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Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems VOLUME 9, N 3 2015


Submi ed: 17th September 2014; accepted: 10th January 2015

Adam Owczarkowski, Piotr Kozierski, Marcin Lis

DOI: 10.14313/JAMRIS_3-2015/19 to develop control techniques to make many computer

simulations, to check how the system will behave in
the reality. This paper is associated with considera-
tions from [14].
The ar cle presents the inuence of the reac on
Currently, there are many publications related to
wheels on the stability of the bicycle robot. The precise
bicycles and control theory. Given that this problem is
mathema cal model is presented. The robot is treated
very large, the work usually focuses on limited areas
as an inverted pendulum with rigid body physical nature.
of knowledge. Modeling the bicycle has always caused
The mathema cal analysis can be useful to develop con-
trouble and creating a precise mathematical model is
trol techniques, to make many computer simula ons, to
problematic. Works related to the mathematical mod-
check how the system will behave in reality.
eling are [7], [5], [19], [8]. There are papers that take
Keywords: iner a wheel pendulum, reac on wheel, bicy- into account the work of the active damper suspension
cle robot, dynamic model system [3]. Some studies refer to the description of the
dynamics of the bike during acceleration [11]. A large
1. Introduc on proportion of researchers working on the bicycle the-
ory are focused on designing controllers [9], [6]. Some
This article presents the mathematical equations
works describes control methods based on gyroscope-
describing the two wheeled robot with additional sta-
balancing or steering-balancing [15], [10].
bilization unit. The reaction wheel (also called the in-
Publications describing the bicycle with the ly-
ertia wheel) is the rotating mass accelerated by an
wheel are not always associated with the stabilization
electric motor. It can be used to stabilize robots in un-
based on the lywheel. They often refer to the kinetic
stable equilibrium points. Using this system it is pos-
energy recovery system (KERS).
sible to keep the bicycle robot in the vertical position
even if this machine has zero velocity in the horizontal
direction. 2. Dynamic Model
Finding the literature concerning the dynamic The main goal of this article is to present the math-
model of such two wheeled robot is problematic. Usu- ematical model useful to simulate the real machine
ally it is focused on the bicycle differential equations. which would be suf icient to solve the control law sta-
The detailed mathematical model was presented in bilizing it in the vertical pose. This research also takes
[1]. It takes into account many physical effects typi- into account movements in more dif icult conditions
cal for bicycles like: front fork forces, self-stabilization like moving on the inclined plane and moving in an arc.
and gyroscopic effects. It describes results of rider The friction forces are also considered because of their
lean and it takes into consideration the stability anal- great importance especially in rotating mass joint.
ysis. This also includes extensive research about var- Additionally it is important to know Figure 1
ious bicycle con igurations like: controlling bicycle presents the dynamic scheme of the robot. It has four
with a big or small wheels, front-wheel steering and degrees of freedom and three actuators. This makes
rear-wheel steering. Some more detailed informa- this machine underactuated. Many symbols should
tion about dynamics like: tyre modeling, aerodynamic be used to make precise model. Every symbol is de-
forces, suspension and cornering models can be found scribed below.
in [2], [18]. On the other hand it is possible to ind re- x state vector,
sults of reaction wheel studies. The [4] presents the
mathematical model of the monorail tram stabilized x0 initial state vector,
by an inertia wheel. It is focused on the stabilization x1 angle of the robot from the vertical,
unit but it does not take into account the model of two
x2 angular velocity of the robot,
wheel machine. Other works like [12] [17] presents
control law concepts for inertial wheel stabilization x3 rotation angle of the reaction wheel,
and [12], [13] includes global asymptotic stabilization x4 angular velocity of the reaction wheel,
Available works usually are focused on bicycle dy- x5 horizontal movement (bicycle forward or back-
namics or IWP dynamics and never boots at the same ward motion),
time. The approach presented in this article is a combi- x6 horizontal velocity (bicycle forward or back-
nation of these two subjects. This article can be useful ward velocity),

Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems VOLUME 9, N 3 2015

z z
u3 bh mm 3
Th I h I m 3
x7 x1 Tr Tc Thr
u1 bI mm1 mI I rg br
TI I I I m1 rI y COB
x3 mm 2 I m 2
x5 u2 bw
C1 C2
x Fig. 2. The bicycle robot side view
P1 P2
a c hI distance from the ground to the center of mass
b of the inertia,

