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Apr 03, 2017

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data structures

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data structures

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Email: kr.chowdhary@iitj.ac.in

MBM Engineering College, Jodhpur

kr chowdhary TOC 1/ 13

Introduction

language but reverse is not to detecting those states

true. whose absence does not affect

Larger number of states in FA the language acceptability of

require higher memory and DFA.

computing power. A reduced Automata

An NFA of n states result to consumes lesser memory, and

2n maximum number of states complexity of implementation

in an equivalent DFA, is reduced. This results to

therefore design of DFA is faster execution time, easier to

crucial. analyze.

kr chowdhary TOC 2/ 13

Some definitions

does not exist any q , such indistinguishable with respect

that (q0 , w ) = q , then q is to each other. For example,

unreachable/unaccessible p, q are indistinguishable if

state. (p, w ) = (q, w ) = r Q

Dead state: a, a , q is for all w .

dead state if (q, a) = q and k-equivalence: p, q are

q Q F. kequivalence if:

Reachability: FA M is (q, w ) F (p, w ) F ,

accessible if w , w , and for all w and |w | k;

(q0 , w ) (q, ) for all q Q. written as p k q.

is called reachability If they are equivalent for all k,

relation. then p k. The p q and

Indistinguishable states: Two p k q are equivalent

states are indistinguishable if relations.

kr chowdhary TOC 3/ 13

Minimization Example

q0

0

q2 q4

1 and the state which remains

0 q6

will have in addition, all

1

1 0 1 0

0

incoming transitions from the

q1

1

q3

1

q5

removed state.

0,1

Similarly, the states q0 , q4 are

Finite automata to be minimized

also indistinguishable states,

hence they can also be

q6 has no role, hence it can be

merged. q3 is dead state.

removed.

q1 , q5 are indistinguishable

states because their behavior 0

0

q2

1

states, and can be merged. q5 q3

kr chowdhary TOC 4/ 13

Formalism for minimization

unreachable states: find all states.

reachable states R, the 4 A sequence w is accepted if

non-reachable states are (q, w ) F

Q R.

Indistinguishability is an

equivalence relation. Let p, q, r

R = {q0 }

Q. Let p q, if they are

while p, p R a, a , indistinguishable. So,

and (p, a)

/R

p p; reflexive

{

p q q p; symmetry

R = R (p, a)

p q, q r p r ;

} transitivity, ,

2 Identify and merge of indistinguishablity is an

indistinguishable states. equivalence relation.

kr chowdhary TOC 5/ 13

Formalism for minimization

are said to be equivalent with For a DFA M; x, y are

respect to L (i.e. x L y ), if equivalent with respect to M,

for some z , xy L iff if x, y both drive M from a

yz L. state q0 to same state q ,

L relation is reflexive,

symmetric, and transitive, , (q0 , x) = q and

it is equivalence relation, (q0 , y ) = q ,

which divides the language set , x M y

kr chowdhary TOC 6/ 13

Minimization Example#1

0

0 q1 1

0, 1

q0

q3

1

1

Finite q2

Automata

0

0 0, 1

0, 1 1

[s0] [s1] [s2]

Minimized FA

(2) Indistinguishable states

q1 , q2 are indistinguishable, and q0 , q3 are distinguishable

(3) Reduced automata: The set of distinguishable states are:

[s0 ] = {q0 }, [s1 ] = {q1 , q2 }, [s2 ] = {q3 }.

Start and final states are [s0 ], [s2 ].

kr chowdhary TOC 7/ 13

Minimization Algorithm

Theorem

Let (p, a) = p and (q, a) = q , for a . If p , q are distinguishable

then so are p, q.

Proof.

If p , q are distinguishable by wa then p, q are distinguishable by string

w.

kr chowdhary TOC 8/ 13

Minimization Algorithm(Table Filling Algorithm)

delete Q QR , where QR is set of accessible states.

2 Marking distinguishable states:

- Mark p, q as distinguishable, where p F , q /F

- For all marked pairs p, q and a , if (p, a), (q, a) is already

marked distinguishable then mark p, q as distinguishable.

3 Construct reduced automata:

- Let the set of indistinguishable(equivalent) states be sets [pi ], [qj ], . . .

such that i, j [pi ] [qj ] = and [pi ] [qj ] = QR .

- For each (pi , a) = qj , add an edge from [pi ] to [qj ]

4 Mark the start and final states:

- if q0 [pi ] then mark [pi ] as start state,

- if qf F , then mark [qf ] as final state.

kr chowdhary TOC 9/ 13

Implementation of Table Filling Algorithm

Steps:

1 Let M = (Q, , , s, F ). Remove all the non-reachable states.

2 For p F and q Q F , put x in table at (p, q). This shows that

p, q are distinguishable.

3 If w , such that (p, w ) F and (q, w )

/ F , mark (p, q) as

distinguishable.

4 Recursion rule: if (p, w ) = r , (q, w ) = s, and (r , s) were earlier

proved distinguishable, then mark (p, q) also distinguishable in the

table.

Example: Table Filling algorithm to minimize a FA

0

1

0 1 0

q0 q1 q2 q3

1 1

0 0 1

1 1 0

q4 q5 q6

q7

1 0

q3 is unreachable, so it can be dropped.

Next, we mark the distinguishable states at begin as final and

non-final states. and make their entries in table as

(q2 , q0 ), (q2 , q1 ), (q4 , q2 ), (q5 , q2 ), (q6 , q2 ), (q7 , q2 ) and indicate these

by mark x.

Example: Table Filling algorithm to minimize a FA ...

q1 x

q2 x x

q4 x x

q5 x x x x

q6 x x x x

x

q7 x x x x

q0 q1 q2 q4 q5 q6

are already marked distinguishable, therefore, (q0 , q1 ) are also

distinguishable.

Like this we have filled the table shown above. The unmarked are

indistinguishable states.

Example: Table Filling algorithm to minimize a FA...

1

0 1

{q0, q4} {q1, q7} {q2}

1

0 0

1 1

{q5} 0

{q6}

Only states pairs which are not marked distinguishable are {q0 , q4 }

and {q1 , q7 }. The automata shown in figure above is reduced

automata.

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