a p erson c hoose a subje c t which he


knows well i s not so sup eruous a s i t see m s Wh a t i s .

well known seem s co mmo np l ac e an d only the un fami lia r ,

a llure s But obvi ously the unfami lia r must be le f t to


.

som eone to whom i t is familia r .

Havi ng chosen hi s subje c t the wri ter will usu a lly ,

n d th a t as a t rst c on c e ived i t is too l a rg e o r too


, ,

g ener al Limi t a ti on o f the them e is then the wi se


.
E NGL IS H CO MPO SI T ION 13

c ourse M a ny a man who can only b a bble vai nly


.

a bout govern m ent ca n wri te a va lu a ble a n d interestin g


acc ount o f the man age ment o f the county hospi t al o r ,

the ci ty c ontroller s of c e or the p oli ce c ourt in hi s



,

p re ci n c t T he h a bi ts an d intelligen c e o f in s e c ts are
.

h ar dly capable o f anythi n g but loose ane cdotic tre a t


m ent a t secon d han d ; o n e o f the most origi nal an d
interestin g books o f re c ent ye a rs i s d evote d to the
hi story o f a sin gle family o f w a sp s F ew m en a re .

exp eri en c e d an d wi se enough to f orm l ar ge g ener aliz a


ti ons an d f ew l a rg e g ener aliz a ti ons a re true enou gh o r
,

d eni te enou gh to be v a lu able .

.2 What to s ay ab o ut it T he very p ro c ess o f li mi t


.

i ng the subje c t to man ag e able siz e w ill i nevi t ably result


i n su ggesti ng s o m ethi ng to s ay a bout i t T he ide a s .

suggeste d may a ri se very di s c onne c te dly a n d i n ve ry


c ru d e f orm T he rst thi n g to make sure o f i s tha t y o u
.

ca t c h an d x the m all N o better w ay h a s yet been


.

di s c overe d to d o thi s th a n to jot the m d own as they


o ccur o n small ca r d s or sli p s o f pap er M anil a ca r d s
,
.

a re better th an pap er unl ess i t i s thi ck an d s ti be cause


, ,

they a re m ore e a si ly han dled T hree by ve in ches is


.

a goo d s iz e thou gh so m e wri ters p refer the m larger an d


, ,

som e smaller I t i s not ne cess a ry to wri te o ut your


.

id e a s i n f ull a t thi s tim e The main thing is to get a s


.

many o f the m a s p ossi ble re c or d e d As these id e a s a re


.

wri tten d own others wi ll suggest thems elves Experi


,
.

enc e w ill soon Show tha t i t is p oor p oli cy to p ut two


id e a s however c losely rela te d on the s am e car d f or
, , ,
14 A M ANUAL FOR WRI TE RS

you d o not yet kno w ho w or wh er e the id e a s are to


be used .

I f a rou gh plan o f o rgani z a ti on has not yet di s c lose d


i tself t ake the car d s an d try to a rr an ge them acc ord
,

i ng to thei r rel a ti ons an d afn i ti es T he re adi ng whi ch .

you mus t give the m f or thi s p urp os e will d oubtless s ug


ges t n ew id eas o r d et ai ls o f tre a tm ent N ote all o f the s e . .

E ven i f you h ave a ro ugh p l an try to see if you ca nnot


,

mak e o thers th a t are b ett er One o f the c hi e f advan


.

t ages o f the car d s is th a t the makin g o f a new p l a n


d oe s not i nvo lve rewri tin g ; but d o not he s i t a t e a t any ,

tim e i n the c ourse o f your wo rk to rewri t e anythi n g ,

th a t nee ds rewri ti ng N0 o n e ever s ave d tim e by such


.

a ref u s a l .

T he rst rough pla n an d p erh ap s sever a l l a ter ones


, ,

shoul d be regar de d not as n al but a s us eful only to


, ,

evoke ideas an d give e xi bili ty to yo ur c on cep ti on o f


the subj ec t T he n al pla n s houl d not be un dert ake n
.

unti l all the ide a s you can evo ke h ave been c olle c te d ,

c l a sh ed together an d weighe d, .

Other m e an s o f evoking id e as may be m entione d ,

though none o f them i s so valu able a s those just sug


geste d One o f the m ost frui tful i s the di s c overy of a
.

gener al an a lo gy between your subje c t an d the l aws whic h


govern i t an d som e other subje c t an d its l a ws I n thi s .

manner all br an che s o f hu man knowle dg e an d s p e cul a


ti on h ave been tr ans for m e d by re al or s u pp ose d an a logi es
to bi ology An alogi es suggest questi ons an d a questio n
.

rightly a s ked i s a p r o blem h alf solve d I n the s am e .


E NGL IS H COMP O SI T I ON I5

w ay c ontr a st may serve to stimul a te questioni ng an d


,

thought

.

3 .Pro c urin s
g p e cial k no wle d g e At so m e tim e e a rly ,

o r l a te ,
i n the c ourse o f thi s p re par a tory work you ,

may feel the nee d o f sp e cia l knowle dg e I f your gener a l .

knowle dg e a n d your p ower o f th i nkin g are goo d you ,

shoul d h ave som e ide a o f where to n d the s p e cia l


i nf or ma ti on you requ ire I f y o u nee d to consult books
.
,

bi bli o gr aphi es may be o f a ssi st an ce U s ing your sour c es .

o f in forma ti on p rop erly i s of no less imp ort an c e th an


n di n g the right s our ces L et your a tti tu d e be c ri tica l
.
,

ac tively re ce p t ive c re a ti ve ,
.

4 S ele ction
. At thi s a n d a t every e a rli er a n d l a ter
.
-

, ,

st age o f your work id e a s an d ma terial n o t sui te d to


,

your gener a l ide a o r to your pl a n o f tre a tm ent must


be reje c te d So m e ide a s will app e a r unt as so o n as
.

c onsid ere d ; oth ers wi ll not manifest the i r un tn ess


unti l l a ter ; so m e not unti l your c omp osi tion is t aki ng
,

or even h a s t aken its n a l f or m Do not hesi t a te ei ther.


,

now or l a ter to s ac ri c e a ny ide a or ma terial not stric tly


,

g er mane to your p urp ose I t t akes cour ag e an d h a r dn ess


.

to d o thi s but the s acric e w ill be rew a rd e d E xc e llen c e


,
.


li ves by s ac ri c e Partia li ty to o ne s o wn ide a s unw ill
.
,

in gn es s to omi t wh a t see m s to h a ve been well thou ght


o r well s aid i s a mai n cause o f d e f or m e d di sp ro p orti one d
, ,


wri ti ng T he mania to tell i t all hi n d ers c le a rness a n d
.

p re ci si on a n d uni ty an d e mp h a si s M oreover a c omp o .


,

s itio n th a t e mp ti es the wri ter r a rely lls the re ad er ; an d

the lees o f a ny subj e c t a re bi tter to the pal a te .


I6 A M ANUAL FO R WRITE RS

O R GAN IZATI ON
IV .

T he two essentia l l aws o f co mp osi ti on a re those o f


f o cu s an d of m ovem ent F ro m these a re d eri ve d the
.

four usu ally sta te d a s fundam ent al those o f uni ty o f , ,

c le arness o f c oherenc e an d o f e mp h a si s b es id es all the


, , ,

mi n o r l aws an d ordi n an ces F o cus is the result o f


.

selec ti on an d o f a rrange m ent M ovem ent i s se cure d .

i n part by a rr an gement an d in pa rt by e xp ressi on .

A rr angem ent or der organi z a ti on is theref ore the


, , ,

m os t imp ort a nt el em ent i n co mp osi ti on O r d er is .

essential for the re ad er f or wi thout i t a c o mp osi ti on


,

i s unre adable a m ere ch a os of fac t s a n d id e a s I t i s


. .

equ ally essential for the wri ter Wi thout i t wr i tin g .


,

be co m es p rac tically imp ossi ble ; a book is not wr i tten


as a whol e but one ch ap te r a t a tim e
,
T he wri ter .

mus t di vid e hi s t a sk i n or d er to ma ster i t an d di vi si on ,

i s imp ossi ble wi thout a rr ange m ent .

Goo d organi z a ti on c o m es not by i nspi r a ti on but


, ,

by careful thi nk in g E ven m en of gen i us a rr an g e an d


.

organiz e thei r work w i th care N a tive t alent o r lon g .

pr ac tic e may gre a tly abridge the p ro ce ss but the p ro c ess ,

i s ne cess a ry B ad organiz a ti on an d c on fuse d a rr ang e ment


.

h av e cause d a s many fai lures a s ha s p overty o f thou ght .

A p l an i s the only means o f se curin g p rop orti on o f ,

avoidi ng superuity an d m e agerne s s a n d w an d er in g .

An ar chi te c t who truste d to i nspi ra ti on r a ther th a n to ,

ca reful thought f or the a rr ang em ent o f the roo m s a n d


,

h alls a n d st ai rw ays an d doors a n d wi n dows o f the


house he w a s bui ldi ng woul d p ro du c e a sorry s tru c ture .
E NGL IS H C OM PO SI T ION I 7

I . F o cus .
As
i t i s the aim o f every c omp osi ti on to
s et f orth so m e g ener a l id e a i t is ne c ess a ry th a t the
,

ma terial shoul d be c hosen a n d a rr a n ge d wi th thi s i n


vi ew T 0 f o cus the ma teria l up on thi s ide a the main
.
,

topic s m ust be a rr ange d i n p rop er or d er ; e ach mu s t be


sub di vid e d i nto i ts subor di n a te pa rts ; an d e ac h main a n d
subor di n a te topic must be gi ven i ts p rop er p rop orti on ,

an d no m ore of space a n d e mp h a s is O ne o f the gre a test


, .

foes o f the gener al ide a i s the subor din ate to pic favore d
by the wri ter f or so m e re a son an d gi ven un due emp h a si s .

Another is the rebelli on of subor din a te id e a s T h acker ay .

a n d others tell us how i n c ti on c h a r ac ters som etim es


, ,

f ollow thei r own bent di sobey the i r ma s ters The youn g


,
.

wri ter n d s th a t id e a s of all sorts d o thi s c ontinu a lly .

But he Shoul d p er mi t rebellion only i n hi s p l an not ,

i n his c o mp osi ti on a n d if he cannot supp re s s the rebel


,

li on he Shoul d yiel d to the vic tors an d p ro du c e a new


,

p l a n F o cus the e xp re s sion of the gener al ide a is im


.
, ,

p ossi ble excep t u p on the b a si s o i deni te p l ann in g .

2 The b egin n ing T he be gi nni ng is one o f the m ost


.
.

imp ort ant parts of a c omp osi tion The l a st thin g one .

le arns i n maki ng a book s ays P a s cal i s wh a t to put r st


, ,
.

T he ol d er rhetoricia ns an d wri ters fa vore d Sp e cia lly


prepa re d begi nni ng s o f ten very re mote f rom the mai n
,

the m e M o d ern wri ters f ollow only one xe d rule :


.

to begi n p ro mp tly

.

3 Th
. e o r d e r o f to p i cs T he ord er o f topic s may be
.

d eter mi ne d by any o n e of a num ber o f p ri n cip les T he .

or d er o f tim e the or d er o f p osi ti on i n spac e the cli mac t ic


, ,
I8 A MANUAL FO R WRI TE RS

order o r the ord er of i n cre a sin g c omplica ti on may d omi


,

n a te T he o n e thi ng n ec ess a ry i s th a t no ne o f the s e


.

p rin ciples s ho uld tyr ann iz e over the wri t er Hi s bu s i .

ne s s i s to have an d to give a c le a r V i ew o f the whol e


an d o f the r el a tions o f the parts I t i s also d esi r a ble
.

th a t the ord er Should b e s u ch th a t e ach pa rt is exp l ai ne d


by wh a t h a s p re c e d e d Som etim e s however c le a rnes s
.
, , ,

o bt ai n a bl e i n thi s w ay m ust be s ac ric e d to se cure


,

s urp ri s e or emp h a s i s
. E ac h to pic e ach id e a s h o ul d be
, ,

plac e d where i t will c on tri bute the gre a test eff ec ti ve


n es s to the o th er s a n d to the who le I n gener a l e a ch id e a
.
,

Shoul d be use d only o nce but a wri t er s hould n ever


,

h es it a te to r ep e a t wh a t n ee d s rep eti ti on

.

4 R e latio ns an d proportion s o f topics


. The s urest
.

m e ans o f giving to topic s th ei r p rope r rel a t i on s a n d


p ro po rti o n s is the f o rma ti on o f a ca ref ul stru c tur a l
p lan of the whole c ompo s i ti on T hi s wi ll kee p h ead s a n d
.

subhe ad s in th ei r p rop er rel a tions and s e cure to them


a ttenti on p rop orti o n a te to thei r imp ort a n c e i n the p resen
tatio n o f the p ri n cipa l id e a Sp e cia l d evic es f or the
.

h an dli n g of dif cult p robl em s of rel a tion and p ro p ortion


i n different f orm s of di s c ourse may be foun d i n a ny goo d
tre a ti se on c omposi tio n

.

5
. M ove m en t Mo vem ent may b e d ef e c ti ve i n e i ther
of two w ays : the wri ter may d r ag the re ad er a lo ng s o
f a st th a t he has not time to s ee wh a t i s shown him or
to re ac t to the new id e as p re s ented ; or he may hi n d er

the re ad er s p rogress by p ointing out i n d et ai l wh a t w a s
alre ady familiar o r wh a t be cam e cle ar a t a Si ngle gl a n c e .
E NGL ISH C O M PO SIT I ON 19

In gener al if the or d er of topic s an d subtopic s i s right


, ,

the m ovem ent o f the c omp osi ti on a s a whole wi ll be goo d ,

unless there a re unusu a lly gr ave d efe c ts o f e xp ressi on


6 The en d T he en d i s a s imp ortant a s the be gi n
.

. .

n in g Like the be gin nin g i t s houl d c om e p romp tly


.
, ,

but the abruptness p e rmi s s ible in a begi nnin g i s r a rely


toler able i n a n end The end may be o f any one of
.

many typ es O f ten i ts fun c ti on i s to summariz e an d e m


.

phasiz e the main the me T he o n e unpar d on able d ef e c t


.

i s to blur o r we aken what p re c e des .

V . E X PR E S S I ON
T o m ost p erson s who a re not i n som e w ay pro fes
sio n ally c on c erne d wi th wri tin g style m e a ns d e c or a tive
,

d et ai l T hi s is pa rtly be cause i n thei r o wn e xp eri en c e


.
, ,

the ma teria ls throu gh which thei r thought n d s e xp res


si on the subor di n a te id e a s which d evelop exp l ai n
, , ,

i llustr a te an d enf orc e the i r gener al id e a are brou ght


, ,

to thei r c ons ci ousness by auto ma tic suggesti on a rr ange d ,

by a uto ma tic p ro cesses o f logic a nd a sso cia ti on an d ,

there f ore seem no t in a ny sense forma l elem ents o f


,

style but m ere ma terials essential an d i nsepar a ble


, ,

parts o f the thought I n a sense thi s i s of c ourse true


.
, .

We d o very li ttle thi nkin g in abstr ac t fo rmul ae Our .

thou ghts are usu a lly no t b a re s keletons but c o mplete


, ,

bo di es o f bone a n d esh But just a s p hysi cal beauty


.

i s dep en d ent not upo n the ski n o nly but no less up on , , ,

the am ount a n d di stri buti on o f the esh an d up on ,

the siz e a s well a s the sh ap e of e ach bone so style i n ,


20 A M ANUAL F OR WRITE RS

li ter a ture is d ep en d ent up on every elem ent o f f or m f ro m ,

the general p l an o r organiz a ti on o f a c o mp o s i tion to the


choic e an d p l ac e o f the s mallest word E xp ressi on i s .

the p erf e cti n g o f thi nki n g A thou ght is not wholly .

born unti l it i s exp ress e d .

VI . DE TAI LS OF COM P OSIT I ON

P a s s i ng to the smaller f e a tures o f a c omp osi ti on ,

we may note th a t the go verni n g p ri n cipl e s a re i n the


main the s ame th a t app ly to the c omp os i ti on as a whole
an d to the larger f e a tures H ere to o the m ost imp ort ant .

ma tter i s arr angem ent organi z a ti on


The par agr aph
.
,

.I A ll l arge c o mp osi ti ons a re di


.
~

vided an d sub di vid ed acc or di n g to the i r len g th a n d


,

c omp lexi ty i nto books parts ch ap ters se c ti ons et c


, , , , ,
.
,

an d agai n s ub di vide d i nto pa r agr ap hs a n d s enten c e s .

N one of these divi si ons has a ny x e d o r st an da r d siz e


or leng th A ll are p l a stic an d may be m o di e d to sui t
.
,

the i nner stru c ture o f the whol e o fwhi c h e ac h is a pa rt .

T he l aws o f all these pa rts are f un dament ally the


s ame ; a nd sin c e they a re parts the l aws a re o f two ,

c l a sses those o f c onne c ti on a n d those o f inn er stru c ture


, .

Co nn ecti ons a re so m etim es mad e e xp li ci tly by m e a ns ,

of li nks i e wor d s p hr a ses senten c es pa r agr ap hs or


,
. .
, , , , ,

c h ap ters as the ca se may be But o f ten the rel a ti on


, .

of the id e a s the m selves i s cle ar enough w i thout e xpli ci t


exp ressi on if they f ollow in the right ord er an d when
, ,

thi s i s not the ca se i nteri or a rr ang e m ent o f ten wi ll


ma ke c onne c t ing li nks unne cess a ry T he best w ay to .
ENGL IS H COM PO SI T I ON 2I

le arn how to c onne c t the sub di vi si on s of a c omp osi tion


is to stu dy care fully the m etho d s o f goo d wri ters notin g ,

where the c onne c ti on i s e xp lici t a n d by wh a t m e an s


i t is mad e an d where i t i s impli ci t i n the id e a s or i n the
a rr angem ent of d et ai ls .

There is no o n e rule f or c onstru c t in g pa r agr ap hs ,

a s there i s none f or c onstru c ting ch ap ters or senten c es .

E fforts to f orm ul a te a sin gle rule a re su cc ess ful only when


they exc lud e from c onsider a ti on a s b ad all examples th a t , ,

do n o t c onf orm to the rule T he p ri n cipa l qu ali ti es to


.

aim a t a re uni ty c oherenc e c le arness a nd e mph a si s


, , ,
.

Uni ty i s l a rgely de p en dent up on exc ludin g in app rop ria te


ide a s ; c oheren c e de p end s u p on a rr angeme nt an d sen
ten c e c onne c ti on ; cle a rness is a fun c ti on o f organ iz a
ti on c onne c ti on senten c e stru c ture gr amma r an d
, , , ,

vo ca bul a ry ; e mp h a si s i s usu ally a ma tter o f climax ,

but even wi thout c limac tic a rr angem ent the end o f the
, ,

pa r agr ap h i s f or p urely m e c ha nica l re a sons the m ost


, ,

emp h a tic p osi ti on .

2 The s ente n ce The essentials o f the senten c e


. .

a re g oo d c onne c ti on soun d or ga niz a ti on a n d c orre c t


, ,

gr amma r To the untr ai ne d wri ter senten c es a re h a r d


.
,

c ryst a lli z e d affai rs When on c e a thought has t aken


.

form i n word s i t seem s p r ac tica lly imp ossible to c h ange


,

i t T he exp eri enc e d wri ter knows th a t a senten c e i s as


.

e a sy to mani p ul a te a s a lu mp of p utty H e can ch ang e .

i ts Sh ap e twi st i t a bout di vid e i t joi n i t wi th another


, , , ,

d o wh a t he wi ll wi th i t F o r style f or eff e c ti ve.


,

ness ski l ful organ iz a ti on o f the senten c e i s even m ore


,
22 A MANUAL F O R WRI TE RS

imp ortant th an c orr ec t gr amma r T he intelli gent re ad er


.

can usu ally c orre c t fa ults of gramma r wi th li ttle eo rt;


b adly c onstru c ted senten c e s can be cure d only by
rewriti ng The genera l p r in cip les of s enten c e stru c ture
.

a re a s h a s been said the s am e as tho s e o f pa r agr ap h


, ,

s truc ture M a ny Sp e cial d evic es of i nterest a n d v a lue


.

a re di scusse d i n books o n c omp o s i ti on Stu dy esp e cia lly .

re ferenc e a nd c onnec ti on the p osi ti o n o f m o diers the


, ,

retenti on o f the subj ec t the us e o fpa r a llel struc ture a n d


,

phr a sin g a nd the r edu c ti on o f p redic a ti on



.
,

3 V
. o cabul ary Word s are the ultima te elem ents o f
.

sp ee ch So import ant i s ca re ful stu dy o f the m th a t style


.

h a s been d ened a s c on s i s ting o f the right wor d s i n the


right p l aces a nd thi s deni ti on is c o rre c t if t aken i n a ll
,

i ts imp lica ti ons .

T he w ay to ac qui re a vo cab ul a ry is to m eet new word s ,

ei ther i n books or i n s pee c h and le arn wh a t they m e a n


,

an d how they a re us ed M any o f us t ake no pai ns to


.

le arn ac cur a tely wh a t a new wor d m e a ns o r how i t i s


use d a nd c onsequ ently there a re l arg e nu mbers of wor d s
,

whi ch we kn ow by sight a s i t w ere but ca nnot use, , ,

be cause we h ave never re a lly kn own the m T o note .

new word s an d then stu dy their me aning s rela ti ons , ,

di stin c ti ons an d u s e s i n dic ti on a ri es tre a ti ses on


, ,

synonym s a nd anto nym s and o ther books o n us age , ,

i s imp er a tive .

The fun dam ental l a w o f l an gu age is us age M u ch .

ha s been wri tten about p rovi n ciali s m s colloquiali s m s , ,



sl ang neolo gi sm s
,
n e wri ti n g
, p oetic dic ti on a n d
, ,
ENGL IS H C O MP O SI T ION 2 3,

the li ke Questi ons o f d et ail must o f c ou rse be t aken u p


.

i n d et ai l but m ost questi ons th a t a ri se wi ll be ren dere d


,

e a si er of solution if we re me mber the b a si s o f the l a w


o f us ag e L anguage i s a so cia l p ro du c t C orre c tne s s
. .

i n l a nguage i s not li ke keepi ng the m or a l l a w or the l a ws


of the state but li ke d ressing p rop erly or beh avi ng
,

p r o p erly Vi ol a ti ons o f us age i n l angu ag e a re li ke



.

vi ol a ti ons o f other so ci al us ag es ih the main o f f enses ,

agai nst c ustom an d g oo d t a ste T here a re d egrees .


,

of c ourse Som e li nguis tic errors a re an alogous to the


.

weari n g o f a ski rt by a man ; others to a ttendin g an


eveni n g pa rty w i thout a c o a t o r a c olla r ; others to
we ari ng a gau dy w ai stc o a t ; a n d s o on Word s a n d .

exp ressi ons tha t a re p er fec tly t f or one o cca si on or


purp ose a re in b ad ta s te f or oth er s

.

4 . R e ady mad e p hr a s e-
s T he hab i t which i njures
one s vo cabul a ry m ost i s the h ab i t of usi ng c ryst alliz e d

phr a ses T hou ght a n d the re a l p hr a sin g of thought


.

soon be c om e imp oss i ble Sl ang is not b ad in i tself ;


.

in dee d mu ch sl an g is f resh vigorous pic turesque a re a l


, , , ,

addi ti on to the resour ce s o f the l an gu age But the us er .

o f sl ang is a user o f re ady mad e phr a ses not a us e r -

o f li vin g wor d s an d he soon be c om es in capable o f


,

any i n d ep en d ent organi z a ti on o f hi s thou ght A d oz en .

c urrent p hr a ses sufc e f or a ll hi s re ac ti ons to the man i


fol d obje c ts a nd inuenc es o f life At rst the use o f the .


re ad y mad e phr a se re ac ts only up on the user s faculty o f
-

exp ressi on but soon his thoughts a nd e m oti ons be c om e


,

as v ague as ill den ed as f or m less as the e xp ress i ons he


,
-
, ,
24 A MANUAL F O R WRITE RS

has cultiva te d the h ab i t o f using Thi s result i s n o t


.

p e culia r to sl an g ; i t i s n o t a t all due to the un co n ven


tio nal c h a r ac ter o f Sl an g but r a ther to its c onventi ona l
,

use ; i t is just a s mu ch to be f e are d i n c onne c ti on wi th


the hab i tual use o f quotatio ns o r o f an y c o nventi on a l
j a r gon
5 R evis ion M u c h wri ti n g i s d one un der s u c h c on
.

. .

ditio n s tha t c orre c ti on o r r evis i on i s imp ossi ble


. A nyone
who h abi tu ally wri tes under these c ondi ti ons m ust le arn
to thi nk r apid ly an d cle arly an d must red u c e the or gan i
z atio n a n d exp ressi on o f his id e a s to auto ma tic p ro c ess es
.

Wri tin g o f very hi gh qu ali ty can be p ro du ced an d i s


daily p rodu c ed in thi s w ay The wri ter whos e am b i ti on
.

i s lim i ted to bei ng a li ter ary a rti s a n m ust tr ai n him sel f


to th ese r apid automa tic p ro c esses But even he wi ll
.

imp rove hi s p ro du c t a nd his p ower o f p ro du c ti on if , ,

when o cca si on p ermi ts he will p r ac tic e revi sion a n d


,

reorganiz ati on .

The wri ter who wi shes to be c o m e a n a rti st m ust


d evote m u ch o f his a ttenti on an d ener gy to reor ga niz a
ti on co rre c ti on a nd rewr i tin g I d e a s an d l an gu age a re
, ,
.

i nd ee d p l a stic and the ma ster ca n do wh a t he w ill w i th


them but even he m ust o f ten rewr i te a page ma ny tim es
, ,

an d the novic e cann ot le a rn the a rt w i tho ut givin g


hi s days an d nights to p roblem s o f rem od elin g a n d
re p hr a si ng .
CHA PTER II

GRAMM AT I CAL N O TE S

A gr amma r o f a l an gu age is a systema tic acc ount o f


i ts stru c tur a l l aws a s est a bli she d by us age L ogic an d .

gr ammar a re c losely rel a te d an d lingui s tic us age ten d s


,

to be c om e logica l ; but the two s ci en c es di ffer funda


m ent ally L ogica l p ro c esses h ave no rela ti on to tim e ;
.

they never we a r n o r w a rp nor be c om e dis torte d ; they


, ,

be a r no ma rk o f pa st us e A l an gu age li k e a livin g
.
,

c re a ture be ars i ts whole hi story in its own bein g ; i t


,

is wh a t i t i s to day be cause o f wh a t i t did an d was y es


terday . U s age is the n al l aw o f l a ngu age a nd vi ol ati ons
,

of u s ag e though they may on o cca s i on be justia ble


, ,

a re li ngui stic errors Wh a t was on c e an error may b e


.

c om e us ag e ; i t then c e a ses to b e an error an d be c om es


.

c orre c t E xamp les o f thi s tr ans fo r ma ti on a re num er


.

o us : the rst d i n s o un ded w a s on c e a n e rr o r o f the s am e

sort as the rst (I i n dro wn ded; the I i n if I pleas e w a s


on ce a n error f or me L ogic an d a n a logy a re uns afe
.

guides i n gr amm ar ; they le ad one a right only where


they h ave a lre ady been i n c orp or a te d i n us age .

Gr amm a r c onsi sts o f a c ert ai n nu m ber o f genera l


f orm s and l aws o f very wid e va lidi ty an d a c ert ain
,

nu m ber of sp e cia l ca ses e xc ep tion a l form s a nd u s ages


, ,

an d idio m s a ll of the m re c or d s an d results o f cert ain


,

parts o f the lif e hi story o f the l an gu age Sca r c ely any


-
.

25
26 A M ANUAL FO R WRI TE RS

tre a ti se on E ngli s h gr amma r is ex hausti ve enough to gi ve


all the det ails c onc erni ng whi c h wri ter s o cca s i on ally w i sh
i nforma ti on Here a s we h a
. ve s pac e f or b ut a f ew
, ,

we Sh a ll p re sent only s u ch a s e xp erie n c e Shows to be i n


nee d o f s pecial emp h as i s .

I . NO U NS
I. A ttention sho ul d be given to i rre gul ar
M ur als
p lura ls an d to exc ep tion al uses o f s ingul a r a n d p lur a l
f orm s Li s t s w ill be f ound i n all gr amma rs
. .

2 .Poss es s ive s T he ten d en cy to tre a t a wor d


.

group a s a whole i s ca rried o ut p erfe c tly i n the p oss essive


ca se T he p ossessive en di n g is a tt ac he d to the l a s t
.

word of the group however l a rge the g rou p may b e :


,


the King o f E ngl an d s c rown Jo nes the h a tter s

,


Smi th an d Brown s sho p

house ,
C o mpa re the .


p lur al s o n s i n law wi th the p ossess ive s on in law s
- - - -
.

Sc hola rs now generally re co gn i z e th a t the p ossess ive o f

s o m ebo dy [ so m eone a nybo dy a nyone] e l s e



,
i s f orm e d ,

by a tt aching the p os s es s ive sign to the en d o f the



g r o up : som ebo dy e ls e s N ote th a t when se pa r a te
.

ownership is to be i ndica te d s epa r a te po s ses s ive fo rm s ,



mus t be u s e d : Smi th s an d B rown s hors e s .

The p ossessive f orm i s gener a lly u s e d only of p er



sons or animals but we s ay a day s work
, a night s
,


rest a yea r s vaca t ion


, .

3 C.o lle ctive noun s C olle c tive nouns a re g r am


matically Sin gula r s but may be tre a te d as p lur a ls if
,

i ndi vidu a l ra ther th an c olle c tive ac tion is to be e xp resse d :


GR AMMAT I CAL NOTE S 27


T he c ommi ttee i s p re pari ng its re p ort but : T he ,

c ommi ttee wi ll not trouble their he ad s a bout your di s


app rova l I n no ca se is in c onsi stency o f tre a tm ent
.


a llow a ble T he c ommi ttee have g one to thei r roo m
'


a n d i s p repa ring i ts rep ort ; Samar ia f or their sins , ,


i s destroye d .

E xp ressi ons of qu anti ty a nd multip le s o f num bers ,

when formi ng a S in gle ide a a re tre a te d as S in gul a r : ,


T en doll a rs is a low p ric e ; T hi s f ty dolla rs i s


yours ; Three t im es three is ni ne

I t see m s best .

to c onstrue the sum o f two or m ore num bers in the s am e


w ay : T hree a n d four i s [or makes ] seven

.

N ouns p lural in form but S ingul a r in m ea ning a re


n o t c o lle c t i ves but are c onstrue d a s s in gul a r ; su ch a re :
,

news ,
a thletic s p hysic s ma thema tic s etc
, , ,
.

II . P R ONOU N S
I n the use o f p ronouns c onst ant care i s ne cess a ry to ,

p revent amb igui ty : H e told the c o ac hman th a t he
woul d k ill hi m if he w a s not ca reful O f ten a s here .

, ,

the only w ay to a vo id am bigu i ty i s to c h ang e in di re c t



di s c ourse into di re c t John Smi th the s o n of the
.
,

mayor who was k i lle d a t San Ju an was my best fri en d ;


, ,

thi s i s enti rely am biguous an d shoul d be reca st .


I t Shoul d not be use d ca relessly : I t was pi tiful to
he a r hi s c on fess ion ; I p romi se d tha t no use should be
mad e o f i t but he insi s te d up on i t th a t he m ust tell a ll
,

a bout i t In g ener a l i t i s da ngerous to all ow a ny noun


.

to c o m e between a p ronoun a nd i ts ante c e d ent .


28 A M AN UAL F O R WRITE RS

The use of the obje c ti ve af te r ni te for m s o f the


co pul a i s c omm on in sp ee ch but not a llow a ble i n a style

wi th a ny p retenti ons to ele gan ce : I t i s me [I ]

It is
him et c .

Who for who m i s c olloqu ial an d careless Who m f or .

who i n Who m do you thin k I am " an d



I did not
know who m he w a s i s due to an unenlightene d eff ort

a t c orre c tness O ne e xc ep tio n al u s e however may be


.
, ,

noted : the phra se than whom i s i n goo d use i nste ad o f


than who :

M r Jones than who m there i s no m ore
.
,


co mp etent judge et c ,
.


In li ke m anner John an d me went i s in c orre c t an d
,


a vulga ri sm whi le T hey went w i th John an d I
,
Keep ,


i t between you an d I whic h a re equ a lly c ommon an d
,

equ ally in c orre c t a re due to the eff ort to be c orre c t


,
.


Af ter let s a sup eruous i ts is o f ten i nserte d : L et s


us g o .

Som e spe cial difculti es wi th relati ve p ronouns may


be m enti one d The comm onest i s the use o f and who
.


o r and wh i ch when no rel a t ive h a s p re c e de d : He
intro du ce d m e to a very n e p layer f rom E ngl an d an d

who h ad won many m e da ls there ; H e picke d u p a
book lying on the w ind ow s ea t and which I h ad not

se en be fore . As an d c onne c t s only ele m ents o f the
s am e order su ch e xp ressi on s a re obvi ously i n co rre c t
, .

Another error consi sts in shif tin g f rom which to that or


f ro m that to whi ch; for the s ake o fc le a rness a n d elegan c e

the s am e form shoul d be used i n pa r a llel cl auses : A man
who m you can trust a n d that [who m] every bo dy likes .

GRAMMAT I CAL N OTE S 29

Another c omm on error is d ue to c on fus i on o f ante



ce d ents : He i s one o f the best s chola rs th a t goes [go]

to our s chool .

T he exc essive use o f rel a ti ve cl a uses o f ten results i n


he aviness a nd slowness of m ove m ent T he rem e dy i s .

to substi tute word s or p hra ses for the cl auses wherever


th i s i s p oss i ble .

In d en i te p ronouns (a n d adj e c ti ves) gi ve li ttle


trouble exc ep t in the case of the di stri buti ves any
, , ,

every each
, . Sin c e these a re a ll sin gular p ronoun s tha t ,

refer to the m must be sin gula r : E very man must hear

his o wn burd ens ;

E veryone did a s he p le a se d .

III . ADJ E CTIV E S


T wo topic s requi re di s cussion :
I . T he artic le shoul d be rep e a te d wi th two or m ore
c onne c te d nouns or adje c ti ves when separ a te p er s ons or

thi ng s are m e ant : H e h ad a black an d whi te ti e

me ans th a t he had one ti e whi ch was black an d whi te ;



He h ad a black a nd a whi te t i e m e an s th a t he h ad
a black ti e an d a whi te one The s am e rule should be
.

observe d wi th the his her thi s an d other d em ons tr a


, , , ,


tives : The se c retary a n d tre a surer in di ca tes o n e


p erson ; The se c ret a ry a n d the tre a surer i ndica tes
two But where the two thi n gs a re c lo sely c onne c te d
.

o r where no c on f us i on can a ri se us ag e a llows the use o f


,

only o n e d e m onstra tive wor d : T he l aws o f the M e des

an d Persians ; H e love s his fa ther a nd m other ; H e
i nvi te d all the boys a nd girls .

