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What is a jar test?

 A jar test is a small scale simulation of the process in a

water treatment plant.
Why jar test?

 We may want to see how different chemicals will

perform in that water treatment system
 We are always trying to optimize our chemical
Benefits of jar testing
 Better finished water quality
 Longer filter runs
 Overall prolonged filter life
 Lower chemical costs
Getting started

 Jar testing equipment

 Formulas & conversions
 Observe plant conditions
 Preparing stock solutions
 Preparing worksheet to record results
Equipment needed
 Personal protective equipment
 A paddle stirrer ( 4 or 6 paddles)
 1L or 2L graduated beakers
 10 mL graduated pipets
 1000 mL graduated cylinders
 Weighing scale
 Stop watch
Formulas & conversions
 Be able to calculate;
 Chemical dosages
 Flow rates
 Detention times
 Understand metric conversions & be able to do
conversions from metric to imperial to U.S & vice
Observe plant conditions
 Where are chemicals added?
Observe plant conditions
 What are the speeds of the flocculators?
 What are the shapes of the floculators?
Observe plant conditions
 What is the detention time of each stage of the
treatment system?

DT = volume/flow rate
Detention time
 A rectangular floc chamber is measured 1 meter by 1.5
meters & 2 meters deep
 The raw water flow rate is 10 L/sec
 What is the detention time in minutes?
DT = volume/flow rate
Volume =LxWxH
V= 1m X 1.5m X 2m = 3m = 3000L
Flow rate = 10 L/sec X 60 sec/min = 600 L/min
DT = 3000L/600L/min = 5 minutes
Stock solution preparation
 Polymer Stock solution
 A typical polymer stock solution can be prepared by
mixing 1.0 grams of dry poly with 1000mL of distilled
water. This is a 0.1% strength solution
 Polymer solutions should be mixed using paddles from
jar tester or magnetic stirrer
 Polymer stock solutions must be mixed thoroughly

1000 mL of water = 1000 g of water

1 g(polymer)/1000g = 0.001 = 0.1% solution strength

Stock solution preparation
 Aluminum sulphate stock solution
 Jar tester can be used to mix solution
 These solutions need to mix thoroughly
 1% stock solution can be prepared by adding 15.5 mL of
liquid aluminum sulphate to 1000 mL of distilled water

15.5 mL (liquid alum) X 1.33 g/mL (SG)X 0.485 (48.5%) = 10 g

1000 mL of water = 1000 g

10g/1000g = 0.01 = 1% solution strength

Stock solution preparation
 Potassium permanganate solution
 (Strong Stock Solution)
5 grams potassium permanganate dissolved in 500 mL
distilled water.
 (Test Stock Solution)
1 mL strong stock solution thoroughly mixed in 100 mL
distilled water.

5 00 mL of water = 500g
5g/500g = 0.01 = 1%
1 mL X 0.01 = 0.01 mL/100 mL =0.0001 =
0.01% solution strength
Worksheet preparation
 A form for recording jar test results is important &
should include;
 Raw water conditions
 Record of jar testing procedures
 Have a record kept for each jar
Worksheet preparation
 Raw water parameters recorded at the beginning of a
jar test should depend on the purpose of the jar test.
Some parameters that should be tested can include;
 Total Iron
 Total Manganese
Worksheet Preparation
 Each jar is usually set at different dosage rates
 Accurate notes regarding chemical dosages is key in
performing a good jar test

Jar mL mg/L mL mg/L Turb

poly poly alum alum (NTU)
1 0.25 0.5 4 80
2 0.25 0.5 5 100
3 0.25 0.5 6 120
4 0.25 0.5 7 140
Worksheet preparation
 Characteristics (floc or color)of jars during jar test
should be recorded
 Parameters can be tested after a jar test & should be the
same parameters that were tested on the raw water
Worksheet Preparation
 Record jar test procedures. This should include;
 Record the time that chemicals are added
 Record the speed of the flocculators
 Record the time each flocculator changes speeds
 Record the settling time
Lets do a jar test
Jar test procedure
 All jars during jar test should be treated the same
 The only difference would be the chemical dosage
Jar test results
 Some of the things we would be assessing are;
 Floc formation
 Settled floc
 Maybe same floc formation occurs at lower dosage rates
 Tested parameters
 Aluminum content
Applying results
 Translating results from jar test to treatment plant
 Dosage calculations in treatment plant must be
 Chemical dosage calculations should be done daily