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# Chapter 3

## Modelling of Physical Systems

System Transfer Function

Chapter Objective:
Dynamic modeling
Transfer function (Laplace operator)

Differential Equations

U Y
Plant

In the plant shown, the input u affects the response of the output y.
In general, the dynamics of this response can be described by a
differential equation of the form
+ + + + = + + + +

## Differential equation is linear if coefficients are constants or functions

only of time t.
Linear time-invariant system: if coefficients are constants.
Linear time-varying system: if coefficients are functions of time.

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.2

Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Mechanical Systems Fundamental Law
Translational Systems Torsional Systems
x
f
m T
J
Newtons Law

## is applied force (N), is applied torque, (Nm)

is mass (Kg) is moment of inertia in (Kgm2)
is displacement (m). is displacement in radians
is the angular speed in rad/s

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.3

Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Mechanical Systems Spring
Translational Systems Rotational Systems
x2 x1
1 2

f f

## is tensile force in spring (N), is applied torque on torsional

is spring constant (Nm-1) spring, (Nm)
is torsional spring constant
Important: Note directions and signs (Nm/rad)

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.4

Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Mechanical Systems dampers or dashpots
Translational Systems Rotational Systems
.
x
.
x speed
2 1

1
f f 2

## is force in dashpot (N), is applied torque in torsional

is damping coefficient (Nsm-1) damper, (Nm)
is torsional damping
Important: Note directions and signs coefficient (Nms/rad)

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.5

Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Example: y x

## Derive the differential equation relating

the output displacement to the input A
b K
displacement .

## Free-body diagram at point A, Note: Direction of and

fd A shown assumes they
fs are tensile.

Since m = 0, gives .
Since and
Thus

Or
x is the control variable

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.6

Transfer Function

## The transfer function of a linear time invariant system is defined

as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output (response) to the
Laplace transform of the input (actuating signal), under the
assumption that all initial conditions are zero.

Previous Example by Ky Kx
Assuming zero conditions and taking Laplace transforms of both
sides we have
bsY ( s ) KY ( s ) KX ( s ) Recall Laplace transform proper5es for y

## Transfer Function Y (s) K

G (s)
X (s) bs K
This is a first-order system.

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.7

Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Example:
For the spring-mass-damper system shown on m
xo
the right, derive the transfer function between
the output xo and the input xi.
K b
gives . Note: fs and
Since and fd assumed to
be tensile.
Thus
xi

Or
m xo
And
fs fd
Transfer Function Free-Body diagram

Second-order system
Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.8
Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Electrical Elements Resistance
Capacitance e i R
e i C Laplace Transform

Differentiate w.r.t time

## Taking Laplace Transform Inductance

or e i L
Laplace Transform

Complex impedance Complex impedance

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.9

Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems

## Electrical Circuits- Kirchhoffs Laws

Current Law:
The sum of currents entering a node is equal to that leaving it.

Voltage Law:
The sum algebraic sum of voltage drops around a closed loop is
zero.

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.10

Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Electrical Circuits- Examples
RC circuit: Derive the transfer function for the circuit
shown, No6ce this is not in terms of t
but rather in terms of s (complex variable)!
Using KVL, Laplace transforma6on has
and
ei i C eo
Giving

## A first-order transfer function.

Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.11
Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Electrical Circuits- Examples
RLC circuit: Derive the transfer function for the circuit shown,

Using KVL,

and R L

Giving ei i C eo

## A second-order transfer function.

Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.12
Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Operational Amplifier Properties of an ideal Op Amp

## Gain A is normally very large so that

compared with other values, is
assumed small, approximately equal to
zero.

## The input impedance of the Op Amp is usually very high (assumed

infinity) so that the currents and are very small, assumed zero.
Two basic equation governing the operation of the Op Amp

or
and

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.13

Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Operational Amplifier Example
if Say, C Rf
Zf
Ri
vi ii
Zi
i1=0
- vo Vi - Vo
S
+
+

and .
Then
or Therefore

Therefore

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.14

Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Electro-mechanical System
Ra La
Relevant equations:
b
T
e i Ke J

## For the dc motor, the back emf

is proportional to speed and is
Taking Laplace Transform and yields
given by where is the
voltage constant. The torque
produced is proportional to
Therefore
armature current and is given
by where is the torque
constant.

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.15

Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Thermal Systems
Making use of the followings:
Thermal Capacitance
Rate of energy stored =
where is the heat capacity of the system considered.
Conservation Law

where and are the rate of heat flowing in and out of the system
, respectively.
Thermal conductivity

## where is the thermal resistance of the conducting medium.

Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.16
Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Thermal Systems Example
Consider a well insulated room,
however, with 2 windows of
different sizes and an air- Thermal conductivity
conditioner:
,
Thermal conductivity
Qi1

Qi2
Hence,

Qo

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.17

Hydraulic Systems
Consider the hydraulic Servo system on
the right,
Small displacement causes opening on the
ports to create pressure difference, =
and hence resultant force to push the piston to
move with a displacement .
This spool shaft displacement resulted in
the changing of Areas of the orifices
= = + , and

= =

Reference: =

= = +

= =

= = +

= =

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.18

Hydraulic Systems 2
Assuming the fluid is incompressible,
the net flow rate becomes
= = =

= +

or = +
We can further assume that (by symmetry design),
= , Substitute into the flow equation
+
= +
yields
+ = + = +

Defining
= + for = , 1 2 Or
= = = ,

We have
= + and =
= +

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.19

Hydraulic Systems Taylor Approx
From previous slide, we have

= +
= ,
The relation is non-linear, we try to
linearize using Taylors series
approximation,

Substitute into the flow equation
h.o.t. yields
=
Where are chosen equilibrium point.
=
A choice of = = 0 will yields
=
Where

= =2 >0

= = <0

## Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.20

Hydraulic Systems TF
The is use to produce force to
the viscous friction, i.e.
= +
Substitute this into the flow equation
yields, m

In most cases, is small that it can be
Taking Laplace Transform yields ignored and the transfer function can be
approximated as
+ + =
=
= = =
Where
=