30 A MANUAL F OR WRITE RS

On the other h a nd when there is no p ossi b ili ty of


,

amb igui ty the a rt icl e is o f ten r ep e a te d for e mph a s i s :


,

He is a g entleman an d a s c ho l a r ; H e w as a c ruel
,

a tre acherous an d a relentle s s foe



.
,

2 .When speakin g o f two p ersons or thing s n o t the ,


sup erl a tive but the c ompa ra t ive Should b e us e d : Thi s
,

i s the better o f the two When any p erson o r th in g


.

is compa red wi th o th er s o f the s am e c l a ss o ther must be ,


use d to exclud e the p erson or thin g c ompa re d : H e i s
qu icker th an a ny o ther b o y on the te am .

Wi th s up erl atives the p ro p er wo rd to us e i s not any , ,



but all: I t is the l ar ge st ca na l o fan y [ a ll] in the worl d ;

I t i s the best fru i t o f any

IV . VE RB S
I . Agree ment A verb shoul d agree wi th i ts s ubje c t
i n num b er an d i n p erso n .

In E ngli sh two S i ngul a r subje c ts c onne c te d by ei ther


o r (or n ei ther n o r) t a ke the verb i n the

s ingul a r : E i th er he or she go es to town every day .

C omp oun d subj ec ts requ i re p lur a l verbs a s a rule ;


but i f the subje c t is a single id e a the verb may be ,

s i n gul ar : Bre ad an d mi lk is a ll She can eat
A .

p lur a l subje c t if rega rd e d as f ormi n g a sin gle qu anti ty


, ,

may be tre a te d a s si n gula r : T en mi les i s noth in g to

h im ; but : T en men are here

.

Phra ses joi ne d to the s ubje c t by with or as well as


d o not affe c t the num ber of the s ubje c t or the verb :

John wi th hi s two b rothers was there .



GRAMMAT I CAL NOTE S .

3 1:

T he gre a test cause of l ack o f agreem ent of the verb


wi th i ts subje c t i s the o ccurren c e between the two o f a
lon g e xp ressi on cont ain in g o n e or m ore wor d s differ in g

i n nu m ber from the subje c t : The cause o f all hi s
troubles wi th the workm en are [i s] h i s c onst ant d e man d s
f or e x tr a wor
T wo or m ore subje c ts differi ng in p erson if c onne c te d,

by o r t ake the verb form requi re d by the subjec t ne a rest


,

the verb :
Do you or he know the p l ace "
She


o r I go to s ee h i m every day ; Do es he or I help you

m ost " But when su ch senten ces s oun d a wkw a rd



they s hould be re c onstru c te d : H e or I am a t hom e all

day whi le corre c t i s better a void e d
, ,
.

T he cop ul a ag rees wi th the subje c t even if the ,


p re dica te i s o f a different p erson o r nu mber : I am

he ; Yo u are he ;

The many comp l aints are the

cause o f hi s le aving ; T he cause o f hi s le aving i s

the many c omp l ai nts ; The three are one .

T he explet ive (or Sham) s ubjec t i t t akes i ts p re dica te



in the thi rd p ers o n sin gul a r : I t i s I I t is o ur f ri end s

who wrong us .

T he e xp letive there is not a Sh am subje c t an d d oes



not aff e c t the num ber o f the verb : T here are ten .

2 O mis s ion o f the s ub j ect In adverbia l c l auses


.

o f manner a n d d eg ree the Subje c t i s o f ten omi tte d :

Geor ge re ce i ve d these p resents gr aciously a s be cam e ,



hi s sup eri or m eri t ; I guessed an d as a lways h app ens

, ,

guesse d wrong ; AS may be imagin e d we were ,

f rightene d ; We set o ut as happy a s c ould be ; A s


'
32 A M ANUAL F OR WRI TE RS

sur e a s can be here he c om es ,


But the o mi ssi on o f
.

the s ubj ec t of an i n dep en dent c l au s e i s b ad E n gli s h :

Wen t to to wn ye s terday Saw an a erop lan e . .


3 .S h am o b j e ct In vulgar an d co lloqui a l E n g li sh
.


many verbs take a s ham obj ec t i t: Yo u wi ll ca t c h i t

ho t ;

I h a ve mad e i t up w ith him ; Yo u a re t akin g


i t e as y ;

He i s goin g i t p retty f a st ; He h ad rou ghe d

i t all his li f e T his locuti on alm o st a lway s has a


.

collo quia l ton e .

4 .T ense s It shoul d b e note d th a t the p r es ent


p erfe c t ten s e i s not a pa st but a p resent ten se I t .

makes a s t a te ment f ro m the p oint o f V i ew of the p re sent ,

though being a p erf e c t tense i t i s c on cerne d onl y wi th


, ,

ac tion th a t is co mplete d th a t i s th a t o ccurr ed i n the


, ,


pa st : I s aw hi m is a st a tem ent concernin g the pa s t ;

I have s een him is a s t a tement co n c erni ng the p r esent



.

and therefore mu s t n o t b e u s ed wi th a ny ter m in di



ca ting a p oint o f V i ew o f the pa st I have s een your .


f a ther yester day is not goo d E ngli sh I n ever s aw .


a better ca r is a gener a l denia l wi th r egar d to pa s t

ac ti o n ; I have n ever s een a better ca r covers the s am e

f ac ts but impli es the p re s ent as the b a se or p oint o f


,

ref eren c e

.

5 .C on ta m i n a te d tense f or ms C ar el ess Sp e ak ers


-
.

som etimes p ro du ce i ncorr ec t f or m s o f the verbs th a t a re



due to c ontami n a tion : I w i sh you had have gone ;

I would have let him go n e


'

6 S e quen ce o f ten s e s In g ener a l the u s ag e i n re


.

gar d to the tenses o f subordi n a te c l auses i s c lea r a n d well


GRAMMAT I CAL NOTE S 33

un derstoo d But a gener a l truth is of ten wron gly put


.

i n the pa st tense i n a subor din a te c l ause dep en d ent



up on a verb i n the pa st tense : Ke a ts s aid tha t be auty
was [i s] truth

.

7 The s ub j un ctive
. T he subjun c ti ve is use d in
.
-

i n d ep en d ent c l auses :
a) I n the p resent tense to e xp ress a wi sh f or the ,

f uture : Go d help u s "



L ong li ve the ki ng "

b) I n the pa st tense to e xp ress an imp ossible wi sh


,

wi th re ga r d to the p re s ent : O h th a t he were here now "


c) I n the pa st
,

p erf e c t tense to e xp ress an imp ossi ble ,

wi sh wi th re gar d to the pa st : O h th a t I had been there "



,

In subordi n a te cl auses the subjunc tive i s li ttle used


,

i n current E ngli sh T he only f orm in regula r use i s the


.

pa st tense o f the verb be to e xp re ss a c on di ti on untrue



i n the p resent : If he were here I should not be af r aid ,
.

But i n p oetry an d eleva te d p ros e the subjun c tive i s use d ,

i n clau s es o f c ondi ti on c on cess ion or purp ose an d in


, , ,

temp or a l cl auses rel a tin g to the future : I f thi s be true ,


make the be s t o f i t ; T hough H e s lay m e yet w ill I

,


trust Him ;
Take hee d lest he n d you sleepin g ;

I wi ll depa rt ere he co me up on m e .

8 The impe rative It may be note d th a t a con di


. .

tion may som et imes be p resente d vi vid ly by the us e



of the imp er a tive : S tri p a kin g of hi s robes an d he ,


S pare the ro d an d s po i l
: 3
is but a ma n l ike ourselves .


the c h il d.

9
. T h e in n itiv e
T he
. in n i t ive has tensef orm s but ,

they exp ress not the tim e but the st age of the ac tion
, ,
.
34 A MANUAL FO R WRI TE RS

F ai lure to r eco gni z e thi s is resp on s i b le f or o n e o f the


c omm onest error s in the u s e o f the inn i ti ve T he .

p res ent inn i tive m er ely indi ca tes th a t the ac ti o n


exp ressed is in co mp le te a t the tim e i n di ca te d by the
pri n cipa l verb ; the p erfe c t i nn i tive th a t i t i s c o mp lete
,

a t the tim e of the p ri n cipal verb : I am gl ad to s ee

you ; I am glad to have s een you ;

H e tol d him to


go ; He is reported to have gon e I t is e vid ent th a t
.

the p er f e c t i nn i ti ve cannot be us ed af ter verbs o f p ur

po s e o r anticipa tio n C onsequently a ll s u ch sent en ces


.


as the f o ll owin g a re i n c o rr ec t : I int en d ed to have


go n e ; I hop ed to have s een him ; I e xp e c te d to have
been ther e But wi th o ught the p erf ec t i nn i ti ve may
.

be u sed even though the ac t io n cannot b e con c e i ve d a s


,


c omplete d b ef ore the obliga tion b ecam e va lid : They
were a ske d to go an d they ought to have gon e .

Am bigu i ty of ten ari se s f rom the ca reless use of in n i



tives : He s aid th a t he wi shed to take his f ri en d wi th
him to vis i t the capi ta l an d to s tudy m ed cine Am b i
i

.

gui ty may som etime s be re m e di e d by the i nserti o n o f


exp lici t c onnec ti ves ; but o f ten the am b iguou s senten c e
must be recas t
P articiples P a rticip les Shoul d a lw ays be at
.

Io . .


tached to so m e noun o r p ronoun : Go in g ho m e I f oun d

a dim e ; T he leader havin g been killed the rebel s e d , .

A very c omm on erro r c ons i sts i n usin g a pa rticipia l



phra se wi th no a tt ach ment : Gettin g no rep ly i t was ,

c le a r th a t we had b een d e c eive d ; Op en ing the d oor ,

the ol d ch ai r c ould e a s i ly be seen .



GRAMMAT I CAL NO TE S 35

Sin c e a participia l p hr a se is d evoid of rel a t ion a l


i n dica tions am b igui ty som etim e s ari s e s unless the rel a
,

ti on i s c le arly in di ca te d by an adverb :
While go ing

hom e I he a r d a f rightful no i se
,
.

II The ge run d T he gerun d or verb a l noun i n

. .
,

i ng o f ten c losely resem bles the p resent pa rt icip le


, .

M any p ersons a re c onf use d by thi s rese mbl an c e an d a re



a t a loss to know whether to s ay : I w a s af r aid o f hi s

d e c e ivin g m e or I w a s af raid o f hi m d e cei vin g m e
,

.

A f ter a p ronoun or a simp le noun us age favors the ,

f or m er But there a re inst an c es i n whi ch the p ossessive


.

f ollowe d by the gerun d woul d be awkw a r d an d i n these ,

ca ses care ful wri ters use the obje c ti ve f ollowe d by the

pa rticip le : There i s no su c h thin g as a l angu age

beco min g corrup t ; H e s aw the p r o p ri ety o f the style


bein g fas hio n ed to the ma teria l .

I t shoul d be note d th a t the noun in in g when p re -

c e d e d by the a rticle (d en ite or in d en i te) lo s es i ts


-

verb a l f un c tions a n d requi res a p rep osi ti on to s how i ts



rela t ion to a noun o r p ronoun followi ng i t : T he nding

of the c o mpa ss w a s the i r s a lv a ti on ; The clo s ing of the

door w a s the S ign al agree d up on .

12 . The copula T he verb be when i t m erely c on


.

n ects i ts subje c t w i th i ts p re di ca te c omp lem ent is ,

ca lle d the li n k verb or co pula Si n ce i t m erely c onne c ts


-
.
,

wi thout e xp ressi ng an ac ti on i ts p redica te comp lem ent


,

belon gs to the subje c t an d is in the nomin a t ive ca se .


So we s ay : I t is I I t i s they
,

A m erry old s o ul ,

w a s he . I f the p redica te comp lem ent i s a m o di er o f



36 A M ANUAL F O R WRI TE RS

the subje c t i t is usu a lly an adj ec ti ve a s H e was late
, , , ,


Be quick" But the co mp lement may be an ad verb


(or an adverb p hra se) o f p l ace : I wa s thereyesterday ,

He w a s in the wreck .

I3 Copul ative verb s Su ch verbs a s s eem appear


. .
, ,

loo k feel tas te s mell s ou nd beco me remain con tin ue


are of ten use d as link
, , , , , , ,

verb s ; but i n addi ti on to c onne c t


i ng the subje c t an d the p redi cate c omp le m ent they st a te
the n a ture o f the c onne c ti on T he wor d use d after su ch .

verbs to e xp ress the qu a li ty o f the subje c t i s not an



adverb but an adje c t ive : I t s eem s go od
,
I t app e a rs ,


i mp o ssi ble

H e look s ill
, H e f eels ill I t tastes , ,

s o ur , The ower s s m ell s weet The bell soun d s ,

hars h She re maine d s ad

I t be cam e dark
, Yo u , ,


She k ep t qui et

c ontinue d s ilen t ,
He turne d pale , ,

He went craz y Wi th s o m e of these verbs thi s con


.

struc ti on origin a te d by the omi ss i on of the co mp le



m entary inni ti ve to be ; w i th others by the omi s
,

si on o f a ree xi ve p ronoun as obje c t Som e re c ent .

wri ters h ave use d i n the s am e w ay many other verbs ,

simil a r i n m e anin g to these : The le aves tou che d co o l



,

et c ; but su ch us age is bol d an d Should be le f t to the


.

e xp eri en c e d wri ter .

O f c ourse these verbs may t ake an adverb to e xp ress


i
a m od ca ti on o f the ac t ion e xp resse d by the verb : H e


ill
f elt dden y
s u l ; I t be cam e gradually da rk ; She


remaine d long si lent .


I4 S hall an d
.

af rma ti ve senten c es ,

sh all in the rst p erson s ign ies e xp e c t an cy future ,


GRAMMAT I C AL NOTE S 37

ac ti on ; i ts m e ani n g is reverse d in the se c on d an d thi r d


p ersons an d signi es determi n a tion on the pa rt o f the
,

sp e aker ; will in the rst p erson s ignies will in gness


, ,

o r d etermi n a ti on or p ro mi se ; i n the se con d an d th i r d



p ersons i t signi es m erely future ac ti on : I [o r we]

sh all go to town w i th h im ; He [o r you they] wi ll g o

,

to town w i th him (both these senten c es e xpress future



ac ti on) . I [or we] will go to town wi th him He ,

[o r you they] s hall go to town wi th him e xp res s



,

determina ti on or a p romi se on the part o f the sp e aker .

In i nterroga t ive senten ces will (or wo uld) i s used in ,

the rst p erson only in re p e a tin g a questi o n add resse d


to the sp e aker ; in the s e c on d p erson i t consults the wi sh
o f the p erson add resse d a nd i n the thi rd p erson i nqui re s
,

c onc erni ng the future ac ti on o f the p erson (s ) s p oken


of

Will I [o r we] go to town w i th you " i s imp o s s ible

excep t in rhetorica l rep eti tion o f a questi on addre s se d to


the Sp e aker ; Will you go to town wi th m e

cons ults
the wi sh o f the p erson or p ersons add resse d or a sks for
a p romi se ; Will they go to town wi th m e P i nqui res
'

c on c ernin g future ac ti on .

S hould an d wo uld f ollow the rules for s hall an d will:



I [or we] s hould travel if I h ad the m e ans He [or you ,

,


they] wo uld tr avel if he had the m e ans both exp ress

c onc lusi on m erely as a fac t I [o r we] wo uld tra vel
.
,


if I h ad the m e ans He [or you they] s ho uld tr avel

'

, ,

if I h ad the m e an s both exp ress a d e ci s i on or a tti tu d e


o f the s p e aker S hould must never be use d in the sense


.



o f to

: I w an t y o u s ho uld [to ] go to town ; i t may
,
38 A MANUAL FO R WRI TE RS

however be use d i n the sense o f ought to
,
M y wi f e :

s ho uld [ ought to ] a rr ive soon



.

T he u s e o f s hould a nd wo uld in in di r ec t di s c ourse i s


in gener al determine d by the fo rm use d i n the s p ee c h
reporte d ; but there are many s ubtle ti e s whic h ca n be
le a rned only by care ful a nd minute ob s erva tion .

V . ADV E RB S
1 . negatives
Do uble In Old an d M idd le E n g li s h
.

d oubling o r trebling a n ega ti ve m erely strengthene d i t ,

but the in uen ce of La tin an d the d omi n an ce o f logic


h ave cause d the reje c ti on of thi s idi om fro m En gli sh
wri ting I t is s till he ar d in the Sp ee ch o f c hi l dr en an d
.

of the une du ca te d who s ay wi th emp h a tic intenti on :


,

He n ever did no thing wron g to n o bo dy Double .


nega tives cancel e ach other in su ch p hr a ses as n o t impas


s ible n o t un li kely et c C areless .

wri ter s s ti ll u se e xpr ess i ons in which a n e xp r e sse d ne ga



t ive c oni c ts wi th another exp resse d or im p lie d : T he ,

woman does n t l ive who is n o t afr aid to be a lone i n the
o p en n o t even o n the brightest day

Adverb s re s e mblin g a dj ectives M a ny adverbs


, .

2 . .

h ave the s am e for m a s the corresp on di ng adje c ti ves .

Som e o f thes e had i n e arli er E ngli s h the adverb ia l


en ding e which h a s s in c e been dropp e d ; su c h a re :
,

fas t low lo ud lo ng an d many other s So m e origina te d


, , , , .

by ana l o gy wi th these some i n other w ays H e f ou ght


, .


hard Go s lo w

, He w a lke d fas t
, L ove m e lo n g ,

,


H e t alke d lo ud I bought i t cheap are goo d E n gli sh
,

.
GR AMMAT I CAL NO TE S 39


Se curi ty i n the use o f these

a t ad verbs can be
a tt aine d only by careful observa ti on o f idio ma tic sp ee c h
an d wri tin g .

3
. R e d u n d an t par ti cles Wi th some verbs up is
use d a s an adverb (or a separ a ble partic le) to e xp ress

c omp leteness of the ac ti on a sserte d by the verb : H e

shot up the town The strikers ti e d up the r ai lw ay
, ,


H e cleane d up the gan g H e intend s to rest up
,


be fore be ginnin g hi s duti es All the s e e xp ressi ons a s
.
,

wi ll be note d a re c olloqu ia l if not vul ga r In others


, ,
.
,

mad e on the s am e m o del up se em s to add nothin g to ,


the m e anin g o f the verb : a s cen d up ; bree d up ;

mix up ; freshen up ; Op en up .

O ther adverbs or pa rtic les a re use d in the s am e w a y :


, ,


follow after ;
conne c t [o r jo in] together ; so f ten ,


do wn ;
e xamine in to ; acc ep t a But eup hony
o r rhyth m so m etim es just ies su c h f orm s .


4 . Like
. In su ch senten ces a s
-
She sin g s li ke a
b ir d,

Wh a t i s the use o f ta lk in g li ke tha t " H e

w alks like him like i s an adverb wi th p rep osi ti on a l


,

f or c e Ca reless wri ters an d s pe akers use like as a


.


c onjun c tion wi th the f or ce o f as : Dre adin g thi s day

li ke I use d to dre ad Sun day ; Do i t li ke I d o
T hi s .

us ag e i s very slovenly .

VI . P RE PO SITION S
The p re pos i tions most o f ten c onfuse d in use a re at
an d to by an d wi th i n an d i n to
,
C are ful stu dy shoul d
,
.

be given to thes e an d to the sta nda r d form s o f su ch


40 A M ANUAL FO R WRI TE RS
N
phra ses as wi th rega rd to wi th a vi ew to c ompa re ,
n
,


to,

compare with agree to agree wi th
,

di ff er ,

,


fro m
diff er wi th
,

different fro m (not to or than )
,

,


di s appo inted by di s app ointe d in
,

T he corre ct a n d .

idioma tic u s e o f p rep osi ti on s i s very h a rd to l ea rn ;


but there a re f ew subj ec ts wh ich wi ll better repay the
Ca reful stu dent o f l angu ag e .

V II . C ONJU NC TI ON S
I . A ttenti on Shoul d be given the di st in c ti on to
b etween and an d but an d to th a t between and an d o r ,
.

C areles s n es s may c au s e inel egan c e or even o b s cur i ty :



I did not s ee Thomas and [or] Jo hn He s ees the ,

right an d [but] d oes the wro ng .


2 Ei ther
. or n ei ther no r a re c orrela
,

tive conjun c ti on s C are s hould be t ak en th a t e ac h


.

m em ber o f the pai r use d be p l ac e d i n the s am e rel a ti ve


p os i tio nth a t is b efo re the s am e pa rt o f s p e ech T he
,
.


f ollowi ng is wrong : I c ould n ei ther s ee him n o r his

f a ther Never u se either
. n o r or n ei ther

o r as c orr e l a t i ves .

T he rule ju s t given for the p o s i ti on o f ei ther


o r n ei ther
, n o r hold s g oo d f or all o ther c orrel a t ives ;

th a t is S in ce they are correl a tive i n f orm they s ho ul d


, ,


be correl a tive in p o s i tion als o So we may s ay : It .


belong s bo th to you an d to m e or I t belong s to bo th ,

you and m e but n o t I t belon gs bo th to you an d m e ;
,

fo r i n the l as t e xamp le the p osi ti on o f the two m em bers


o f the correla tive pai r i s not simi l a r I n li ke ma nner .
,
GRAMMAT I C AL N OT E S 41

H e n o t o nly gave m e a ticket but als o lent m e ve



d olla rs i s corre c t whi le N at o nly he ga ve m e a ticket
,

but als o lent m e ve d ollars i s in c orre c t



.

E ven wri ters who a re ca reful about correlati ve word s


som etim es vi ol a te the p ri ncip le o f c orrelative arr a nge

m ent in the ca se o f he adi ng s o r sub divi si ons : Henc e
our di s cussi on fa lls un d er two he ad s : (a) T he rel a ti on
o f the envi ronm ent to inventi on ; (b) to the sele c tion

or so cia li z a ti on o f i nventi ons Thi s obviously should
.


be : Henc e our di s cussion fa lls un d er two he ad s : The
rel a ti on of envi ronm ent (a) to inventi on ; (b) to the sele c

ti on or so cializ a ti on o f inventions .

3 One o f the c ommonest causes o f a loose a nd


.

sh am blin g style is the exc essive use o f c omp oun d sen


ten ces . The re m e dy i s to re constru c t su ch senten c es .

Thi s may be d one by omi tting c onjunc ti ons by ch angin g ,

one o f the clauses into a p hr a se or by subordin a tin g


,

one o f the c l auses A li ttle pr ac tic e in su ch ch anges


.

wi ll gre a tly in cre a se the wri ter s sk i ll an d p ower o f


c ontrol .

M I SCE LLAN E OU S NO TE S
I. In verte dr de r The usu a l or der of the de cl ar a
o .

tive sentenc e is o f ten le gi tima tely i nverte d f or emph a si s


or f or rhyth mica l re a sons An abuse o f thi s p r ac tic e is
.

c urrent no w wi th c ertai n magaz ine wri ters who, p erhap s ,

in uen c e d by lega l form s h ave mad e a manneri sm o f


,

su ch exp ressions a s C om es John an d s ays ; C am e

a day when he was no longer a ble to w a lk .
42 A
'

M ANUAL FO R WRI TE RS

2. The in dir ect ques ti o n in dire c t questi on i s .



A n

not rhetorica lly a questi on an d co nse quently Shoul d not ,


be f ollowe d by a question ma rk I a s ke d whe ther .

he could go wi th me " i s i n c orre c tly p unc tu a te d

should ha ve a p eri o d i nste ad o f a n i nterro ga ti on p oint) .

3 .T h e po s it i on o f m o diers M o diers whether .


,

s ingle wor d s or phr a ses or c l aus es requ ire a ttenti on


, , ,
.

I n s p ee ch we a re o f ten ca reless a s to the p osi ti on o fthe m ;


i n wri tin g careles sne s s on thi s p oint of ten gi ves ri s e to
,

amb iguous or absurd exp ressio ns :


I o n ly s aw him .

Wh a t does this me an " M oss grows o n the roof als o ;


Wante d a c omf ortable r o om for two b achelors wi th


,


s team heat ;

O ne o f the la r gest cave s i n I ndia na ,

whi ch has o nly been di s co vered recen tly i s i n Posey ,


C ounty . In gener al m o diers should be ke p t c lose to
,

the wor d or phr a se o r cl ause which they m o dify If


, ,
.

giving a m odier su ch a p osi tion results in awkw ar dness ,

the s enten ce Sho ul d be re co nstru c te d .

A n appa rent e xc ep ti on to the gener a l rule tha t a


m o dier sho uld b e p l ac e d a s close a s p ossi ble to the wor d
i t m o dies is fo und in c onne c ti on w i th the in n i ti ve .

Goo d wri ters avo id p laci n g a ny word between the to


a nd the verb to whic h i t belong s a n d p uri sts a re vi olent ,

i n th ei r o pp osi ti on to thi s s o calle d s pli t or c le f t in ni-

, ,

tive There are however few wri ter s who h ave not
.
, , ,

a t s o m e tim e ei ther c arelessly or p ur p osely been gu i lty


, ,

o f thi s inelega nc e ; a nd p erh ap s the m ost tha t can be


s aid about i t i s th a t sinc e i t is seld o m ne c ess a ry o r
,


justiable i t should be avoid e d if p ossi ble :
, It is
GR AMM AT I C AL NOTE S 43

diiult to j udge [rightly to ju dge] suc h a man ;


rightly

He tri e d to bo dily as s ault m e [ to a ss ault m e bo di ly]


I t i s easi er to rst i mperfectly co nceive a n id ea [r st
to c on c eive a n id e a
4 P a
.ra lle li s m Pa r alleli s m o f p hr a sin g i s a gre a t
.

aid to c le arness an d to emph a si s Simi l ar ide a s shoul d


, .

be e xp resse d i n Simil a r l a nguage a nd in S imi la r co nstrue


tions if i t i s d esire d to brin g out their rel a ti on But .

e xcessive par alleli s m bec om es we a r isom e esp ecially if ,

emph a tic as in anti thetical e xp ressi ons



.
,

5 R e
.
p e titi o n Do not hes i t a te to rep e a t any wor d
.

or phr ase if the rep eti ti on i s ne cess ary to secure cle arness
or e mpha si s Re p eti ti on is n o t un p leasant if i t seem s
.

d esigne d O nly when i t seem s to be the result o f negli


.

gen ce d oes i t e c ho unp le a s antly


6 Ellips is
.

. A wor d or a p hr a se th a t can be supp lie d


.

f rom the c ontex t i s of ten omi tte d (s ee c hap v sec .


,
.

O f ten thi s results i n c on ci se ness an d vig or ; but when the


omi ssi on is due to ca relessness confus ion or ambigui ty i s
,

the frequent result : M an never i s but a lw ays [i s] to


be blest ;
R ich m on d is ne arer New York th a n

Chicago ; He li kes m e better th an you ; I am ol d ;

they young , .

I n ordi n ary sp ee c h many wor d s a re tr ansf or m e d or


o mi tte d as a result o f r apid a rticul a ti on Som etim es .

we sp e ak s o r apidly th a t unstres se d sylla bles or s ma ll


word s a re p ronoun c e d only m ent ally not p hys ically ,
.

Thi s inner a rticul a ti on gives ri se to su ch f orm s a s M o m



ing f or Goo d m orn in g
,

He worke d a ll m orning
.

44 A M AN UAL FO R WRI TE RS

may be due to thi s or to the an a logy o f

a ll day ,

a ll night Su ch c olloqui ali sm s a re admi ssible i n



.

wri ti ng only when c onvers a ti on i s re p e a te d or a c onver


s atio n al tone i s aim e d a t .

The objec ti onable vu lgari sm s a ri si ng fro m the omi s


si on of to be fore place or places may h a ve a ri sen from

careless a rticula tion : L et s go s o me place [som ewhere]


She won t go an y place [a nywhere] wi th him ;


He
a lways wa nts m e to go [to ] p l ac es wi th him .

PIT FALL S IN DI C T I ON

Und er thi s he ad h ave bee n c olle c te d som e of the


m ost c ommon i nst an ces of the mi suse of wor d s an d
phra ses The li st is by no m e ans exh au s ti ve ; a n d i n
.

gener al an effort h a s b een mad e to exc lu d e f ro m i t


examp le s of faulty dic tion which illustr a te the p rin cip les
of gr ammar di s cusse d i n the f orego in g Gr amma ti cal

Notes .

A ca re ful stu dy o f the N ote s is reco m

m en de d in c onne c ti on wi th the f ollowin g li st .

Ab breviate is so metimes us ed fo r abridge . A bo o k or a lecture


is abridged when it is given in co n d en s ed fo rm ; it is abbrevi ated
when s ho rten ed in an y way .

Dictio n is di scuss ed in gen eral an d in d e tail in every textb o o k o f


En glish co mpo sitio n Lo n g an d valuab le l is ts o f faul ts in dictio n are
.

g e
iv n in th e S nd rd
ta a D ic i on ary ; G en un g s Outli n es ofRhetori c;
t

Al fred
Ay res The Verbalis t; Fitz edward Halls R ecen t E xemplicatio ns of

F als e P hi lo lo gy an d M o dern E n gli s h; Ho dg s o n s E rro rs in the Us e of


E ng is h; Lo n g
l S lips f Ton g ue and llectio n and dis

s o P en . The bes t co

cuss io n o fvul g ar an d co llo q uial E n g lishis in Sto rm s En glis che P hilo lo i e



g .

V ery valuab le are J espe rsen s Gro wth and S tructure of the En glis h Lan

g
gua e, and G reen o ugh and Kittredge s Words an d Their Ways .
GRAMMAT I CAL NOTE S 45


Ab ove s ho uld no t be used as an adj ective, as : Rules s tated in
me

the above sectio n . Sub s titute preceding, foregoing, o r so

si milar adjective .

Ad apt s ho uld b e dis tinguis hed fro m dramatiz e . A no vel is


dramatiz ed; a play is adapted when it is changed to s uit
.

changed co n di tio ns .

Adm in i s t r is wro ngly us ed in the s entence


e

He ad minis tered a
fatal blo w applied in He a d minis tered

. It is co rrectly

a do s e o fmedicine ; the laws ; an o ath; the go vernmen t



.

A dmi t s ho uld b e dis tinguis hed fro m co nfess : She admitted the

She confess ed her s ins

accusatio n ;

.

Advent means an epo ch making arrival -


. We speak o fthe ad vent
o f Chris t, but o f the arri val o f a train .

A ect is to b e dis tinguis hed fro m the verb ej ect . To a


j ect is

to in uence ; to ej ect is to cause o r bring abo ut . A minis ter


ej ects the co n versio n o f a s inn er ; he aj ects the feelings o f his

audien ce .


Aggravate Sho uld no t be us ed in the sense o f to pro vo ke o r to

It pro perly expresses a heightening o r in tens ify ing :



an n o y .


His o f
fense was aggravated by h s inso len ce ;
i His guilt
was aggravated by his fals ehoo d

.


Alike s ho uld no t be rein fo rc ed by both: They are [bo th]

alike in this res pect T he abs urdity is easily seen in the s to ck
.

Sam and Jim are bo th very much alike, es pecially



example :

Sam

.

All, in co nnectio n with right, is a separate wo rd : all right, never


alright All an d un ivers ally S ho uld never be us ed to gether :
.



r
The p actice is esr o rted t o u n i vers ally [ y
b all] T he prae
tice is reso rted to [univers ally ] by at Avo id the redundan t

use o fof: He received all [o f] the vo tes
.


Allege is a co mmo n erro r fo r s ay : The legis lato rs , it is alleged
[s aid] , will adjo urn is b ad ; the wo rd means to d eclare

,

to a
"

i rm to ass ert with the idea o f po sitiveness an d it

, , ,

is applicable to an
no t o rdinary s tate men t o ffact no t n eeding
emphas is .
46 A M ANUAL FO R WR ITE R S

Allo w m eans perm it n ever think o r admit

.
,

Allud e to do es no t m ean men tio n

A perso n o r t hing .

alluded

to

is f
re erred to , n o t by name , b ut in directly : In s p eaking
b es t frien d , he allud ed to his b ro ther

o fhis .

Alo n e p
ex resses mpanied an d sho uld be dis
the s en se o f un acco ,


tin guis hed fro m on ly whichmeans n o o t her ,
I fo und Henry
alo n e d is turb ed by the news It can b e do n e by him alo n e ;

Virtue alon e is happ iness b elo w All these are ambiguo us



.
.


Altern ative indicates a p o ss ibility o f two co urs es S everal .

altern atives are o p en to me is therefo re b ad



.

Alto gether mus t be d ieren tiated fro m all together See A ll . .

Amo n g is e n e used with o n e an other: T hey divided his

mo n ey amo ng o ne an other [ amo n g


An d is frequen tly misused in a variety o f way s o f w hich the fo l ,

w
lo in g a e r e xa mp les : T r y a nd t ake s o m e ex e rci s e ; He

o wn ed a vio lin m ade by S tradivarius an d w hich was fo rmerly ,



the p ro perty o f his gran dfather ; I have received y o ur

rem ittan ce and f o r w hich I b eg to thank y o u



,
See Try . .

An o ther sho uld no t b e fo llo wed by fro m b ut by than :



M en o f ,

an o ther temp er from [ than] the Greek s See Di


" '

eren t . .

An s w er is that whichis given to a ques tio n ; reply to an ass ertio n : ,



He an swered the q ues tio n ; he repli ed to the argum en t .


An ticipate s ho uld no t b e us ed in the sen s e o f exp ect

It .


m ean s fo res tall

fo retaste
,

to an ti ci pate his death
'


is faulty ; to an ti ci pate o ne s in co m e in the sen s e o f in

,

currin g o bligatio ns in advance o f its receip t is co rrect , .


Anxi o us mean s fee g anx ety ; it d o es n o t m ean des iro us

i i
l n .


I am an xious abo ut her health is co rrect ; I am an xio us

[desiro us ] to o b tain a p o sitio n is b ad



.


Any is s o metim es ambiguo us A n y o f them may b e either
.


sing u lar o r p lu ra l S o a ls o :. It is n o t in ten d ed fo r an y

m achin e m ay m ea
,

n T here is n o machine fo r which it is

It is n o t in ten d ed fo r every m achin e b ut o n ly

in ten ded or , ,

fo r a s pecial ty p e

.
G RAMM AT I CAL NOTE S 47

An y place See p 44 . . .

An yway , anyhow, as co n j unctive adverb s , are co llo q uial :



An y
way [o r -
how] [ N evertheles s ,
or.
At any rate ] I shall do as I
please .

Apparen t is generally used witho ut any implicatio n o f the


no w

truth o f the m atter s tated He did it with apparent will .

is to b e dis tinguis hed fro m


He did it with evident

ingn ess
willingne s s .

Appear is physical, external, in its meaning, and sho uld be dis


tinguis hed fro m s eem, which expresses a men tal exp erience :

The fo res t appears to be impenetrable ; This do es no t

seem to m e to b e rig t

h .

Apt sho uld n ever b e used in place o f li kely o r liable . It means



capable o r skilled

He is an apt pupil
is co rrect ;

He is apt to arrive so o n is in co rrect . I t also mean s havin g

a n atural ten dency ,

as : T he child is apt to learn

; Iro n is
"
apt to r us t . See Liable .


