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Correlation between microstructure and

mechanical properties of Al-Si diecast engine blocks

Fabio Grosselle, 1Giulio Timelli, 1Franco Bonollo, 2Roberto Molina

Department of Management and Engineering, DTG, University of Padova, Vicenza, Italy
Teksid Aluminum, Carmagnola, Italy

In spite of weight reduction of passenger car, Nel presente lavoro è stata analizzata la Aluminium alloys; EN-AC 46000; High-
the cylinder block is the heaviest component correlazione tra microstruttura e proprietà pressure die-casting; SDAS; Eutectic Si;
among many automotive engine parts and meccaniche di un blocco-motore 4 cilindri Microstructure; Engine block
plays a key role in fuel efficiency and the in linea pressocolato in lega di
drivability of vehicles. In hypoeutectic alluminio. Le proprietà meccaniche sono
aluminium alloys, the final mechanical fortemente influenzate dalle caratteristiche
properties are strictly connected to microstrutturali della lega, quali la
microstructural features such as the distribuzione e le dimensioni della fase α-Al e
distribution, the morphology and dimensions delle particelle di Si eutettico, la presenza di
of primary α -Al phase and eutectic Si intermetallici ricchi in Fe o di eventuali difetti.
particles, as well as, type of iron-bearings La microstruttura dipende, a sua volta, dalla
and defects. The microstructure, in turn, modalità di riempimento dello stampo e dalla
depends on filling process and solidification velocità di solidificazione. I valori più elevati
dynamic. In this work, a HPDC 4-cylinders-in- di UTS e di allungamento a rottura sono stati
line cylinder block was exhaustively analysed ottenuti in zone del getto caratterizzate da
and mechanical properties were correlated to una microstruttura fine, ovvero, per bassi
microstructural features. Mechanical valori di spaziatura dendritica secondaria
properties are affected by microstructure. The (SDAS) e particelle di Si eutettico piccole e
best values of UTS and elongation to fracture compatte. L’elaborazione statistica dei dati
are obtained for low secondary dendrite arm sperimentali ha evidenziato una correlazione
spacing (SDAS) values and small and more di tipo lineare tra UTS e il prodotto tra SDAS,
compact eutectic Si particles. If the combined diametro equivalente e rapporto d’aspetto
effect of α-Al phase and eutectic Si particles delle particelle di Si eutettico, mentre una
is taken into account, a linear correlation funzione di tipo esponenziale ha descritto la
between UTS and product of SDAS, variazione dell’allungamento a rottura,
equivalent diameter and aspect ratio of Si mostrando un’alta sensibilità di tale proprietà
particles is observed, while the elongation to alle caratteristiche microstrutturali.
fracture shows an exponential trend,
suggesting an high sensitivity on
microstructural variation.

Aluminium alloy castings are making a the main contributor to engine mass, in times better than that of cast iron, allows
significant contribution in the construction replacement of cast-iron offers very good engines to deliver more power per cylinder
of modern passenger cars due to the potential to weigh reduction, up to 45% for size [1] due to a better control of local
potential capability in weight and emission gasoline engines. The enhancement in temperatures.
reduction. In particular, the application of power rating owing to the highest thermal For mass produced engines, high-pressure
aluminium alloys to cylinder block, which is conductivity of aluminium alloys, th re e die-casting (HPDC) is widely used for the

