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M M B R R W

simulations, to check how the system will behave in

Abstract:

the reality. This paper is associated with considera-

tions from [14].

The ar cle presents the inuence of the reac on

Currently, there are many publications related to

wheels on the stability of the bicycle robot. The precise

bicycles and control theory. Given that this problem is

mathema cal model is presented. The robot is treated

very large, the work usually focuses on limited areas

as an inverted pendulum with rigid body physical nature.

of knowledge. Modeling the bicycle has always caused

The mathema cal analysis can be useful to develop con-

trouble and creating a precise mathematical model is

trol techniques, to make many computer simula ons, to

problematic. Works related to the mathematical mod-

check how the system will behave in reality.

eling are [7], [5], [19], [8]. There are papers that take

Keywords: iner a wheel pendulum, reac on wheel, bicy- into account the work of the active damper suspension

cle robot, dynamic model system [3]. Some studies refer to the description of the

dynamics of the bike during acceleration [11]. A large

1. Introduc on proportion of researchers working on the bicycle the-

ory are focused on designing controllers [9], [6]. Some

This article presents the mathematical equations

works describes control methods based on gyroscope-

describing the two wheeled robot with additional sta-

balancing or steering-balancing [15], [10].

bilization unit. The reaction wheel (also called the in-

Publications describing the bicycle with the ly-

ertia wheel) is the rotating mass accelerated by an

wheel are not always associated with the stabilization

electric motor. It can be used to stabilize robots in un-

based on the lywheel. They often refer to the kinetic

stable equilibrium points. Using this system it is pos-

energy recovery system (KERS).

sible to keep the bicycle robot in the vertical position

even if this machine has zero velocity in the horizontal

direction. 2. Dynamic Model

Finding the literature concerning the dynamic The main goal of this article is to present the math-

model of such two wheeled robot is problematic. Usu- ematical model useful to simulate the real machine

ally it is focused on the bicycle differential equations. which would be suf icient to solve the control law sta-

The detailed mathematical model was presented in bilizing it in the vertical pose. This research also takes

[1]. It takes into account many physical effects typi- into account movements in more dif icult conditions

cal for bicycles like: front fork forces, self-stabilization like moving on the inclined plane and moving in an arc.

and gyroscopic effects. It describes results of rider The friction forces are also considered because of their

lean and it takes into consideration the stability anal- great importance especially in rotating mass joint.

ysis. This also includes extensive research about var- Additionally it is important to know Figure 1

ious bicycle con igurations like: controlling bicycle presents the dynamic scheme of the robot. It has four

with a big or small wheels, front-wheel steering and degrees of freedom and three actuators. This makes

rear-wheel steering. Some more detailed informa- this machine underactuated. Many symbols should

tion about dynamics like: tyre modeling, aerodynamic be used to make precise model. Every symbol is de-

forces, suspension and cornering models can be found scribed below.

in [2], [18]. On the other hand it is possible to ind re- x state vector,

sults of reaction wheel studies. The [4] presents the

mathematical model of the monorail tram stabilized x0 initial state vector,

by an inertia wheel. It is focused on the stabilization x1 angle of the robot from the vertical,

unit but it does not take into account the model of two

x2 angular velocity of the robot,

wheel machine. Other works like [12] [17] presents

control law concepts for inertial wheel stabilization x3 rotation angle of the reaction wheel,

and [12], [13] includes global asymptotic stabilization x4 angular velocity of the reaction wheel,

approach.

Available works usually are focused on bicycle dy- x5 horizontal movement (bicycle forward or back-

namics or IWP dynamics and never boots at the same ward motion),

time. The approach presented in this article is a combi- x6 horizontal velocity (bicycle forward or back-

nation of these two subjects. This article can be useful ward velocity),

3

Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems VOLUME 9, N 3 2015

z z

u3 bh mm 3

Th I h I m 3

x7 x1 Tr Tc Thr

u1 bI mm1 mI I rg br

TI I I I m1 rI y COB

x3 mm 2 I m 2

x5 u2 bw

R

C1 C2

x Fig. 2. The bicycle robot side view

P1 P2

a c hI distance from the ground to the center of mass

b of the inertia,

Fig. 1. The bicycle robot main view hmi distance from the ground to the center of mass