As to is red un dant in As to ho w far he can b e trus ted is aq ues

tio n fo r y o u to d e cide .

At is red un dant in

Where is he at T he ex re p ssio n is a
vulgaris m . See To .

At b es t, A t preferable to At the bes t At the


rs t, A t las t are ,

rst A t the las t b ecaus e they are well es tabli shed idio ms
, ,
-
.

They aro se fro m fo rms in which the denite article co alesced


with the p repos itio n ving atte which when nal unaccented
'

, , ,

e becam e silent gave a t , .

At length is by s o m e writers res tricted to the m eani ng fully



,

in detail ; b ut there is go o d autho rity fo r us ing it to m ean


after a lo n g tim e

.

Audi en ce is o f ten impro perly used fo r s pectators An audien ce .

lis ten s ; s pectators lo o k o n o r w itn ess .

Aught (any thing) is frequen tly co nfused w ith naught (no ught) :

Six times aught [naught] is aught On e hundred
is written with a o n e an d two aughts [naughts
48 A M AN UAL FO R WR I TE R S

Aven ge mean s to
ss the wro ngs do n e to o thers ; revenge the
redre ,

wro ng do ne to o urselves ; avenge usually implies j us t retri


b utio n ; revenge may b e us ed o f m alicio us retaliatio n .

Avo catio n is no t the s am e as vo cati on A m an s vacati on is his call



.

princip al o ccupatio n ; his avocation is a seco ndary o cen


ing, his
patio u which ho wever may in teres t him mo re than his vocati on
, ,
.


Awful s ho uld be u sed o nly to mean awe in s pirin g : I am
-

awful[ly] s o rry is a vulgar co llo q uialis m


"
.


Balan ce do es no t m ean rem ain der o r res t H ence the

.

balan ce o fthe cro p is a mis use o fthe w o rd .

is slang, an d sho uld s sen s e o f


B an k on no t be u ed in the rely o n .

B eg is o ften s
u ed in the sen se o f b eg leave .

T he co rrect fo rm
of I beg

to s ay is

I beg leave to s ay
.

B etween applies o nly to two p erso n s o r thin gs :



B etw een y o u
is un grammatical

three .

Big is s
u ed co llo q uially fo r large o r great, but s o m etimes it can n o t

be placed by either o f thes e wo rd s : A big man may m ean


re

a man w itho u t p etty q u alities o f heart o r o f m ind .

Blame o n as a verb is a vulgaris m : Do n t blame i t o n me


, ,

mea s D o t accus e e o f t o r D o n t putthe blame o n me
n n m i

,

.

B o th .See A li ke an d p 40 sec 2 .
, . .


B o un d in the s en s e o f determined is an Americanis m : He is

, ,

bo und [determ in ed ] to d o it

; .

Brainy is a co llo quial Americani s m .


Bri g m ea s to tran s fer to ward the s peaker an d m us t b e

n n
,

dieren tiated fro m fetch which m ean s to go to an d b rin g,
.

b ack an d fro m carry w hichimplies a tran s fer o pp o s ite to that



, ,

express ed by b ring an d fetch
F etch go an d b rin g]

me a glass o f water ; B ri n g a b o o k ho m e fro m the s to re ;



Carry t s b as et to hi
h i m
k .

But used in co n nectio n with that is red un d an t, unle ss in ten ded


to ex ppo site o f what the m ean ing wo uld b e w itho ut
press the o

it : in I have n o do ub t but that he w ill die but s ho uld no t

,

be used ; n I have no fear but that he w ill co m e
i the mean ,

G R AM M AT I CAL N OTE S 49


in g in ten ded is I am s ure he will co me and here the us e o f
,

but is co rrect . T he co llo quialis m but what freq uen tly o ccurs

fo r but that: I
b elieve but what he is guilty generally
cann o t


mean s I canno t but b elieve that he is guilty

; an d I cann o t

but b elieve mean s I mus t believe



.

Calculate d is o ften wro n gly used in the s ens e o f likely : His

inn o cen t actio n is calculated to cause great in j ury


. The w o rd .


m ean s in tended o r planned fo r the purp o se .

Can has the meaning o f ability


po wer and s ho uld no t be ,

,

co n fused w ith may which implies perm issio n : Yo u may



,

s kate if y o u can .

Carry . See Bring .

C ertain is o f ten u ed s
a way that it may m ean either
in s u ch

s ure o r s o me : They bro ught him certain in fo rmatio n .


C aply , fo r cheap, s o un d s affected
he He s o ld it cheap is co rrect

. .

Cheap is an adverb as w ell as an adj ective .

Claim, in the sense assert,



maintain

of

,
or say, is no t

s anctio ned by go o d usage : He clai ms that a bushel o f wheat
w e g s s ixty o und s sho uld be
p
He ass erts

i h etc .

Clever m eans
b rillian t,

acco mplished ,

skilful ,

b ut no t

kin d ,

go o d n atured
-
.

That is very clever o fy o u m eans


That sho ws y o u to b e very s kilful .

C o me is frequen tly us ed when go s ho uld be emplo y ed ; come


.

d en o tes m o tio n to ward ; go m o tio n fro m : They go fro m us



,

to their ho me ; they me fro m their ho m e to us


co .

C o mmo n is a common frien d is a



co n fused with mutual ;

o ften
f riend who m two o r m o re p erso n s have in co mmo n ; a mutual
frien dship is the friendship o f two perso n s fo r each o ther

.

C o mmo nly . See F requently .

Co mpare to

m eans
lik en to

; co mpare wi th mean s meas ure by
or

po in t o ut similarities and differen ces .

C o mpelled . See Bound .


Co n dign mean s s uitable ,

deserved ,

no t nece ssarily s evere

;
fo rm erly it was s
u ed o f re wards as well as o f p unishm en ts .
50 A M AN UAL FOR WR I TE R S

Co n d o n e do es mean m ake amen d s

no t fo r,

b ut fo rgive
wo rd o r act Jo hn co nd on ed the o ffen s e he had

or n ulli fy by .


mmitted again s t J am es Her husb an d

co is in co rrect . con

don ed her fault is co rrect .

Co n s cio us s ho uld no t be u ed s fo r aware o r s ens ible . We can

be co n s ci o us o n ly of the facts o f o ur o wn inn er lif e ; we


are s ens ible o f extern al facts which affect o ur feelin gs ; we
are aware w hatever extern al facts o r general truths are
of

kno wn to us

I was co ns cio us o f his treachery is in co rrect
.

.


Co n s ider in the s e s e o f rega d s lo o k up o n as sho uld
"
, n r a , ,

us ually n o t b e fo llo wed by as : I co n s id er him abrillian t man


.

C o n temptible is used o f an o b j ect o f co n temp t; co n temptuo us o f ,

w hat is directed at s uch an o b j ect : He is a contempti ble



fello w ; I gave him a contemptuous lo o k ; He acted
'

conte mpti bly an d was treated co nte mptuo us ly by all .


C o n tinually . See F requen tly .

C o n tinuo us mus t b e dis tinguished fro m con tin ual; the fo rm er


implies s o methin g un in terrup ted , un cea in g ; s the latter, s o me
with in terrup tio n s :
thing f requen tly recurrin g, b ut The
rain was co n tinuo us fo r seven ho urs

;

T he s uccessio n of

sho wers was con ti n ual thro ugho ut the mo n th .


C o n ven e is o f ten w ro ngly u s ed fo r co n vo ke:



He con ven ed [ co n
vo ked ] asse mbly m ean s me

the Co n ven e

. co to gether,

b rin g to gether : The co mm ittee co nven ed

no t .

Crime is lo o s ely us ed fo r an o f
fen s e again s t the s p eakers s en se
o f right ; it pro perly m ean s o nly an f
o f en e s again s t law ; the
mo s t cruel o r dis ho n es t actio n is no cri me if there is no law
again s t it .

D angero us fo r dangero usly ill is a pro vin cialis m


, , .


Data is plural : This data is as b ad as this facts
.

D ecid ed mus t no t b e co n fused with decis ive; the fo rmer has mo re


than o e shad e o f m eani n g e g s tro n g o fsettled

rm

n ,
. .
, , ,

co n vic tio n
'
He is a man o f decid ed co nvictio n s
; the latter

m ean s deciding o r determ inin g an even t

:

T he en e my wo n
GR AM M ATI CAL N OTE S 5I

a decis ive victo ry



o ne which decided the o utco me o f the
war] ; the victo ry might have b een a decided victo ry , that is ,
clearly an d s
unm i takably a victo ry , an d y et no t have been
decis i ve .

D ecimate mean s s pecically to



tak e a ay ,w or kill, or des tro y ,

o ne ten th
-
.

D enitive s ho uld b e distinguished fro m den ite; the latter



mean s having certain limits the fo rmer mean s es tablishing ,


lim ts p tti g a e d t He gave a den ite

certai i

n o r u n n n o :

reply b ut it was b y n o m ean s den itive



. .

D emean is related to demean or an d m ean s behave as demean o r



,


m ean s b ehavio r ; it do es n o t mean to lo wer o r degrade

,

.

It is no t likely that the s ugges tio n of bemean as a s ub s titute


will ever generally b e ado p ted .

D eprecate which pro perly m ean s [ try to ] avert by pray er


,

,


is s till used by careless w riters in the s en s e o f d is app ro ve
'


I deprecate [disappro ve] the actio n o f the co mmittee .

D e s iro us See Anxi o us


. .

D etermi n e d See B o und . .


Di er .

I differ with y o u is co rrect in the s en s e o f disagree ;

b ut o b j ectively :
,

This ho us e differs from the o ther An d .

in like m an n er the p hrase I d isagree [differ] wi th y o u is to


be p ref erre d to

I dis agree [d iffer] fro m y o u .

Di eren t s ho uld b e fo llo wed by fro m never by than o r to ,


.

Directly mean s ins tan tly s o metim es with a s uggestio n o f the



,

immed iate f uture : I am co m ing directly It s ho uld n o t



.


b e used in the s en s e o f as s o o n as

or w hen : Directly ,

[as s o o n

as ] the train arrived , he alighted .

D is agre e See Dier


.
'

Dis tin guis h mus t no t b e co nfused with dieren tiate; dis tin '

guis h m ean s to perceive differen ces b etween thin gs o r p erso n s ;


di m s m ake o r co n stitute a di eren ce

eren ti ate ean to .


Due sho uld no t be u eds fo r o win g to , becaus e f
o : Due to
[o w ing to because

,
of ] his b ehavio r, he was o s traciz ed .
52 A M AN UAL FOR WR ITE R S

E ach is dis tribu tive an d therefo re is sin gular, no tplural : Each
o f us have [ has ] o ur [ his ] o wn d uties to perfo rm
. E very ,
alsois alway s s ingular
, .

E ach o ther is co mmo nly dis tinguished fro m on e ano ther; the
fo rmer is s
u ed as a pplicable to two o nly; the latter, to o re m

than two : Husb an d an d w ife lo ve each o ther; several
bro thers an d

s is ters lo ve on e ano ther .

E ect .See Aect .

Ego tis t sho uld be dis tin guished fro m ego is t; the fo rmer is o n e with
a high o r co n ceited Opini o n o f him s elf ; the latter, a b eliever
in ego is m (the do ctrine o f in dividual co ns cio usness) .

Either is distributive an d therefo re s ingular an d sho uld n ever be ,



used o m f o re tha n tw o : Have [has ] either o fy o u s een my pen
Elegant is o ne o f the m any ad j ectives in co mmo n us e as a s lang
term o f gen eral appro val ; pro p erly used it alw ay s implies ,

d elicacy ren em en t :
,

What a p erfectly elegant b ull do g " -

is n o t an elegan t exp ress io n .

E li m i n ate m e a n s
tak e o u t

remo ve fro m , ; we may eli mi n ate

an unk no w n q uan tity fro m an equatio n o r elimin ate a pdis o n


fro m the b o dy ; ifwe eli min ate a truth fro m a gro u p o fideas we
d o an inj ury either to truth o r to lan guage .

Els e s ho uld be fo llo w ed by than , no t by but:



No o n e el e s but
[than] he s o m uch
co uld have do n e
.

En o rmi ty is n o lo nger used to express m erely great siz e ; it is


app lied to wick edn ess cruelty o r s o m e mo n s tro u s o f
, fen s e
, .

E normo us n es s is s
s to mean great s iz e
o cca io n ally u ed .

E n thu s e h as no t y e t o b tain ed the s anctio n o f go o d usage :



He is

en thus ed o ve r the in ven tio n s ho uld be He is enthus ias tic

o ver, etc .

Evid en ce is metimes used when testimo ny wo uld be preferab le


so .

T he tes timony o fawitness may co n tain no eviden ce .

Evid en t See Apparent


. .

Except sho uld n ever b e us ed in the s ens e o f un less o r


bu t

:

N 0 o ne will be emplo y ed except [ unless] he is qualied


;

T he
GRAM M AT ICAL N OTE S 53

farm wo uld have been pro ductive except [but] fo r his unin telli
g en t manage ent
m
.

Ex eptio nal means un us ual ,


c

fo rmin g an excep tio n ; excep

tionable means

O pen to o bj ectio n o r exceptio n : He was
a man o fexceptional character is the o ppo s ite o f He was a
man o fexceptionable character .


Expect invo lves a sense o f the future ; hence I expect y o u kno w
all abo ut it is in co rrect, an d s uch a wo rd as s uppo se sho uld

be subs tituted fo r it .


Factor is lo osely used fo r caus e by careles s writers : One facto r
"
i n [cause o f] his refus al was his dislike o f no to riety .


Fals ity pplies to things o r ideas ; fals enes to perso
a s ns : The
falsi ty o f his argument is as evident as the falsenes s o f the
man himself
.

Fault At fault means at a lo s s what to d o next, as when a


.


d o g has lo s t the trail ; i n fault m ean s in the wro ng,

to
blame

.

Favo r, in s
the sen e o f

s mble
re e ,

is a pro vincialis m:
He
favors [ resembles]
his father

.

F emale fo r wo man is a vulgaris m :


Clo thing fo r males and

females [ men and wo men] .

F etch See Brin g


. .

F ew s ho uld b e dis tinguished fro m afew; few emp has iz es the fact
that the number is s m all ; afew, the fact that there is anumb er,

F ew shall part where many meet ;

tho ugh it b e small :

A
few perso ns were saved in the ar

Fewer applies to nu mb er; less , to q uan tity : I have fewer [no t
less] bo o ks than y o u
.

Firs tly sho uld no t be emplo y ed fo r rs t, even tho ugh s ucceeded



in an enumeratio n by
se co n dly ,

thirdly,

etc Firs t is .

an adverb , as well as an ad j ective .


Fix, in the s ense o f rep air,

tl , is bad usage :

arr ng ,
a e se t e

avo id all s uch exp res s io ns as :

Fix the b ken table ;
ro F ix
y o ur hair ;

F ix y o ur affairs ;

Fix the rules ;

We are
xed.


54 A M AN UAL FOR WR ITE R S

F o rmer, an d its an tithesis latter, sho uld be used to designate o ne


o f two p ers o n s thin gs ideas e tc In cas e o f mo re than two
, , ,
. ,


the exp ressio n s

the rs t

the seco n d the

the third

, , ,

last s ho uld b e emplo y ed



.

Fre quently s ho uld b e dis tin guis hed fro m commo n ly gen erally per , ,

petually us ually ; each has its o wn renem en t o f mean ing


,
.


Co mmon ly exp ress es the an tithes is o f rarely ; frequen tly


an d gen erally , the an tithes is o f seldo m s
o cca io n ally

or ;
us ually is the o o s ite o f

cas ually

: pp
M ankin d co mmon ly

acco rd s sp ect
re to religio n

; It frequen tly rain s win ter
in ,

tho ugh the co ld is gen erally severe eno ugh to cause s no w ;


He us ually rises

at AM .

F ro m . See When ce .

F unn y s ho u ld no t b e us ed to m ean s trange


,
mark able
re .

G en erally . See F requen tly .

Go . See Co me .

Go od mis used in the sens e o f well ; shuns uch an


is freq uen tly

p
ex e r ss io n as :

I am feelin g go od
G o t in the s en s e o fp o ssess io n is s up er
,
uo us an d is to b e avo ided : , ,

I have go t a large ho use T o express o bligatio n o r co mpul



.

sio n avo id s uch terms as : I have got to [am o bliged to ]


,

Gotten is an o b so lete fo rm o f the pas t parti



catch a train .

ciple rein tro duced in to E n glis h fro m S co tlan d


,
Such a use .


o f the wo d as It has gotten to b e a co mmo n thing has

r in

n ever b een reco gn i ed z as go o d .


G ues s , in the sen se
suppo se thin k of imagine ,
( I gues s

,

he is a rich is a p ro vincialis m s anctio ned in co n vers a


tio n b u t co n demn ed in writin g This applies equally to the .

pro vin cial reckon , the e q uivalen t o f guess .

Han dy sho uld never pro ximity : They had


be s
u ed to ex ress p

s everal neighb o rs quite handy [very near is pro vin cial .

H an ged s ho uld b e us ed to expres s the executio n o fahuman b ein g ;


hun g a the pas t pa ticiple ses : It is the s en ten ce

s ,
r in o the r u

T he drap eries

o f the co urt that y o u b e han ged by the neck ;

were no t hun g with go o d tas te .



GR AM M AT I CAL NOTE S 55

Healthy sho uld b e distin guished f ro m healthful an d fro m whole



s o me: h
T e child is healthy ;

Exercise is healthful ;


Who leso me fo o d an d healthful exercis e make him healthy
.

H ence See When ce


. .

High sho uld b e distin guished fro m tall It is a mis tak e to s ay .


,

as a N ew Yo rk ne ws pap er recen tly did :



T he Walwo rth
building is the highes t in the wo rld ; there are tho usan ds o f

huts an d cab in s that are higher by tho us an d s o f f eet .

H o me is no t a mere sy no ny m fo r ho us e: He has a b eautif ul

home may if he has a b eautiful ho us e See



no t b e true, even .

R es ide .

Hun g . See Han ged .

If is o ften m isus ed fo r whether :



I d o ub t if [ whether] I shall be

ab le to go ; I wo uld [sho uld] like to

o b tain y o ur advi ce
[o pinio n ] if [as to whether] I co uld o btain [ p ro cure] this letter
by law [legal

Ilk is careles s ly s mean s o rt pro perly

u ed kin d , It

to .

m ean s the s ame


R o b M acGrego r an d o thers o f that
.

i lk m ean s

R o b M acGrego r an d o ther M ac Grego rs


In .


phrases like this it was m is un ders to o d to m ean clan
,
.

Illy is avo ided by careful w riters Ill like well is an adverb .


, ,

as w j
ell as an ad ecti e
v : His illy [ ill] fo rmulated views hardly
d es erve

n o tice .

In augurate a wo rd which implies the acco mpan imen t o f


,

fo rm al an d dign ied ceremo nies is lo o s ely used fo r begin ,



by w riters who like big wo rd s T he rs t s tep s in this .

refo rm have recen tly b een in augurated an d are no w m aking

rap id p ro gress was recen tly written by a teacher o f m any


y ears exp erience S teps canno t b e in augurated no r can they



.
,

make progres s .

In divi dual mean s a p ers o n o r thin g regarded


It is as a unit .


impro perly us ed as a m ere sy n o ny m o f pers on : E ight
indivi duals [p ers o n s] w ere s aved in the ark

.

In s id e o f expressing the idea o f tim e is pro vincial and co llo q uial :


, ,


I n side of[ within ] ay ear I s hall b e o ut o fdeb t

.
56 A M AN UAL F OR WR IT E R S

Invite s ho uld no t be used fo r i n vitatio n :


She sen t me an in vi te

[ invitatio n] to the wedd in g



.

"
Kin d is no t plural ; do no t s ay these (o r tho se) kind
o f things .

Kin d o fs ho uld never b e fo llo wed by the in denite article : What


kind of [a] man is he "


K ind of an d s ort of in the sense o f

rather

are co llo quial : I feel kind of[ rather] ill
.

Kin dly Withs tran ge co nfusio n o ftho ught, many p ers o n s write :
.


Yo u are kindly req ues ted to reco mm end a teacher o f E nglis h
fo r N o do ub t the in ten tio n is that kindly s ho uld

o u r s cho o l .

mo dify recommend , but its p o s itio n prevents it fro m do in g so .

I t is b etter to write : Yo u are req ues ted to have the kindnes s


to reco mmend ,

or

Will y o u have the kindness to reco mm d
en ,

etc .

Las t is o ften mis used fo r lates t His lates t letter o r bo o k may no t


.

b e his las t; he may wri te m o re .

Latter applies o nly to the las t o f two See F ormer . .

Lay as a verb express es causative actio n ; lie exp ress es pass ivity :
, ,

She lays the bo o k do wn ; He lies quite s till ; He lays


p s ; A ship lies at a cho
lan

n r

T he pas t tense o flay is laid ; .


that o f li e is lay : She laid the bo o k do wn ; it lay there

unn o ticed .


L earn is a vulgaris a hen e mplo y ed in the sense o f teach

:

I ll learn [ teac h] y o u to be go o d "



L es s T
. he p as e no thin g les s than
h r

is o f ten m
a biguo us :

He was n othin g les s than co n d escen d ing in his m anner

See .

Liab le is passive , and in go o d mo dern us age is rarely fo llo wed by


an innitive ; do no t s ay , He is liable to co me at an y mo m ent ,


or He is li able to b e hurt . It u uas
lly implies weakn ess or

d efect : liable to acciden t in j ury It is als o s

or . u ed to

ex re p ss o b ligatio n : He is liable fo r this deb t . See Apt .

Li e . See Lay .


Like mus t n ever be used in the s en se of as

: He lo o ked like

his father ;
He died as he lived .

GRAM M ATI CAL N O TE S 57

Like . See Love .

Lik ely . See A pt .

Literally implies that a s tatem en t to which it is attached is accu



rately an d precisely true : T he audien ce was literally m elted

to tears , is no t literally true .

L o an , used as a verb , is n o t in acco rd w ithgo o d usage :


Lo an me
y o ur umb rella

is an p ss io n
ex re to b e avo ided . Loan is a
no un .

Lo cate in the sen se o f settle


is regarded as a vulgaris m ; do no t

s ay o f a man that he located in the co un ty .

Love s ho uld o rdinarily be e mplo y ed to p s affectio n ; like


ex re s ,

to ex ress p the ta tes : s A man lo ves his family ; he likes fresh
air, bo o ks , fo o d , a p leas an t acquaintance ,
etc .

Lo vely like elegant is a greatly o verwo rked wo rd


, , .

Luxurian t as dis tinguished fro m luxurio us m ean s s uperabundant


, ,

in gro w th o r p ro d uctio n :
T he vegetatio n is luxuriant ; He

lead s a luxuri o us [in dulgen t, given o ver to luxury ] life .


M ad , in the sen s e o f a gry , is a ro vin cialis


n

hich can hardly p mw
be co n de mned as fo rb idden , b ut is better avo ided .

M ale See F emale


. .

M ay See Can
. .


M ighty , in the se se o
n f very ,

is to be avo ided . Do no t make

s p It s mighty hard

us e o f uch an ex ress io n as : .


M in d , in the sen se of o b ey ,

is to be avo ided . Shun s uch

ex re p ssio n s as : make y o u mind me "


I ll


M inus in t e h s en s,e o f

w itho u t lackin g is co llo quial ,

,

.

M o s t has been used in s tead o falmost fo r almo s t a tho usan d y ears ,

It rain ed mos t every day



b ut this us e is no t p ermiss ible

.

is bad s
u age .

M utual . See Co mmon .

N ece s s iti e s has almo s t en tirely u ur ed s p the place o f necess aries

in curren t E nglis h . T he necess i ties of life o f ten red uce o ne

to the b are n ecess aries . It is un fo rtun ate that the dis tinctio n
betw een the wo rds is no lo n ger s
o b erved .
58 A M ANUAL F OR WR I T E R S

N egligen ce is s
d en o te a q uality o f character ; n eglect, to
u ed to

p
ex ress f
a ailure t act
o : The accid en t was caus ed thro ugh
the n egligen ce o f the agman [ o r b y his n eglect to dis play a

N either deno tes o ne o f two , and s ho uld no t be s


u ed fo r n one

Of the two men ,

o r n o o n e: n ei ther was ever s een again ; .

N o ne o f tho se p resent heard him speak As a co n j un ctio n ,



.


neither sho uld b e fo llo wed , no t by or, b ut by n or: He
o wn ed n ei ther mo ney n o r lan d See N o t; als o p

. .
40 , s ec . 2 .


N ever has be co m e co llo q uially an e mphatic n egative : He
lo o k ed at it o n ce an d n ever s aid a wo rd .


N ice , in the s en se of pleasant ,

agreeable, has

es tabli s hed
its elf in co llo q uial, but no t in go o d literary , us age .

N o ho w, a vulgaris m , is rarely s
u ed exce t p by perso n s who us e

[d o esn t]

the do uble negative : He d o n
t

lik e her, n oho w


N o n e sho uld be treated as as in gular : N on e O f the m was presen t
There is n on e o fthem that doethgo o d .

N or . See N either; N at .

Not mus t b e fo llo w ed by the co rrelative nor in s uch sen tences


as :

N o t fo r w ealth n or fo r fame d id he strive ; She

was n ot presen t n or was her hus b an d .



See N either .

N ot b ut, to p ss
ex re a n egative, is a vulgaris m no t to b e

to lerated . S hun s uch a phrase as : I have n o t had but o n e
meal to day .

See p .
38, un der D o uble N egatives

.


N o thin g lik e and n owhere n ear, in such phrases as T he mine is

n o thi n g li ke as rich as p
re o rted ,
"
She is n owhere n ear as
b eautiful as I tho ught,

frequently met wi th in
are co nver

s atio n , b ut are to b e avo ided in all careful w riting .

0 s ho uld be u ed s with the vo cative, an d witho ut pun ctuatio n ;


Oh, fo r the j aculatio n and s ho uld be
e , fo llo wed by a co mma
o r a po in t o fexclam atio n : 0 C aes ar hear me " Oh

, , ho w
Oh"is it p o ssible " See chap v s ecs 5

happy I
.
, .
, 35 ;
p 7 2 s ec 6
.
,
. .
GR AM M AT I CAL N OTE S 59

Ob ligate d fo r o bli ged is witho ut warran t:


He felt o bligated
[ o bliged , und er o bligatio n ]

to go .

Ob s ervatio n sho uld n o t b e used fo r o bservance: T he o bservati on


[ b servance] o f thes e p recautio ns will b e necess ary

o .

O mus t n ever b e u sed with of; o ne o r the o ther is s up eruo us :



Cut me a piece [o ] of

f [o f] the lo in Cut me a y ard

o ;
that rib bo n

.

On e an o ther See E ach o ther . .

On ly See Alon e
. .

Oral See Verbal


. .

O ther Af ter n o o ther us e than ,


. no t but:

We s o o n s aw that it
was n o o ther but [ than ] Wilso n .

See An other .

Ought, u ed s in co nnectio n wi th had, is a vulgaris m s tudio usly



to b e avo ided : Yo u hadn t

ought to have paid so much .

Owin g See Due . .

Pan acea is ludicro us ly mis used to mean an eective remedy


fo r a s ingle diseas e ; it mean s s o mething that cures all
diseases .

Parado x m ean s what seem s abs urd or s elf -


co n tradicto ry . S eem

in g is therefo re redunda a seemin g parado x
n t in .

an d aected

Partak e o f, in the sen se o f to eat,

is s tilted .


Such an ex p s re s io n as : He partakes of a light lunch is
to
b e avo ided .

Party , exce pt in legal do cum ents , is n ever to b e u sed in the sen se


in

of pers o n
: I have an engage men t w ith an uen tial

party
Per s ho uld b e used in co nnectio n with o ther wo rds o fLatin fo rm :

Per diem, per annum , He is paid

per cen t ; but :

Use a with

$ 50 per week is to b e avo ided . week,

day , etc .

P erpen di cular merely means at right angles to s o mething else


men tio ned; it sho uld no t be used fo r vertical .


Perpetually m ean s witho ut interruptio n o r ce ssatio n .

See
F requen tly .
60 A M AN UAL FO R WR ITE R S

Pers o n See Party


. .


Place , when used in the sense o f where, is a vulgaris m ; s hun


such a phrase as : Let us go s o me place See

p 44 , un der Ellipsis
. .

Po pular means pleas ing to m an y p eo ple


It is n o t very papu
lar with me is therefo re ab s urd

.

Po s t and posted , fo r inform an d informed , are to o co llo quial fo r


serio us writing .

Practical and practi cable are o ften co nfused A plan may b e .

practicable cap able o f b eing carried o ut] , b ut no t practical

[because o f its co s t o r so m e o ther feature] In the sen se o f .


experien ced ,

s kilful practical is abs urd :

or Practical
ho rs es ho er
.


Pre dicate is m is used in two way s : (I ) to mean predict ; (2 )

to m ean b ase,

fo un d : H is early return was predicted b y

his f rien ds ; He predicates [b as es] his assertio n o n these facts



.

Pre mature To call a false repo rt premature is lud icro us , unless


.

there is reaso n to believe that the even t re o rted p will o ccur

later .

Pro mi s e in the sense o f



ass ure

is slang . Avo id s ucha use o f

the wo rd as : I p unis hed him, promis e y o u "
I

Pro po s e is o ften mis used fo r


purpo se, in the s ense o f to plan ,

to o

To propo s e m ean s

to in ten d . er a prOpo s al,

i . e .
,

to s ub mit a p ro po s itio n fo r the co n s ideratio n of so m eo n e ;



to purpo se has the m eani ng o f to d es ign

on the p art of

o ne who entertains the plan :


What do y o u propose [ o er]

as the b es t plan P
; I purpos e [ plan] to write a bo o k See .

als o Propos iti on .

Pro po s itio n isften mis used fo r propos al A propos iti on is a


o .

statement o fa j udgment o r a plan ; a propo s al is the presenta


tio n ment o f an o ffer See Pro pose
o r s tate . .

Pro vidin g is so metim es misuse d fo r provid ed : Yo u may go pro


eiding [ pro vided] y o u are acco mp a

nied .

Purpo s e . See Propose .


GR AMM ATI CAL N OTE S 61

Q uali ty is gross ly mis used as an adj ective ; fo rtun ately the mis
use is co nned a lmos t en tirely to ad vertisements , where all

s o rt s o f vio lence are do n e to the language : Quality clo thes "
B uilt fro m the mo s t exclus ive des igns .

Q uite m ean s

entirely ,

who lly .

It is therefo re mis used in the

sentence She was quite [very m uc ] pleased with the boo k ;
h

quite dark s ho uld expres s the meaning o f co mpletely



Quite in the sens e o f so mewhat is equally to be

dar
avo ided .
Quite a j aw is no n s en se as well as bad E nglish , .

See also R eal .

R ais e is mis used in s everal senses . It is no t a no un, an d co nse



quen tl y to say , I made a rais e ,

in the s ens e o f I o b tained
so me mo ney ,

is ungrammatical . As a verb , it mus t b e dis
tingui s hed fro m rear: We raise vegetables ; we rear children .


Avo id s uch expres s io ns as : She was rais ed [bro ught up] in

Ken tucky [increas ed] my ren t

T he lan dlo rd rais ed

o ld ; .


R eal, in the sense o f very ,

is a vulgaris m . Avo id : 1 was real

[very ] angry .

See also Qui te .

R eck o n See Guess


. .


R e f erence is o ften wro ngly with the prepo sitio n in : In use d
l s ho uld be With reference, etc

eren ce to yo ur p ro p os a

ref .

The s am e rule applies to the w rds reg


o ard an d res pect :

With
rega rd to

is preferable to I n regard to

Withres pe tc t o


is preferable to In res pect to .

R egard See Reference


. .

R emain d er See Balance


. .

R es earcher is a vulgaris m o f the w o rs t s o rt .

R e si de is us ed fo r live by tho se who like ne wo rds , as res id ence


is fo r ho us e, dwelli ng:

He resides in a p alatial res id ence [ He
lives in a n e
R es pe ct See Reference
. .

R es t See Balance
. .

R etire, fo r go to bed, is aected :



Yo u may retire to y o ur ro o m
an d go to b
62 A M AN UAL FO R WR IT E R S

R even ge . See Aven ge .

R everen d . Co mmo n us age has es tab lis hed the rule that, when
u eds as a title , this wo rd sho uld b e abb reviated and
that it sho uld no t b e preceded b y the d enite article (see ,

ho w ever, chap iii, . sec .



R ev A V . . . S mith was p res en t .


Right sho uld n ever b e us ed in the sens e o f du ty : Yo u had a


t to warn me is avulgaris m fo r Yo u o ught to have w arned

righ

w m R ight, in the s en s e o f

me ,
Itwas y o u r duty to arn e

.


very ,

is a pro vin cialis m :

It is right [very ] pretty .

S uch

p
ex res sio n s as

right no w ,

right o ff,

right away ,

right

here

are no w pro vincial
merly in go o d use , tho ugh fo r .

R ubb ers o r I ndia rubbers fo r o vers hoes is pro vin cial


,
-
, , .

S ame sho uld n ever b e used as a p ro no un Avo id the co mmo nly .


used express o n s
i : Yo ur letter received ; in reply to s ame ,

I have to s ay etc (s ee chap vii p , Likewis e the expres.



.
, .


sio n s ame as in the sens e o f jus t as

,
in the same mann er ,

,

is a vulg aris m A vo id :

He treated me the s o me as if I were
.

o wn child

his .


S co re is to be avo ided in the fo llo wing : She s cored [achieved] a
co mplete success

.

S eem See Appear


. .


S et m eaning s it is a vulgarism n eedin g o nly to b e p o in ted

, ,

o ut to in s ure its avo ida nce: S et [s it] in this chair is en tirely


in def ens ible ; His clo thes s et well is mo re frequently co n

do ued, b ut equally ungrammatical .

S ettle . See Lo cate .

S hall See un der


.

Grammatical N o tes p 3 6 ,

. .

(under Grammatical N o tes



S ho uld See S hall
.
,

p .


S ho , t e
w in h se n s e o f p y, p f
la
e r o rm c

an e, is b ad :

Let s go

to see a s how

S ho w up, in the sens e o f expo s e, is a vulgaris m : I will s how

him up [ exp o s e him] at all co s ts



.


S iz e u p, in the s en s e o f es tim ate,

we gh, is also a vulgaris m :
i


I want y o u to s iz e him up [estimate his
G RAM M ATICAL N OTE S 63

So me , fo r so mewhat is , a vulgaris m :

I feel so me [so mewhat]

b etter .

S o rt . See Kind .

S o rt o f . See Kind f
o .

S plen did means s hining b rilliant ; it sho uld n o t be used as ,


a term o f gen eral co mm en datio n Avo id s uch expressio n s as : .


M y car run s s plendid ly ; M y watch keeps s plendid time ;


He is do in g as plendid wo rk .


S tan d fo r w hich pro p erly mea s b e res po n s ible fo r
,
n has ,

recen tly co m e in to co mm o n us e in the Un ited S tates fo r

s tand end ure an d also fo r permit:



, ,
I wo n t s tand for [s tan d]

his treatmen t O f me It is s till if n o t a vulgarism at bes t



.
, ,

co llo q uial and p ro vincial .