2 Metallurgical Science and Technology Vol. 27-2 - Ed. 2009

9. and low cost.24 0. The Al–Si–Fe eutectic composition occurs at about 0. Alloy Al Si Cu Fe Mg Mn Ni Ti Zn Cr When Fe is alloyed to somewhat above this EN-AC 46000 bal. the most In this work a HPDC engine block was alloys are normally used for HPDC process. The engine blocks were cast with Tliq = 585°C.031 level. the molten metal has little or no tendency to dissolve die steel while the two materials are in intimate contact.Fe)3Si2 [1-12]. hypoeutectic secondary Al-Si va rious intermetallic phases. cold fills. common [9]. 1: Illustration of engine block with 6 ingates and the vacuum channels.Ed.16-17]. The addition of Manganese and the high solidification rate in die-casting change the morphology of Fe . The The castings studied we re HPDC 4.8 wt. In defect free components.06 0. oxide phases [1. in presence of defects. Fig. dynamic shot control system and the liquidus temp e ra t u re of the alloy wa s cylinders-in-line (L4) cylinder blocks. such cast with these alloys will be a mixture of Al15(Mn.8 and 1. Chemical composition of the AlSi9Cu3 alloy studied in the present work (wt. to prevent the molten metal from “soldering” Table I. to the casting die.1 wt.8 wt. equivalent to the and eutectic Si particles depend on cooling alloy.% Fe. entrapped air bubbles [4]. 27-2 . The material was an Al–Si eutectic. The presence of Cu.89 0.b e a ring needles or enhance the precipitation of phases which are less harmful than β-phase. Then.10]. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS In the present work. Magnesium. widely used in load- conditions and solidification history [5-8]. c ylinder block and the location of the grey iron liners that resist the attrition of the The Fe content was kept above 0. 2009 Metallurgical Science and Technology 3 .%. Mg and tramp 15]. fracture is US designation A380). The chemical strength (YS) and the ultimate tensile were produced using a cold chamber die- composition. microstructure features of eutectic Si particles. 1 shows the open-deck geometry of the channels. runners and overflows. Thus.037 0. Howeve r. the and defects contribute to the final EN AC-46000–UNI EN 1706 alloy morphology and dimension of primary α-Al mechanical properties of the aluminium (European designation. a secondary AlSi9Cu3 Copper and Zinc determine here the yield gates. Vol. d e fects in indust rial HPDC manufa c t u red elements promotes the formation of other mechanical properties decre a s e parts are shri n ka ge cavities. measured on separa tely strength (UTS). microstructure becomes coarser and boundaries (intergranular mode) for small reducing production costs [2-4].possibility of obtaining net to shape Moving from the wall in contact with the die intermetallic or eutectic Si particles.% iron [18-20]. initiated by cleava ge of either brittle bearing components in automotive field. The castings foundry alloy has been used.97 0. Figure vacuum system connected to the venting determined by means of thermal analysis. most aluminium pre s s u re die caste rs desire that their alloys contain between 0. components of complex geometry and thin to the centre line a very fine porosity-free fracture propagates mainly along grain wall thickness at high production rates.19 0.3 0. the higher iron content of the alloy reduces the solution potential for the iron components of the casting machine and die. is shown in Table I. Copper and Magnesium monotonically with an increase in the area films. Fu rth e r. casting machine equipped with the poured samples. Due to the defects can easily form as consequence of values of SDAS or along cell boundaries comp l exity of the casting shape and filling dynamics and high solidification time (transgranular mode) for large SDAS [13- va riability in process para m ete rs. deteriorates the strength and ductility behaviour of the alloy and promotes the initiation of cracks under load [21]. dross. and for this reason.l i ke correlated to microstructural features. Manganese is also used to p rovide good ejection behaviour and reduced die soldering [22].2 3. lead to the formation of st rengthening fraction of defects as consequence of effect Due to excellent castability along with Al2Cu and Mg2Si pre c i p i tates [1-11] on fra c t u re initiation and pro p a gation good mechanical properties ach i evable while iron pro m otes the formation of [4. the morphology of iro n .%). The β-phase. Al5FeSi. common of which are needle-like β-Al5FeSi analysed and mechanical properties were The microstructure expected in components and angular globules block. as SDAS and the size and the morphology pro-eutectic α-Al dendrites surrounded by Process parameters.