Fig. 1. The bicycle robot main view hmi distance from the ground to the center of mass
of the i-th motor,
hr distance from the ground to the center of mass
x7 rotation of the steering wheel, of the robot,
x8 angular velocity of the steering wheel, rI radius of the reaction wheel,
u control vector, rw radius of the wheel,
u1 current of the irst motor, rmr1 radius of the rotor of the motor 1,
u2 current of the second motor, P1 , P2 contact points of the wheels with the
u3 current of the third motor,
P3 intersection of the steer axis with the ground on
mf frame weight, the plane de ined by front wheel,
mcover cover weight, C1 center of the rear wheel,
mI reaction wheel weight, C2 center of the front wheel,
mmr1 weight of the rotor of the motor 1, g gravity of the Earth,
mms1 weight of the stator of the motor 1, a distance from a vertical line through the center
mm1 weight of the irst motor, of mass to P1 ,

mm2 weight of the second motor, b wheel base,

c trail,
mm3 weight of the third motor,
head angle,
mr weight of the robot,
angle of inclination of the slope,
II moment of inertia of the reaction wheel,
R radius of the bend,
Ims1 moment of inertia of the stator of the motor
1, kmi i-th motor constant,

Imr1 moment of inertia of the rotor of the motor 1, br coef icient of friction in the robot rotation,
bw coef icient of friction in the robot horizontal
Imi moment of inertia of the i-th motor,
Ih moment of inertia of the handlebar,
bh coef icient of friction in the rotation of the han-
IIg moment of inertia of the reaction wheel relative dlebar,
to the ground, bI coef icient of friction in the rotation of the reac-
If g moment of inertia of the frame relative to the tion wheel,
ground, Fd inclined plane force,
Icoverg moment of inertia of the cover relative to Fw resultant force,
the ground,
Fp pressure force on the ground,
Imgi moment of inertia of the i-th motor relative to
Fg gravitational force,
the ground,
Fbw dissipation force,
Ihg moment of inertia of the handlebar relative to
the ground, Fm2 motor 2 force,
Irg moment of inertia of the robot relative to the Tr robot torque,
ground, TI inertial drive torque,

Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems VOLUME 9, N 3 2015

Tc torque acting on the robot from centrifugal The distance from the ground to the center of mass
force, COM is equal to
Tp torque acting on the robot from the gravity
force, hr = (mf hf + mcover hcover + mI hI
mr (11)
Tbr friction torque in the robot rotation,
mm1 hm1 + mm2 hm2 + mm3 hm3 ).
Thr torque acting on the robot from handlebar
movements, The basic equation with the gravity force acting the
Th handlebar torque,
COM Center Of Mass,
COB Center Of Bend,
Detailed symbol description is necessary to reach
precise model of the robot.
The total weight of the structure is
mr = mf + mcover + mI + mm1 + mm2 + mm3 . (1)
COM x7 u3
It contains every signi icant part that should be taken x
into account. One of the most important elements is
electric motor 1. It accelerates the reaction wheel. The
motor 1 is divided into two components weight of Fig. 3. The bicycle robot top view
the rotor and weight of the stator
robot is
mm1 = mmr1 + mms1 . (2)
Fg = mr ghr . (12)
The same applies to the moment of inertia of the motor
The torque acting on the robot from the gravity is
Im1 = Imr1 + Ims1 . (3) given by
Tp = sin x1 Fp . (13)
The motor 1 has the moment of inertia that can be cal-
culated from the equation The friction torque acting the robot rotation can be
calculated by
mmr1 rmr1
Imr1 = . (4) Tbr = br x2 . (14)
It is important to know the moment of inertia of rotat-
ing mass in the inertial drive system which includes 3. Reac on Wheel Torque
two important parts: the reaction wheel and the rotor The inertial drive torque is created by accelerating
of the motor 1. The moment of inertia of the reaction reaction wheel and is equal to
wheel is equal to
TI = (II + Imr1 )x 4 . (15)
mI rI2
II = . (5)
2 It consists of two moments of intertia both belong
to rotating parts. The differential equation of electric
The irst degree of freedom is the rotation about an
motor 1 is
axis lying on the ground. Every moment of inertia
can be expressed about this axis using the Huygens- km1 u1 bI x4
Steiner theorem: x 4 = . (16)
(II + Imr1 ) (II + Imr1 )
IIg = II + mI h2I , (6)
4. Centrifugal Force
When the bicycle robot circles around some point
Img1 = Im1 + mm1 h2m1 , (7)
(COB) the centrifugal force appears. First of all the ra-
dius of the bend can be calculated by
Img2 = Im2 + mm2 h2m2 , (8)
R= (b tan (/2 x7 ) hr sin x1 )2 + a2 . (17)
Img3 = Im3 + mm3 h2m3 . (9)
Figure 2 and Figure 3 show two views of robot when
Having every distances h it is inevitable to make above it tilts.
calculations. This leads to the most important moment The centrifugal force creates torque acting on the
of inertia in dynamics of the robot, which is robot
mr x26 hr
Irg = If g + Icoverg + IIg + Img1 + Img2 + Img3 . (10) Tc = . (18)

Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems VOLUME 9, N 3 2015

y Fw Fm 2 torque is the bicycle phenomenon which provides to

the self-stabilization. The handlebar torque includes
Fd x additionally the third motor torque
Th = Ts + Tm3 . (28)
Fp The differential equation of the handlebars is given by

x 8 = . (29)
Fig. 4. The bicycle robot top view
7. Full Rota ng Torque
The full rotating torque is given by
5. Climbing
Well prepared mathematical model should de- Tr = Tp + TI + Tc + Tbr + Thr . (30)
scribe the forces in the inclined plane. This situation is
presented in Figure 4. The pressure force is expressed It contains every torque which acts the irst degree of
by freedom of the bicycle robot. Now is possible to ar-
Fp = cos Fg . (19) range the differential equation

The inclined plane force is Tr

x 2 = . (31)
Fd = sin Fg , (20)
The rest derivatives of state variables are equal to
the motor 2 force is
x 1 = x2 , (32)
km2 u2
Fm2 = . (21)
x 3 = x4 , (33)
and the dissipation force is

Fbw = bw x6 . (22) x 5 = x6 , (34)

The resultant force is equal to
x 7 = x8 . (35)
Fw = Fm2 + Fd + Fbw . (23)
8. Results
The equation 23 tells if robot goes up or down the in-
clined plane. The acceleration of the robot is expressed It is important to check if the mathematical model
by is correct. The best way is to make computer simula-
Fw tion.
x 6 = . (24) The system has the following parameters: mf =
1.0k, mcover = 0.1kg, mI = 2.8kg, mmr1 = 0.63kg,
It also includes the 2 mathematical model of the elec-
mms1 = 0.53kg, mm2 = 0.1kg, mm3 = 0.1kg, hf =
tric motor.
0.14m, hcover = 0.14m, hm1 = 0.14m, hI = 0.14m,
hm2 = 0.04m, hm3 = 0.24m, Imr1 = 0.0008kg m2 ,
6. Front Fork Torque Ims1 = 0.0002kg m2 , Im2 = 0.0001kg m2 , Im3 =
The torque acting on the robot from handlebar 0.0001kg m2 , Ih = 0.0001kg m2 , Icoverg = 0.0010kg
movements is m2 , If g = 0.0013kgm2 , rI = 0.08m, rmr1 = 0.0366m,
rw = 0.03m, g = 9.80665 sm2 , a = 0.4m, b = 1.0m,
mr ac sin x7
Thr = . (25) c = 0.03m, = /2rad, km1 = 0.421 NAm , km2 =
0.421 NAm , km3 = 0.121 NAm , br = 0.0013N m s,
The motor 3 torque can be expressed by bw = 0.0022N m s], bh = 0.0002N m s. These
parameters were measured with real parts which will
km3 u3 bh x8
Tm3 = . (26) probably form a new robot based on presented model.
Ih Ih The irst simulation is shown in the Figure 5. The ini-
The torque acting the front fork is equal to tial state is equal to
[ ]
amr x26 (sin )2 cx7 amr g sin x1 x = 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 3.0 0 T . (36)
Ts = 2
b b
amr gc sin cos x7 It means that the whole robot starts from inclined
+ . (27) position and velocity which is not equal to zero. Af-
ter 10 seconds the handlebar angle changes from 0 to
As it can be seen it highly depends on the trail c. This 0.1rad and it creates the centrifugal force. This force
parameter usually ranges from 0.03 to 0.08 m. This changes the position of the equilibrium point and now

Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems VOLUME 9, N 3 2015

x1 [rad]
x1 [rad]
0.5 0.5
0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 0.5
x2 [rad/s]

1 0 2 4 6 8 10

x2 [rad/s]
0 1
1 0
0 5 10 15 20 25
x7 [rad] x4 [rad/s] x3 [rad]

100 1
0 0 2 4 6 8 10

x4 [rad/s] x3 [rad]
0 5 10 15 20 25 0
0 100
0 2 4 6 8 10
100 100
0 5 10 15 20 25
0.1 0
0 0 2 4 6 8 10
0 5 10 15 20 25 5

u1 [A]
i1 [A]