S tate is no w us ed vulgarly fo r s ay: I s tated [s aid] that I tho ught
so methin g o ught to b e do ne abo ut it and he n ally s tated ,

[ replied] in an in differen t way fo r me to co me in [ that I sho uld



co m e in ] again this week ; I pressed him fo r an an swer
,

an d he s tated , No ,

S ure, as an adverb , is n o t permissible : I s ure will do it ; I

will co m e s ure .

In each ca e us e s urely , s o r remo del the s en

tence to read :

I s hall b e s ure to do it .

T each . See Learn .

Team is a pro vin cialis m used co mmo nly in N ew England fo r a


ho rse drawn vehicle an d its use has sp read to o ther p arts o f
-
,

thi s co un try .


in the s en se is a vulgaris m : I

That, of so or s uch a, was

that [ so ] pleas ed I p ss my self clearly ; I
,
co uld n o t ex re

didn t kn o w it was that [s o ] b ad The w o rd that has so many



.

fun ctio n s that care m us t b e taken to avo id the awkward


rep etitio n o f it S uch a s en tence as the fo llo wing needs
.

w The p o lice had a bo o k that they fo un d in his o f



i
re rit gn : ce
that co n tain ed the n am es o f p eo ple that he to o k o rders fo r an d
that was valuable fo r the rea o n s that we co uld inq uire o f these

peo ple .

See p .
41 , s ec .
3 .
64 A MAN UAL FO R WR ITE R S

Thin k sho uld no t have the wo rd fo r

added : He is mo re to

blame than y o u thin k for See p 39 , sec 3



. . . .

am

Thro ugh s ho uld no t b e used in the sens e o f n ished

: I
thro ugh [ have ni hed] s my wo r
To is s uperuo us and w ro n g in

Where have y o u b een to "

See A t .


Tran s pire do es no t m ean
happ en

; it is pro p erly used fo r co me
b eco m e kn o w n T he treas o n did

tran s pi re

to light, : no t

fo r two y ears

.

Try . See An d . Try and [ to ] eat s o methin g


is co llo q uial .


Ugly , in the s ense of

bad temp ered ,

vicio us ,

sho uld be
avo ided :

He keep s an ugly [ bad mpered] do g
-
te .

Unique do es n o t m ean rare o r ,



Odd as m any ,

s ee m to s up
po s e ; it m ean s alo n e o f its kin d

:

V ery un ique,

mo re
an d the like , are therefo re ab s urd

un ique, .

Un les s . See E xcept an d Wi tho ut .

Upward o f is no t go o d us age w hen , us ed to ex res p s mo re than


:

I have b een co nned to the ho use fo r upward o f [ mo re than]
"
a y ear .

Us ually . See F requen tly .

Ve rb al.

A verbal mess age m ean s o nly a m essage in wo rds ;


a message by wo rd O f mo uth is an o ral m essage : He gave

them verbal [o ral] ins tructio n s



.

Vo cati o n . See A vo cati o n .

Way sho uld s no t be u ed in the sen s e o f



a ay w : T he

ho us e
sto o d way [ aw ay ] b ack in the w o o ds
;

Way [ away ] do w n

eas t .

Way s is O ften misused fo r way : It is quite a ways [way ] Oil


.

Well See Good and Illy


. .

What See B ut. .

Who les o me See Healthy . .

When ce mean s fro m what place o r cause an d hence in the



,


exp ess i R eturn to the p lace fro m when ce y o u cam e
r o n ,

from is redun dan t This applies eq ually to hence which .


,

sho uld no t b e preceded by from .


GR AMM AT I CAL N OTE S 65

Will See S hall (under Grammatical N o tes p


.

,

.

Witho ut fo r unles s is pro vin cial : I will no t go without [un les s]


, ,

y o u go w ith me

See E xcept
. .

Witnes s is used fo r s ee by perso n s who like large wo rds We .


may wi tn ess an even t but ,
no t ap s er o n o r a thin g : T his is
the larges t audien ce I ever wi tn es s ed
Wo rs t kind is slang N ever use such an expres sio n as I want to
.

[ o f a way is s o metimes

go to the theater the wors t kind

added to this o b j ectio n able p hras e] in the s ense O f very

m uch .

I

Wo uld in the sense o f the auxiliary do o r did is a vulgar


,

,

It s a wo nder the

is m : o wers wo uldn t gro w there


See .


S hall (under G rammatical N o tes p
.
,
CHAPT ER III

S PELLIN G ; WI TH E S FO R ABBR EV IATIN G


R UL AN D
COM POUN D I N G WOR D S

T he l
ru es in ten d ed : (I ) to in di cate
whi ch fo ll o w are
the b etter fo rm where two o r m o re spellin gs Of a wo rd
are reco gn iz ed ; (2 ) to m ak e clear when abb revi ati o n s
s ho ul d n o t b e used i e when go o d fo rm requires wo rd s
,
. .
,

o r gures to b e spelled o ut in s tead o f abb revi ated ,

an d vice vers a; (3) to Offer co n s tru ctive rul es whi ch


will en ab l e a wri ter to mas ter the d if cul t s ubj ect Of
co mpo un ding wo rd s .

M o s t o f the rul es gi ven are s o framed as to rel ate


to co n crete cas e s Several Of thes e are taken fro m the
.

M an ual of S ty le (T he Un ivers ity o f Chi cago


A few gen eral rul es are added in the b eli ef th at they
wi ll pro ve servi ceab l e to wri ters an d o thers who may
co n sul t thi s b o o k It has n o t b een tho ugh t wise to
.

cumb er the b o o k wi th elem en tary rul es nor o n the , ,

o th er h an d wi th rul es go vern in g co mpli cated o r un u


,

s ual cases .

SPE LLI N G

1R ules fo r s pe llin g d erivatives a) In derivatives


. .

fo rmed fro m wo rd s en din g in c by addin g a termi n atio n


b egin n in g wi th e, i, or y , the l etter k is in s erted after
the c wh en the l atter is no t to b e pro n o un ced li k e s :
co lic, co licky ; tra
i c, trafcked , traf
cking, traf
cker .

66
S PELLIN G 67

b) In d erivatives fo rmed by add in g a termin atio n


b eginn in g wi th a vo wel to mo n o s y llab les o r to wo rd s
'

accen ted on the las t s y llab le when thes e wo rd s


, en d in a
i l
s ng e co n s o n an t preceded by a s in gle vo wel , that co n

so n an t is do ub l ed :
ab et, ab etted , ab etting , ab etto r ; bet, betting; clan , clann is h

(exceptio n : co mbat ,
co mbated) .

) When a diph tho n g o r a digraph repres en tin g a


c ,

vo wel s o un d precedes the n al co n s o n an t o f a wo rd o r


, ,

when the accen t o f a wo rd en din g in a s in gle co n so n an t


falls o n an y o th er s y llab le th an the las t the n al co n s o ,

n an t is n o t do ub led in d erivatives fo rmed by the addi tio n

Of a termi n ati o n b eginnin g wi th a vo wel :

d aub , d aub ed , d aub er ; b enet, b eneted , b en eting; revel,

reveled , revelin g; travel, traveling, traveler ; kidn ap , kidnap er,


kidn ap ed (exceptio n : han dicapped) .

B ut the n al co n s o n an t is do ub led in the derivatives Of a

few wo rd s g, in o rder to dimin i s h the


en d ng ini li kelihoo d
Of its b ein g pro no unced l i k e j b efo re e o r

humb ug, humbugged , humb ugging .

d) In derivatives fo rmed fro m wo rds en d n g


i wi th
sil en t e the e is
, gen erall y retain ed wh en the termin atio n
b egin s wi th a co n s o n an t When , ho wever, the e is
.

preceded by ano th er vo wel (except e) it is , Often d ro pped


fro m the derivative (s ee s ec 4 b elo w) : .
,

incite, in citem en t ; cha s te , chas ten e ss ; m


argue, argu en t ; true,
truly .
(The wo rds : who lly nursling w , m m ,
is do , abridg en t,
ackno wledgm ent , lo dgm ent j udgm en t and their co mp o unds
, ,
are
exce p tio ns ) .
68 A M AN UAL FOR WR I TE R S

e) In derivatives fo rmed fro m wo rds en d ing wi th


s when the termin atio n b egin s wi th a vo wel , the
i len t e ,

e is generall y o mi tted :
bride, bridal ; guide , guidance ; plum e plumage ; , s
us e, u able ,

us age .

In o rder to guard again s t mi spro n un ci atio n the s i len t


e is so metimes reta ned i (s ee s ec .
4 b elo w)
,

ho e, ho eing ; sho e ,
sho eing ; peace p eaceable ; , change ,

changeab le ; advan tage, advan tageo us .

f) In d erivatives fo rmed fro m wo rd s in y , en d n g i


preced ed b y a co n so n an t, by appen din g an y termi n atio n
except o n e b eginn in g wi th i , the y is usuall y ch an ed
g
in to i :
m ercy m erciful ; mo dify mo dies ;
, , gay , gaiety .

g) T he en d n gs i s i on an d ti on are di s tin gui s h ed in


- -

practice as fo llo ws :
s i o n is gen erall y the fo rm in the cas e o f no uns
-

rel ated to verb s en d ing in nd , de,


ge, re, s e, s s , mi t,
- - - - - - ~

-
vert:
a pprehen d pprehensio n ; pro vide pro visio n ; subm erge
, a , ,

subm ersio n ; co here co hes io n ; immerse immers io n ; co n fess


, , ,

co n fess io n ; p erm it p ermissio n ; pervert p ervers io n


, , .

Exceptio n s to the rule are :


atten tio n co n tentio n in ten tio n (als o with diff eren t m eanin
, , g , ,

in ten sio n) .

-
ti on is the fo rm in all o th er cases wi th few exceptio n s :
co n struct , co ns tructio n ; co n travene, co n traven tio n ; culti
vate, cultivatio n ; e migrate , e migratio n ; po llute po llutio n ;
,

s
re urrect, resurrectio n .
S PELLIN G 69

Exceptio ns to the ru el are :

co ercio n, diss ens io n , scansio n , m ans io n , to rs io n , di s to rs io n .

Give preference to the fo llo wi ng fo rms o f spelling:


2 .

abridgmen t cen ter favo r J udea '

acco uter check fetid j udgment


acknowledgment chlo rid kidn aper
Ko ran
aegis' cla mo r b er labo r
clinch avo r
aes thetic clue uo rid
after ard w co eval fo rward
full
aluminum
co tillio n gai ety
co un cilo r maneuverx
amo n g s
co un elo r ps
si ) " Markan
anemiaI co zy m
gla o r
arbo r cue gly c erin meager
archaeo lo gy x defen se go o db y e mediaevalx
ardo r demean o r gray meter
armo r d iarrhea grue o mes miter
ascen dancy disk guaran tee (v ) . Mo hammedan
ascendent dispatch guaran ty (n ) . mo ld
Athenaeum di stil harb o r mo lder
ax do wnward m
he o rrhaget mo lt
ay e d raft H in du mo vable
bark (vessel) mustache
b az aar d ueler imb ed n eighbo r
B ed uin d uln ess incase niter
b ehavio r dwe lt in clo se o do r
blessed embitter incrust o ense
bo wlder emir o ne

s self (not
burned emplo y ee
s
cae ura' en cy clo pedic
'

endeavo r in graft
can do r engulf in stal ( en t)
m paean

canno neer enro l in stil paleo g ra p


h y

canyo n en sn are ins ure paleo n to lo gy


I

carca ss en velo pe (n ) . in tren ch paro le


caro led E skimo in trust parq uet
s
ca to r (ro ller) exhibito r w
in ard parti san
caviler fan tasy w
j e eler peddler
I
See sec 9 . be ow
. l .
I
See sec
. r c) , abo ve
.
70 A M AN UAL FO R WR IT E R S

Pho en ixI saber subtle tro us ers


p m
ig y salab le succo r tum o r
p w
lo Savio r sumac upward

practice savo r sy rup valo r


(n an d v ) . . scepter tab o o vapo r
preten e s sepulcher talc vend o r
primeval sergean t techniq ue2 vigo r
pro gram Skepticism theater while3
reco n no iter skilful thraldo m whis eyk
reinfo rce smo lder thras h f
wil ul
renco un ter so mb er to rmen to r f
wo e ul
reverie S pecter to ward wo o len
rigo r staun ch tran q uili e z wo rs hiper
ruble steadfast tran q uilli ty Yahweh
ru mo r s ubpo en a
I
traveler

N O TE M ake wo rd o f m

o ne any o ne, every o n e, to day , to o rro w,

to n ight,

canno t

(s ee s ec .
46 , b elo w) . s
Di tinguis h b et een w

so metimes
an d

so me so meo ne
an d

so me o n e [ o r
m o re ] o f the n u mb er .

3 Dif
feren ti ate b etween
. the termin atio n s -
is e an d
-
iz e as fo llo ws :
SPE LL WITH is e -

adverti e s co mpro mise en ter ri ep s merchandise


advi e s de isem excis e premise
affranchi e s des ise
p exerci e s reprise
p s
a pri e (to devise exo rcis e revise
info rm) d isfranchise fran chise rise
s
ari e dis guise im ro vise
p su ervise
p
chastise p
em rise inci se surmise
circu mcis e en fran chise manuprise sur rise
p
mprise
WITH i z e
co

SPE LL y z e)
-

aggran di e z apo stro phiz e brutaliz e characteri e z


ago n i e z apprize (to can o n i e z christian iz e
an aly e z apprai e) s catechiz e civiliz e
an ato i e mz z
autho ri e catho liciz e classicize
anglici e z auto ly z e cauteriz e co lo n iz e
p
a o lo gi e z b aptize cen traliz e criticiz e

x See s ec .
9 , be o w l .

= In med ca wo rki l no w genera y spe ed ll ll


techn i
c .

Whilst" is ally p f l i

J the fo rm gener re erred in Eng and , but it is to b e avo ded in
the i
Un ted States .
SPELLIN G 7I

y
cr s talliz e immo rtaliz e o s traciz e s o lilo q uiz e
demo raliz e italiciz e o xid iz e s peciali z e
deputiz e j eo pardiz e paralyz e s piritualiz e
do gmatiz e legaliz e particulariz e s tan dardiz e
eco no miz e liberaliz e pas teuriz e s tig matiz e
emphasiz e lo caliz e patro niz e b
s u s idiz e
energiz e magn etiz e philo so phiz e s ummariz e
epito miz e man umiz e plagiariz e syllo giz e
eq ualiz e memo rializ e po lariz e symbo liz e
eulo giz e merceriz e f
pro es s io n aliz e sy mpathiz e
evangeliz e mesmeriz e pro tes tan tiz e tan taliz e
extempo riz e metamo rphiz e v
pul eriz e tempo riz e
familiariz e metho diz e realiz e tran q uili z e
fertiliz e min imiz e reco gn iz e y
t rann iz e
fo ssiliz e mo dern iz e reo rgan iz e u tiliz e
fratem iz e mo n o po liz e v
re o lutio niz e vapo riz e
galvaniz e mo raliz e s atiriz e visualiz e
generaliz e n atio n aliz e s candaliz e vitaliz e
go rmandiz e n aturaliz e scrutiniz e vo cali e z

harmo niz e ne utraliz e s ign aliz e vulcaniz e


hellen iz e o rgan iz e s o lemniz e ulgariz e
human iz e

4 . T he f ollowin g participles ret ain the n al 6 o f the


primary word (see sec . 1 (1 ) above) :
agreeing y
e eing ho ein g s ingeing
y
d ein g hieing s ho ein g tin gein g

T he following participles illustrate the omiss ion o f


the 6 be f ore the termin al (see sec 1 (1) above) : .

abridging bluing gluing mo vin g


ackn o wledging changing grudging o rgan iz ing
arguin g enco uragin g icing o wing
awing lin g is s uing trudgin g
biting ring j udgin g truing


Differentiate between farther

5 . an d
further

bY usin8 the form er in the s ense o f
'
more remote ,


at a gre ater distan ce

; the latter in the sense of more

in addition

over ,

the arthe f r end ; he wen t s till farther ; further ,


he s ugges ted ;

a further reaso n .
72 A M AN UAL F OR WRITER S

6 . f orms of add ress (vocative) use the O wi th
In

out a comma following ; f or an exclamation use Oh

,

f ollowed by a commaor an exclamation point (see p 58 .


,

ch ap iv s ec 3 2 ; ch ap v se cs 5
.
,
. .
,
.
,

O tho u mo s t mighty ruler " Oh that I had n ever b een bo rn ,


.

7 .F orm the possessive o f proper names en din g in


s or another sibilant if m onosyllabic by addin g an, ,

apostrophe an d 3 ; ifo f more than o n e syllable by addin g ,

an apostrophe alone :
King James s Vers io n B urns s po ems M arx s theo ries ;

,

,

M o ses law Jesus birth Demo s thenes o ratio n s B erlio z co m



, , ,

po s itio ns ; fo r co nvenien ce s ak e

.

But in the case o f proper n am es en ding in a s ilent sib i


l ant the po ssessive is fo rmed by the addition o f the apos
tro phe an d 3 whether the word is m onosy ll ab ic or not :
,

Charlevo ix s dis co veries ; Illin o is s legislature ; Des M o in es s


po pulatio n ; M aupas s writin gs .

8Be fo re soun de d h long u (or eu an d the wor d s


.


( i
o ne on ce use a as the form o f the indeni te
,

,

article (not
a ho tel, a harmo n ic, ahis to rical, a un io n , a eupho nio us wo rd ,
s uch a o n e , a o n ce -
read bo o k .

9 . T he ligatures ce an d (2 are not use d at the present


day , either in Latin an d Greek word s , or in word s
ad opted in t o English from these langu ages In English .

these words are written either with ac o e separ ately or , , ,

with e alone The ligature is retained however in Old


.
, ,

E nglish an d in F r en ch an d other m od ern langu ages :


,

aetas ; Oedi pus Tyram ms ; aes thetic ; (e uvre b ut : man euv er ; ,

lElfred bu t : Alfred , .
SPELLIN G 73

1 0. to the exceptions note d in s ec 2 7 spell


Subje c t .
,

out religious civil an d mi li tary titles o f honor an d


, ,

respe ct and f orm s o f address pre ceding the nam e :


,

Admiral Dewey ; General M cclellan ; Bis ho p Kan e .

I I. out Christian names as George Charles


Spell , , ,


John (not : G eo Ch as

an d von as part o f a
.
,
.
,

person s n ame except where the abbreviated form is



,

used in quoted matter or in original signatures (see


chap v sec I ).
,
. .

12 T reat all numbers in conne cted groups ali ke as


.
,

far as possible ; do not use gures f or som e an d spell


out others ; if the largest contai ns three or more di gits ,

use gures for all (see below s ec ,


.

The fo rce emplo yed during the three mo n ths was 8 7 9 3 and , ,

1 0 6 res pectiv ely


, .

A s ageneral rule however d ecimals d egrees dimensions


, , , , ,

distances enumerations money percentage weights


, , , , ,

an d like expressions shoul d be given in gures :


4 5 miles 3 cubic feet 2 4 pages I I I bus hels 9 per
, , , ,

cen t (see chap v s ec 43 po un ds.


,
etc .
, .

Spell out roun d numbers


13 . approximate
nu mbers in tens , hundred s , thous and s , or millions) :
T he attendan ce was es ti mated at ve hundred ; a thes is of

abo ut three tho usand wo rd s .

: 4 . Spell out all numbers no matter how high , , co m


men cin g a senten ce :
F ive hundred and n ine t y three men
-
, 4 1 7 wo men , an d 1 89

chi ldren und er eighteen , bes ides 63 o f the crew , wen t do wn wi th


the s hip .
74 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITERS

When this is imprac ticable or f or an y reason und esirable , ,

re constru ct the sentence ; e g . .

T he to tal numb er o f tho se who wen t do wn with the s hip was


5 9 3 men , etc .

15. Spell out the time o f day in ordinary re adi ng


matter :
at fo ur ; lf
at ha pas t two in the a tern o o n ; at se en
-
f v
l k
o c oc .

Statistically , in enum erations an d always in conne ction ,

wi th A M an d P M use gures :
. . . .
,


at 4 : 1 5 P M (o mit o clo ck in such co nnectio ns )

. . .

1 6. Spell o ut ages :
eight y years and fo ur mo n ths o ld ; chi ldren b etween s ix and
fo urteen .

17. out numbers o f sessions o f Congress o f


Spell ,

mi litary bo dies o f thoroughfares o f centuries o f Egyp


, , ,

tian dynasties an d o f all sim ilar categories unless brevity


, ,

is an import ant consid er ation (see ch ap iv se cs 2 1 .


, .
,

Fifty eighth Co ngres s s eco nd sessio n ; Fifteenth Infan try


-
, ,

Sixth Co ngres s io nal Dis trict; Seco nd Ward ; Fifth


Avenue ; n ineteenth cen tury ; Fifth Dynas ty .

1 8. Spell out re ferences to particular decades :


in the nin eties .

19 . out n ames o f m on ths except in statis tical


Spell ,

matter or in long enumerations (see pp 1 30 .


,

fro m January 1 to April 1 5 (o mit after dates st d rd nd , , , , , ,

and th) .


Spell out Unite d St ates except in quotations
2 0. ,

and in su ch conne ctions as : Gener al Scho eld ,


SPE LLIN G 75


US ; in an d simi lar

. SS . Oregon footnotes re f erences :
US . Geological Survey .


Spell out R ai lro ad
2 1. F ort , M ount ,


in geographi cal appellations (see lists on

an d Port
p
C hicago , M ilwaukee St Paul R ailro ad
.
(no t: R R . . or

Fo rt Wayne ,
Po rt Huro n , M o un t Elias .

22. In most
ses spell out all names o f publications
ca , .

T hi s rule like many another is open to modication in


"

, ,

particular instan ces f or whi ch no dire ctions can here be ,

given Expe dien cy n ature o f context an d est ablishe d


.
, ,

custom may be consid ere d Generally ifin d oubt spell .


, ,

out ; good taste will condone offenses in this direction


more re adily than in the opposite .

AB B RE VIA TION S AN D CON TRACTION S

Word s are of ten shortened by me ans o f the


23 .

omission o f a letter or o f letters f rom the midd le o f , ,

the word the omission being indicated by an apostrophe


,

(see chap v secs 1 T hese are called contr actions ;


.
,
.
,

they are not followe d by a perio d :


mi
= manufacturin ass

n= ass o ciatio n .

A bbreviate names o f states territories an d


2 4. ,

possessions of the Uni ted States f ollowing those o f towns ,

as f ollows :
Ala . C o lo . Ga . Kan .

Alas a k Co n n . Idaho Ky .

Ariz . DC. . Ill . La .

Ark . Del . In d . Me .

Cal . F la . Ia . M ass .
76 A M AN UAL F OR WR IT ER S

Md . N ev . PI . . Philipp ine T H = T errito ry . .

M ich . N H . . Islands o f H awaii

M in n . NJ . PR . .
=
Po rto R ico Utah
M is s . N M . . R I . . Va .

Mo . N Y . . SC . . Vt .

M o nt . Ohio SD . . as h W .

Okla T enn . Wis .

W Va
.

Ore T ex . . .

Wy o
.

N eb . Pa . .

techn ical matter (f ootnote re f erences bibliog


25. In ,


raphies etc ) abbreviate Company an d Brothers
,
.

,


an d the word an d in names o f commer cial rms :

The M acmillan Co .
, M acmillan Co .
, Harper B ro s ; Chicago , .

M ilwaukee St Paul R ailro ad


. .

In text matter not o f a te chnical ch arac ter Company , ,



an d Brothers shoul d however be spelled out :

, ,

Harper B ro thers have recen tly publis hed two wo rk s o f travel ;


The C en tury C o mpan y ann o un ces a new s eries ; T he extrao r
d inary s to ry o f the So uth Sea Co mpan y .

An d when the n ame o f a commercial con cern does not



consist o f proper n ames the an d should be spelle d out : ,

American Steel an d Wire Co .


A bbreviate Saint

2 6. or Saints be fore proper
n am es :
St Lo uis , St Peter s Church, SS Peter and Paul

. . . .

A bbreviate M r M essrs M rs (F rench M


27. .
, ,
.
,
.
,

M M M me M lle) Dr (but see pp 1 3 3


.
, , R ev ,
. .
, .
,

Ho n St an d Es q Spell out all other religi ous civi l


.
,
.
,
.
, ,

an d mi li t ary ti tles o f honor an d f orms o f add ress Do .

not except on the envelope an d in the address line of


,

letters write the R ev the Ho n (see s ec 1 0 above ;


, .
,
. .
,

ch ap iv s ec 6 an d chap vii p
.
,
.
, .
,
.
SPELLIN G 77

ref erences to Scripture passages the books o f


2 8. In ,

the B ible and o f the Apoc ryph a and vers ions o f the ,

B ible should be abbreviated as f ollows (see chap iv .


,

sec .

OLD TESTAI ENT

I and II Chro n . Is a . Jo nah


Exo d . Ez ra Jer . M ic .

Lev . N eh . Lam .

Esther Ez e k . Hab .

Deut .
Jo b Dan . Zeph .

Jo sh . Ps (Pss )
. . Ho s .

Judg . Pro v . Jo el
R uth Amo s M al .

I an d H Sam . Song of So l . b
O ad .

I an d II ings K (or Can t ) .

NE W TESTAMENT

M att . I and II Co r . I and II T hese .


Jas .

M ark Gal . I and II T im . I an d II Pet .

Luke Eph . T itus I, II , and III Jo hn


Jo hn Phil . Philem . Jude
Acts Co l . Heb . R ev .

Ro m .

APO R P HAC Y (APOC ) .

I and II E sd . R es t o fEs ther So ng o f P1 o fM an


. .

To b = T o b it
.
W isd o f So l . . Children I , II , HI , and IV
Ith Judith
. Ecclus . Sus .

Bar . B el and Drago n

VE R SI ON S OF THE BIB LE COMM ONLY F


RE ERRED T O

AV. . Autho riz ed Vers io n .

R V
. . R evised Vers io n .

R V
. . m . R evised Vers io n margin ,
.

= American Standard R evised Vers io n .

= American Standard R evised Vers io n margin , .

ER V
. . . nglis h R evis ed Versio n .

= English R evised Vers io n margin ,


.

E V
. . Englis h Vers io n (s ) o f the Bible .

Vulg .
=
Vulgate .

LXX Septuagint .
78 A M AN UAL F OR WRITER S

29 re feren c es in f ootnotes an d in matter


. In li terary , ,


o f a bibliographical char acter abbreviate volum e , ,


ps alm

nu mber article

division ch apter

, , , , ,


c olu m n

se ction page verse
,

line note ,

,

,

,

,

gure f ollowed by their num ber (s ee chap iv s ec



. .
, ,

an d abbreviate the wor d



f ollowing af ter the number

to d enote co ntinu ance or sequ en ce :


V o l I (plu ral Vo ls ) N o 1 (N o s ) Ps 2 0
. Div III , ,
.
, . .
,

chap ii (chaps ) art iii (arts ) s ec 4 (s ecs )


p 5 co l 6

. .
.
, , , . .

vs .
7 n .
9 F ig 7 (Figs ) ; pp 5 7
. .

( pages 5 to 7 inclusi e) , pp 5
= v . f ( .
=
page 5 an d the fo llo win g
p g ) , pp 5
a e if ( page 5 and the
=
. . fo llo wing pages) .

A bbr eviate the co mmon d esign ations o f weights


30 .

an d me asures in the m etric system as well as the s y m ,

bols of me asurem ent in common use when f ollowing a ,

nu meral
1 m 2 dm 3 cm 4 mm ; c m ( cubic meter) c d c c
.
,
.
,
.
, . . .
=
, . .
,
. .
,

c . mm .
; g .
gr . h . min .

s ec . lb . oz .
yd .
, ft .
,
in ; .

AU ( Angs trtim units)


. .
=
, ( hp
. .
= ho rs e po wer) , C -
.

F . and lcm (
. . .
=
lo wes t co mmo n multiple) , etc .

(See chap v .
, sec .

T he f ollowing is a list o f the standard abbreviations f or


te chnical valu e s recommen d ed by the A merican Insti ,

tute o f E lectrical E ngineers :


altern ating curren t ac (wh . en u sed as a co mpo und
ad j ective ; o therwis e s pell o u t )
brake ho rse po wer -
b hp . . .

bo iler ho rs e po wer -
bo iler h p . .

Britis h thermal units B tu



. . .

candle po w er -
c p .
SPELLIN G 79

meters
c en ti
circular mils cir . mils
co unter electro mo tive fo rce co unter e . mf . .

cubic cu .

d irect current d -
c .
(when a co mpo und
us ed as

elect ric ho rse po wer


electro mo tive fo rce
-
e 1 pj
e mf
.

.
at d
.
ec
.
ive ; o therwise spell o ut)

. .

feet ft .

foo t po unds
-
ft lb s
.

gallo ns gal .

r
g ains gr

g ams
r g .

g am calo ies
r r g cal
-
.

ho urs hr .

in ches
indicated ho rs e po wer -

kilo grams
kilo gram meters -

kilo gram calo ries -

kilo meters
kilo watts
kilo watt ho urs -

magneto mo tive fo rce


miles per hr (s eco nd) .

millimeters
milligrams mg .

minutes min .

meters 111 .

meter kilo grams


-

po un ds 1h .

revo lutio ns per minute rev .


per min .
, or r .
pm
. .

s eco nd s

s quare
ro o t o f mean s quare
- - sq .

eective, o r r . ms
. .

kilo vo lts kv .

kilo vo lt amperes
- kv a -
.

watt ho urs
- watt hr -
.

watts per candle po wer - watts per c


-
p .

yards yd .

N OTE
In the cas e o fhyphen ated abbreviatio n s , the rst element
o fthe co mpo un d do es n o t take aperio d .
80 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITER S

C OMP OUN DIN G

T he ompoundin g o f word s is accompli she d either


c

by joining two word s so as to mak e one word or by ,

conn e cting two wor d s with a hyphen T he mod ern .

tend en cy is against the hyph en an d in f avo r of uni ting ,

in o n e two word s whi ch when uni te d convey but one , ,

id e a:
s cho o lro o m wo rks ho p headquarters
, ,
.

T hus far,howe ver this practice can be spoken of ,

only as a tenden cy an d there are many compound word s


,

which are better hyphenate d than consolidate d T he .

following rules are d esigne d to cover su ch cases .

31 . Hyphenate as a rul e, nouns f ormed by the


, co m

bin ation of two nouns one o f whi ch stand s in an objective


relation to the other :
mind -
read er, s to ry
ho lder, pro perty
teller , of
ce - -
o wn er ; hero
wo rship, child s tudy ; wo o d turning, clay mo deling
- - -
.

Exceptions are ommon an d brie f compound s usu ally


c , in
a spe cic or te chn ical sense :

lawgiver, taxpay er, pro o fread er, bo o kk eeper ,


s to ckho lder .

A large group o f these word s is f orme d by word s the


rst elem ent of whi ch is a verb al noun in z ng stan ding
'

in the s am e rel ation to the se con d element as if it were


the object o f a preposition :
bo ardi ng ho us e -
, din in g hall, -
l
s eeping ro o m, -
dwelling plac e, -

pgin ting o ice,


-
walkin g s tick , -
s tarting~po in t, s teppin g s to ne , -

s tumbling blo ck , wo rking m an


- -
.
SPELLIN G 8I

A verbal noun ending in z ng uni ted wi th a


'

32 -
.

preposition used absolutely not governing a follow


in g noun) should t ake a hyphen :
the pu tting ih o r taking o ut o fa hyphen
- -
.

33 Hyphenate two or more word s (except proper


.

n ames f orming a unity in themselves) combin e d in to


one adje ctive preceding a noun :
s o called Cro es us , well kno wn autho r, rs t cla
-
s s in ves tmen t,
- -

high s cho o l co urs e, half dead ho rs e, up to date apparel ; but : N ew


- - - -

T es tamen t times , Old En glis h s pelling .

But do n o t connect by a hyphen adje ctives or participles


with adverbs ending in ly or su ch combinations as the -
'

above when f ollowin g the noun or when predicative : ,

highly d evelo ped s pecies ; a man well kn o wn in the n eigh


b o rho o d ; the fly leaf s o called ; Her go wn and carriage were
-
,

s trictly up to date .

3 4 Hyphenate two or more nouns when combined


.

in an adje ctival sense be f ore a proper noun :


the marty r pres iden t Linco ln ; the po et artis t R o ssetti
- -
.


35 Compoun d s o f fellow
. father mother
,

,

,


parent an d f oster

brother sister ,

d aughter ,

, ,

should be hyphenated when forming the rst element


o f the co mpoun d :
fello w man fello w bein gs father lo ve (but : fatherland)
-

mo ther
-
, , ,

to ngue bro ther o f cer s is ter natio n fo s ter so n daughter


,
-
,
-

,
-
,

cells parent wo rd
,
-
.


3 6 Compoun d s o f in dicatin g the fourth

.
great ,

degree in a dire ct line o f d escent shoul d be hyphen ated :



,

g r ea t gran-
d father gre at grandso n ,
.
82 A M AN UAL F OR WRITER S

37Compound s o f d ealer
.
go d (when this word ,


f orm s the se cond element o f the co mpound) lif e , ,


maker master an d world take a hyphen :

, ,

co al dealer s un go d
-

(but : go dso n go d father go ds end)


,
-
, , ,

life principle (exceptio n : lifetime)


-
to o l m aker mas ter s tro k e ,
-
,
-

(exceptio n : mas terpiece) wo rld ,


-

po wer .


38 . qu arter etc combine d with a noun
Hal f ,

,

.
,

should b e followed by a hyph en :


half truth half to n e half year half
-
title ; q uarter mile
,
-

,
-
,
-
.


Compound s h aving self or by
39 .

as the rst
element o f the compound are hyphenate d :
s elf eviden t self res pect ; b y pro duct b y laws
-

,
- -

,
-
.


Combinations with fold should be written as
4o .

one word if the number cont ains only one syllable ; ifit
cont ains m or e as two : ,

two fo ld ten fo ld ; fteen fo ld a hun dred fo ld


, , .

41 . A dje ctives o f li ke formed by the s ui xatio n


to a no un are usu ally written as one word if the noun


c ontains only one syllable (except when end in g in l) if
it contains more (or is a pro per noun) they should be ,

hyphenate d :
childlik e ho melik e warlik e go dlik e ;, eel like bell like ; , ,
-

,
-

wo man like bus iness lik e ;


-
N apo leo n lik e (but : Chris tlik e)
,
- -
.


Vice
42 . ex elect gener a l
an d lieuten
, ,

,

,

co nstitutin g parts o f titles



an t , should be connecte d ,

with the chi ef noun by a hyphen :


Vice Co nsul T aylo r ex President R o o s evelt the go verno r
-

,
-

elect the po s tmas ter gen eral a lieutenan t co lo nel


,
-

,
-
.
SPELLIN G 83


43 . non should ordinari ly be f ollowe d
T he pre x
by a hyphen except in the comm onest word s :
,

n o n co n tagio us
-
no n unio nis t no n in terference ;
,
-
but : ,
-

no n age no n s en s e no n d es cript no n ess ential no n co mb atant


, , , , .