The st rain wa s p a ste and. Vickers micro h a rdness intermetallics we re excluded from the of the castings (Figure 2).2% proof stress). ultimate tensile m i c roscope and a scanning electron startup. specimen were taken. To obtain a profile. Flat tensile test measurements were carried out using loads measurements and further analysis. and 3 mm thick. such as the Mg2Si and engines were then sectioned and several samples cut from the gage sections of flat Al 2Cu particles. a repeatability.2 kgf and a 30-second dwell period. For the features. and the iron-rich blocks were drawn from different locations test bars. with a gage different locations along the cross section secondary dendri te arms along a line length of 30 mm and a width of 10 mm. a n a lysis was carried out using an optical Several castings were scrapped after the actually 0. another analyzer.Ed. which involves tensile specimens we re 100 mm long. When the experimental quantitative ly analyzed using an image stabilize the temperature. The melt was kept at (st rain rate ~10 -3 s-1). The the presence of macrodefects. fi n a l ly. statistical average of the distribution. of the ga ge length we re mechanically pouring. and on the size and aspect ratio of the mass production of the cylinder blocks. p rocessed to provide yield st ress (YS . (Sf). the linear intercept method. At least three specimens were tested dispers i ve spectrometer (EDS). the image analysis was focused temperature. Fig. polished with ~690±10°C in the holding furnace and measured using a 25-mm extensometer. remaining as cast-in inserts into The crosshead speed used was 2 mm/min prepared to a 1-µm finish with diamond the block.m oving pistons. Each tubular liner was The tensile tests were done on a computer The samples cut from the cross section positioned dire c t ly into the die befo re controlled tensile testing machine MTS 810. to monitor the final quality and as SDAS and eutectic Si parameters. and Oil circulation channels in the die served to for each zone. the typical standard normal to the dendrite arms. eve ry maximise the possibility of isolating the aspect ratio (α) is the ratio of the maximum casting was documented with its shot effects of microstructural parameters. according to ASTM-B577. the system in the HPDC machine. 2009 . each measurement throughout the castings. Average SDAS values were obtained using machined from each of the blocks. minimise any effects arising from casting the eutectic silicon particles. 27-2 . Size is defined By means of a dynamic shot control defects on the fracture data and to as the equivalent circle diameter (d). The measurements we re done at eight measuring the distances bet we e n 20 mm wide. The diecast performed on ground and polished secondary phases. Microstructural sleeve and injected into the die cavity. a commercial fine silica slurry fo r was automatically ladled into the shoot Experimental data we re collected and m etallographic invest i gations. bars with rectangular cross section were of 0. such to the minimum Fe rets. To quantify the microstructural machine para m eters including die tensile specimen was tested. injection speed of the melt analysis in this paper. of the sample. The according to the standard ASTM E-384. The other best data differed by more than 5%. 4 Metallurgical Science and Technology Vol. deviation was 5 HV. to reach a quasi-steady-state strength (UTS) and elongation to fracture microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy- temperature in the shot chamber and die. 2: Position from which tensile specimens were machined. Contrary. casting defects do not generally series of at least 10 photographs of each Radiographic inspection was carried out affect YS values in the same way [16]. in order to detect M i c ro h a rdness measurements we re included more than 1000 particles. the average of the on the secondary dendrite arm spacing and lubricant we re selected to enable best values were selected in an attempt to (SDAS).

3: Radiographic image of the bulkhead support phase. a clear dendrite morphology is the inte rd e n d ritic regions and block-like observed. morphology and distribution of eutectic Si Figure 6 where the mean value of d and α particles (Figure 4). High cooling Fig. and microstructure moving from (a) the wall to (b) the distribution of α-Al phase as well as aspect ratio. the l ow cooling ra te. 4: Microstructure in correspondence of a thick in solidification between wall and centre of measurements of eutectic particle size. Fe . 27-2 . especially close to the vacuum line (Figure 3). Differences This is supported by quantita t i ve Fig. 5: Eutectic silicon particles with (a) fibrous and c e n t re of thick sections. The form depends other hand.e. On the the thickest sections. Al2Cu secondary phase and Fe . l i ke α-A l ( M n . It can be noted the changes in the sections re flect upon dimension and terms of equivalent circle diameter d. mixture of aluminium and silicon. Al2Cu phase occurs in the form of globules increase from the wall to the B both pockets of fine eutectic (Al + Al2Cu) in centre due to lower solidification rates. MICROSTRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS The microstructure consists of a primary Fig. equ i valent diameter equ i a xed globular-geometry in wa l l varies from 3. Al2Cu secondary phase and shift in the equilibrium diagram to lower i ro n . solid solution. the decrease decreases from the wall to the centre line of of SDAS) upon the equivalent diameter is the sections.1 to 2. 2009 Metallurgical Science and Technology 5 . α. typical of un. β-phase formation results from low low cooling rates respectively. as well as. in section. in correspondence of the bulkhead supports and undern e a th B liners. entire solidification process and due to the In Figure 7. The dimensions of α-Al seen. Vol. which pro m ote the entrapment and dragging of air bubbles. here. it shows mainly an dendrite cell size. However.l i ke morphology in and the undercooling degree. As regards the morphology of quite pronounced: decreasing dimension of the α-Al phase. are plotted as function of SDAS.b e a ring intermetallics can be also temperatures [23]. This was assured by the vacuum system reducing the gas quantity and. The defects seem to result from local die filling conditions.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION The results of radiographic investigation show a good integrity of the castings and the absence of defects/porosities with critical size for mechanical properties.Cr)Si particles even if the formation of a fine and fibrous eutectic acicular β-Al5FeSi particles are shown in silicon is promoted (Figure 5a). The former is due to high Fi g u re 5 shows the effect of the cooling rate while the latter is consequence solidification rate on the dimension and the of high fraction of Fe-rich intermetallics. therefore the gas entrapment within the die. morphology of eutectic Si particles.b e a ring intermetallic are also observed. α-Al. Decreasing SDAS from 20 to 8 α-Al cells are little branching due to an µm. a small quantity of macroporosity is mostly detected in circular sections or profiles.4 µm with a linear regions and thin wall thickness area. The effect A It is noted that the amount of α-Al phase of increasing cooling rate (i.ri ch particles are nucleation prevails on growing mechanism mainly present in the form of fine blocky- due to an elevated undercooling. while (b) lamellar shape in the zones with high and modified aluminium alloys (Figure 5b).2. rate promotes nucleation of α-phase. The results are shown in centre of the specimen. therefore. Al2Cu particles. the aspect ratio of eutectic Si particles i n c reased undercooling gove rning the also reduces from ~3 to ~2. and an eutectic showing the presence of porosity.Ed. Along nucleating site for Al2Cu and resulting from the wall and in the thin sections. Fe. The tendency. the eutectic Si particles shows a upon the combination of Mn and Cr content typical coarse plate .

