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Chapter 3

Modelling of Physical Systems


System Transfer Function

Chapter Objective:
Dynamic modeling
Transfer function (Laplace operator)

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Differential Equations

U Y
Plant

In the plant shown, the input u affects the response of the output y.
In general, the dynamics of this response can be described by a
differential equation of the form
+ + + + = + + + +

Differential equation is linear if coefficients are constants or functions


only of time t.
Linear time-invariant system: if coefficients are constants.
Linear time-varying system: if coefficients are functions of time.

Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.2


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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Mechanical Systems Fundamental Law
Translational Systems Torsional Systems
x
f
m T
J
Newtons Law

is applied force (N), is applied torque, (Nm)


is mass (Kg) is moment of inertia in (Kgm2)
is displacement (m). is displacement in radians
is the angular speed in rad/s

Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.3


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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Mechanical Systems Spring
Translational Systems Rotational Systems
x2 x1
1 2

f f

Recall Hookes Law: F = -kx

is tensile force in spring (N), is applied torque on torsional


is spring constant (Nm-1) spring, (Nm)
is torsional spring constant
Important: Note directions and signs (Nm/rad)

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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Mechanical Systems dampers or dashpots
Translational Systems Rotational Systems
.
x
.
x speed
2 1

1
f f 2

is force in dashpot (N), is applied torque in torsional


is damping coefficient (Nsm-1) damper, (Nm)
is torsional damping
Important: Note directions and signs coefficient (Nms/rad)

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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Example: y x

Derive the differential equation relating


the output displacement to the input A
b K
displacement .

Free-body diagram at point A, Note: Direction of and


fd A shown assumes they
fs are tensile.


Since m = 0, gives .
Since and
Thus

Or
x is the control variable

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Transfer Function

The transfer function of a linear time invariant system is defined


as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output (response) to the
Laplace transform of the input (actuating signal), under the
assumption that all initial conditions are zero.

Previous Example by Ky Kx
Assuming zero conditions and taking Laplace transforms of both
sides we have
bsY ( s ) KY ( s ) KX ( s ) Recall Laplace transform proper5es for y

Transfer Function Y (s) K


G (s)
X (s) bs K
This is a first-order system.

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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Example:
For the spring-mass-damper system shown on m
xo
the right, derive the transfer function between
the output xo and the input xi.
K b
gives . Note: fs and
Since and fd assumed to
be tensile.
Thus
xi

Or
m xo
And
fs fd
Transfer Function Free-Body diagram

Second-order system
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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Electrical Elements Resistance
Capacitance e i R
e i C Laplace Transform

Differentiate w.r.t time

Taking Laplace Transform Inductance



or e i L
Laplace Transform

Complex impedance Complex impedance

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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems

Electrical Circuits- Kirchhoffs Laws


Current Law:
The sum of currents entering a node is equal to that leaving it.

Voltage Law:
The sum algebraic sum of voltage drops around a closed loop is
zero.

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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Electrical Circuits- Examples
RC circuit: Derive the transfer function for the circuit
shown, No6ce this is not in terms of t
but rather in terms of s (complex variable)!
Using KVL, Laplace transforma6on has
already taken place! R
and
ei i C eo
Giving

A first-order transfer function.


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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Electrical Circuits- Examples
RLC circuit: Derive the transfer function for the circuit shown,

Using KVL,

and R L

Giving ei i C eo

A second-order transfer function.


Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.12
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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Operational Amplifier Properties of an ideal Op Amp

Gain A is normally very large so that


compared with other values, is
assumed small, approximately equal to
zero.

The input impedance of the Op Amp is usually very high (assumed


infinity) so that the currents and are very small, assumed zero.
Two basic equation governing the operation of the Op Amp

or
and

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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Operational Amplifier Example
if Say, C Rf
Zf
Ri
vi ii
Zi
i1=0
- vo Vi - Vo
S
+
+

For the Op Amp, assume We have


and .
Then
or Therefore

Therefore

Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.14


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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Electro-mechanical System
Ra La
Relevant equations:
b
T
e i Ke J

For the dc motor, the back emf


is proportional to speed and is
Taking Laplace Transform and yields
given by where is the
voltage constant. The torque
produced is proportional to
Therefore
armature current and is given
by where is the torque
constant.

Jan-17 ME2142 Feedback Control Systems C3.15


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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Thermal Systems
Making use of the followings:
Thermal Capacitance
Rate of energy stored =
where is the heat capacity of the system considered.
Conservation Law

where and are the rate of heat flowing in and out of the system
, respectively.
Thermal conductivity

where is the thermal resistance of the conducting medium.


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Modelling of Physical Dynamic Systems
Thermal Systems Example
Consider a well insulated room,
however, with 2 windows of
different sizes and an air- Thermal conductivity
conditioner:
,
Thermal conductivity
Qi1

Qi2
Hence,

Qo

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Hydraulic Systems
Consider the hydraulic Servo system on
the right,
Small displacement causes opening on the
ports to create pressure difference, =
and hence resultant force to push the piston to
move with a displacement .
This spool shaft displacement resulted in
the changing of Areas of the orifices
= = + , and

= =

Fluid flow rate through openings,



Reference: =

= = +

= =

= = +

= =

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Hydraulic Systems 2
Assuming the fluid is incompressible,
the net flow rate becomes
= = =


= +

or = +
We can further assume that (by symmetry design),
= , Substitute into the flow equation
+
= +
yields
+ = + = +


Defining
= + for = , 1 2 Or
= = = ,

We have
= + and =
= +

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Hydraulic Systems Taylor Approx
From previous slide, we have

= +
= ,
The relation is non-linear, we try to
linearize using Taylors series
approximation,

Substitute into the flow equation
h.o.t. yields
=
Where are chosen equilibrium point.
=
A choice of = = 0 will yields
=
Where

= =2 >0

= = <0

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Hydraulic Systems TF
The is use to produce force to
accelerate the payload and overcome
the viscous friction, i.e.
= +
Substitute this into the flow equation
yields, m

In most cases, is small that it can be
Taking Laplace Transform yields ignored and the transfer function can be
approximated as
+ + =
=
= = =
Where
=

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The End

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