44 T he prexes
. ante anti bi co

d emi in fra inter intra pre post

semi
'

te sub super tr are or dinarily


join e d to the word without a hyphen unless f ollowed ,

by the same vo wel as that in whi ch they terminate :


an techam ber ,
antis eptic (but : an ti imperialis tic ,
-
biweekly ,

bipartis an co eq ual (but:


, ) demigo d inframargin al
co o rdinate
-
, , ,

intern atio nal in ters pers e , ,


intramural (but : in tra ato mic) po s t -
,

graduate, prearrange (but : pre empt) recas t (but : re enter)


-

,
-

semian nual, s ubco n s cio us , subtitle ,


s uperne , triwee l ky , trico lo r .

Exceptions are such f ormations as :

an te bellum an te N icene, an ti Semitic , demi -


relie o , v in ter
v
- - -

vr y
uni e s it , po s t re o lu tio n ar y , s emi centennia
-
l;

an d ombinations with proper names long or unusu al


c ,

f ormations an d wor d s in which the omi ssion o f the


,

hyphen would convey a me aning diff erent from that


in tend ed (see ch ap iv se cs 1 3 1 7 ; an d below see .
, , ,
.

pre R aphaelite, re tammaniz e; re po s tpo ne , re pulveriz atio n ;


- - - -

re
f matio
or n (as dis tinguis hed fro m refo rmatio n) re co ver (co v er ,
-

again ) , re creatio n
-
(as dis tinguished fro m recreatio n) .


45 . The negative prexes un in
il im
an d a do not usu ally requ ire a hyphen :
un manly , un demo cratic, in an imate, in determin ate, illirn itable,
i mperso n al, as ymmetrical .
84 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITER S

46 the hyphen f rom today
. Omi t

,

tomorrow ,


standpoint (See sec 2

tonight viewp oint ,

,
. .
,

note p 70 above )
,
.
,
.


47 Qu asi
. extra supra and ultra (pre
,

,

,

xed to anoun or an adjec tive) as a rule call for ahyphen :


quasi co rpo ratio n quasi
-
hi s to rical extra haz ardo us supra
, ,
-
,

tempo ral ultra co ns ervative (but : extrao rdinary Ultramo n tane)


,
-
, .


48 . Over

an d under shoul d ordinarily be pre

xe d to a word wi thout a hyphen except in unusu al ,

ca ses :
o veremphas iz e o v erweight ; ,
u nder ed,f un deres timate ; but :
o ver s piritualis tic o v er careful
-
,
-
.

In f raction al numbers
49 . spelled out conne ct by , ,

a hyphen the numerator an d the denomin ator unless ,

either alre ady contains a hyphen :


The year is two thirds go n e ; fo ur an d ve sevenths ; thirty
- -

hundredths ; b ut : thirty o n e hundred ths -


.

But do n o t hyphen ate in su ch cases as :


o ne half o fhis fo rtun e he b equeathed to his wido w ; the o ther ,

to charitable ins titutio ns .

5 0 In the
. se o f two or m ore compoun d word s
ca

o ccurring together which have one o f their component ,

elements in common thi s element is frequently omi tted ,

from all but the last word an d its implication should be ,

indicated by a hyphen (though some wri ters regard this


prac tice as an obje c tion able T euto n is m) :
in English and German s pe aking co un tries ; o n e ve and -

ten cent piec es ; Ifthe s tud ent thinks to nd this character where
-
SPELLIN G 85

ritic is searching
many

a literary c 4n ni th and tenth century -

Euro pe he must loo k o utside o f manus cript tradi tio n .

A hyphen is used to in di cate a prex or su x ,

as a syllable not a complete wor d :


,

The prex a ; the German di minutive sufxes chen and


" -

52 F ollowing is a list of hyphenate d word s of every


.

day occurren ce o f which so me ar e dif ,


cult to clas sify ,

and others do not fall un der an y o f the cl asse s given


abo ve (see sec 3 1 abo ve) :
d eath
.
,

after years
-
rate s ubj ect matter -

has relief
-
rs t fruits o bj ect les so n
- -

birth rate
-
fo lk so n g -

bloo d feud -
foo d stu -

blo o d relations fo untain head well being


po o r law

- - - -

co mmo n -
sens e go o d will po s t o f
ce
-
well nigh
-

mine v well wisher


cro ss- exa guin ea pig s ea le el

- - -

cro ss- re erencef ho rse po wer-


s ense p erceptio n will po wer
-

cro ss - s ectio n man o i war


- -
so n -
in law
-
C HA PT E R IV

CAPITALIZATION

T here is pro b ably no subje ct covered by thi s book


ab o ut which id eas o f good fo rm will be f oun d to dif
fer
more widely than that o f capitaliz ation . It is a subjec t
cult
dif to tre at with arbitrary rules since it must ,

b e admitted th at in very m any cases there is equ ally


goo d authority f or an d against capit aliz ing (see chap .

viii p 1 5 7 ) a word und er id entical cir cumst ances In the


, . .

preparation of this book it has been d eemed best ho w


, ,

ever not to state an y rule in the alternative but to


, ,

enunciate as the rule to be f ollowed that for which there


is n o t o nly good authority but the best authority
,
To .

a writer accustom ed in an y given case to a pr ac tic e


dieren t f rom that calle d f or in thi s book some of these ,

rules may appear arbitrary Each however has been


.
, ,

f rame d in view o f its be aring on some other rule or


situ ation an d adheren ce to these rules in the prepar ation
,

o f a manuscript or in or dinary practice will insure a


harmonious co nsistent whole It is h ar dly necess ary to
,
.


add f or great er cle arness th at a dire c tion to
, , capit al

iz e appli es o f co urse only to the rst letter o f a word



, , ,

an d n o t to the whole word .

M any o f these rules have been t aken in an abbrevi


ate d an d con densed f orm f rom the M an ual of S ty le

(Chi cago : T he University of Chicago Press 3 d ,

86
CAPIT ALIZATION 87

1 C apitaliz e proper nouns an d adjectives :


.

N o rth America E nglis hman ; Eliz ab ethan French


, ,
.

But do n o t capitaliz e proper n am es or their derivatives


in whose present generaliz ed accept ation the origin has
,

become forgotten or obscure d :


u to pia b o hemian philis tin e plato nic quixo tic mo ro cco
, , , , ,

(leather) bo yco tt ro man (type) pasteuriz atio n ;


, , ,

an d do n o t capi taliz e su ch word s as the following when


used in the sense o f ele ctrical units :
vo lt , ampere watt farad henry o hm co ulo mb etc
, , , , , ,
.

2.C apitaliz e epithets use d as substitutes for proper


names or afxe d to a n am e :
,

the Pretender the Virgin M ary R ichard the Lio n hearted


, ,
-
,

Alexander the G reat .

3 .C apit aliz e nouns an d adjec tives used to designate


the Supreme Bein g or Power or an y member o f the ,

Christian T rinity ; an d all pronouns ref erring to the


Deity unless closely pre ced ed or followe d by a dis tin c
tive n ame or unless the ref erence is otherwise per fe ctly
,

clear

the Almighty the R uler o f the univers e the Firs t C aus e the
, , ,

Ab s o lute Pro viden ce (pers o nied) Father So n Ho ly Gho s t


, , , , ,

the Spirit Sav io r M ess iah So n o f M a
, ,
n the L o o
g ;s T rus t
, ,

Him who rules all things (but : When Go d had wo rked s ix


days , he res ted o n the

But do no t capi taliz e such expressions and derivatives as :


(Go d s ) fatherho o d (Jes us ) s o ns hip mes siahs hip mes s ianic

, , ,

ho pe chris to lo gical (b ut : Chris to lo gy)


,
.
88 A M AN UAL F OR WR IT ERS

4C apitaliz e the names


. an d epithets o f peoples ,
races an d tribes :
,

Aryans , Kars , N egro es , Ho tten to ts , Bugin ese, C eles tials .


5C apitaliz e the particles in F rench nam es as 1e
.
, ,


la ,

de du when standing without a Christian
,

,

n ame or title preceding ; but no t when pre ceded by su ch


nam e or title :
Le B o ss u , La To rre, De Co ligny , D Aub ign (b ut : R en le

Bo s su, M iguel de la T o rre , Gas pard de Co lign y , T ho mas



d Aubign ) .

A lways capitaliz e Van in Dutch names ; never capit al



iz e von in German n ame s :

Stephen V an R ens s elaer ; Hugo vo n M artin s , vo n Do b s chii tz .

N o re
Pers o n al preferen ce is re spo ns i le fo r the b fo llo wing amo ng,

o thers , as excep tio n s : Henry van Dy e, J H an t HOE



k . . v .

6 C apitaliz e titles o f honor an d respec t whether


.
,

religious civil or mili tary prece ding the n am e an d


, , , ,

acad emi c d egrees in abbreviate d f orm following the ,

nam e ; all titles of honor or o f nobili ty when re ferrin g ,

to spe cic persons e ither pre ce din g the n ame or used ,

in place o f the proper n am e ; familiar n ames applied


to particular persons ; orders (decorations) an d the
titles accompanying them ; titles without the name , ,

used in dire ct address ; titles without the nam e when


used o f existin g incumbents o f ofce ; an d su ch word s

President King K aiser

as C z ar , , ,

Sultan an d Pope
, standi ng alone when re ferring ,

,

to a spe cic ruler or incum bent :


King Geo rge IV ex President Taft R ear admiral Dewey
,
-
,
-
,

United States Co mmissio ner o f Educatio n Claxto n St Paul , .


,
CAPIT ALIZATION 89

Father Bo niface Deaco n Smith; the Prince o fWales His M aj es ty


, , ,

Yo ur Grace ; Dav id Starr Jo rdan Ph D LL D (Litt D Sc D ,


. .
, . . . .
, . .
,

the Father o f his C o un try ; Knight Co mmander o f


Allo w me to s ugges t Judge ; the Secretary o f the

the B ath; ,

Treas ury ; the Bis ho p o fLo ndo n ; but : T he king in En glan d the ,

cz ar i n R us s ia the s ultan in Turkey repres en t o ppo s ite extremes


, ,

o f the mo n archical idea .

But do n o t capitaliz e the o f cial title o f a person when


the title follows the name o r the title when standin g ,

alone with out the n am e (with the exceptions note d


above) or when f ollowe d by the n ame it is prece de d
, , ,


by the article the :
Wo o dro w Wilso n president o fthe United States ; Paul Sho rey
, ,

pro fess o r o f Greek ; the empero r o f G ermany (meaning gen erally , ,

an y ho lder o f the o f ce no t a s pecic in dividual) ; the senato r


,

(when no t referring to a specic pers o n ) ; the apo stle Paul .

an d similar term s

7 C apitaliz e N ature an d

.
,

abstract ide as when personie d : ,

F o r N ature wields her s cepter merciless ly ; representatio ns

ofVice in the o ld English mo rality plays .

8 C apitaliz e n am es f or the B ible an d other s acre d


.

books :
Ho ly (Sacred) Scriptures Ho ly Writ Wo rd o f Go d Bo o k o f
, , ,

Bo o ks ; Ko ran Vedas M is hna the Upanis hads Apo crypha


, , , ,
.

But do n o t capit aliz e adjectives derived from su ch nouns :


biblical s criptural ko ranic vedic talmudic apo cryphal
, , , , ,
.

9 C apitali z e books an d divisions o f the B ible an d


.

divisions o f other s acred boo ks (s ee ch ap iii s ec 2 8 ; .


,
.

ch ap vi s ec 4)
.
,
.

Old Tes tament, Pen tateuch, Exo dus , II (Seco nd) Chro n icles ,
the Bo o k o f Jo b , the (M o s aic) Law and the (writings o f the)
90 A M AN UAL F oR WRITER S
Pro phets , M ino r Pro phets , Wis do m Literature , Go s pel o f Luk e,
Syn o ptic Go s pels , the Fo urth Go s pel, Pas to ral Epis tles , Sermo n
on the M o un t .


But do taliz e word s like book
no t capi gospel , ,


epistle p s,
al m

in su ch uses as :

the ve b o o ks o f M o ses the rs t thirty ps alms biblical apo ca , ,

lypses .

1 0. C apitaliz e versions an d edi tions o f the B ible :


King James s Vers io n Autho riz ed Vers io n

R evis ed ,

Vers io n Po lychro me B ible Septuagin t (LXX ) Peshitto , ,

(see chap . iii, s ec .

11 C apitaliz e the n ames or titles o f biblical par ables


.
:

the parable o f the Pro digal So n .

12 . C apitali z e such mis cellaneous te rms as :


Las t Supper, E ucharis t, the Pass io n , the T welve (apo s tles ) ,
the Seven ty (dis ciples ) , the Sn ering Servan t, the Go lden R ule .

13 .C apitaliz e the names o f poli tical parties religious ,

denomi n ations or sec ts an d phi losophi cal l iterary an d , , ,

artistic schools an d their adherents : ,

R epublican C o nserv ative ,N atio n al Lib eral ; Chris tian , ,

Pro tes tan t C atho lic Papis t Ultramo n tane R efo rm ed G reek
, , , , ,

Ortho do x An abaptis t Seven th Day Ad ven tis ts the Es tablis h


, ,
-
,

ment High Church; Epicurean Sto ic Gno s ticism (but : n eo


Plato nism ps eudo Chris tianity
, , ,

, s ee s ec 2 4 b elo w ; chap iii s ecs


-
.
, .
, .

the R o man tic mo v emen t ; the Symb o lic s cho o l o f painters .

But do no t capitaliz e an y o f these or simi lar word s or ,

their d erivatives when used in their original or acquired


,

general sense :
repub lican fo rm o f go vernment a true d emo crat and a co n ,

s ervative s tates man the co mmunis tic theo ries ; catho licity o f
,

mind puritanical id eas pharisaic s upercilio us ness ; epicurean


, ,

tas tes .
CAPITALIZATION 91


14C apitaliz e the word chure
. in properly ci te d
titles of nationally organiz ed bo di es o f believers ; or
when forming part of the name o f a particular e dice :
Church o fR o me Church o f the Latter day Sain ts ; Church
,
-

o f the Ho ly Sepulcher Fifth Avenu e B aptis t Church


,
.

C apitaliz e the proper (of cial) ti tles o f social


15 .
'

religious e du cational political comm er cial an d in dus


, , , ,

trial organiz ations and institutions :


Unio n League Club Knights T emplar ; Bo y Sco uts ; Yo ung
,

Peo ple s So ciety o f C hris tian En deavo r As s o ciated Charities ;



,

Smithso n ian In s titutio n ; the Uni vers ity High Scho o l ; Co o k


Co unty Demo cracy .

But do no t capitaliz e su ch generic terms when use d to


d esign ate a cl ass ; nor when st anding alone even if ap ,

pli ed to a specic insti tution except to avoid ambiguity : ,

yo ung peo ple s s o cieties the high scho o l at R o ckfo rd lo cal



, ,

typo graphical unio ns .

C apitaliz e the n am es o f monastic orders an d


1 6.

their m embe rs :
the Order o f St F rancis the Little Sis ters o f the Po o r
.
, ,

C arthus ian s .

17 . C apitaliz e the names of cree ds an d c on fessions


o f faith :
Apo stles
C reed , N icene Creed (but an te N icene - s ee chap .

iii, s ec . Augs b urg Co nfes s io n , T hirty nin e Articles -


.

18C apit aliz e the n ames of conventions congresses


.
, ,

expositions etc : ,
.

Co un cil o f T rent Parliamen t o f R eligio n s Third An nual


, ,

C o nferen ce o f the Wes tern Eco no mic So ciety Wo rld s Pure



,

Fo o d Expo s itio n .
92 A M AN UAL F OR WRITER S


19C apit aliz e the word father
. when used f or ,


chur ch father an d re f ormers when use d o f R efo r
, ,

mation le aders if the meani n g would be ambiguous


,

otherwi se :
the early Fathers the Pilgrim Fathers the R efo rm ers
, ,
.

2o C apitaliz e the names o f legislative jud iciary


.
, ,

an d admi nistrative bodies an d govern mental d epart


ments an d their branches when specically applied :
, ,

Co ngres s the Ho use o f R epresen tativ es the Co mmittee o f


, ,

Ways and M eans the Ho use o f Co mmo ns the General Assembly


, ,

o f Illin o is .

But do n o t capitaliz e su ch general or in complete designa


tions as :
the natio n al as s embly the s tate legis lature the co uncil the
, , ,

departmen t the b o ard ,


.

z r C apitaliz e ordinals use d to d esignate sessions


.

o f Congress names o f regimen ts Egyptian dyn ast ies


, ,

an d in similar connections (see ch ap iii s ec .


,
.

the Fifty s ixth Co ngress ; the Sev en th Illino is R egimen t


-

the E ighteen th Dyn as ty .

22. C apitaliz e generic terms for political divisions :


(1 ) when the term is an organic part of the name an d
f ollows the proper n ame direc tly :
Ho ly R o man Empire French R epublic Uni ted K in gdo m , , ,

N o rthwes t Territo ry C o o k Co un ty ; ,

(2 ) when with the preposition of it is used as an



, ,

integral part of the name to in di cate certain minor


administrative sub divisions in the U n ite d S t ates :
Department o fthe Lak es , Bo ro ugh o fM anhattan ;
CAPIT ALIZAT ION 93

(3) when used singly as the acc epted design ation f or a


specic division :
the M iddle Wes t Canada Wes t the Do minio n the Wes t Side ;
, , ,

(4) when it is part of a fanciful or popular appellation


used as a re al geographical name :
the W indy City the City o fBro therly Lo ve the Ho o s ier State
, , .

But do n o t capit aliz e su ch terms when standin g alone ,

or when not an integr al part o f the specic n ame :


the city ; the empire o f R uss ia; s tate o f Illino is co un ty o f ,

Co o k city o f Chicago
, .

23 . Capitaliz e numbered poli tical divisions (see chap .

iii , sec .

E leventh Co ngression al Dis trict, Seventh Ward ,


T hirty
s eco n d Precinct .

C apitaliz e the names o f political alliances an d


2 4. ,

su ch te rms from se cular or e cclesiastical hi story as have ,

through their associations acquire d spe cial signi can ce ,

as design ations f or parties classes movemen ts etc (see , , ,


.

s ec 1 3 above) :
.
,

Pro tes tant League Ho ly Alliance Dreibun d ; the R o s es


, , ,

the R o undheads Indepen den ts Independ ency (Englis h his to ry)


, , ,

N o nco n fo rmist Diss enter Separatis t


, ,
.

C apitaliz e generic terms f orming a part o f geo


25.

graphical n ames :
Atlantic Ocean, Dead Sea, B anin

s B ay , Gulf of M exico .

But do no t capitaliz e wor ds of this clas s when simply


add ed by way o f d es cription to the specic name wi th ,

out forming an organic part o f such name :


the river Elb e the des ert o f Sahara the is land o fM ad agascar
, , .
94 A M AN UAL FOR WR IT ER S

Subject to the rule just state d the following li st will


,

be found useful :
CAPITALIZE , IN SIN G ULAR FORM ONL Y WHE N
, IM MEDIATEL Y
FOLLOWIN G THE N AME

Archipelago Creek Harbo r Park


Bo ro ugh Delta Head
B ran ch (s tream) Fo res t Ho llo w R ange
B utte Fo rk M es a R eser atio nv
N arro ws R idge
Co un ty Ri erv
Crater Gulch Parish (La ) . R un

CAPIT ALIZE IN SI N GU LAR 0R PLU R AL FOR M WHE N IMME DIATEL Y


FO LLOWIN G THE N AME

Hill Islan d M o un tain Spring

CAPITALIZE , IN SIN G ULAR FOR M , E ITHE R F


BE ORE OR AF TE R Tn
N AM E ; AND IN P LUR AL FOR M F
B E ORE THE N AME

Bay Desert M o un t Po rt
Bayo u F all s Oas is Sea
Camp (military) Fo rt Pas s Strait
Cape Isle Pe ak Valley
Dalles Lak e Po in t Vo lcano

C apitaliz e adjectives an d nouns use d singly or in


2 6.

conjun ction to distin gu ish den ite regions an d when


, ,

use d in conne ction with a geogr aphi cal name ; an d also


terms applied to groups o f states :
Old Wo rld Wes tern Hemis phere N o rth Po le Equato r
, , , ,

the N o rth the Eas t (the Orien t) the F ar Eas t; ,

the N o rth So uth Ea


, s t Wes t (Uni ted States ) ; N o rthern Euro e
, , p ,

So uthern Califo rnia; N o rth Atlan tic s tates M idd le Wes tern ,

s tates .

But subje ct to the foregoing rule do no t capitaliz e adj ec


, ,

tives derive d f rom such n am es 0 1 nouns simply d esi


g ,

n ating dire ction or point of compass :


o rien tal cus to ms the so uthern s tates a so utherner (but :
, ,

N o rthman Scandin avian) ; the win d is fro m the west


=
.
CA PITALIZ ATION 95

In or der to distin gu ish between a local an d a world wide -

application the latter should be capi taliz ed :


Eas tern peo ples peo ples o f the Orien t) ; Wes tern n atio n s .

27 C apitaliz e the names o f thoroughfares parks


.
, ,

squ ares blo cks buildi ngs etc (see chap iii sec
, , ,
. .
,
.

Drexel Avenue R ingstrasse Via Appia Chicago Drainage


, , ,

C anal ; Linco ln Park ; T rafalgar Square ; M o nadno ck Blo ck ;


Lak es ide Building Capito l White Ho use
, , .

But do n o t capitaliz e su ch gener al designations of build



ings as courthouse post o i ce library
,

etc -

,

,

.
,

except in conne ction with the place in which they are


situ ated .

2 8.C apitaliz e names o f important events :


T hirty Years War R evo lutio n (French) War o f Independ

, ,

ence Whis key Ins urrectio n (American)


,
Civil War (American) , ,

Franco Pruss ian War B attle o f Gettys burg ; Lo uis iana Purchas e
-
, .

29 . C apitaliz e the names o f civic holidays an d e ccle


s ias tical fast an d f e ast days .

Fo urth o f July Labo r Day Thanksgiving Day ; Pas so ver


, , ,

As h Wedn es day F eas t o f T ab emacles Chris tmas Day


, , .

30 C apit aliz e comm only accepte d appellations f or


.

hi storical epochs period s in the history of a l angu age or


,

liter ature an d geological ages an d strata the word age
, ,

itself being capitaliz ed only where a failure to do so would


result in ambiguous m eaning :
Sto n e age M iddle Ages ) , C rus ades , R enais s an ce,
(bu t :
R efo rmatio n , In quis itio n , Co mmune (Paris ) ; Old Engli s h (OE
s ee chap v, sec
. M iddle High German (M HG) ; the Age o f
.

Eliz ab eth; Pleis to cene .


96 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITE R S

CaPitaliz
: e ti tles o f specic tre aties ,
acts , laws
(juridical) bills etc : , ,
.

Treaty o f Verdun Peace ,


of Prague, Ed ict o f N an tes , Co n
co rdat, the Co ns titutio n (o f the United States ) , Declaratio n of

Independen ce, Act o fE mancipatio n , M agn a C (h) arta Co rn Law , ,

R efo rm B ill (Englis h) Fo urteenth Amendment ,


.


32 . Capi taliz e the exclamations O

an d Oh

(see chap . iii, s ec .

33 A s a rule capitaliz e nouns followed by a numeral



.
,

pa rt i cul arly a capi t aliz e d R oman nu meral in dicatin g


their order in a sequence :
R o o m 1 6 Ps 2 0 Grade IV Act I Vo l I N o 2 Bo o k II
, .
, , ,
.
, .
, ,

Div III Part IV


.
, .

But do n o t capitaliz e su ch min or sub divisions or their


abbreviations as :
rule 9 sec 4 s cen e i art iii chap 2 (ii) p 7 (vii) vs 1 1
, .
, , .
, .
, .
, .
,

l 5,
. n . 6 .

34 . R e f erences to parts of a spe cic work should be


capi taliz ed :
The Intro ductio n s tates ; T he Index is very co mplete .

But gen eral referen ces should not be capitaliz ed :


The bo o k has a co mplete ind ex (See chap v s ec . .
, .

35 C apitaliz e the rst wor d o f a ci ted spee ch or


.

thought in direct di scourse whether prece de d by a colon ,

or a comma (see chap v secs 9 .


,
.
,


On leavin g he re mark ed : N ever s hall I fo rget this day

;

With the wo rds , N ever shall I fo rge t this day ,

he departed .
CAPIT ALIZAT ION 97

36 resolutions capi taliz e the rst word following


. In
'

Whereas and R esolved (see chap vi sec



.
,
.

WHEREAS It has pleas ed Go d


, therefo re be it
Res olved , That

37 C apitaliz e the rst word af ter a colon only when


.

introdu cing a complete passage or a senten ce whi ch ,

would h ave an ind epend ent meaning as in summariz a ,

tions an d quotations not closely connecte d with what


prece d es ; or where the colon has the weight o f su ch

expressions as as follows namely for instance
,

,

,

or a similar phr ase an d is f ollowed by a logically complete


sentence :
In l
co nc us io n I wis hto say : I t will b e seen fro m the ab o ve that
there is n o alternative ; As the o ld pro verb has it : Has te makes
was te ; My theo ry is : The mo men t the ho t r
cu ren t s tri es k
f
the s ur ace, the g as s l breaks .

But do t aliz e the rst word o f a quotation if


no t capi
immediately connected wi th what preced es ; or the rs t

word af ter a colon if an implied namely or a similar
, ,

term is f ollowed by a bri e f explanatory phrase logically


, ,

d epen d ent upon the pre cedi n g clause ; or if the colon


in dicates a note o f comment :
The o ld adage is t ue that r
has te makes was te ; T wo ex
r
planatio ns p esent thems elves : eithe r he came to o late fo r the
train, o r he was detained at the s tatio n .

38 A s a rule capitaliz e the rs t word in sec tions o f


.
,

an enumeration if an y one link contains two or more


distin ct clauses s eparated by a semi colon colon or
, , ,
98 A M AN UAL F OR WRI TE R S

perio d , unless all are d epen d ent upon the s am e term


pre ce ding an d leading up to them (see chap v s ec .
,
.

His reaso n s fo r refus al were thes e : (1 ) He did no t have the


time .
(2 ) He d id no t have the means ; o r at any rate had no , ,

funds available ; but : He o bj ected that (1 ) he did no t have


the time ; (2 ) he did n o t have the mean s ; o r at any rate had n o , ,

fund s available .

39 C apitaliz e all the prin cipal word s


. nouns ,

pro nouns adje ctives adverbs verbs rst an d last


, , , ,

word s) in English titles o f publications (books pam ,

phlets do cuments periodicals


, reports pro cee dings
, , , ,

an d their d ivi sions (parts chapters sections , , ,

po em s articles ,
in subj ec ts o f lec tures papers
, , ,

toasts etc (see sec 43 below) :


,
. .
,

S tand ard Thes aurus f


o E nglis h Words and Phras es ; In
Harper s Di ctio n ary of Class ical Li terature and Anti quiti es will b e


fo und a useful article o n The T emples o f Ancien t R o me ; a

The Gues t o f the Even in g v

to as t to .
(See chap .
, s ec .

40 f oreign titles in addition to capit aliz ing the


. In ,

rst wo r d f ollow these general rules :


,

a) In Latin titles capit aliz e proper nouns an d adj ec


tives d erive d there f rom :
De co mpendio s a do ctrin a, De bello Gildon ico .

b) In F rench Italian Spanish an d Scan dinavian


, , ,

titles capitaliz e proper nouns but not adje ctives derive d


,

there f ro m :
La vi e de R ons ard, His to ire de la litt rature frangais e; Il B oc
cacci o a N apoli , N ovelle e racco nti popolari italiaui; An to logi a de

p oetas lirico s cas tellan os , S vens ka litteraturens his toric


.
CAPIT ALIZAT ION 99

c) In German an d Dani sh ,taliz e all noun s but capi

not the adje ctives except German adje ctives derived


,

from the names o f pe rsons :


Ges chichte des deuts chen F eudalwes ens (but : Die Homeris che
Frage) ; F rems krit i der n ittende Aarhund red e .

d) In Dutch , capi
taliz e all noun s an d all adjecti ves
derived f rom proper nouns :
Ges chiednis det N ed erlands che Taal .

4r C apitaliz e ti tles of anci ent manus cripts (abbrevi


.

ation : M S in the sin gular ; M SS in the plural) :


Co dex B ernens is ; Co d C an o nicianus . .

42 . In menti oningtitles o f newspapers magaz ines , ,

an d s imi l ar publications the d eni te article should not


, ,

as a rule be capitaliz ed or treated as part o f the title


,

(see chap vi sec .


,
.

the Chi cago Record Herald , the Century M agaz i ne, the Annual
-

R egis ter ofthe Univers ity of Chicago .

43 . titles o f bo oks ar ticles etc with the main


In , ,
.
,

word s capitaliz ed all nouns f orming parts o f hyphenate d


,

compound s should be capit aliz ed :

Eighteenth Cen tury Stage Setting


-
(See s ec 3 9 abo ve ) . .
, .

But do no t capi taliz e su ch components when other than


nouns :
Sixty third Street ;
-
Lives of Well kno wn Autho rs
-
.

And in e heads do n o t capit aliz e any but the rs t


sid -
,

word an d proper nouns (see chap v s ec 65 an d .


,
.
,

e xamples) .
1 00 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITER S

44 . bot an ical geological z o ological an d paleo n to


In , , ,

logical matter capitaliz e the Latin (scientic) names o f


,

divisions ord ers f amilies an d genera but not their


, , , ,

English derivatives :
C o tylo s auria bu t : co tylo s aurs ; F elidae but : felid s ; C arni
, ,

vo ra but : carn ivo res


, .

In botanical an d z oological matter capitaliz e the n ames ,

o f species if d erived f rom n ames o f persons or f rom


, ,

gen eric n ames ; but in geological an d m edical matter ,

the names o f species are never capitaliz ed :


F elis leo , Co co s nuci era, f R o s a Caro lin a, Parkins o nia Torreyan a,
S tyrax californ ica, Ly thrum hyss o pifoli a; Phy teuma Halleri , Carex
Hallerian a (but [geo lo gical] : P terygo matopus s chmidti , Con odectus
favos us) (see chap . vi, s ec . II ) .

45 . In astronomical work capitaliz e the names o f


,

the plane ts stars an d groups o f stars (bu t not sun

, , ,

earth mo on
,

,

J upiter Aldebaran the M ilky Way


, , , the Great B ea r , the B ig
Dipper .
C HA PTER V
PUN CT UATION

T he Cen tury Diction ary , M r


Wilson s work A
.

,

Treatis e o n E n glis h P unctuati o n an d the M an ual of


,

S tyle o f the University o f Chi cago Press have been


used as authorities in compiling the rules whi ch follow
un der thi s head .

T he present ten dency is to redu ce pun ctuation to


a minimum . What is a proper mi ni mum is to a great
extent a matter o f taste an d pred ilectionm ore so in
E ngli sh than in an y other langu age Wi th the possible
.

exception o f rule 2 0 (regardi ng which the practice must


be admitte d to be quite irregular) no rule which is ,

unnecessary or which could consistently be omitte d


has been given an d conversely every rule given i s
, , ,

believed to be ne cess ary for good practice .

Be f ore entering on spe cic rules the general one ,

may be laid d own : N o punctu ation mark should be


used unless necessary ; let the punctuation assist in
maki ng the meaning clear ; when that en d is attaine d
further punc tuation is superuous an d should be
avoid e d
.

THE PE R IOD

1. A period should be placed af ter all abbreviations


(f or contractions see chap iii s ec
,
. T he metric
, .

symbols should be treated as abbreviations but not the ,

10 1
10 2 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITERS

chemical symbols nor the , phrase per ent
c ,

nor the
format of books :
M acmillan M r Smith, St Paul, N o 1 , Chas (see
Co .
, . . . .

cha 9 mm ; but : m fg pl t ( manu



p iii , sec ibid , =
. . . .

facturing plan t) (see chap iii , sec 0 , H20, F e ; 2 per cent ; . .

4to , 8 vo (s ee chap iii .


, sec .

But do no t use a period in technical matter af ter the , ,

r ecogniz e d abbreviations f or linguistic epochs or for ,

titles o f well known publications o f which the in itials


-

only are given or af ter su ch symbols as M S ( manu



=
,

script) ; IE In d o European) OE Old E ngli sh) , ,

M HG ( M iddle High German) ; AJ S L ( American


= =

J o urn al ofS emiti c Lan guages an d Literatures) See al so .

p 7 9 n o te
.
, .

2 U se no period af ter R oman numerals even when


.
,

they are used as ordinals :


Vo l IV ; Lo uis XIV was
. on the thro ne .

A perio d is use d to indi cate the en d o f a d eclara


3 .

tive sentence .

4 When a quotation f orm s the en d of a declarative


.

sentence the period should always be place d wi thi n the


,

quotation marks But when a parenthesis fo rm s the .

en d o f a d e clarative senten ce the perio d shoul d be place d ,

outside of the marks o f paren the sis A perio d may .

occur withi n a paren thesis only af ter an abbreviation


or an ind ependent sentence lying en tirely within the
parenthesi s
'

Tenn yso n s In M emo riam

When the parenthes is fo rms .

part o f the preced ing sentence put the perio d o uts ide (as fo r , ,
P UN CT UATION 103

ins tance , here) . T his was v


s e en t y years earlier 44
Put the perio d within the quo tatio n mark s .
(T his is a rule

witho ut exceptio n ) .

T HE E X C LAM ATION P OIN T

5 . exclamation point is generally used to mark


The
an expression o f surpri se pain sorrow anxiety sham e , , , , ,

disapprob ation a wish or an outcry an d there f ore it


, , ,

is sometimes used alone as a mark o f critici sm or sur


prise :

Lo g live the k g
n in "
Heave n fo b d " Go o d " he
r

i


cried ; T he sub j ect o fhis lecture was

T he T hisn es s o f the T hat '

T he speaker went o n : N o bo dy s ho uld leave his ho me to mo rro w
witho ut a marked b allo t in their po cket

.

But except in very rare inst ances use a comma not an


, , ,


exclamation point af ter the exclamation Oh followe d
,

by other exclamatory word s (see p 5 8 ; chap iii s ec 6 ; . .


, .

ch ap iv s ec
.
,
.

6 T he exclamation point is placed insid e the quo


.

tatio n marks when part o f the quot ation ; otherwise ,

outside .

See illus tratio ns in sec.


5 .

THE IN TE R R OGA TION P OIN T

7 . T he interrogation poin t is use d to mark a query ,


or to express a doubt :

Who is this T he pris o ner gave his name as R o ger
Cro wnins hield , the so n o f an Englis h baro net

In dire ct questions however should not be f ollowed by


, ,

an interrogation point (see p .

He asked whether she was ill .


1 04 A M AN UAL F OR WRIT ER S

The interrogation point should be place d insid e the


8 .

quotation marks only when it is a part o f the quotation :


The q ues tio n : Who is who and what is
What Were
y o u ev er in Ts ints in nati

THE C OLON

9 . olon has two distinct f unctions o n e separa


T he c .

tive the other continuative (I ) It may separate two


,
.

clauses or grou ps o f clauses which might be tre ate d as

in depend ent senten ces an d s eparated by a perio d but ,

which the writer wishes fo r purposes o f clearness or ,

emphasis to connec t in a single sentenc e T his use


,
.

is antiqu ated an d has almost entirely d isappe are d .

may separate a clause which is grammatically


ts f rom a se cond which presents an illustr at ion
or an amplicatio n o f its meaning Or (3 ) it may .

intro du ce a f ormal st atem ent a list an extract or a , , ,


long quotation n o t intro du ce d by that (see sec
.