oxide inclusions. in turn. The main factors affecting this mechanism are the heat transfer coefficient. Dashed arrows indicate Al2Cu particles In general. while the hard n e s s decreases from 100 to 85 HV by increasing Fig.Cr)Si intermetallic particles. and since its crystals tend to be limited by the (111) faces. This tendency suggests that the effect of the solidification rate.Cr)Si particles are also 4 4 observed in the microstructure (Figure 7). the formation of segregation [25]. A quantitative evaluation of Aspect ratio.Fe.e. On the other general. an equilibrium temperature between liquid alloy and liner is rapidly reached resulting in a lower heat transfer. In location of cast iron liners. the bottom part (i. Equivalent diameter. cold shots are observed within the casting. and ch romium are usually called “sludge”. a fine microstructure with small while solid arrows show α-Al(Mn. especially in underneath liners and in bulkhead supports close to the vacuum line. m a n ganese. α this variation is provided in Figure 8.solidification rate [21]. Common defects of HPDC process.Cr)Si may be primary. Thus. The formation of segregation bands is due to the local collapse of the dendrite network that causes flow of enriched liquid in that zone. such us oxide films. the component shows high mechanical properties suggesting an appropriate hand. 7: Microstructure of die-cast AlSi9Cu3 engine block.Fe. α-Al(Mn. a mean value of 169±8 MPa and defects due to filling process and lower is measured considering all tensile specimens. In resulting in high cooling rate. dimension and morphology of α-Al phase and eutectic Si particles is negligible. bulkhead setting up of the process parameter that limits the formation of defects. the interior flow velocity and the reduced solidification rate. the distance from the edge. it appears as 3 more or less well-formed hexagons [24]. due to their thin thickness (~5 mm). Large blocky-like α-A l ( M n .Ed. where the Vickers micro-hardness is plotted as 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 function of increasing distance from the SDAS (µm) wall. Fig. d rich particles. the increased solidification time promotes the collapse of α-Al dendrites and. These primary phases or comp l ex 3 intermetallic compounds formed with iron. 27-2 . It is expected that 2 high properties are associated to a finer 1 microstructure as result of a re d u c e d tension filed around the eutectic Si and Fe. Segregation bands were detected in the interface between the aluminium alloy and the cast iron liners. as revealed by EDS spectra. 2 The different microstructure as function of the distance from the wall reflects upon mechanical properties. Some examples are given in Figure 9. In high silicon alloys. 2009 . fi b rous eutectic Si and blocky-like Fe intermetallic particle is observed in the top part of the engine TENSILE TESTING blocks as consequence of thin sections Mechanical properties have been measured in different zones of the engine block. The best 6 Metallurgical Science and Technology Vol. α-Al globules. The skin layer is in the range of 250- 500 mm width. as shown in Figure 10. Fe. 6: Average diameter and aspect ratio of the eutectic Si particles as a function of SDAS. supports) shows a coarser microstructure No sensible variations in the YS values have been obtained.