of the i-th motor,

hr distance from the ground to the center of mass

x7 rotation of the steering wheel, of the robot,

x8 angular velocity of the steering wheel, rI radius of the reaction wheel,

u control vector, rw radius of the wheel,

u1 current of the irst motor, rmr1 radius of the rotor of the motor 1,

u2 current of the second motor, P1 , P2 contact points of the wheels with the

ground,

u3 current of the third motor,

P3 intersection of the steer axis with the ground on

mf frame weight, the plane de ined by front wheel,

mcover cover weight, C1 center of the rear wheel,

mI reaction wheel weight, C2 center of the front wheel,

mmr1 weight of the rotor of the motor 1, g gravity of the Earth,

mms1 weight of the stator of the motor 1, a distance from a vertical line through the center

mm1 weight of the irst motor, of mass to P1 ,

c trail,

mm3 weight of the third motor,

head angle,

mr weight of the robot,

angle of inclination of the slope,

II moment of inertia of the reaction wheel,

R radius of the bend,

Ims1 moment of inertia of the stator of the motor

1, kmi i-th motor constant,

Imr1 moment of inertia of the rotor of the motor 1, br coef icient of friction in the robot rotation,

bw coef icient of friction in the robot horizontal

Imi moment of inertia of the i-th motor,

movement,

Ih moment of inertia of the handlebar,

bh coef icient of friction in the rotation of the han-

IIg moment of inertia of the reaction wheel relative dlebar,

to the ground, bI coef icient of friction in the rotation of the reac-

If g moment of inertia of the frame relative to the tion wheel,

ground, Fd inclined plane force,

Icoverg moment of inertia of the cover relative to Fw resultant force,

the ground,

Fp pressure force on the ground,

Imgi moment of inertia of the i-th motor relative to

Fg gravitational force,

the ground,

Fbw dissipation force,

Ihg moment of inertia of the handlebar relative to

the ground, Fm2 motor 2 force,

Irg moment of inertia of the robot relative to the Tr robot torque,

ground, TI inertial drive torque,

4

Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems VOLUME 9, N 3 2015

Tc torque acting on the robot from centrifugal The distance from the ground to the center of mass

force, COM is equal to

Tp torque acting on the robot from the gravity

1

force, hr = (mf hf + mcover hcover + mI hI

mr (11)

Tbr friction torque in the robot rotation,

mm1 hm1 + mm2 hm2 + mm3 hm3 ).

Thr torque acting on the robot from handlebar

movements, The basic equation with the gravity force acting the

Th handlebar torque,

y

COM Center Of Mass,

COB

COB Center Of Bend,

Detailed symbol description is necessary to reach

precise model of the robot.

The total weight of the structure is

R

mr = mf + mcover + mI + mm1 + mm2 + mm3 . (1)

COM x7 u3

It contains every signi icant part that should be taken x

into account. One of the most important elements is

electric motor 1. It accelerates the reaction wheel. The

motor 1 is divided into two components weight of Fig. 3. The bicycle robot top view

the rotor and weight of the stator

robot is

mm1 = mmr1 + mms1 . (2)

Fg = mr ghr . (12)

The same applies to the moment of inertia of the motor

The torque acting on the robot from the gravity is

Im1 = Imr1 + Ims1 . (3) given by

Tp = sin x1 Fp . (13)

The motor 1 has the moment of inertia that can be cal-

culated from the equation The friction torque acting the robot rotation can be

2

calculated by

mmr1 rmr1

Imr1 = . (4) Tbr = br x2 . (14)

2

It is important to know the moment of inertia of rotat-

ing mass in the inertial drive system which includes 3. Reac on Wheel Torque

two important parts: the reaction wheel and the rotor The inertial drive torque is created by accelerating

of the motor 1. The moment of inertia of the reaction reaction wheel and is equal to

wheel is equal to

TI = (II + Imr1 )x 4 . (15)

mI rI2

II = . (5)

2 It consists of two moments of intertia both belong

to rotating parts. The differential equation of electric

The irst degree of freedom is the rotation about an

motor 1 is

axis lying on the ground. Every moment of inertia

can be expressed about this axis using the Huygens- km1 u1 bI x4

Steiner theorem: x 4 = . (16)

(II + Imr1 ) (II + Imr1 )

IIg = II + mI h2I , (6)

4. Centrifugal Force

When the bicycle robot circles around some point

Img1 = Im1 + mm1 h2m1 , (7)

(COB) the centrifugal force appears. First of all the ra-

dius of the bend can be calculated by

Img2 = Im2 + mm2 h2m2 , (8)

R= (b tan (/2 x7 ) hr sin x1 )2 + a2 . (17)

Img3 = Im3 + mm3 h2m3 . (9)

