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This part of combinational circuits consists of the class of circuits based on data transmission and

code converters. These circuits are multiplexers, de multiplexers, decoders, encoders, code

converters etc.

selects binary information from one of many input lines and directs it to a single output line.

There are set of select lines (2m input lines and m select lines)

We have known the term multiplexing it means transmitting large number of information unit

over a smaller number of channels or lines.

n input

Signals

MUX 1 output signal

Select lines

(m)

1:4

Input MUX Output

S1 S0

D0

D1

4 to 1 MUX OUTPUT

D2

D3

S1 S0

Block Diagram

Truth table

S1 S0 Y

0 0 D0

0 1 D1

1 0 D2

1 1 D3

Output expression

= 0 1 0 + 1 1 0 + 2 1 0 + 3 1 0

Note that 4:1 MUX can be implemented using 2 NOT gates, four 3 input AND gates and 4 input

OR gate.

MUX ICs have enable input. Enable input (also called strobe) can be used to cascade two more

MUXs. This signal is active low.

Implementing High Order MUXs: Higher order MUXs can be implemented from lower order

MUXs.

For example 16:1 MUX can be implemented by two 8:1 MUXs or Four 4:1 MUXs

Solution Input are 16 so select lines needed are 24i.e.4 .

The least significant three lines S2, S1& S0 are connected to other MUX. Most significant line S3

is connected to (enable) of MUX-1 while same with inverter is connected to MUX-2

S3 = 1, MUX-2 is selected

Implementing Boolean Function Using MUXs: We have seen MUX consists of set of AND

gates feeding a single output OR gate. We know that any Boolean function can be realized using

AND, OR and NOT functions. Each AND gate can generate min term when number of variables

is equal to number of select lines. 8:1 MUX can generate 23 min- terms.

Number of variables that given MUX can realize can be increased by connecting MUX data

input to 0, 1, variable or complemented variable.

For example a four variable Boolean function can be realized using 8:1 MUX.

Three variable used as select inputs and fourth to MUX data inputs.

the process of taking information from one input and transmitting the same over one of several

outputs.

(n)

2m output

lines

Select lines

(m)

1:4

Input DEMUX Output

S1 S0

D S1 S0 Y3 Y2 Y1 Y0

D 0 0 0 0 0 D

D 0 1 0 0 D 0

D 1 0 0 D 0 0

D 1 1 D 0 0 0

0 = 1 0 .

1 = 1 0 .

2 = 1 0 .

3 = 1 0 .

Circuit can be implemented using 3 input AND gates and two NOT gates

Decoders:

Decoder is like DEMUX but without any data input.

Decoder finds applications in digital display, digital to analog converters and memory

addressing.

A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from n input lines to a

maximum of 2n output lines. Some decoders have enable inputs they are active high.

n-data

inputs 2n

n

2 Decoder possible

outputs

Enable

Inputs

Note that the numbers of outputs are greater than number of inputs.

If the number of inputs of inputs and outputs are equal then it is called converter.

3 To 8 Decoder: It has 3 inputs (A,B and C) and eight outputs (D0 to D7) based on 3 inputs

one of the eight outputs is selected. Truth table is given.

Inputs Outputs

A B C D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 = , 1 = , 2 = , 3 = , 4 = , 5 = , 6 = &

7 =

This decoder can be implemented using 3 NOT gates and eight 3 input AND gates.

TTL IC 7445 is a BCD to decimal decoder/driver. The term driver means that it can operate at a

higher current and voltage limits than normal TTL outputs.

IC 7446 or 7447 used to drive common anode seven segment LED displayed.

Each segment of a typical LED display is rated to operate at 10mA and 2.8V for normal

brightness.

Encoders: A combinational logic circuit that accepts 2n binary inputs and produces n

encoded output values.

They perform a function that is inverse of decoders. Encoders have more inputs than output

variables.

We have already seen binary to octal decoder(3to 8 decoder) accepts 3 bit input code and

activates one of the 8 output lines corresponding to that code.

An octal to binary encoder performs opposite function.It accepts 8 inputs and produces 3 bit

output code corresponding to activated input.

In normal encoder only one input line is high at a time. In Priority Encoder more than one input

line can be high but only the one with high priority will be available.

2n

data inputs

2n

n-data

to n

Output

Encoder

Enable

Code ConvertersCode converter is a logic circuit that changes data from one type of binary

code to another type.

inputs Converter outputs

BCD to binary

Binary to BCD

To convert from binary code A to binary code B, the input lines must supply the bit combination

of elements as per code A and the output lines generate the corresponding bit combination of

code B. It is illustrated through an example.

A B C D w x y z

0 0 0 0 00 11

0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 101

0 0 1 1 0 110

0 1 0 0 0 111

0 1 0 1 10 0 0

0 1 1 0 10 0 1

0 1 1 1 10 10

1 00 0 1 0 1 1

1 00 1 1 1 0 0

Note that Excess-3 code is generated by BCD+0011(310) =Excess 3-code.

Binary to Gray code converter:Figure gives the governing Boolean Equations and logical Gate

diagram for such conversion. Also a diagram indicating bit by bit conversion is also given. This

will be helpful in Problem solving.

B3 B2 B1 B0

+ + +

G3 G2 G1 G0

B3 G3

G3 = B3

B2 G2

G2 = B3 B2

G1 = B2 B1 G1

B1

G0 = B1 B0

B0 G0

Gray to Binary Code Converter: This figure gives the conversion equations and logical gate

diagram. Bit to bit conversion diagram is also given.

G3 G2 G1 G0 Gray

+ + +

B3 B2 B1 B0 Binary

G3 B3

B3 = G3 B2

G2

B2 = B3 G2

B1 = B2 G1 B1

G1

B0 = B1 G0

G0 B0

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