In this 110 case. f (xi) is the A C B Fig.4% 100 re s p e c t i ve ly. The type of correlation has Σ (f(xi) . Conve rsely. Vol. the elongation to fracture decreases n exponentially. (b) porosities and (c) cold shots observed in diecastings.Ed.4% as elongation to fracture.mechanical properties are measured in the regions between cast iron liners. f(xi) is the corresponding experimentally measured value. The coefficient R2 measures the quality of the least-squares fitting to the original data where xi is the discrete variable. 9: (a) Oxide inclusions and films. An 50 0 1000 2000 3000 increased dimension of SDAS. g(xi) is the corresponding calculated value using the and it can be written as follows: regression function. respectively. the mean values and sta n d a rd deviation of UTS and elongation to fracture a re 274±10MPa and 2. 2009 Metallurgical Science and Technology 7 . The best UTS and Sf values have been 70 correlate to the microstructure in order to estimate the influence of α-Al phase and Si particle on the fracture behaviour of the 60 alloy. 27-2 . Figures 11 and 12 show a general d e c rease in UTS and sf values with increasing SDAS or eutectic Si size. Lower values are the consequence of thicker sections along with higher 80 quantity of defects decreasing the mechanical strength of the alloy. While the decrease of UTS is Fig. from 8 to 20 Distance from edge (µm) mm. 8: Vickers microharness measured along the cross section of a specimen.5±0. Standard deviations are given as error bars.f(xi))2 i=1 measured for different regression functions. linear with increasing SDAS values. the zones underneath the liners and bulk-head support show an average value of 236 90 MPa as UTS and of 1. n (1) value of the coefficient of determination R2 Σ (f(xi) .g(xi))2 i=1 been selected on the base of the highest R2 = 1. leads to a reduction of 24% and 70% of UTS and elongation to fracture.

It can be observed that 1 50 UTS 0.5 dependence of UTS and elongation to 250 fracture on SDAS.5 time. 12: UTS and elongation to fracture as function of equivalent diameter of the eutectic Si particles. Fig. the fit is perfect. the calculated R2 is 0.89 describe the variation of UTS and Sf on eutectic Si particles. 10: Segregation bands of eutectic silicon in regions with low solidification rate.8 3. 150 2 A reduction of the mechanical properties is also observed when the size of eutectic Si 1.8%. fracture SDAS (µm) can easily propagate.5 particles increases (Figures 12). 3 The fairly good value of R2 is consequence of the scatter in experimental data related 200 2. thus. 300 4 When R2 = 1.6 2. 11: UTS and elongation to fracture as function of SDAS.9% to 0.4 2.5 this product reflects upon a reduction of 100 UTS and Sf values. This definitively suggests that the elongation to fracture is more sensitive to eutectic Si and SDAS 300 4 values than the UTS. it is reasonable to 3 expect that the UTS and the elongation to f ra c t u re are controlled by a combined 200 2. 8 Metallurgical Science and Technology Vol. d (µm) Fig.5 to the defects which are intrinsic in a HPDC component and. The UTS 100 varies from 281 to 219 MPa and the 1 elongation to fracture decreases from 2.mean value of experimental data and n is the tot al number of experimental points. Since the plastic behaviour of cast 3. By increasing the solidification 50 UTS 0.2 Equivalent diameter. 2009 . coarser Si particles can be observed in the microstructure leading to high tension Sf field around particles. This pro m otes 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 cleavage mechanism and.5 effect of SDAS and eutectic Si features. Figure 13 plots UTS and elongation to fracture as function of the product of SDAS. For both functions describing the 3.83 and an exponential Fig. function with R2=0. 27-2 . The best fitting lines are similar to that of Figure 11: a linear function with R2=0.0 3.5 Sf 0 0 2.5 250 aluminium alloy is influenced by α-Al phase and eutectic Si particles. An increased value of 1.52. thus. difficult to be completely isolated. 150 2 equivalent diameter and aspect ratio of eutectic Si particles. re s p e c t i ve ly.Ed.