(1 ) A s in less creature , transgress ing the mo ral law is , then


no t an un s cien tic ass umptio n : co n s cience f
as s ertin g its el as the
vo ice divine within the hum an s o ul is then no t o nl y po ss ible , b ut
actual and real, in the his to ry of man s earlies t pro genito rs .

(2 ) M o s t co un tries have a n atio n al o wer : Fran ce the lily ;


E ngland the ro s e, etc .
(3 ) T he ru le may b e s tated thus :
A s en ten ce s ho uld always begin with a capital letter . We
quo te fro m the ad dress :

I am called upo n to pro po s e the

health, bu t : Declaring, The letter is a mo n s tro us
f o rger y ,

he tried to was h his han ds o f the who le affair .

10 . T he olon thus o f ten takes the place o f an


c

implie d

n amely
as f ollows
,

f or in stance or a ,

,

PUN CT UATION I O5

similar phrase Where su ch a word or phrase is use d


.
,

it should be f ollowe d by a colon if what follows co n


sists o f one or more grammatically complete clauses ;
otherwise by a c omma (see below sees 2 2

, , ,
.


This is true o f o nly two natio ns the wealthies t, tho ugh
no t the larges t, in Euro pe : Great Britain and France ;


but :

This is true o f o nly two natio n s the wealthies t, tho ugh no t


the larges t , in Euro pe viz , Great Britain and France
-

. .

1 I.U se a colon af ter the salutatory phrase at the


beginning o f a formal letter an d af ter the salutation ,

o i a speaker to the chairman an d the au dien ce he is

addressing :
M y dear M r Bro wn : (See chap vii pp 1 3 3
. .
, .
,

M r Chairman , Ladies
. and Gentlemen :

12 . U se a colon between chapter an d verse in Scr ip


,

ture re ferences an d between hours an d minutes in time


,

indications (see sec 1 7 below) : .


,

M att 13 ;
. PM .

13 . U se a colon between the place o f publication


an d the publisher s n ame in literary an d bib liographical

re ferences :
Clement of Alexandria (Lo ndo n : M ac millan) II 9 7 (see , ,

chap viii p I 6 1 )
.
, . .

14 . Theolon should be placed outside the quotation


c

marks unle ss it is a part o f the quotation :


,

The fo llo wing ins tructio n is given un der the head o f Bus ines s
C o rres pondence : When a rm is the add ressee the salutato ry

,

phras e s ho uld b e Gentlemen : o r Dear Sirs :

106 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITER S

THE SE MI COLON

15 . semicolon is used wi thin a sentenc e to mark


T he
a di vision somewh at more distin c t than that mark ed
by a comma (see above s ec ,
.

Are we giving o ur lives to perp etuate the things that the pas t
has created fo r its n eeds fo rgettin g to ask whether thes e thin gs
,

s till s erv e to day s n eed s ; o r are we think in g o f liv ing m en "


T his is as impo rtan t fo r s cience as it is fo r practice ; in d eed , it


may b e s aid to b e the o nl y impo rtan t co n s id eratio n .

16. enu merations separate the item s by semi colons


In ,

u nless they are very short an d contain no commas ; or


they are very lo ng an d require by their gr ammatical ,

stru cture period s exclamatio n o r interrogatio n poin ts


, , ,

colons or oth er s emi colons :


,

T he memb ers hip o f the in tern atio n al co mmis s io n was mad e


up as fo llo ws : France 4 ; G erm any 5 ; Great B ritain I (o win g
, , ,

to a misun d ers tanding, the anno un cemen t did no t reach the

E n glis h s o cieties in tim e to s ecure a full quo ta fro m that


co untr y) ;
Italy , 3 T he d efendan t, in j us ti catio n o f his act,
.

plead ed that (a) he was d espo n d en t o v er the lo s s o f his wife ;


(b) he was o ut o f wo rk ; (c) he had had n o thing to eat fo r two
d ays ; (d) he was un d er the inuen ce q
o f li uo r . B ut : The ques
tio ns ,

What is y o ur n atio n alit y"
What is yo ur religio n "
Are y o u n aturaliz ed " all pro ved to b e

s tu mblin g blo cks


-
to
the applican ts .

17 . re ferences the semi colon is us ed to


In Scripture
separate passages co ntainin g chapters (s ee sec 1 3 above)

.
,

Gen . 6 , 9, 14; chap .


5;

18 . semicolon should be place d outside the quo


T he
tatio n marks unless it is a part o f the quot ati on
, .
PUN C T UATION 10 7

T HE COMMA


19 . o mma is used to ind icate the smallest
T he c

inter ruptions in continui ty o f thought or grammatical


constru ction the markin g o f whi ch cont ributes to cle ar
,

ness :
The d o ctrin e is indeed laid do wn by an autho rity here an d
, ,

there ; but s peaking gen erally it has no place in the s tan dards
, , ,

creeds o r co nfes s io ns o f the great co mmunio n s ; e g the Apo s tles



. .
, ,

Creed the N icene Creed the cano ns o f the early ecumen ical
, ,

co uncils the Wes tmins ter Co nfes s io n the T hirty ni n e Articles


, ,
-

G o ss iping wo men are happy {to dis tin guis h fro m


, ,
Go s s ipin g
wo men are happy .

20 (I ) If a series of word s or groups o f words co n


.

sists o f only two members they should not be separate d ,

by commas unless the groups them selves are very long ;


(2 ) if the series consists of three or more members with
c onj unc tions conne cting each no comma is ne cessary ,

unless the series is very long or the groups themselves


are long ; (3 ) ifin a series of three or more members the
conjun ctions are omitte d except between the last two

e ach group o f the series should be set o by a comma:


(1 ) Co pper and go ld are pro duced in quantities ; bu t:
T he co ns tan t tho ugh wavering s truggle b etween the represen ta
tives o f the two attitudes o f min d and the mis fo rtun e and ev il,

which co me fro m religio us dis b eli ef co ns tituted the main s ub j ect


o f his address (2 ) He was equally familiar with the wo rks
.

of Ho mer and Dan te an d Go ethe ; but : He was equally


familiar with the wo rks o fHo mer, and Shakespeare and M o liere , ,

v
and Cer an tes , and Go ethe, an d I b sen ; N either Fran ce fo r her
art, no r G ermany fo r her army , no r England fo r her d emo cracy
1 08 A M AN UAL F OR WR IT E R S

can be t ci ed .
3) The d isco urse was beautifully , l quently
eo ,

and fo rcefully d elivered ; T he b rav ery its men ,


of the b eauty
of its wo men , and the in telligen ce o f the ris ing generatio n ,

co mbined , etc.

a comma

Etc . should always '

b e preced ed by .

2 1. use a comma (two if necessary) to


Ordinarily ,
separate from the rest o f the sentence clauses introduced

by su ch conjun ctions as an d but if while ,

,

,

,


as ,

whereas since be cause when
,

af ter ,

,

, ,


although etc especial ly if a chan ge o f subjec t takes
,
.
,

pl ace :
When he arrived at the railway s tatio n the train had go ne , ,

and his friend who had co me to bid him go o dbye had departed
, , ,

but left no wo rd As the next train was no t due fo r two ho urs


.
,

he decided to take a ride abo ut the to wn al tho ugh it o ered little ,

o f interes t to the Sights eer While he regretted his failure to .

meet his frien d he did no t go to his ho us e


, .

But do no t use a comma before clauses intro du ce d by


su ch conj un ctions if the pre ceding clause is not logically

complete wi thout them ;

nor be fore if but an d ,

,

altho ug in brief an d closely weld ed phrases :


This is especially in teres ting b ecause they repres ent the two
extremes a nd b ecaus e they pres en t dif feren ces in their relatio ns ;
This is goo d b ecaus e true ; I s hall agree to this o nly if y o u accept
my co nditio ns .

22 onjun ctions ad verbs connective par ticles


. Such c , , ,

an d phras es as

now then however in d eed , , , ,

therefore m or over
e ,

furthermore
n everthe ,

,


in f act

less , though in short ,for instan ce , , ,

PUN CT UATION 19 9

2 u
that is of course
, on the contrary , on the ,
(d


other han d af ter all ,

to be sure for example
,

,

,

etc . should be followed by a comma when standing at


,

the beginni ng o f a sentence or clause to introdu ce an


in f erence or an explanation and shoul d be place d ,
"

between co mmas when wedged into the midd le o f a


sentence or clause to mark o ff a distinc t break in the
continui ty o f thou ght or stru c ture to in dicate a s um ,

mariz in g of what prece des the point o f a new departure , ,

or a mo difying restrictive or antithe tical addition etc :


, , ,
.

In deed this was exactly the po in t o fthe argumen t; M o reo ver


, ,

he did no t thin k it feas ible ; N o w the ques tio n is this ,

N evertheless he co nsented to the scheme ; In fact rather the


, ,

revers e is true ; This then is my pos itio n : ,


The s tatement
, ,

therefo re canno t b e veried


,
.

But do n o t use a comma with su ch wor ds when the


conne ction is logica lly close an d structurally smooth
enough not to call for an y pause in re adin g ; wi th

there f ore nevertheless etc when directly follow
,

,
.
,

in g the verb ; with ind eed when directly preceding

or followin g an adje ctive or another adverb which it


qu alies ; nor ordinarily with su ch terms as perhaps
,

also ,
li kewise etc :

,
.

He was therefo re unable to be presen t; It is nevertheless true ;


He is reco vering very s lo wly indeed ; He was perhaps thin king
o f the future ; He was a s cho lar and a s po rtsman to o .

2 3.A comma is pr ef erably omi tted before rather

in such an expression as :
The tun e value is to be meas ured in this way rather than b y
-

the time equivalent o f the s trata


- .
1 10 A M AN U AL F OR WR IT ER S

2 4. If among
several adje ctives pre ceding a noun
the last bears a mo re direc t relation to the noun than
the o thers it should not be prece de d by a comma:
,

The admirable po litica


l ins titutio n s o f the co un try ; a hand
s o m e wealthy yo ung man
, .

Participial phrases , espe cially su ch as cont ain an


25.

explan ation o f the ma in clause , sho uld usu ally be set


of
f by a comma:
B eing as leep, he did n o t hear him ; Exhaus ted by a hard day s

wo rk , he s lept lik e a s to n e .

26 . omma b efore not introd ucing an


Put a c

antithetical clause or phrase :


M en addict thems elves to in ferio r pleas ures n o t because they ,

d eliberately prefer them but because they are the o nly o n es to


,

which they have access .

27. F o r parenthetical , adverb ial ,


or apposi tion al
clauses or phrases use commas to ind icate stru c tur ally

disconn ected but lo gically relate d interpolations ; use


, ,

d ashes to indicate both structurally an d lo gically di s ~

c onn e cted inserti ons ; do not use the two togethe r


(s ee below secs 5 9 6o
,
.
, ,

Sin ce fro m the naturalis tic po in t o f view men ta


, l s tates ,

are the co nco mitants of phys io lo gical pro cesses ; T he French,


gen erally speakin g, are a natio n o f artis ts ; The Engli sh, highly
demo cratic as they are, ne ev rtheless deem the no bility fun da
men tal r
to thei po litical and s o cial ys tems ; There was a time
fo rget the exact date
s h
I
when thes e co nditio ns were changed .

Use a comma to separate two identi cal or closely


2 8.

similar word s even if the sense o r grammatical co n


,
PUN CT UAT ION I I I

stru ction does not require su ch separation (see above ,


s ee .

Whatever is
is go o d ; What he was , is n o t kno wn ; T he chief
,

aim o facademic s triving o ught to b e, to b e mo s t in evi den ce ; It is


q
un i ue o nl y in this , that it presents o nl y o n e side o f the ques tio n .

U se a comma to separate proper nouns meaning


29 .

diff erent persons or places :


To Jo hn ,
Smithwas always kind ; T o America, Euro pe awards
the priz e of mechanical s kill .

30 . Simi larly , use a comma to separate two nu mbers :


In 1905, 3 47 teachers attend ed the co n ventio n ; N o vemb er
1 , 19 13 .
(See belo w ,
s ecs .
38 ,

A dje ctival phrases containin g a complementary


31 .
,

qu alifying d elimi ting or antithetical adje ctive adde d


, ,

to the main epithet prece di ng a noun should be set o


by commas :
This hars h tho ugh perfectly lo gical co nclus io n ;
,
T he ,

d eceas ed was a s tern and unappro achable y e t withal sy mpathe tic ,

an d kind hearted gen tleman ; Here co mes in the mo s t respo n


-
,

s ible because it is the nal o i ce o f the teacher ; The mo s t


, ,

sens itive if no t the mo s t elus ive part o f the training o f children


, ,
.

32or more co ordi nate clauses or


. T wo -

phr ases
ending in a wor d governin g or mo difying one an d the
sam e word should be separated by a comma:
A s hallo w bo dy o f water co nn ected with but pro tected fro m,
,

the o pen s ea; He was as tall as , tho ugh much yo un ger than ,
his bro ther .
112 A M AN UAL F OR WRI TE R S

33 A comma is employed to indicate the omission


.
,

f or brevity or convenience o f a wor d or words the ,

r epeti tion o f which is not ess ential to the meaning :


In Illino is there are seventeen such ins titutio ns ; in Ohio ,

twenty two ; in In diana thirteen ;


-
Price ten d o llars
, , .

Of ten , however such constru ctions are smooth enou gh


,

not to call for commas (an d the consequent semicolons) :


One puppy may res emble the father ano ther the mo ther and , ,

a third so me d is tan t ances to r .

34A direct quotation maxim, or simil ar expression


.
, ,

when brief , Should be separated from the pre ce ding part


o f the sentence by a comma (see above s ec , .


Go d s aid , Let there b e light

.

35 . Ordin arily put a omma af ter the exclamation


c

(see above ; chap iii s ec 6 ; chap iv



0h p 58 ;
. sec .
5, .
, . .
,

s ec .

Oh, that I had n eve r been bo rn "



U se a c omma bef ore
36 . of
in c onnection with
residence posi tion or title : , ,

M r and M rs M cIntyre, o f Detro it, M ich


. . . Pres iden t Harry
Pratt Judso n, o f the Univers ity o f Chicago .

Exceptions are those cases hi storical an d political in , ,

which the place n ame practically has be co me a part o f


-

the person s n ame or is so closely connec ted wi th it



,

as to ren der the separation articial or illogical :

Clement o f Alexan dria; Philip o f Anj o u ; Kin g Geo rge o f


En gland .
PUN CT UATION 1 13

37 Do not use a comma b etwe


. n c
. onse cutive pages
in li terary re ferences but use the , eu -
dash (see below ,


sec

.

pp 4 , 7 8 ,
. 10 ; Ez ra 8 .

38 . Put a comma af ter digi ts indi catin g thousand s ,

except in a date or in a page reference : -

January 1 9 09 2 200
, p , . 2 46 1 .

39 . Separate month an d
year , an d similar time di vi
sions by a co mma (see abo ve s ec ,
.

N o vemb er 1 9 0 5 ; N ew Year s Day F riday M ay



, , 1 906 ; , 3 .

40 Omi t the
. omma in signatures when followe d
c , ,

by or position in a separate line an d af ter


add ress , title , ,

address f ollowe d by a date line etc (f or the practice ,


.


in letter writing see chap vii und er The
-
, .
,

JAME S P R OB IN SON .

S uperintenden t ofS chools

4 1 The . c omma is always place d inside the quotation


marks .

THE APOSTR OPHE

42 . The apostrophe is use d to mark the o mis sion o f a


letter or letters in the contraction o f a word , or o f
gures in a number :

do n t, twas , takin me at ; m fg ; the class

of

ne er, 96 .

(See chap iii , sec 2 3 ; chap v, s ec


. . . .

43The possessive
. se o f nouns common and ca ,

proper , is f ormed by the addi tion of an apostrophe ,

or apostrophe an d s (see chap iii s ec .


, .

aman s ho rses tails ; Sco tt s I vanho e Jo n es s farms Themis



, , ,

to oles era; fo r appearance s ak e



.
1 14 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITE R S

44 T he plural o f num erals , an d of rare or articial


.

noun coin ages , is fo rme d by the aid o f an apostrophe


-

an d s ; that o f pro per nouns of more th an one syllable


ending in a sibilant by addin g an apostrophe alone ,

(monosyllabic proper names ending in a sibilant add es ;


others s ) : ,

in the 1 9 00 s ; in two s an d three s the three R s the


thes e I j us t d o
, ,

ll the T o mmy

as I a - - -

Atkins o f England (but: the R o sses and the M acdo ugals) ;


the Pericles and So crates o fliterature



.

Q U OTATION M AR K S

Quotations of a passage f rom an au thor in his


45 .

own wor ds run into the text should begin an d en d wi th


, ,

quotation marks .

46 U se quotation marks f or qu o tations f rom dif


.

feren t authors o r f rom different works by the s ame


,

author f ollowing each other unin terrupted by an y


, ,

intervenin g origin al matter or by an y re f eren ce to ,

their respective sources (other than a re f eren ce gure


for a footnote) even though su ch quotations are to be
,

in reduced type (see chap viii p I .


,
.

47 Quote a wor d or phrase accompan ied by its de


.

n itio n :

fo lio mean s a page number at the fo o t o f the page
Dro p -

-
.

48 Quote an un usual te chn ical iron ical etc wor d


.
, , ,
.
,

or phrase in the text whether or not accompan ie d by a ,



word like s o called direc ting attention to it:
,
-

,

Her ve o clo cks were famo us in the n eighb o rho o d ; She

lo bs ter

was w i f co lo red s ilk ; He was elected

ear ng a go wn o
PUN CT UAT ION 1 15

mas ter of the ro lls



; We repaired to what he called his

quarter deck

; A lead is ins erted between the li nes .

49translations quote the English equi valent o f


. In ,

a word phrase or passage f rom a f oreign langu age :


, ,

Weltans chauun g wo rld view o r fundamen tal as pect o f


,

-

life ; M o mms en Komische Ges chichte ( His to ry o f



,

Quote word s or
50 .
phrases to which particular
attention is d ire c ted :
lynch law ; the phrase liberty o f co ns cience

the term

;

the co n cepts go o d and b ad ; the n ame Chicago

.

51 . The titles o f book series should be quoted :



E nglis h M en s eries ;

of Letters In tern atio n al C ritical
Co mmen tary

.

52 . Ti tle s o f short poems are put in quotation


marks (see chap . vi , sec .

Shelley T o a Skylark

s .

Cited titles o f sub divisions


53 .
parts books , ,

chapters etc ) o f publi cati ons titles o f papers le ctur e s


,
.
, , ,

addresses s erm ons articles toasts mottoes etc should


, , , , , .
,

be inclose d in quotation marks (see chap iv s ec .


,
.

B eginn in gs fthe S cien ce ofPolitical Econ omy


o , Vo l I , . chap . i,
T he Britis h Scho o ; chap ii, J o hn Stuart M ill ; the articles

l .

Cro ss ,

Crucixio n , and Crus ade

i Has t gs Dicti on ary
in

JapanIts
n

f the B ible;
o The su bj ect of the lecture was Pas t,
Pres en t, and Future .

When ref erence is made to parts o f a specic work ,

i e Pre face Intro duction T able o f Contents In d ex


. .
, , , , ,
1 16 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITE R S

etc .
,
su ch word s should be capi taliz e d but not quote d
,

(s ee chap . iv, s ec .

See the Preface , p iii ; T he Intro ductio n co n tains much o f


.

in teres t ; T he Appendix o ccupies a hundred pages ; but : T he


bo o k has a very co mplete index .

54 . N ames of ships are put in quot atio n marks :



The US

. SS . Orego n .

55 . Titles pictures an d works


of of art are quote d :
T he Ho ly Family

M urillo
s

.

5 6 Quotation marks shoul d always in clu de elli pses ,


.


an d the phrase etc

when it otherwise would not be .

l r that it stand s for an omi tte d part o f the matter


c ea

quo ted per fect clearness in each individual cas e b ein g


,

the best cri terion :


Art II s ec 2 o f the Co n s titutio n pro vides that each s tate

. .
, ,

s hall appo in t a numb er o f electo rs equal to the who le


numb er o f s en ato rs and representatives He also wro te

a s eries o f Helps to Disco very etc

here indicatin g , .
,

n o t that he wro te o ther wo rk s which are unn amed but that ,

the title o f the o ne named is n o t given in full ; b ut o n the ,



o ther hand : Preachin g fro m the text F o r Go d s o lo ved the
,

here bein g placed o uts id e o f the



wo rld etc ,

quo tatio n marks in o rder to s ho w that it do es no t s tand fo r o ther ,

unn amed o b j ects o f G o d s lo ve



.
,

57Quoted prose matter whi ch is broken up into


.

par agraphs should h ave the quot ation marks repeated


at the beginn ing of each paragraph .

D ouble quotation marks are used f or primary


58 .

quotations ; f or a quotati on within a quotation , single ;


PUN CT UATION 1I 7

goin g back to double for a thi rd to sin gle for


, a fourth ,
an d so on :

The r then pro ceed ed : The dictio nary tells us that
o rato

the wo rd s freedo m and liberty tho ugh o ften interchanged


,

,

are dis tinct in so me o f their applicatio ns .


THE DASH

5 9 A dash is use d to d enote a sudd en bre ak , stop ,
.

or transition in a sentence , or an abrup t ch ange in its


constru ction along or signi cant pause or an unexpe cte d
, ,

or epigrammatic turn o f sentiment :

Do we can to es en d o u t educated b o ys and girls fro m the

high s cho o l at eighteen " The Plato nic wo rld of the s tatic ,
an d the Hegelian wo rld o f pro cessho w great the co n tras t "

that is the magic wo rd o f the mo dern perio d ; Yo u
b
Pro ces s
'

will un ders tan d ut n o , I believe vo u are in capa le o f un der b


s tanding "

U se dashes (rarely parenthesessee below sec


60 .
,
.

7 0) f or parenthetical clauses whi ch are both logi cally


an d stru c turally in d epend ent interpolations (see above ,


see .

This may b e s aid to b e but, v mind we will v er


pass
ne er ,
o

that ; There came a time let us s ay , fo r co n v enience with


wh
,

Hero do tus and Thucydid es en this atten tio n to actio ns was


co n s cio us and d eli b erate .

A clause add ed to len d emphasis to or to explain


61 .
,

or expand a word or phrase occurring in the main


,

clause wh i ch word or phrase is then repe ate d should be


, ,

introdu ced by a dash :


To him they are mo re impo rtan t as the so urces fo r his to ry
the his to ry o f ev ents an d ideas ; Here we are face to face
I 18 A M AN UAL FOR WRITER S

with a n ew and di

icul t pro blem n ew and difcult, that is ,
in the sense that we are un prepared fo r it .


62Wherever a n amely is impli ed be fore a paren
.

thetical or complementary clause a dash should pre f er ,

ably be use d (see above sec


.
,

These dis co veries gu n po wder, printing press ,


-
co mpas s ,

an d te les co pe were the weapo n s b efo re which the o ld s cien ce

b
trem led ; B ut here we are tren ching upo n ano ther divis io n
o f o ur eld th e inte rpretatio n o f N ew Tes tament bo o ks .

63 In
senten ces broken up into c lauses the n al
summariz ingclause should be preced ed by a d ash :
.
,

Amos , with the id eathat Jeho vah is an upright judge


Ho sea, who se M as ter hated in j us tice and falseho p d
Is aiah, who s e Lo rd wo uld have mercy o nl y o n tho se who relieved
the wido w and the fatherles s these were the spo k es men .

64 A word or phrase set in a separate lin e an d


.

su ccee de d by par agraphs at the begin nin g o f e ach o f ,

which the original phras e is implied should be f ollowed ,

by a dash :
I reco mmend
1 T hat we k ill him
. .

2 . That we ay him .

A d ash should be used


65 . in onne ction with side
c

heads whether paragr aphe d or
, run in :

B i bli cal cri ticism in o ther den omin atio n s


A mo s t interesting ar ticl e appeared in the E xpos itory Ti mes
o f Decemb er, 1 8 9 1

The language of the N ew Tes tamen t The


21 . lexico ns of
Grimm Thayer, Cremer, and o thers treat this sub j ect
-
fully .
PUN CT UAT ION 1 19

The language o f the N ew T e s tamen t


21 . T he lexico ns
o f G rimm T hayer, C remer , an d o thers treat this s ubj ect fully
-

Th
.

N OTE e wo rd has been ta ken fro m Webs ter s


I n ter
n ati on al Di cti on ary .


66 U se a dash in place o f the word to conne ctin g
.

two word s or numbers (see above s ec ,


.

M ay July 1 9 0 6 (en das h) ; M ay 1 1 9 0 5N o vemb er 1 1 9 0 6


- -


, , ,

(em da
-
s h) ; pp 3 7 (emdas h) ; Luke
.
-
(em das h) -
.


But if thewor d f rom pre ce d es the rst wor d or n um


b er do n o t use the d ash in ste ad o f to :
,

Fro m M ay I to July 1 1 9 0 6 , .

In connec ting conse cutive nu mbers omi t hund re d s ,

f rom the se cond number use only two gures


unless the rst nu mber end s in two ciphers in which ,

case repeat ; if the next to the last gur e in the rst

number is a cipher do not repe at thi s in the se cond


,

number ; but in citing d ates B C always repe at the . .


,

hun dred s (be cause representing a diminution not an ,

in cre ase) :
1 8 80 9 5 6 6 pp

7 pp 1 00

103 ;


pp 1 1 3,1 ; 1 9 00
. 1 9 0 1 0 2 ,
.
,
.

387 3 2 4 D C . .

67 A dash should pre ce d e the re ference (to autho r


.
,

title of work or both) f ollowing a dire ct quotation co n


,

sisting o f at le ast one complete senten ce in f ootnotes ,

or when cite d ind ependently in the text :


I felt an emo tio n o fthe mo ral s ublime at beho lding s uch an
I

in s tance o f civic hero is m Thirty Years I 4 7 9.



, ,
.

The Wedding Gues t he b eat his b reas t ,

Yet he can no t cho o s e but hear


C
.


The An cient M

o leridge, arin er .
1 20 A M AN U AL F OR W RITERS

68 A dash should not ordin arily be used in conne c


.

tion with an y o ther pun ctu ation point except a perio d ,

(s ee above sec
Dear Sir : I have the ho no r etc ; no t: Dear Sir:
.
,

I have the
ho no r etc ; T his I say it wi th regret
.
,

T his
, . was no t do ne ; no t :
,I s ay it with regret was no t do ne
,
-
.

But in a senten ce where a co mma woul d be necess ary if


the parenthetical clause set o ff by dashes di d not exist ,

the co mma may b e retaine d be fore the rst dash :


Darwin the pro mulgato r o f the theo ry tho ugh by no mean s
its o nly s uppo rter
, ,

is regarded to day etc ,


.

An d when the parenthetical cl ause set o by dashes


i tsel f requ ires an interrogation or exclamation poin t ,

su ch pun ctu ation may be retaine d in conn e ction with


the se cond d ash :
Sen ato r B lan ks hall we call him s tates man o r po litician

in tro duced the bill ; If the s hip s ho uld s in kwhich Go d fo rbid "
he will be a ruined man .

PARE N THE SE S

The term parentheses is applie d to the elli ptical

as di s tingu ished f rom the squ are brackets .

69 . Paren theses are


used to in close gures or letters
th at mark divisions in enum erations whi ch are run into
the text :
The reaso ns fo r his res ign atio n were three : (1 ) advanced age ,

(2 ) failing health (3) a d es ire to travel


, .

When su ch di visions are separate d into paragraphs ,

by means o f gures or capital letters parentheses should ,


P UN CT UAT ION 121

not be used but a period should follow the gure or


,

letter If the paragraphed sub divisions are ind icate d


.

by the symbols a b c etc these should be used with a


, , ,
.
,

half parenthesis
-
a parenthesis on the right o f the
gure only) (see chap vi s ec .
,
.

A Un der the head o f


.

1 Under .

1 Under .

a) Un der

70 . should not ordinarily be use d to


Parentheses
mark parenthetical clauses (see above secs 2 7 ,
.
,

unless confusion might arise from the use o f less d is


tin ctive marks or u n less the content o f the clause is
,

wholly irrelevant to the main argu m ent :


He mean t I take this to b e the (s o mewhat o b s cure) s ense o f
his s peechthat the matter was o f no co nsequence ; T he perio d
thus in augurated (o f which I s hall s peak at greater length in a
later chapter) was characteriz ed by man y exces s es ; T he co n ten tio n
lIas been made (o p cit ) that he was no t the o rigin ato r o f the plan

. . .

B R AC KE T S


T he term brackets is applied to the square

marks as d istinguishe d f rom the elliptical paren


theses (
7 r Brackets are use d (I ) to inc lose an explanation
.

or note (2 ) to indicate an interpolation in a quotation


, ,

(3 ) to rec tify a mistake (4) to supply an omission an d , ,

(5 ) for parentheses within paren theses :


(I ) [T his was written b efo re the pub licatio n o f Spencer s


bo o k EDITOR ] (2) T hey [the free s ilver Demo crats ] ass erted
.

.
-
122 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITER S

main tain ed in den itely



that the present articial rat o i can be .


(3 ) As the Italian [Englishman] Dante G ab riel R o s [s ] etti has
s aid (4) Jo hn Rus kin . By Henry C arpen ter .


[ Englis h M en o f Letters series Lo ndo n : B lack

,
1 9 00 .
,

(5 ) Gro te the great his to rian o f Greece (s ee his Histo ry


, , I, 2 04

[s eco nd s ays that etc ,


.

E LLIPSE S

7 2 Ellipses , consisting of a series o f d ots , or period s



.

usu ally fo ur are used to indicate the omission f r o m a


quotation o f one or more wor d s not essential to the id e a
whi ch it is desired to convey an d also to in dicate ,

illegible word s mutil ations an d other l acun ae in a docu


, ,

ment M S or other material whi ch is qu o ted


, , Where .
,

in poetry one o r more complete li nes are omitte d insert


, , ,

a full line of perio d s .

The po in t is that the s am e fo rces are s till


the und ercurren ts o f ev ery human life We may n ever .

unrav el the metho ds o f the phys ical fo rces ; b ut


he so ught the lumb erer s gang
,

Where fro m a hundred lak es yo ung rivers s prang ;


Thr
o ugh these green by eld es t n ature dres t
ten ts , ,

He ro am ed , co n ten t alik e with man and b eas t .

7 3 A n ellipsis wi thin a quotati on should be tre ate d


.

as a part of the quot at ion ; an d consequently shoul d be


in close d in the quotation marks (see above , secs .
56,
71
H YPHE N S

hyphen is use d (I ) at the end o f a line when


7 4 T he.

it is ne cessary to divide a wor d there an d (2 ) in many ,

compound wor ds (see chap iii se cs 3 1 .


,
CH A PTER VI

T HE USE OF ITALIC

Italic isused (1 ) to express emphasis an d (2 ) to set ,

off a title passage or word from the co ntext


, , With the .

purely typographical uses o f i talic su ch as its choice for ,

he ad s or f or display thi s book has nothing to do W e


, .

conne ourselves here to rules governing its use by

writers an d authors A ccordingly the rules which f ollow


.
,

(in part con densed from the M an ual of S tyle [T he Un i


versity of Chicago Press 3 d will be f oun d to be
,

only those whi ch good practice requires an d whi ch may ,

be followe d saf ely .

T he use o f itali c type is in dicated in the manuscript


by un d erscoring with a sin gle straight line the letters or
word s th at are to be itali ciz e d .

On e rule o f general appli cation may be stated at the


outset : Italic should be use d sparingly to express
emphasis The practice o f it ali ciz ing word s too f reely
.

spoils rather than add s to the eff ect and we aries the ,

re ader .

1 U se i talic (underscore) for word s or phrases to


.

whi ch it is d esired to len d emphasis or importance etc : ,


.

, , cien tly plain that


This was ho wever n o t the case ; It is s uf
the s ci ences o flife
,
at leas t, are s tudies o f pro ces s es .

2 . Italiciz
e foreign wor d s an d phrases adopted into
the Engli sh language ; also (as a rule) single sentences
1 23
1 24 A M AN UAL F OR WR I TE RS

or brief passages not o f s uicien t length to call for formal


quotation
the Darwini an Weltans chauung; the lais sez faire habit ; -

the deb ater par excellen ce o f the Sen ate ; De gusti bus n on es t
dis putandum o r as the French have it Chacun ason go ut
, , , .

But do no t italiciz e foreign titles preceding n ames or ,

names o f foreign institutions or places streets etc the , ,


.
,

m e aning or posi tion o f which in E ngli sh would r equire


roman type :
Pere Lagrange Freiherr vo n Schwenau the Champs E lys ees
, , ,

the German R eichs tag the M useo d elle T erme , .

F ollowing is a partial li st o f word s which h ave been


ad opted into the Engli sh lan gu age f rom other langu ages ,

but which are now r egarded as angliciz e d an d should


'

no t be it ali ciz e d even when retaining the ir origin al


,

accents

ad in terim bo na de co n sen sus d no uemen t


adden dum bo n to n co n tra depot ( =
depo s i
(plur da) .
-
bo uillo n co n trete mps to ry)
ad lib litum] bravo co rrigen du m de rigueur
bric abrac - -

d to ur
a po s terio ri cabaret

co up d etat dilettan te
a prio ri caf co up de grace divo rcee
apro po s creche do ctrin aire
aide de camp canto criterio n d ramatis per
alias carte blan che (plur a) .
-
so n ae
ali bi cen sus c ul d e s ac
- -
clat
Alma M ater chapero n datum (plur a) .
-
lite
amateur charg d aaires

b
d ris enco re
ann o Do mini chau eur b
d ut enn ui
an te ellum
-
b che f d o euvre


d co ll et ensem ble
atelier Chiaro scuro d elicatess en en tr e
attach cle f d emi lun e
-
en trepot
has reli e
-
f clien tele d emi mo nde
-
erratu m (plur .
-
a)
beau ideal co n re f
re demi relie o
-
v et cetera
billet do ux co nno is seur demi tas s e
-
ex cathedra
THE USE OF ITALIC 1 25

ex o cio perso nn el s auer raut k


expo se matad o r sa van t
facade matinee po s tmo rtem (u . seno r
facsimile melee seraglio
menu po s t o it b so briquet
fete mo tif s o ir e
n is n ai ve pro an d co n [ tra] s pirituel
fracas n e pro c s er al v b s tein

garage net pro rata su bpoena


gratis n v pro t g techn iq uex
b
ha eas co rpus n iche pro tem [po re] tete atete- -

b
ha itu n il pro toco l to nn eau
hangar no l 1e [ ]
pro s q ui]
no m de plume q uo n dam umlaut
hegira o nus q ueue verbatim
ho rs do euvres papier ma ch rago ut verso
pater amilias f vers us (v .
, vs )
.

l s e maj es t pato is regime


levee vice versa
litterateur per capita r su m vis -
avis-

litterati per cen t


M agn a C [h] arta per co n tra tale viva vo ce
man damus per se
l
See chap iii , . sec . 2 .