0 0
5 5
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 2 4 6 8 10

Fig. 5. The result of the centrifugal force handlebar Fig. 7. Comparison of the behavior of the robot on the
angle changes from 0 to 0.1rad at ground (solid line, = 0rad) and inclined ground
(dashed line, = 0.79rad)

the robot goes not to inclination x1 = 0rad but x1 =

0.1rad]. Increasing velocity and handlebar angle can based on the principles of rigid body physics. The inal
cause loss of stability. The Figure 6 presents analo- mathematical equations describe a complex system of
gous symulation but in this time the handlebar angle inverted pendulum with reaction wheel.
changes from 0 to 0.2rad. As it can be seen it creates The interesting part is connected with the descrip-
tion of torque acting on the handlebar. It is focused on
the trail parameter and it explains why it is so impor-
x1 [rad]

0 tant in the bicycle construction.
0 5 10 15 20 25 The simulation results show functioning of the
x2 [rad/s]

0 mathematical model. The most important characteris-
0 5 10 15 20 25
tics are shown. The simulations could be very helpful
x4 [rad/s] x3 [rad]

to construct the real machine.
0 5 10 15 20 25
The model does not contain information about the
100 gyroscopic effect due to rotating reaction wheel. In
100 nominal terms it can be negligible, because the angu-
0 5 10 15 20 25
lar velocity of the wheel should tends to zero value.
x7 [rad]

However, wanting a more detailed description of the
0 5 10 15 20 25
5 physical behaviour this effect should be taken into
i1 [A]

0 account. Another ignored factor is the reaction force

0 5 10 15 20 25 from the ground when the robot travels on the rough
surface. Such consideration could be highly interest-
ing wanting to create a high level robot system.
Fig. 6. The result of the centrifugal force handlebar
angle changes from 0 to 0.2rad
x1 [rad]

bigger centrifugal force and the new equilibrium point
is further from x1 = 0. Also the bigger control signal 0 2 4 6 8 10
x2 [rad/s]

is needed this time to maintain the stability. 0
The next simulation shows the behavior of the 1
0 2 4 6 8 10
robot on the inclined ground. The results are in Figure
x4 [rad/s] x3 [rad]


7. 0

The initial state is the same as in the previous 100

0 2 4 6 8 10
simulation. As it can be seen the regulation time is
shorter if the slope is more inclined. The control is less 100
rapid and jerks of the state are smoother. The Figure 8 5
0 2 4 6 8 10
u1 [A]

presents how the system reacts to bigger inclination. 0

This time the stabilization process is much faster and 5
0 2 4 6 8 10
it costs much less energy.

9. Conclusions Fig. 8. Comparison of the behavior of the robot on the

The dynamic model proposed here takes into ac- at ground (solid line, = 0[rad]) and inclined ground
count many detailed parameters. The description is (dashed line, = 1.48[rad])

Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems VOLUME 9, N 3 2015

and Logistics (ICAL), 1620 Aug. 2010, 4348. DOI:

AUTHORS [9] Ji-Hyuk Yang, Sang-Yong Lee, Seuk-Yun Kim,
Adam Owczarkowski Poznan Univer- Young-Sam Lee, Oh-Kyu Kwon, Linear controller
sity of Technology, Institute of Control design for circular motion of unmanned bicycle.
and Information Engineering, ul. Piotrowo In: 2011 11th International Conference on Control
3A street, 60-965 Poznan, Poland, e-mail: Automation and Systems (ICCAS), 2011, 893897.
[10] Keo L., Yamakita M. , Controlling balancer
Piotr Kozierski Poznan University of Technology,
and steering for bicycle stabilization. In:
Institute of Control and Information Engineering, ul.
IROS 2009. IEEE/RSJ International Confer-
Piotrowo 3A street, 60-965 Poznan, Poland, e-mail: pi-
ence on Intelligent Robots and Systems. DOI:
Marcin Lis Poznan University of Technology, In-
stitute of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, ul. [11] Limebeer D.J.N. Sharma A. , The dynamics of
Piotrowo 3A street, 60-965 Poznan, Poland, e-mail: the accelerating bicycle. In: ISCCSP 2008. 3rd In- ternational Symposium on Communications, Con-

Corresponding author trol and Signal Processing, 2008. DOI: 10.1109/IS-
[12] Oaiser N., Iqbal N., Oaiser N., Stabilization of In-
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