2-8. In general.Cr)Si phase. Tech. Transactions. 2009 Metallurgical Science and Technology 9 .026563-2) is gratefully acknowledged for financial support. Mater. Ratio (µm 2) coarser microstructure. R.New Automot i ve components Designed for and bulkhead supports and underneath manufactured by Intelligent processing of light Alloys (NMP-2004-SME 3. Q..W.G. 39 higher defect amount decreased the Metals Res. S.5 150 2 CONCLUSIONS Microstructure and mechanical properties 1.W.. solidification conditions [9] Chen. Correlation mapping of aluminium alloy diecastings. pro m oting fra c t u re [2] Verran. a linear and numeric simulation. 13 (2001).Ed. 200 2. higher fraction of blocky. Z. 98-103 (1998). defects and fatigue strength of a die cast dendrite arm spacing during suggesting an high sensitivity on aluminium alloy: a comparison between solidification Part II: Al-Mg-Si alloys. contract liners.. Talamantes. mainly for the effect of size and 3 morphology of Si particles. Influence Ital. A. formed by large SDAS.l i ke α-Al(Mn. 342. nucleation and propagation. 337- components. S. F. J. Bellingardi.G. [6] Viswanathan. 50 1. between microstructure and mechanical Metal.O.5. Higher solidification time leads to SDAS x Eq. 25-32. 411-417. Roósz.55). 13: UTS and elongation values as function of the combined parameter SDAS x Equivalent plate . A.4. Sci. 26 (2008).. Metall. microstructural variation.. Fatigue 24 (2002). (2004). Porter and B.J.K. diameter x Aspect ratio of eutectic Si particles. F.P.3Cu alloy: experimental results Modeling of Solidification and Porosity eutectic Si is taken into account. 6 (2009). Casting time and composition on the secondary fracture shows an e xponential trend. Influence of injection parameters Sabau. J. Rossi.A. Shari. J. Han.4. Mechanical properties are affected by microstructure.5 high solidification ra tes in Sf correspondence of casting wall and thin 0 0 sections. of SDAS. V.. 17 (2004). 6. Int. in Aluminum Alloy Castings. cooling rate or the local solidification observed. while the elongation to Cavatorta and R. Valtierra. and heat treatment on the microstructure more compact eutectic Si particles. line. 1-9. [7] Rontó. Int. Cast Metals Res. 3. G. J. Quality Tiziani and E. If the combined effect of α-Al and on defects fo rmation in die casting Riemer. and S. Rodríguez. Doglione.. A. Bonollo. especially close to the vacuum n. diameter x Asp.Fe. 27-2 .P.. Cast aluminum alloy. Timelli. as well as. a l l oy st re n g th. standard specimens and production J.5 elongation to fracture ex p o n e n t i a l ly 250 (R2=0. equ i valent diameter and 190–195.A. 332-338. Mendes and M. a low quantity of defects is detected within the castings.l i ke morp h o l o g y. The effect of the aspect ratio of Si particles can be [3] Avalle. W.. A coarser micro stru c t u re along with of aluminium engine block. S. Based on the results obtained in the present study. Int. A fine microstructure is associated to UTS 0. Sci. and A. A small ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS quantity of macroporosity are mostly detected in correspondence of the The European Project Nadia. eutectic Si particles with coarse Fig..D. The best values of UTS and elongation to fracture are obtained REFERENCES for low SDAS values and small and [1] Colás. G. while the 3. G. 4. R. [4] Timelli. the following 1 conclusions can be drawn. The UTS decreases linearly (R2=0. and F.50) with the product. AFS correlation between UTS and product Process Technol. 179 (2006). and F.5 of a HPDC 4-cylinders-in-line cylinder block 100 have been analyzed. Solidification analysis and mechanical pro p e rties of A356 5. [8] Grosselle. [5] Shabestari. M.. of modification. Duncan. properties of Al-Si cast alloys. 2023-2032. J. Bonollo. Della Corte. 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 2.both UTS and elongation to fra c t u re maintain the tendency shown in the 300 4 previous plots. Al12Si1. Skin solidification during Vol. Mater. M.

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