3 . The f ollowin g
word s phrases and abbreviations , ,

l ref erences should be it ali ciz ed :


u se d in liter ary an d lega

ad circa et al .
, ibid .
,
id em, i nfra, loc . cit , o p cit ,
.

pas si m, sic , su ra, s


p . v, aide
. .

But do no t i taliciz e :
cf , etc. .
, eg i e
. .v , . .
, . or vs .
(versus) , viz .

e ti tles of publi cationsbooks (in clu ding


4 Italiciz
.

plays ess ays cycles of poem s an d single poems o f co n


, , ,

s iderable length usually printed separately an d not , ,

f rom the context un derstood to fo rm parts of a larger


volume) pamphlets treati ses tracts documents an d
, , , , ,

periodi cals (in cludin g regularly appe arin g pro cee dings
an d tran sactions) ; in the case of newspapers , perio di cals ,
1 26 A M AN UAL FOR WR IT E R S

etc the n ame of the city (where published) when f ormi ng


.
,

an integral part o f the n ame (but see chap iv s ec .


. .

but n o t books o f the B ible canoni cal or apo cryphal , ,

or titles o f an cient manuscripts or sy mbols use d to ,

design ate manuscripts (D 1 6 ; M b ; P) which should


.
,

invariably be in ordin ary type (see chap iv .


,

secs 3 9 4o
.
, ,

M id s ummer N ight s

Spencer, Principles o f S o cio lo gy; A -

Dream; I dylls of the King; P aradise Lo s t; the Ind ependen t, the


M odern Lan guage R eview, R epo rt ofthe Un ited S tates Co mmis s ion er
f Educati on
o ,
Trans actions fthe Illino is
o S ociety for Child S tudy .

T his rule may b e departed f rom in extensive bib lio gr aph


ical lists in t ables or in o ther matter wh ere to fo llo w it
, ,

would result in an undue prepond erance o f i tali cs .

5 I taliciz e the word s S ee an d S ee als o when used in


.
,

an in dex or simi lar compilation f or the purpo se o f a ,

cross ref eren ce where the differentiation o f those word s


,

f rom the context is desirable ; an d the word s fo r an d read


in li sts of errata to separate them f rom the in correc t an d
,

corre c t readin gs (see p .

S ee als o So cio lo gy ; for lev ee read lev e .

6 signatures italiciz e the title or


. In position added
af ter the n ame :
ARTHUR P . M AGUI R E , S ecretary
CAR TE R H HAR RI S ON .

M ay or of Chi cago

7 Italiciz . e the symbols a) b) c) etc use d to indicate


, , , .
,

subdivisions when beginnin g a paragraph ; an d a b c , , ,


THE USE OF ITALIC 1 27

etc .
, to the number o f verse page
af
xe d , , etc .
, to de
note a fr action al part (see ch ap v s ec .
,
.

See chap iii s ec 2 a) Luke 4 : 3 1 a


.
, .
,
.

8 . e letters used to d esignate qu antities lines


Itali ciz , ,

etc .
,
in algebraic geom etrical an d simi lar matter :
, ,

the lines ad and AD; the n th po wer .

A s a rule italiciz e letters in legend s to illustrations


9 .
,

o r in the text referring to correspondin g letters in


,

accompanying illustrations (see chap x s ec 3 p .


,
.
, .

At the po int A abo ve (see diagram) .

10 . Italiciz e particular letters o f the alphabet when


re ferre d to as su ch :
the letter u , a s mall 0 '
.

11botanical z oological geological an d paleon


. In , , ,

to lo gical matter i tali ciz e scientic (Latin) nam es of

genera an d species when used together (the generic name


being in the nominative singular) an d o f genera only , ,

when use d alo ne :


R o s a Carolin a, F elis leo , Con odectes favos us , Phyteuma Halleri;
P in us , B as idi o bo lus , Alternari a, E rythros uchus .
(See chap . iv ,
s ecs .
44 ,
In medical matter ,
however the general prac tice is to ,

print such n ames in roman avoidi ng itali cs altogether , .

In astronomi cal an d astrophysical matter :


a) It ali ciz e the Greek Latin an d A rabic names of , ,

plan ets s atellites constell ations an d individ u al stars :


, , ,

Jupiter Tethys Lyra Antares It Orion is (but: Orio n type


, , , ,
-

s tars) .
1 28 A M AN UAL FOR WRIT ER S

b) Italiciz
e d esignatio ns of celestial obje cts in well
known cat alogues ; also the F lamsteed num bers an d
B aeyer letters :
M I3 (fo r N o . 13 of M es s ier s Catalogue of N ebulae

and
Clus ters ) , B ond 6 1 9 , N G C 6 1 65 ; 85 Pegas i , f Tauri , Laland e 5 7 61
. . .

c) I taliciz e symbols f or the chemi cal elements (but in


all other cases these shoul d be wri tten in roman) (see
ch ap v sec
.
,
.

H , Ca, Ti .

d) I taliciz e the lower -


se l etters design ating certain
ca

F raunho fer lines :


a, b, g, h;

but n o t the capital le tters given by F raunho f er to Spe ctral


lines :
A H an d K ;
,

an d the letters d esign ating the spe ctral types o f stars are
n o t i t ali ciz ed :

A5 , B 3 , M b .


12 resolutions italiciz e the word
. In , R es o lved ,

but

(See chap iv

not the wor d Where as . .
,
s ec .
C HA PTE R VII

LETTE R -
WRITIN G
In general , the considerations applicable to compo
sitio n (see chap i) should govern the writin g o f letters
.
,

an d in this connection a care ful stu dy o f chap ii is also .

recommende d T here are however several mo di ca


.
, ,

tions o f the general rules to be taken into consideration ,

d epen din g on the character o f the letter the position o f ,

the person add ressed etc Bef ore we dis cuss the vari
, .

ous classes o f letters a f ew general rules applicable to


,

all may be laid d own :


1 .T he writer of a letter Should be ar in mi n d that
the written page is to con vey ideas to the min d of ano ther .

T he su ccess with which thi s can be accompli she d de


pen d s o f course primarily on the langu age use d ; but
, ,

there are other details whi ch have a highly important


bearing on the effe ct a letter will create Paragraph .

in g pun ctu ating an d the arr ange ment of the id eas


, ,

expressed are subje cts d emandi ng especial care an d


thou ght T o o o f ten id eas are not co ordin atedare
.
-

not expresse d in proper sequence A ski lful letter .

writer is one who having rst mastered the general


,

rules of composition visualiz es so to spe ak the frame


, , ,

work o i his letter an d build s it up on a coherent an d


,

c onnecte d plan which will make itsel f clear to the mi nd

of the re cipient .

1 29
1 30 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITE R S

2 . omi t the d ate in even the most in f ormal


N ever
note ; the d ay o f the m onth expressed in gures should , ,

be un accompanie d by s t n d d rd or th: September , , , ,


not Septemb er 9 th .

3 Do not jump f rom the rst page to the f ourth


.

an d then b ack to the se cond Write on conse cutive .

pages .

4 N ever wri te in the margin o r acro ss what has been


.

written .

5 A void po stscripts
. .

6 Place the letter in the envelope so f o ld ed that


.

when r em oved it will open with the right sid e up in


position to be re ad .

Letters may be classed as (1 ) private or social ;


(2 ) business ; (3 ) formal The style an d general tre at.

ment o f these should differ considerably .

I . PR IV ATE OR SOCIA L LE T TE R S

The private or soci al letter m ay be very inf ormal ,

the d egree o f info rmality al lowable being d ependent


upon the intimacy o fthe writer an d the person add resse d .

In general one may s ay that su ch a letter should re


,
ect
the personali ty of the writer an d give the impression o f
c onvers atio n But since it is a letter attention should
.
,

be given to securing ord er (f or the s ake o f cle arness) an d


variety of expression (in order to avoid monotony an d
trivi ality o f tone) .

Colloquial language an d even Slan g are permi ssible


in a letter to one with whom the writer is on very f amili ar
LETT ER -
WR IT IN G I31

terms ; but they should be used less f reely than in spee ch ,

for the written word has a sharpness an d a permanency


th at the spoken word lacks an d what might seem hu m or
,

ous when spoken o f ten seems c ru de or even vulgar when


written .

F or simi lar reasons carelessness o f expression n eg


, ,

lec t o f gr ammar an d all o en s es against culture an d good


,

breedin g should be avoide d .

Postscripts though unavoid able if an important


,

addi tion occurs to the writer af ter the letter is close d ,

Should always be gu ard ed against as they give an ,

impression o f scrappiness an d carelessness .

Private letters f rom the n ature of the case must


, ,

of ten contain mu ch about the writer an d there fore ,

there is always danger that they may be too full o f 1 s


,

an d on that account may seem egotist ical T he way to .

avoid this is to n arr ate events as objec tively as possible .


T o substitu te f or I su ch expressions as the pres


ent writer ,

your correspond ent is apoor device It , .

betrays sel f consciousness prod u ces awkward Engli sh


-

, ,

an d xes attenti on u pon the writer even m ore than woul d



the unobtrusive use o f I .

Und ers coring f or emphasis is attractive but d anger


ous If resorted to f requently it loses its f or ce an d
.
, ,

three or four lines o f underscorin g become necessary to


obtain any effectiveness It is better to se
. cure emphasi s ,

when possible by me ans of expression an d arrangement


,
.

So cial letters should be written with pen an d in k by


the writer him self T he use o f a pen cil or typewri ter
.
15 2 A M AN UAL FOR WRI TE RS

or the di ctation o f su ch a letter to ano ther is felt as a


lack of courtes y to the person add ressed as well as an ,

in dication of carelessness an d in di fference on the part o f


the writer Only the most extraor din ary circumst ances
.

can justif y f ailure to observe thi s man date o f custom

The he ading In so cial correspon d en ce there is


.

1 .

no h ard an d fast rule requiring the address (city or


- -

town) o f the wri ter al though i t is always desirable th at


,

it should be given an d pre f erably at the right h an d ne ar


, ,

the to p o f the sheet in two lin e s thus :


, ,

9 00 M ICHI GAN AVEN UE


CHICAGO, ILLIN OIS

letters o f this kind however it is permi ssible to


In , ,

place the address of the writer as well as the date at


the en d of the letter but in that case the position should
,

be at the lef t of the shee t below the line o f the sign ature ,

thus :
9 00 M ICHIGAN AVE N UE
CHICAGO, ILLIN OIS
September 9 , 19 13

N o pun ctu ation sho ul d be placed at the end o f the


lines ; an d the day of the month is usuallyto be expressed
in gures (see chap iii s ec It is customary
.
,
.
,

however in social correspondence th at is at all formal to


, ,


spell out the day of the month an d the year : September
the ninth ninteen hundred [an d] thirteen

The addr es s
.
,

2 . In so cial letters the name an d ,

address of the addr essee m ay be inserted or omi tted .

If inserted it may be placed at the lef t in a line below


,
LETTER -
WRIT IN G 1 33

the signature at the close In this case the city and .


,

state o f the writer an d the d ate should be placed at the


beginnin g o f the letter in the posi tion indi cate d above

.

.
3 Th e s al uta to ry p hra s e Thi s may take any one .

o f a great number o f forms The formal Dear Sir


.

is o f course rare in social correspond ence Where for .

mality is desired Dear M r Brown or (slightly more



,
.
,


cordial) M y dear M r Brown may be reso rted to
.
,

.

In the increasing degrees o f familiarity goo d taste an d


common sense wi ll di ctate the f orm o f s alu tation
-
Vary .

ing cir cu ms tan ces will at dif ferent times afford achoice
, ,

o f wide range from which however phrases such as


, , ,


F riend Brown
Frien d John 01 almost as had
,

,

, ,

simply John Should by all m eans be exclu de d The



,

.

rst word and the n ame or the wo rd use d in place of the


,

name and the title before the name should be capital


, ,

iz ed :

M y very d ear Brother ; an d the n ame should

be followed by a comma A void abbreviations in the .


s alutation : D ear C aptai n B rown is better than


Dear Capt Brown ; but M r M rs an d D1 are
.

.
, , .

al ways to be pref erred to the unabbreviated f orms (see


c hap iii s ec

. .
,

.
4 The text O u the subjec t o f the text nothing ,

need be add ed here to what has been said in the intro


ducto ry paragraph o f this subdivis ion

.

.
5 T h e co m plim en tary cl o s e In so cial letters the .

language used depend s on the d egree of cordi ali ty ,

intimacy or relation ship exis ting be tween the corre


,

The cust omary phras es : Yours sin cerely

spo n den ts .
,
1 34 A M AN UAL F OR WR IT ER S

Yours very truly may be added to emphasiz ed or


,

, ,

varied but the writer shoul d always remember that


,

mod eration an d reserve are pref er able to effusiveness .


Und er all circu mstances shun the offensive Yours etc ,
.

T he close is f ollowed by a comma an d is place d a li ttle


to the right o f the center o f the page
6 The s ign atur e T his is to be written on a li ne
.

by itself to en d ne ar the right hand m argin T he Chri s


,
-
.

tian nam e may be spelled o ut or abbreviated by ini tials ; ,

the surnam e sho uld of course be given in full Except .

when wri ting to an intimate friend a woman should Sign ,

her full n ame or indicate in parentheses the f orm in


I
which she should be add ressed :
GEOR GIA M ARIA BR OWN
(M R S GE OR GE C )
. .

(M R s ) . G E OR GIA M AR IA BR o wN
(M ISS) GE ORGIA M AR IA BR OW N

7 . The nv e lope
e The add ress on the envelope
.
~

Shoul d begin with the n am e pl ace d about mi dw ay b e

tween the to p an d bottom o f the envelope (In the .


Uni ted States M r preceding the n ame is pref erre d
,
.


to Es q following it ) In the li ne below rather m ore
.

.
,

to the right are placed the number an d n ame o f the


,


street (avoiding all abbreviations such as Ave , ,

an d this in turn is f ollowed in the next line still ,

more to the right by the name o f the city or town an d


, ,

in still another line by the n am e o f the state Spelled ,

in full In the lef t hand co rner may be place d an y di


.
-


re ctions or instru ctions su ch as : T o be f orward ed , ,

LETT ER -
WRITIN G I 35


Private ,C are of Brown Publishing Company etc

,

.
,

or the number o f the post o i ce b o x A variation o f -


.

the arr angement o f the address as given above in what ,



is termed the block f orm is per mi tte d by good t aste

.
,

Both forms are given here :


M R GEOR GE C B R OWN
. .

CHI CAGO
ILLIN OIS
c c / BR OWN PUBLISHIN G Co .


or in the
, blo ck
f orm :
M R GE OR GE C B R OW N
. .

9 00 M I CHI GAN AVEN UE


CHI CAGO
ILLIN OIS
c o / BR OWN PUBLISHIN G C o .

should pref erably be omi tte d If any


Punctu ation .

is used a comma shoul d f ollow e ach line except the l ast


, , ,

where a perio d is ne cessary The stamp should always .

be place d straight i e without an y fantastic revers al or


,
. .
,

turnin g in the upper right h an d com er


,
-
.

8 Exampl e o f s o cial le tte r


. .

1 8 9 M ICHI GAN AVE N UE

CHICAGO, ILLIN OIS


DEAR GE OR GE ,
It was a dis appo in tmen t no t y o u at the club las t night
to see .

The fact is , I had a favo r to as k o f y o u that co uld be explained


better by wo rd o f mo uth than o n paper but as I s hall no t have ,

ano ther o ppo rtunity o f s eein g y o u befo re y o u leave fo r Lo ndo n ,

I mus t prefer my reques t by letter .

It happens that my s is ter M ary has been planning to s tart


fo r England abo ut the middle o fn ext mo n th which I un ders tand , , ,
1 36 A M AN UAL FOR WR ITERS

is the time at which y o u expect to leave . She wan ts to d o so me


wo rk in the B ritis h M useu m an d to meet s o me dis tan t relatives

o f o ur mo thers who m s he has ne ver seen She had in ten ded


.

v
tra eling with an aun t, b u t that lady has n ally allo wed her
q ualms o ver a s ea vo yage to cause her to ab and o n the plan .

I am wo n dering if, un der the circums tances , my s is ter co uld

j o in yo ur party Witho ut Yo ur mo ther


in co n v en ien cin g anyo n e .

an d s is ter are go in g I hear an d while they have no t me t M ary


, , ,

they hav e do ub tless heard abo u t her an d her wo rk s o that they ,

wo uld n o t regard her as a s tran ger Will y o u tell me frankly.

ho w they wo uld co n s ider this s ugges tio n


With b es t wishes fo r a pleas an t trip ,
Very s incerely yo urs ,

J OHN B R OW N
September 9 , 19 13

II . B U SIN E SS C OR R E S PON DE N CE

The writing o f business letters is an art to which


all too little attention i s paid T erseness clearness .
, ,

poli teness an avoidance o f monotonous an d hackneye d


,

expressions are all as essential as is the rigid obs ervance


,

o f the rules o f grammar spelling punc tuation an d , , ,

paragraphing N o unn ecessary word s should b e us ed ;


.

nevertheless the personality of the wri ter an d the


,

atmosphere

so to spe ak of the relations existing
, ,

between the correspond ents should be manifest throu gh


out A curt formal or h ackneye d letter m ay cre ate
a poor impressionmay even ten d to d estroy or injure
.
, ,

business relations A business letter should be so


.

written as to compel attention d evelop interest create , ,

d esire or eect a de cision


,
T he su ccessf ul writer o f a.
LETTER -
WRIT IN G 137

business letter is one who sen d s hims elf along with hi s


message A su ccinct well word ed polite letter inuences
.
,
-

the recipient u nconsciously to himsel f in the writer s


, ,

f avor .

T he stationery used the character o f the printe d


,

or the engraved letter head the appearance o f the type


,

writing even the manner in which the letter is f old e d


, ,

all tend to exert a subtle in uence on the min d o f the


re cipient
The he ad in g The arr angement o f the place an d
.

I .

d ate in business letters is usu ally arbitr ary sinc e the ,

name an d details of the business an d the location ,

together with the name o f the city or town are usually ,

printed a space f or the date being left blank on the


,

right Either of the f ollowing forms may be used


.
,

d e pending somewhat on the space available :

9 00 M ICHIGAN AVE .

CHICAGO, ILL , September 9 , 19 13


or ,
in block
f orm :
9 00 M ICHI GA N AVE .

CHICA GO, I LL .

Septemb er 9 , 19 13


ses such as the forego ing the word Street or
In ca

A venue is usually abbreviated Ordin arily no pune .

tuatio n f ollows an y o f the lines T he n ame o f the .

month should not be abbreviated nor should the day ,

of the month be f ollowed by s t nd d rd or th


The add r es s The business n ame an d add ress
.
, , , ,

2 .

of the add ressee should be placed at the beginning o f


1 38 A M AN UAL F OR WR IT ER S

every business letter at the lef t o f the sheet b elow the , ,

d ate line the n ame in a line by itsel f the add ress in


, ,

two lin es below Either of the f ollowin g f orms may be


.

use d :
M ess rs B ro wn Jo nes 69 Co
.
,

.

9 00 M ichigan A ve .

Chi cago , I ll .


or ,
in block
f orm :
M ess rs Brown , Jo n es {9 Co
.
'
.

9 00 M ichigan A ve .

Chi cago , Ill .

Whichever o n e o f these f orms is ad opte d the practice ,

should be uni form in respec t to the place an d date lines ,

an d the name an d add ress o f the ad dr essee In a .

typewritten le tter unless it be very short the add ress, ,

lines sho uld in both cases be single spaced

3 T.he s a l utator y ph ras e In business letters thi s .


,

should begin ush on the le f t lining up with the rst ,

line o f the address an d sho uld be f ollowed by a colon ,


.

When a rm is the ad dressee the phr as e should be : ,


Gen tlemen z or De ar Sirs : and when an in dividu al


is addressed i t should be : ,
D ear Sir : or M y d e ar

Sir : substi tuting in the case o f a woman eith er marrie d ,


or single the word M adam f or Sir
, In thi s

.

country contrary to the E nglish pr ac tice


, the phrase ,

M y de ar Sir is regard ed as more cord ial an d less



formal than De ar Sir

4 T.he t e x t A s state d in the intro du ctory par a


graph to this se ction all hackneye d phr ases are to be ,
LETTER -
WR IT IN G 1 39

avoid ed espe ially c in complete


sentences such as : ,


Yours o f even d ate received R eplying to yours o f ,


even date we h ave to s ay
, s ame wi ll re ceive prompt ,


attention n d inclosed thankin g you in ad vance
, , ,


as above st ated etc C are should be t aken not to
, .

write in the rst person sin gular when the letter is signe d
with a rm name The rst wo r d o f the text should
.

begin in the line next below the s alutation an d should


have the s ame ind ention as all su ccee ding paragraphs
in the letter Leaving a blank line between paragraphs
.
,

as is the practice o f some business houses sets o the ,

paragraphs sh arply an d gives emphasis to each o f them ;



but it produ ces a staccato effe ct an effec t o f dis
,

continui ty an d som etim es o f overemphasis whi ch is o f ten ,

c ontrary to the intention o f the writer M u ch the s ame


may be s aid o f over
.

paragraphin g which is sometimes ,

carrie d so far as to m ake a separate par agr aph o f e ach


sentence A li ttle consideration o f these effe cts will


.
.

enable e ach writer to de cid e wh at style he wishes to ad opt



.

5 Th e.co m plim en tar y cl o s e P resent p r ac tic e li mi ts



this to the f orm s : Yours truly or Yours very trul y

,

.

The phrases : R espec tfully yours Fai thfully yours


, ,

etc . are no longer regarde d as goo d f orm in ordin ary


,

business letters Phrases introductory to the compli


.


ment ary close su ch as Beli eve me to be
,

I am ,

,

A waiting an e arly reply etc should form a separate ,



.
,

line The rst word only o f the complimentary close


.

should be capitaliz e d an d a comma should f ollow the


,

close o f the line arr ange d as follows :


,
1 40 A M AN UAL FOR WR ITER S

Awaiting an y reply earl ,


I am
Yo urs very truly ,

GE OR GE C B R OWN .

01
Yo urs truly ,

BR OWN PUB LISHING Co .

per Geo rge C Bro wn .


T he vulgar Yours etc 13 never permitte d an d no
,
.
,

d egree o f haste or famili ari ty will excuse its use



.

6 Th
. e s ign ature A s indicate d in the illustration
.

given in the preced ing section in a letter signed by the ,

rm n ame the latter should be f ollowe d by the sign ature


,

o f the person wri tin g the le tter pr eceded by the word ,

per . F or addi tional suggesti ons s ee sec 6 under



.
,


Private or Social Letters

.


7 The e n velope
. See s ec 7 under . Private an d .
,

Social Letters ,

an d s ec 7 under F ormal Letters .
,
.

8 Examples o f b us in es s letters
. .

{I "
CHICAGO, ILL , July 24, 1 9 1 3

M essrs S mith
.
, Jon es 59 '
Co .

9 9 F etter Lane
London , E C . .
, England
GE NTLE MEN :
We are ingreceipt o f yo ur co mplai nt to the effec t that N o s 7 .

an d 8 o fthe Jo urn al ofPetro lo gy were no t received by the Directo r


o fthe Geo lo gical Survey .

Our reco rds s ho w the d ispatch o f thes e n umb ers by regis


tered mail o n February 2 In V iew o f the fact that so much time
.

has been allo wed to elapse befo re the claim was made an d o f ,

the fact that o ur s to ck is V ery lo w we hes itate to duplicate this ,


LETT ER -
WRITIN G I41

o rder further inves tigatio n We are to day sending o ut


witho ut .

a tracer and will repo rt to y o u later when we hear fro m the


, ,

po s t o
ice autho rities In the event o fadvice fro m yo ur cus to mer
-
.

that the package co mes to hand later yo u will o f course let us ,

kno w .

Yo urs very truly ,

BR OWN PUB LISHIN G Co .

per J G . .

[ 2]
C HICAGO, ILL .
, July 2 4, 19 13

M essrs S mith,
. Jones 5 '
Co .

9 9 F etter Lane
London , E C , En gland
. .

G ENTLE ME N :
Yo ur letters o f Jun e 4 an d June 1 3
Re:
We have b een delayed in canvas sing the details o f yo ur
in vo ice o f J une 4 fo r 1 6 1 53 5d and yo ur credit no te o f June 1 3
. .

fo r 7 s 6d
. On the item o f
. catalo gues there s ee ms to b e

a m arked discrepan cy b etween the amo unt autho riz ed an d the


amo unt charged . R eviewing the deta
i ls fro m o ur les we nd

the fo llo wing:
(a) Our o rder N o . 2 2 5, January 2, 1 9 13 , autho riz ed
Catal o gue o f Publicatio ns fo r Englis h and
co pies o f the

fo reign boo ksellers , private indi viduals , and Sco ttish


minis ters in acco rdance with yo ur letter o f Decemb er
1 5 , 1 9 1 2 , to co s t appro ximately 7 1 0s
'

(b) Our letter o f January 9 autho riz ed y o u to include the


co s t o f extra co pies o f the cata logue fo r Indian univer
sities a nd co lleges .

(c) The charges o n yo ur invo ice o f February 2 4 fo r 1 6 1 4s .

1 1d a nd o f July 4 fo r 1
. 1 0d are fo r the to ta l .

charges o n cata lo gues fo r the Indian univers ities an d


co lleges as per (b) abo ve .
14 2 A M AN UAL FOR WR IT ER S

(d) Yo ur invo ice of June 4 fo r the catalo gues is 8 1z s . 6d .

plu s 4 1 7s .
3d .
, to tal 13 9 s 9 d . .
, les s credit no te 7 s .

1 od .
, 13 1s . 1 1d . T his , witho u t dis co un t, is , we un

ders tan d , yo ur to tal charge fo r (a) abo ve .

If we are co rrec t in o ur deductio n regarding (d) in the fo re


feren ce o f appro ximately
go in g, y o u wil l n o te that there is a dif
6 b etween the es timate in yo ur letter o f Decemb er 1 5 , 1 9 1 2
which was the bas is o f o ur o rder , an d the actu al amo un t
charged . We ,
o f co urs e , appreciate the act that the amo un t f
7 1 0s . was merely an es timate ; y e t we certainl y d id no t expect

that the to tal co s t wo uld amo un t to nearl y 13 . M ay we as k


y o u to go o ver yo ur gures again an d see ifa mis take has no t been
made
Yo urs very truly ,

B R OW N , WHI TE Co .

per J G . .

III . F OR MA L LE TTER S

Formal letters as distingu ished f rom either private


,

or business letters are (1 ) those add ressed to persons


,

o ccupying high positions to whom it is d esired to Show ,

some mark o f unusu al respect an d (2 ) in vit ations or ,

accept ances o r d eclin ations o f some n ature


The he adin g
.

I . In f ormal s o ci al letters the place


an d d ate are never given at the to p but at the en d an d ,

o n the le f t ; in other f orm al letters however the place , ,

an d date should b e at the right han d near the to p o f the

page as in busin ess letters without abbreviation o f the


, ,

n ame of the mo nth .

The add res s This is place d at the en d an d on


'

~
2 .

the le f t below the pl ace an d date if the l atter are not at


, ,
LETTE R -
WR ITIN G 145

the beginning of the letter (but see pp 1 3 2 It as .


,

well as the place an d date may be arran ged as in the ,



examples given in secs 1 an d 2 und er Business Corre.

spondence but the style should be unif orm f or both


,

.

In replying to fo rmal invi t ations the add ress o f the ,

ad dressee is omi tted F or special f orms see the list at


.

the en d o f this sub divis ion (pp 1 4 5



.

3 . T he s a l utato ry phr as e Custom has estab lished


avariety of f orms f or diff erent classes of indi vidu als F or .

spe cial f orms see the li st at the en d o f thi s subd ivision



(pp 1 4 5 ii ) In cas es not covered by this li s t Sir

.
,

may be used where extrem e f ormali ty is intend ed ; in



other cases either Dear Sir or M y d e ar Sir is in

per f e ctly good taste



.

4 . Th e te xt Specially f ormal so cial letters are


.

o f ten written in the thi rd person but in that case they ,

take n o heading add ress o f the add ressee s alutatory


, ,

phrase complimentary close or s ign ature (see example


, ,

below p ,
T he d ate an d the add ress of the wri ter
.
, ,

however should always be given on the le f t at the close


, ,

an d the date should pre f er ably be spelled in full It .

must not be inf erred however that all f ormal communi


, ,

c ations should be in the th i rd person In many cases .

su ch a form o f correspondence would cause grave


offense In general it may be s aid to be usual f or
.
,

formal social invitations acceptances or d eclinations , , ,

b ut f or other purposes thi s f orm is not in favor in thi s


count ry T o express f ormality respe ct etc the gen
.
, ,
.
,

er al tone an d langu age should s u i ce .


1 44 A M AN UAL FOR WRITE R S

5 . o m pl im e
The n tary close
c A s not ed in the pre .

cedin g sec tion f orm al le tters writt en in the th


,
i rd person
take n o complimentary close The complim entary close .

in extremely f ormal letters addressed to persons in high


o i cial positions may be (with m odications) as f o llows :

I have the hon or to be Sir yo ur most o b ed ient serv , ,


o r in case o f a lesser d egree o f f o rm ali ty I am

an t , , , ,

Sir yours mo st respe ct fully ; except however in



, , ,

unusu al an d especially f ormal letters the phrase


, ,

Yours very truly is greatly to be pre ferred Except


.

in o fcial corr espon d en ce f rom an of cial o f the


gov ernment to a private perso n an d som etim es between ,

o f
ce rs o f the rmy or navy the phr ase Yo ur obe di
a

,

ent s ervant is passing out o f u s e In re cent years the .


phrase Yo ur obedient servant has been use d in this

country by a public of cial in writing to a private



in dividu al to in dicate the relation o f servant o f the
,


public which exi sts on the part o f the occupant o f
the pub li c of ce But in letters from private persons
.

it is n o longer regarded as am on g the customary co n


ven tio n s F or special form s see li st at the en d o f this
.
,

subdivision (pp 1 4 5

.


h
6 T e S ign ature
. See s ec 6 und er Pr ivate or .
,

Social Letters (p

.

7 T h e.e nvelo p e Ordin ary cases will be f oun d to be


.


covere d by the rules in s ec 7 un der Private or Social .
,

Letters (p

F or comprehensive form s covering
.

many special cases see list at the en d o f this subdivision


,

(pp 1 45
LET TER -
WR IT IN G 145

F or conveni ence f orm s fo r the name an d add ress


, ,

the salut a tion the complimentary close an d the envelope


, ,

required in spe cial cases are grouped in the f ollowing


li st
. E very class o f persons to whom f or an y reason , ,

the f oregoing rules are not applicable is enumerate d ,

an d letters to an y person not comi ng withi n an y o f the


c lasses enu mer ated in the list should be governed by the

gener al rules given above In f ormal business letters


.

to persons covered by the li st below the name an d ,

ad dress o f the ad d ressee should ordinarily be pl ace d at the


en d of the letter an d on the le f t h an d sid e the langu age
,
-

f or the envelope being the s ame as that given for the


nam e an d address in the li st below T o place the n ame .

an d add r ess at the beginnin g however is in perf ectly , ,

good taste the choice o f the en d inste ad o f the begin ning


,

f or these details being customarily a mark o f gre ater


f ormality .

Pres id en t ofthe Un ited S tates


N ame an d address : T he Pres iden t, Was hin gto n DC , .

Salutatio n : Sir : (o r
, less fo rmal) Dear M r Presiden t: .

Clo se : Yo urs v ery trul y ,

Envelo pe : Same as given fo r name and address .

M ember of Cabin et
N ame an d address : T he Secretary of State, Was hingto n ,

DC .

Salutatio n : Dear M r Secretary : .

Clo s e : Yo urs very tru ly ,

Envelo pe : Same as give n fo r na me an d address .


146 A M AN UAL F OR W R ITER S

A mbas s ad or
N ame an d address : His Excellen cy the French Ambass ado r ,

Was hingto n DC
,
. .

Salu tatio n : Dear M r Ambas s ado r:


.

Clo s e : Yo urs very trul y ,

E nvelo pe : Same as given fo r na me an d address .

S en ato r
N ame an d address : T he Ho n . Shelby M . C ullo m United
States Sen ate, Was hin gto n , DC . .

Salu tatio n : M y dear Sen ato r : (o r mo re


,
in timate) Dear M r .

Cullo m :
C lo s e : Yo urs very trul y ,

E n velo pe : Same as given fo r na me an d address .

Co n gress man
N ame an d address : M an n , United States
T he Ho n .
J . R .

Ho use o f R epresen tatives , Was hingto n , D C . .

Sal utatio n : Dear Sir: (o r, mo re in timate) Dear M r M ann : .

Clo se : Yo urs very trul y ,

E n v elo pe : Same as giv en fo r na me and address .

Go vern or
N ame an d addres s : The Ho n E . . F . Dunne, Executive M an
s io n , Sprin geld , Ill .

Salutatio n : Dear Sir : (o r mo re


,
in timate) Dear Go vern o r
Dunn e :
Clo se : Yo urs v ery trul y ,

En velo pe : Same as given fo r n ame an d addres s .

S ecretary fState
o

N ame an d address : T he Secretary o f State, Sprin geld , Ill .

Sal u tatio n : Dear M r Secretary : .

Clo s e : Yo urs very trul y ,

E nvelo pe : Same as given fo r name an d address .


LETT ER -
W RIT IN G 14 7

M ayor
N ame an d address : T he Ho n C arter H Harriso n , M ayo rs
. .

Off
i ce, Chicago , Ill .

Salutatio n : Dear Sir : (o r, mo re in timate) Dear M r M ayo r : .

(o r, s till mo re in timate) Dear M r Harris on : .

Clo se : Yo urs very truly ,


En velo pe : Same as given fo r na me an d address .

Jud ge
N ame an d add ress : The Ho n . Henry A . Freeman , State
Circuit Co urt B uilding, Chicago , Ill .

Salutatio n : Dear Sir : (o r mo re


, in timate) Dear Judge Free
man :

Clo se : Yo urs very trul y ,

En velo pe : Same as given fo r na me an d addres s .

C o ns ul
N ame an d addres s : T he French Co nsul , Chicago , Ill .

Salutatio n : Dear M r Co n s ul :
.

Clo s e : Yo urs very trul y ,

Envelo pe : Same as gi ven fo r na me and add ress .

Pres id ent ofa Univers ity


N ame and addres s : Pres iden t Harry Pratt Judso n Un iver,

s ity o f Chicago , C hicago , Ill .

Salutatio n : Dear Presiden t Judso n : (o r , mo re fo rmal) My


dear Sir :
C lo s e : Yo urs very trul y ,

E nvelo pe : Same as giv en fo r na me an d add ress

The P o pe
N ame an d addres s : His Ho lin es s , Po pe Pius X ,
The Vatican ,

R o me .