Figure 2 and Figure 3 show two views of robot when

Having every distances h it is inevitable to make above it tilts.

calculations. This leads to the most important moment The centrifugal force creates torque acting on the

of inertia in dynamics of the robot, which is robot

mr x26 hr

Irg = If g + Icoverg + IIg + Img1 + Img2 + Img3 . (10) Tc = . (18)

R

5

Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems VOLUME 9, N 3 2015

the self-stabilization. The handlebar torque includes

Fd x additionally the third motor torque

Fbw

Th = Ts + Tm3 . (28)

Fg

Fp The differential equation of the handlebars is given by

Th

x 8 = . (29)

Ih

Fig. 4. The bicycle robot top view

7. Full Rota ng Torque

The full rotating torque is given by

5. Climbing

Well prepared mathematical model should de- Tr = Tp + TI + Tc + Tbr + Thr . (30)

scribe the forces in the inclined plane. This situation is

presented in Figure 4. The pressure force is expressed It contains every torque which acts the irst degree of

by freedom of the bicycle robot. Now is possible to ar-

Fp = cos Fg . (19) range the differential equation

x 2 = . (31)

Irg

Fd = sin Fg , (20)

The rest derivatives of state variables are equal to

the motor 2 force is

x 1 = x2 , (32)

km2 u2

Fm2 = . (21)

rw

x 3 = x4 , (33)

and the dissipation force is

The resultant force is equal to

x 7 = x8 . (35)

Fw = Fm2 + Fd + Fbw . (23)

8. Results

The equation 23 tells if robot goes up or down the in-

clined plane. The acceleration of the robot is expressed It is important to check if the mathematical model

by is correct. The best way is to make computer simula-

Fw tion.

x 6 = . (24) The system has the following parameters: mf =

mr

1.0k, mcover = 0.1kg, mI = 2.8kg, mmr1 = 0.63kg,

It also includes the 2 mathematical model of the elec-

mms1 = 0.53kg, mm2 = 0.1kg, mm3 = 0.1kg, hf =

tric motor.

0.14m, hcover = 0.14m, hm1 = 0.14m, hI = 0.14m,

hm2 = 0.04m, hm3 = 0.24m, Imr1 = 0.0008kg m2 ,

6. Front Fork Torque Ims1 = 0.0002kg m2 , Im2 = 0.0001kg m2 , Im3 =

The torque acting on the robot from handlebar 0.0001kg m2 , Ih = 0.0001kg m2 , Icoverg = 0.0010kg

movements is m2 , If g = 0.0013kgm2 , rI = 0.08m, rmr1 = 0.0366m,

rw = 0.03m, g = 9.80665 sm2 , a = 0.4m, b = 1.0m,

mr ac sin x7

Thr = . (25) c = 0.03m, = /2rad, km1 = 0.421 NAm , km2 =

b

0.421 NAm , km3 = 0.121 NAm , br = 0.0013N m s,

The motor 3 torque can be expressed by bw = 0.0022N m s], bh = 0.0002N m s. These

parameters were measured with real parts which will

km3 u3 bh x8

Tm3 = . (26) probably form a new robot based on presented model.

Ih Ih The irst simulation is shown in the Figure 5. The ini-

The torque acting the front fork is equal to tial state is equal to

[ ]

amr x26 (sin )2 cx7 amr g sin x1 x = 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 3.0 0 T . (36)

Ts = 2

+

b b

amr gc sin cos x7 It means that the whole robot starts from inclined

+ . (27) position and velocity which is not equal to zero. Af-

b

ter 10 seconds the handlebar angle changes from 0 to

As it can be seen it highly depends on the trail c. This 0.1rad and it creates the centrifugal force. This force

parameter usually ranges from 0.03 to 0.08 m. This changes the position of the equilibrium point and now

6

Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems VOLUME 9, N 3 2015

x1 [rad]

x1 [rad]

0.5 0.5

0 0

0.5

0 5 10 15 20 25 0.5

x2 [rad/s]

1 0 2 4 6 8 10

x2 [rad/s]

0 1

1 0

0 5 10 15 20 25

x7 [rad] x4 [rad/s] x3 [rad]

100 1

0 0 2 4 6 8 10

x4 [rad/s] x3 [rad]

100

100

0 5 10 15 20 25 0

100

0 100

0 2 4 6 8 10

100 100

0 5 10 15 20 25

0.1 0

0.05

100

0 0 2 4 6 8 10

0 5 10 15 20 25 5

u1 [A]

5

i1 [A]

0 0

5 5

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 2 4 6 8 10

Fig. 5. The result of the centrifugal force handlebar Fig. 7. Comparison of the behavior of the robot on the

angle changes from 0 to 0.1rad at ground (solid line, = 0rad) and inclined ground

(dashed line, = 0.79rad)

0.1rad]. Increasing velocity and handlebar angle can based on the principles of rigid body physics. The inal

cause loss of stability. The Figure 6 presents analo- mathematical equations describe a complex system of

gous symulation but in this time the handlebar angle inverted pendulum with reaction wheel.

changes from 0 to 0.2rad. As it can be seen it creates The interesting part is connected with the descrip-

tion of torque acting on the handlebar. It is focused on

the trail parameter and it explains why it is so impor-

x1 [rad]

0.5

0 tant in the bicycle construction.

0.5

0 5 10 15 20 25 The simulation results show functioning of the

x2 [rad/s]

1

0 mathematical model. The most important characteris-

1

0 5 10 15 20 25

tics are shown. The simulations could be very helpful

x4 [rad/s] x3 [rad]

100

0

to construct the real machine.

100

0 5 10 15 20 25

The model does not contain information about the

100 gyroscopic effect due to rotating reaction wheel. In

0

100 nominal terms it can be negligible, because the angu-

0 5 10 15 20 25

lar velocity of the wheel should tends to zero value.

x7 [rad]

0.2

0.1

0

However, wanting a more detailed description of the

0 5 10 15 20 25

5 physical behaviour this effect should be taken into

i1 [A]

5

0 5 10 15 20 25 from the ground when the robot travels on the rough

surface. Such consideration could be highly interest-

ing wanting to create a high level robot system.

Fig. 6. The result of the centrifugal force handlebar

angle changes from 0 to 0.2rad

x1 [rad]

0.5

0

bigger centrifugal force and the new equilibrium point

0.5

is further from x1 = 0. Also the bigger control signal 0 2 4 6 8 10

x2 [rad/s]

1

is needed this time to maintain the stability. 0

The next simulation shows the behavior of the 1

0 2 4 6 8 10

robot on the inclined ground. The results are in Figure

x4 [rad/s] x3 [rad]

100

7. 0

0 2 4 6 8 10

100

simulation. As it can be seen the regulation time is

0

shorter if the slope is more inclined. The control is less 100

rapid and jerks of the state are smoother. The Figure 8 5

0 2 4 6 8 10

u1 [A]

This time the stabilization process is much faster and 5

0 2 4 6 8 10

it costs much less energy.

The dynamic model proposed here takes into ac- at ground (solid line, = 0[rad]) and inclined ground

count many detailed parameters. The description is (dashed line, = 1.48[rad])

7

Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems VOLUME 9, N 3 2015

10.1109/ICAL.2010.5585382.

AUTHORS [9] Ji-Hyuk Yang, Sang-Yong Lee, Seuk-Yun Kim,

Adam Owczarkowski Poznan Univer- Young-Sam Lee, Oh-Kyu Kwon, Linear controller

sity of Technology, Institute of Control design for circular motion of unmanned bicycle.

and Information Engineering, ul. Piotrowo In: 2011 11th International Conference on Control

3A street, 60-965 Poznan, Poland, e-mail: Automation and Systems (ICCAS), 2011, 893897.

adam.j.owczarkowski@doctorate.put.poznan.pl.

[10] Keo L., Yamakita M. , Controlling balancer

Piotr Kozierski Poznan University of Technology,

and steering for bicycle stabilization. In:

Institute of Control and Information Engineering, ul.

IROS 2009. IEEE/RSJ International Confer-

Piotrowo 3A street, 60-965 Poznan, Poland, e-mail: pi-

ence on Intelligent Robots and Systems. DOI:

otr.kozierski@gmail.com.

10.1109/IROS.2009.5353966.

Marcin Lis Poznan University of Technology, In-

stitute of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, ul. [11] Limebeer D.J.N. Sharma A. , The dynamics of

Piotrowo 3A street, 60-965 Poznan, Poland, e-mail: the accelerating bicycle. In: ISCCSP 2008. 3rd In-

mail.dla.studenta@gmail.com. ternational Symposium on Communications, Con-

Corresponding author trol and Signal Processing, 2008. DOI: 10.1109/IS-

CCSP.2008.4537226.

[12] Oaiser N., Iqbal N., Oaiser N., Stabilization of In-

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2010 IEEE International Conference on Automation

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