Salutatio n :
Yo ur Ho liness :
Co mplimen tary clo s e : Sin cerely yo urs in C hris t,
E nvelo pe : Same as given fo r name an d address .
1 48 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITER S

Cardi n al
N ame an d addres s : His E min ence , William Cardinal O Co n

n ell, Archbisho p o fBo s to n , 2 5 Granb y Street B o s to n M as s , , .

Salutatio n :Yo ur Eminence :


Co mplimentary clo s e : F aithfully yo ur Eminence s s ervan t

,

o r Sin cerely yo urs ; if the writer is a C atho lic the wo rd s


,

in Chris t are us ually add ed



.

E n velo pe : Same as given fo r na me an d address .

A rchbis hop
N ame an d address : T he M o s t R ev . Jo hn Irelan d, D D . .
,

Archbis ho p o f St Paul, C athedral, St Paul M inn


. . .

Yo ur Grace : o r Sir :
Salu tatio n : ,

Co mplimen tary clo se : Any o f the o rdin ary fo rms s uch as ,

Very truly yo urs o r Yo urs s incerely will b e fo un d to b e


, ,

in go o d tas te ; if the writer is a Catho lic the wo rds : Sin
cerely yo urs in Chris t,

Sho uld be used .

En velo pe : Same as given fo r name an d address .

B is hop
N ame and address : T he R t R ev . . James A M cFaul, D D
. . .
,

B is ho p o f T rento n , Tren to n , N J .

Salutatio n : Right R everen d an d dear B isho p : o r, R ight R ever


en d B is ho p : o r, s i mply , an d perhaps mo re co mmo nly , Sir :
Co mplimen tary clo s e : Same as that given fo r an archb is ho
p
a b o ve .

En velo pe : Same as given fo r n ame an d addres s .

Dean or Archdeacon
N ame an d addres s : T he Very R ev . Dean R o b inso n , St .


Paul s C hurch, e tc .

Salutatio n : R everen d Sir :


Co mplimen tary clo se : Very truly yo urs , o r, Sin cerely yo urs ,

Envelo pe : Same as given fo r n ame and address .


LETT ER -
WR IT IN G 1 49

Pries t
1 . A Paris h Pries t :
N ame and addres s : [The] R ev . Jo hn A . B ro wn , 9 00 M ichigan
Avenue, C hicago , Ill .

Salutatio n : R everen d an d dear Father : 01 , Dear R everend


Father :
Co mplimentary clo se : Yo urs s inc ere ly , or any of the mo re
fo rmal phrases .

Envelo pe : [The] R ev Jo hn A Bro wn , R ec to r J


. . o f St. o hn s

Church, etc .

2 . A Do cto r of Divinity or

N ame an d addres s : Add the letters indicating the degree to


the n ame .

Salutatio n : R everend an d dear Do cto r:


Co mplimen tary clo se and en velo pe : Same as fo r a paris h
pries t .

3 . A Vicar General o r Head o f an


-
eccles ias tical ins titutio n , s uch

as a semin ary :
N ame an d addres s : Very R ev . Francis C . Kelley ,
DD . .
,

Chicago , Ill .

Salutatio n : Very R everend and dear Father : 01 , Very R ever


end Do cto r : as the case may be
an d dear .

Co mplimen tary clo s e : Same as fo r a paris h pries t .

En velo pe : Same as given fo r n ame an d address .

8 . Exampl es o f fo r mal letter s .

[Invitatio n]
M rs G eo rge Charles B ro wn reques ts the pleasure
.

o f M r J o hn Smith s co mpany at d inner o n Wed nes



.

day even ing, Septemb er the nin th, at eight o clo ck



.

9 00 M ICHI GAN AVE NU E


September the third
N ineteen hun dred thirteen
1 59 A M AN UAL F OR WR ITE RS

[Acceptan ce]
Mr Jo hn Smith accepts with much pleas ure M rs
. .

B ro wn s kind in vitatio n to di ne o n September the


n inth As M rs B ro wn failed to name the ho ur M r


. .
,
.

Smith ho pes he is right in as s uming it to b e half


after s even o clo ck

.

9 LA KE SHORE DRIVE
Septemb er the third
N ineteen hundred thirteen

9 00 M I CHI GAN AVEN UE


CHI CAGO, ILL .
, September 9 , 19 13

The S ecretary o fState ,

Was hingto n , DC . .

D EAR M R SECRETAR Y :
.

I b eg to reques t that a pas spo rt fo r travel in Russ iahe is s ued


to me with all po ss ible d ispatch .

I am a citiz en o f the Uni ted States , and I trans mit herewith


the n eces sa ry credentials .

I am, Sir,
Yo urs respectfully ,

(o r Yo urs very truly )


, ,

G EOR GE C B R OWN .

[or,
ins tead o f at the beginning place the n ame and address
, at the
end ; s ee pp . 132

THE SECRETAR Y OF STATE


WASHIN GTON , DC . .
C HA PT ER VIII
HIN T S ON T HE PREPARATION OF M AN U SC R IPT F OR
T HE PR IN TER

T he preparation of the manuscript f or the prin ter is


a process which usu ally be gins af ter the manus cript is
c ompleted While the d egr ee o f preparation necessary
.


diff ers with e ach work o r j o b whi ch com es to the

printer involving in som e cases actu al e ditin g an d in


, , , ,

other cases s carcely more than the notation on the


manus cript of the siz e of type in whi ch it is to be set an d
the length o f the type line it will be evid ent to anyone
-
,

that som e te chn ical supervi sion on the part of someone is


necess ary bef ore the written pages can be turned over to
different printers to set into type
Definition s
.

I
. In all printing est ablishments the
written mate rial which is to be put into type is terme d

copy When this is put into type it is Spoken of as ,



being set or set up
the terms composition
,


compositor

an d being appli ed to the process and to
the printer respe ctively The length o f the type line
.
-

(which o f course varies f or differen t works d epend ing ,

on the Siz e of the book the siz e o f type an d o f paper to


,

be used etc ) is termed measure



T his is more fully


. .
,

treate d below (chap xi pp 1 8 9 9 2 to whi ch the read er


.
,
.
,

is ref erre d) It will sufce at thi s point to state the self


.

evident fact that the compositor must be instru cted


15 1
15 2 A M AN UAL FOR WR IT ER S

regarding the measure an d the siz e o f the type to

be used before he can begin composition AS to siz es


o f type see chap xi pp 1 88
.
,

,
89 .
,
. .

The term legen d is applied to the de scriptiv e lan


guage afxed to illustrations A n illustration printed


with text
.

o n the same page as the text material


above below or besid e i t) is called a text

, ,
gure ;
a full page illustration o n spe cial paper d iff ering f rom ,

that on which the text is printed is calle d an insert ,

(see p .

T he imprint is the inscriptio n usu ally appearing


at the f oot o f the titlepage giving the n am e o f the ,

publisher the city an d year o f publication etc (see


, ,
.

p .

2 O rd er o f materi al
.

Be fore the copy re aches .

the printer however there are several things to be d one


.
, ,

by the author or by an editor f or him It should be .

b o rne in mind that it is n o part o f the du ty o f the pub


lis her or Of the printer to write an y part o f the copy f or
the author Every part o f the book there f ore m ust
.
, ,

be written out bef ore it goes to the printer What are .


termed the prelimi nary pages are too o f ten overlooke d

by the author but e ach is an in tegral ne cessary part o f


, ,

the work .

T he rst printed page in the book is known as the

half title -
som etimes calle d the short title or

b astar d title It is a page bearing only the main



.

title of the book an d is usu ally blank on its reverse ,

s id e Hal f titles are sometimes inserte d in the bo dy


"
-
.
PR EPARATION OF M AN U SCRIPT F OR PRIN TER 153

o f the boo k either be fore e ach ch apter or to mark


, ,

special divisions o f the work T hey should usu ally .

appe ar be fore an appen dix an d be fore an index unless


these are very short .

T hen f ollows the title page bearing the ti tle an d sub


-

title (if any ) the author s name hi s academi c or other


,

,

titles (ifd esired) an d in case the book is to be privately


, ,


is not to be ar the imprint o f a publi sher)

printed ,


such imprint as the author may desire su ch as Pub

,


Printed for Private C irculation

lis hed by the A uthor , ,

etc. with the year o f publi cation below


,
.

On the next page should follow the d e claration o f


copyright in case the book is to be copyrighte d an d thi s ,

should re ad : Copyr ight 1 9 by A ll R ights
R eserve d (see chap xii p

. .
,

In case a d edication to the work is planned the page ,

cont aining the d ed icatory l anguage f ollows .

N ext in ord er should come the Pre face if an y is co n ,

templated .Thi s is usu ally placed be f ore the T able o f


Contents an d is not enumer ate d in the latter bein g ,

regarde d as not strictly a part o f the text proper .

T hen f ollows the T able o f Contents F or thi s it is .

ordin arily enough to list the titles o f the several chapters .

Sometimes however the sub divisions o f each chapter


, ,

are summariz ed un der the chapter ti tle but th at is a ,

matter to be governed by the pref erence o f the author


an d by questions o f expedien cy space available etc , ,
.

T he preparation o f the T able o f Contents should be


attend ed to in the beginni ng or the matter may be over ,
1 54 A M AN UAL F OR WRI TE RS

looked an d the book be printed wi thout it" The actu al


page num bers can be inserted later when the book has ,

be en made up into pages T he compilation o f this pre


.

supposes that titles have be en a i xed to e ach chapt er


an d th at e ach has b een numb ered in its proper or d er .

If a List o f Illustration s is desire d its proper posi tio n ,

is o n the rst o dd numbered page f ollowing the T able


-

o f Contents .

Af ter the prelimin ary matter has been prepared an d


put in place the S heets o f the complete d work should
,

b e numbered consecutively Great con f usion an d po s


.

sible expense may ari se fro m negle ct to number every


page of the copy Sheets are e asily transpose d or even
.

lost an d if they are set up o ut of their ord er the mis


, ,

take may be overlooked until too late or may involve ,

an expensive readjustment o f typ e .

If an In dex is desired one b ased on page numbers,


-

canno t o f course be prepare d un til the book has reache d


, ,

the page proo f stage when the page numbers become


-
,

available If the re f eren c es are however to be mad e to


.
, ,

sec tions or paragraphs instead o f to pages it is obvio us


, ,

that the Index can be made fro m the manuscript Ih .

d exes b ased on paging are however more convenient , ,

an d customary except in r ar e inst an ces


, F or hints on .

making the Index see below s ec 7 this chapter


, ,
.
, .

If the book is to cont ain illustr ations a d e ci sion ,

should be re ached as to their ch aracter an d number an d


siz e (whether full page o r o therwise) pref erably be fo re
-
, ,

the manuscript leaves the author s hands There are


.
PR EPAR ATION OF M AN U SCR IPT F OR PR IN TER 1 55

several ki nds Ofillustrations an d for a f ull den ition an d ,

description o f these the reader is re f erred to ch ap ix .


,

b elo w A n estimate o f the cost o f the book must o f


.

course in clu d e the illustrations an d consequently it is ,

wise to pro cure the photographs or d rawings to be used



bef ore turning in the copy o f the work C are should
.

be exercise d in d etermini ng the language o f the legen d s


for the illustrations (see p which should be conne d


.

to one line in length when possible an d should r arely ,

exceed two lines in length



.


S ty l e In so m e publishing houses the copy

3
. .

is rst turne d over to a c opy read er who edits it f or


-

oversights errors in phraseology paragr aphing etc He


, , ,
.


notes on it the me asure (see p an d marks the

.

various passages in the text with the siz e of type in


which they are to be set prescribes the char acter o f type
,

for the chapter head s subhe ad s side heads etc ; num


, ,
-

, .

bers an d marks the f ootnotes ; un derscores or quotes



titles (see chap v s ec 5 3 ; chap vi s ec
.
,
. casts up .
,
.

t abular matter (see p an d marks the position


.

an d character o f the rul es in tables as a guide to the

printer ; an d last but not least read s everything care


, ,

fully in ord er to apply consi stent m ethod s o f capitali


z atio n punctuation an d spelli ng
, , T hese ch aracteristics .
,

in the langu age of the printing establishment are termed ,

Style is d en ed by W ebster as the mann er



style .

or plan followed in an y particular o ice or case in d ealin g


with cert ain d etails o f typo gr aphy prepar ation o f
copy d isplay an d the lik e which may be regulate d by
, , ,
1 56 A M AN UAL FOR WRIT ER S

rule an d in regard to which customs may di er as


, ,

spelling capitaliz ation an d d ivision punctu ation abbre


, , , ,


viatio n s , etc .


Within certain limi ts therefore the style appli ed , ,

to any particular manuscript may be either that pre


s cribed by the author o r that ad opted an d en for ce d by
the publishi ng house F ar abo ve all questions o f the

.


ho o f style i the rule a cast iron one in all

c ice s -

hi gh class est abli shm entsregarding cons is tency Within


- .

cert ain limi ts



style do es not matter provided only
,

,

that consistency o f treatment is followed T hat is to .

s ay it is o f comparatively li ttle m omen t whether su ch


,


word s as St ate Christology presid ent
,

are ,

spelle d with a capital or lower case r st letter ifonly they -

are co n s is ten tly treate d throughout A ll high cl ass pu b .


-

lishi n g hous es h ave their own rules o f style but in the cas e ,

o f books an d other ind epend ent publications su ch ,

e st ab lishm ents are generally willi ng to waive their


own rules within re asonable limits in favor o f the
, ,

author s pref eren ce ifhi s manus cript consistently f oll ows



,

an y goo d an d well recogniz e d practice -


If a manuscrip t .

is n o t prepared by the author with due care in this


particular ei ther it wil l be edited by the copy re ad er at
-

, ,

some co st to the author or later when it is in type the , , ,

proof reader will point out the in consisten cies ; an d the


ne cessary corre ctions which are som etimes very he avy , ,

are then charged to the author s alterations (see p



.

It shoul d be borne in mind that the copy is usu ally


d istribute d among several co mpositors who all work ,


PR E PARA T ION OF M AN U SC R IPT FOR PRIN TER 157

on it at once If there fore consistency in capitaliz a


.
, ,

tion an d other d etails is not brought about in advan ce ,

it is f olly to expe ct consisten cy to result f rom the work


o f sever al in dependent compositors none o f whom has auv
knowledge of what rules of style are bein g observed by
the others .


Some rules ind eed un der the he ad o f

, ,
style are
too technical for the ordinary author to burd en his mind
with Yet the subje ct as a whole is one on whi ch every
.

writer should be informed in a gen eral way T hose .

who wish more detaile d inf ormation th an is given in thi s


ch ap ter an d who desire an authori t ative standar d as a
,

guide in all typographi cal matters where rules are need e d


'

are re f erred to the M an ual of S tyle (Chicago : The Un i


versity o f Chicago Press 3d

,

4 . T e chn i cal pr acti ce s T he ordin ary roman type has



C A PITAL S (called by printers SMA LL CAPS

capital letters usu ally about half the Siz e o f the



an d lower case the ordinary un capital

iz ed letters) T he term s
.

upper case (sometim es

appli e d to caps ) an d lower case cam e into use from



the fact that the type set by hand is kept in two cases

shallow wood en boxes d ivid ed into compartmen ts ,



f or each char acter) the upper of which hold s the caps
, ,


an d the lower the lower case
,
.


T o in dicate on the manus crip t

that caps

are d esired dr aw three li nes an d to in di cate
,
small ,

caps draw two lines un der the letter or word to be



,

capit aliz e d It is also a f requent practice to express


.
1 58 A M AN UAL F OR WRITE RS

(small caps)

these directions by writing caps s e ,

.
,


(lower case) o r c an d LG (caps an d lower

or ,
. .

case) in the margin as a dire ction f or a li ne or pass age



Small caps are

to be so treated (s ee belo w p , .

rarely use d alone fo r an y purpose other th an center


heads or legend s f or illustratio ns Except in extremely .

rare cases they should not be used in the plac e o f italic , ,

f or one or more wo rd s in the text o f ordi nary re ading


matter .

T o indicate a redu ction o f a capi tal letter to a lower


case letter d raw an o bli que line throu gh it d ownwar d
,

f rom r ight to le f t .

T o indicate i tali c un d ers core with a straight line


, .

F or itali c caps und erscore with three lines an d add the


,

word s italic caps in the margin F onts o f itali c

.

type do not contai n small caps .

T o in dicate b lack f ace or b ol d f ace type un d erscore


- -

with a wavy line thus , T hi s type is f requently


M .

resorte d to f or side h ead s or center he ad s and to secure


- -

spe cial emph asi s where f or an y reason ordin ary italic


would not accompli sh thi s result .

The G erman practice o f hair spacing word s (some


-

times calle d letter spacing in ord er to express empha


-

s is is one whi ch is r arely resorted to in th is country


, .

F or this purpose it alic shou ld invariably be pref erre d .


A hair space is the thinn est space made an d when

,

inserted between the letters o f a wo rd the effec t is to


cause the wor d to st an d out prominently f ro m the rest

o f the text Its use in this country is practically limite d


.

,
PR EPAR ATION OF M AN U SCR IPT FOR PRIN TER 1 59

so far as book work is concerned to transliterati o ns o f ,

som e o f the Semi tic languages an d cun eif orm charac ters .

Q u o ted matter exceeding ve or s ix lines o f typ e is


usually set in type o f a smaller siz e than the bo dy o f the

text It will s ave trouble to the copy reader an d to
.
-

the printer an d o f ten avoid inconsistent typogr aphical


tre atment if su ch matter is single
,

,
space d when written ,

on the typewriter or is otherwise set o ff from the bo dy


,

o f the text in the copy (see pp 1 5 1
.
,

In case s pe cial fo rms o f spelling dialec t or capi taliz a


, ,

tion are desired in apassage su ch as matter quoted f rom


,


another writer the word s
,
F ollow copy should be
wri tten in the margin o f the passage in question .

If all d irec ti ons to the printer are wri tten in ink o f a


color d if f e rent f rom that in which the copy is written
,

con fus ion and error will o f ten be avoid e d .

C o py should be wri tten on one side o f the Sheet only


N o ci rcumstances excuse a d eparture from thi s rule



.


If af ter the copy is written it is

5 In s erti on s
.

desire d to add matter of an y l ength the new matter ,

should be written out on a s eparate sheet which should ,

be marked Insert A an d attached to the shee t to whi ch


the new matter is to be adde d On the latter the s ame .


wor d s ,
Insert A should be written at the point
,

where the insertion is to be made If several pages .

of such new matter are to be inserted at one point they ,

shoul d be mark ed with the number borne by the page


calling f or the insertion f ollowe d by A B C etc
, T hus , , ,
.

inserts f or page 2 7 shoul d be marked 2 7A 2 7 B etc If , ,


.
A M AN UAL F OR WRITE R S

pages are taken out s ay f rom 9 to 2 7 inclusive af ter the


, ,

pages o f the co py are numbered page 8 shoul d be ,

marked 8 2 7 to show the omi ssion ; o r at the bottom o f


,


the page may be written p 2 8 f ollo ws ,
. .

Wh er e copy is written in lo ngh and the letter u ,

should be unders core d an d a co rresponding li ne should


,

be drawn above the n T hi s prac tice will obviate co n


.

fu sion an d mist akes in proper n am es f oreign word s


, , ,

etc .

having written a gure or abbreviation the


If af ter
author desires to have it spelled out the printer will ,

un d erst an d the wish if a ring is d rawn aroun d the

ch ar ac ters o r wo rd s to b e so tre ated .

Pun ctu ation sh o uld b e care f ully in dicated on copy .

T he period Shoul d always be surroun d e d with a circle ,

thus 0 The hyphen should be distingu ished from the


.

dash by using two short lin es fo r the f ormer thus l; ,

an d care shoul d be taken to make the colon an d the


semico lo n e asily distin guish able f rom e ach other
6 F ootnotes A f o o tnote Shoul d not be placed at
.

the f oot o f the page in the manus cript but should be ,

place d imme diately below the line whi ch carrie s the


number o r oth er ref eren ce mark an d set o ff f rom the ,

text by drawing a li ne across the page imme diately above


an d below it The text should continue below it
. When .

the matter is rst put into type the f ootnote will be ,

put in this s ame relative position so that when the pages


,

com e to be made up n o mi stake or con fusion can

ari se as to whi ch f ootnote belongs on the page in question .


PR E PAR ATION OF M AN U SCRIPT FOR PRIN T ER

If ref eren ce numbers are used f or footnotes these should ,

be contin uous on the page but not continuous throughout ,

the chapter Thi s prac tice will permit o f later ins ertions
.

of additional f ootnotes without expense for renum bering ,

the entire series N umber in g o f footno tes is pref erable


.

to the use o f asterisks or other symbols .

If the au thor s n ame is given in the text in connec tion


with a reference to or a quotation from his work , , ,

i t should not be repe ate d in the f ootnote :



This theo ry is ques tio ned by Herb ert as fo llo ws : I cann o t ,

admit, etc .

1
Laws o fthe Ancients , I , 1 53 .

[Autho r s na me is o mi tted ]
It is better to place at the en d of the quotati on rather ,

than be fore it the index gure or symbol which re fers in


,

the text to the footnote (see illustration above) .

T he f ollowin g should be the f orm of ref eren ces in


f ootnotes :
I
C R Henderso n I ndus tri al I n s urance (2 d cd ; Chicago :
. .
, .

The University o f Chicago Pres s p 3 2 1 ; S I Curtis , . . .


,

The Place o f Sacrice B i blical World XX I



,
24 8 E , .

The order o f the details Should be : (I ) author s nam e


,

fo llowed by a comma not a colon ; (2 ) ti tle (if o f a book


'

or periodical und erscored ; if o f an article quoted ) ;


, ,

(3 ) number of edition if desired ; (4) place o f p ublica ,

tion f ollowe d by a colon ; 5) n ame of publi sher an d date


,

o f publication ; (6) reference to volume an d page In .

cas e the ref erence in clud es the volume number i t is ,



better to omit the abbreviations Vol an d p as in .

.

the sec ond example above (see chap v s ec .


,
.
1 62 A M AN UAL FOR WR ITER S

7 . In d e x T he makin g
. of a good in d ex is far m ore
technical an d difcult than many autho rs suppo se T he .

su ccess o f a book may be s aid o f ten to d epend on its


in d ex; certainly the pro per us e o f the b o ok d oes Unless .

the author is f amiliar with the elementary requ irements


o f a go od index it is o f ten d esirable if the b o ok is te ch
, ,

n ical or complicated to h ave the in d e x c ompile d by o n e


,

who mak es a business o f this sort o f work T he pub .

li sher can always d ire ct the autho r to som eone o f this


class .

T he m echan ical wo rk o f compiling an in d ex Shoul d


b e accompli shed by m eans o f card s Pro cure car d s o f
a conven ient siz e an d make one entry on e ach car d
, ,

adding o f course the page number belongin g to the


,

entry T hi s work is d one irrespec tive o fthe alph abetical


.

ord er o f the entries While the car d s are still in the or der
.

in whi ch the work was d one the re f eren ce s should be ,

verie d It is impo rtant that verication sh o uld be d one


.

at this st age sin ce i t results in a large s avin g o f time an d


,

lab o r an d there is m ore li keli hoo d o f d is covering the


,

loss o f a car d o r re f eren ce at this tim e than later when


the card s are arrange d alphabetically When this work .

is completed the card s are arr anged in their alphabetical


,


ord er an d at this stage o f the work those cat ch word s
,
-

the rst o r ind ex word s un der whi ch the s ub


,
-

divisio ns o f the subje c t are arrange d) whi ch are dupli


cate d o n various card s are e rased thus bringin g to gether ,

the various sub


subj ects und er the main subjec t or


wo r d T hese sub subjects are best arr anged with
.
-
PRE PAR ATION OF M AN U SCRIPT F OR PRIN TER I 63

reference to their alphabetical order instead o f the ,

numerical order o f the page re ferences just as the main ,



catch word s
-
are arr anged T he work o f in dexin g
.

should begin as soon as the r st in stalment o f page proo f s -

(see pp 1 7 6 ii ) arrives from the printer


. . .

Cross references are a vi tal element o f a good ind ex


-
.

By this is meant that wherever a catch word can be -

employed to refer the read er to the treatment o f a sub


j ect under some other catch word

it should be -

res orted to F or example if the main subject o f s ay


.
, , ,


M ankind is ind exed und er th at cat ch word

,
the -
,

words Human beings



R ace

People might wi th
,

,

propriety be add ed in their proper alphabetical position ,



f ollowed by the word s : S ee M ankin d In li ke man .

ner if the subje ct Childhood o f M an is to be indexed


,

,

it is o f course pl aced un d er C an d when M is ,


re ached the entry should re ad :
,
M an Chi ldhoo d o f , .

S ee Child hoo d of M an

.

In indexes o f proper n ames an d other simi lar alpha


betical lists the f ollowing rules Shoul d be observe d :
a) N ames beginning wi th M M ac or M e St
, , ,
.
,

Ste whether the following letter is capi taliz ed or not


, ,
"

should be listed as if the prex were spelled M ac Saint , ,

Sai nte thus making it unne cessary for one who consults
,

the index to look in several places to make sure o f


n din g the n ame sou ght :
M achiave lli St Lo uis
.

M acInty re, Hen ry St Vincen t


.

M cIntyre, J ames Sain te B euve


M In ty re, T ho mas

Salt Lake City
M ack
1 64 A M AN UAL FOR W RIT ER S

Compoun d names should be li sted un d er the rst


b)
part of the n ame List the other parts o f the n am es in
.

their respe ctive alphabetical positions an d give a cross


re ference to the rst :
C ampb ell B an n erman , Sir Henry
-

Llo yd G eo rge, David-

Watts Dunto n , Theo do re


-

Geo rge , Llo yd David . S ee Llo yd Geo rge


-
.

the other hand in the case o f hyphenate d n ames


On ,

gratuitously ad opte d as in the case o f marri e d women,

adding the maid en n ame to the married n ame the n ame ,

prece ding the hyphen may be disregard ed an d li stin g ,

S hould be un d er the letter of the true n ame wi th a ,

cross ref eren ce un d er the n am e pre ce di n g the hyphen


-
.

c) N ames with prexes S hould be li sted un d er the

part f ollowing the prex except (i) in English (see b ,

above) ; in F rench when the prex consists o f or


cont ains the article ; (iii) in I t ali an an d Spani sh when the

prex consists simply of the article ; (iv) in D ut ch the ,

V an T en etc bein g always capit aliz e d (see chap iv


, ,
.
,
.
,

sec .
5 note) ; (v) when the prex an d the name are
,

wri tten as one word N aturaliz ed nam es with prexes


.

should be tre ated accor ding to the rules f or the langu age
ad opte d .

Ho mann , vo n ; Lima, d e ; Po n te e Ho rto , da; San to s Pereira


J ardin , do s .

E n glis h: A Becket ; De Quin cey ; De M o rgan ; DIsraeli ;


M acDo nald ; V an B uren .
PREPARATION OF M AN U SCRIPT FOR PRIN T ER 1 65

F ren ch: Du M o ncel ; La R o chefo ucaul d ; Le Sage ; Du Pin ;


Du Bo cage ; but : R o sny, d e ; B o uille, de ; Allard , de .

I tali an and Span is h: La Lumia; La Farina; Lo Gatto ;


but : Farina
da; R io , d el ; To rre, d ella
,
.

Prex compo und ed wi th the n ame: V anderkin de, Zurlauben ,


Dechamb re, Vanderho eck , Delacro ix .

In the case o f the exceptions above note d the rst ,

letter of the prex governs the alphabetical position o f


the name .

d) N ames Spelle d wi th the u mlaut a a u should be , ,

li sted as if the umlaut were Spelle d out ae o e ue: , ,

M ii ller, A .

M ufo la, C .

M uller, B .

e ) h aving two parts or names o f rms co n


N ames , ,

y
(Spani sh) 01 et (F rench)

nected by an d , , ,


(G erman) e (Italian) should be listed accord

un d ,

in g to the rst letter of the n ame pre ceding the connective :


Smi th 81 E vans (und er Gomez y Pin eda (under
Loubet et M euni er (un d er Duncker un d
Humblo t (und er San d ro ne e Vallardi (un der

f) On the subject of cross


ref eren ces see chap viii .
,

p. 1 63 .

What been said appli es to what may be terme d


has
the mechan ical sid e of index m akin g T hi s is all highly
-
.

important o f course ,
But o f far greater importan ce is
.

the intelle ctu al side o f the work for unless thi s is d one ,

in a manner whi ch will make the bookan d every part


1 66 A M AN UAL FOR WRIT ER S

an d subje ct in itre adily an d e asily accessible the us e ,

fuln ess an d consequently the su ccesso i the book itself


will be destro ye d .

Some books an d o f course some subje cts len d them


, ,

selves mo re easily to the work o f ind exing than do others .

In su ch cases the work is co mpar atively simpl e It is .

in the ind exing o f complex an d involved subje cts that


the art of the ind exer is seen at its b est Suppose by .
,

way o f example th at the work o r passage to be ind exe d


,

is o n e covering the several processe s o f colo r printing -

a complex an d intricat e subj ec t If each pro cess is


.

treated separately in the text und er its appropriate


title the work of in dexin g will be co mparati vely e asy
,
.

But if all the various processes are covere d by par a


graphs m or e o r less general an d wi thout special segre
,

gatio n of subje c ts an intelli gent pickin g out f or ind ex


-

, ,

in g o f e ach pr o cess an d of each word which will express


, ,

an y phase o f the subje c t is necessary ,


Without su ch .

discrimin ation a casu al glan ce at the in dex m ay f ail to


in dicate to the read er that some particular bran ch o f
the subje ct on which he is seeking in f ormation is tre ated
at all Supercial in d exing may cause a f ailur e to use
.

the bo o k in the belief that it d oes not cover the sub


,

j ect thou gh all the whi le the inf ormation may be there
,

though un disclose d by the ind ex .

A n in dex unli ke the book i tself can s car cely be too


, ,

prolix or lib eral T he in dex unlike the text is not read


.
, ,
.

It is referred to an d only those catch



,
word s actu ally
nee ded are re ad at an y one time Hen ce every wor d .
PR EPAR ATION OF M AN U SCR IPT F OR PR IN T ER 16 7

which will aid in direc ting the reader to the subje ct he


seeks should appear in the index T o d etermi ne what
.

are su ch word s the compiler Shoul d f requently as k him


,


self : If I mys elf nee d ed in f ormation on this subject ,

what are the word s or sub subjects und er whi ch I



-

mys elf should be likely to look for it in another man s

work T his point o f view will o f ten assist hi m in



covering the need s o f the other man who will use his

work .
C HA PT ER IX

ILLU ST R ATION S

If authors an d tors were better acqu ai nted with


edi

modern method s o f illustrating mu ch more adequ ate ,

an d satisf actory results might be o bt ained .

In considering the subje ct o f illustr ations f or a book ,

the rst qu estion to be d ecid e d is whether the gures


shall be distribute d in the text (see pp 1 5 2 1 8 2 ) or aggre .
,

gated into pl ates Sin ce the d e ci sion o f thi s qu estion has


.

a distin c t bearing on the mechanical mak e u p o f the book -

it shoul d be mad e only in consul tatio n with the printer



or publi sh er If a ro ugh eggshell paper is d esirable
.

for the text o n account o f its lightness an d bulking prop


,

erties ,
only the coarsest o f line d rawings can be use d
unless the illustrations are pu t in as plates
see pp 1 8 2
. while the presence o f n e line d r awin gs
an d h alf ton es in the text requ ires the u s e o f a highly
-

nishe d heavy an d non bulking paper


, ,
-
A d e cision o f .

the questions involved in these d etails can there fore be


mad e only af ter consultation with an expert .

T he pro cess o f engraving on wood was the origin al


an d costly m etho d o f illustr ating books an d magaz ines .

Later the inventi on o f lithography o ff ere d a vastly


,

cheaper metho d which was quickly ad opte d T he


, .

Fo r the fo llo win g chapter o n Illus tratio n s the autho rs are ln

debted to M r A C M cFarlan d general s up erin tendent o f the Un i


. . .
,

vers ity o f Chicago Press .

1 68
ILLUSTR ATION S 1 69

ad vantage o f having gures close to the text they illus


trated was surrend ere d chie y on acc oun t o f the nancial
,

advantage an d partly be cause better effe c ts could be


,

se cure d by the new process M o dern metho ds however .


, ,

have made possible again the use o f the text cu t at the


point where the gure will be o f the most service to the
re ader T here are in scientic works however cases
.
, .

in which plates are pre f erable to the text cuts ; e g . .


,

when a large series o f gures must be be fore the eye


at one time or when some gure must be re ferre d to at
,

many points .

When it has be en determin e d whether text cuts or


plates are to be use d the mo de o f repro du c tion must be
,


sele cte d for it is ne cess ary to adapt the copy for the
,

illustr atio ns to the f orm o f illustration de cide d upon (see


ch ap x p
.
,
.

T he f ollowing forms o f illustrations appe ar in bo o ks


an d magaz ines : (I ) lithogr aphy (2 ) photolitho gr aphy , ,

(3 ) photogravure (4) hal f tone 5 ) z inc an d copper


,
-

etching (6) wax engraving It is purpose d to state the


,
-
.

nature o f e ach o f these its limitations its adaptab ility , ,

to special nee ds an d the requ isites for success ful repro


,

duc tion o f illustr ations by e ach pro cess .

.1 Litho gr aphy While this pro cess was formerly


.

mu ch used for illustrating s cientic works it has been ,

l argely superseded in sin gle color work by pho to litho g -

ra phy . It is still the most satis factory m ethod f or


the reprodu c tion o f obje cts in color although the cost ,

is almost prohib itive F or this re ason i t is being


.
1 70 A M AN UAL F OR WRIT E R S

replace d by the three co lo r hal f tone pro ce ss later - -


(s e c 4

describe d un der the subj ec t o f h al f ton e -
.
,

below) .

Litho graphs are m ade by drawing on sto ne with


c r ayo n o r pen the d esign to b e printe d It requires an .

expert d raf tsman f amiliar with the subje ct in h and


, ,

to make su ch dr awings well an d even the best o f draf ts ,

men may make mistakes an d intro du ce interpretati ons


foreign to the author s design T he poo rer the o rigin al

.

drawin g the gre ater the ch an ces o f error an d the m o re


, ,

the litho graph er has to alter it to make it presentable .

2. Pho tolithography B y this pro cess an exac t repro


.

du c tion o f the original dr awing in one co lor is o btain e d , , ,

enlarge d redu ce d o r o f the sam e siz e as desire d T he


, , , .

pro cess consists o f photogr aphing o n a sensitiz e d pl ate


o f z in c the copy to be re ro du ce d T hi s pl ate is then
p .

treated in su ch a way as to make only the lines o f the


d esign pervio us to acid an d the pl ate is then very slightly
,

etche d F ro m this as many trans fers as may be desire d


.

are taken to the li tho graphi c stone f rom whi ch the print ,

in g is do ne B e cause o f the very slight etching require d


.
,

mu ch ner lines an d d ots m ay be repro du ce d than by


z in c e tchin
g where there is d an ger o f the lo ss o f very
,

n e de t ail .

Copy for repro du ction by thi s pro cess should be


d rawn with black in dia in k on whi te paper or cardboard , ,

an d be made exactly as it i s inten de d to appe ar in its


complete d f orm N o wash or ti nts o f an