The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem constrains the possible l
ow-energy and long-distance behaviors
of states which emerge from microscopic lattice Hamiltonia
ns. The theorem dictates that the emer-
gent state cannot be a trivial symmetric insulator if the fill
ing per unit cell is not integral and
if lattice translation symmetry and particle number conser
vation are strictly imposed. Investigat-
ing one-dimensional symmetric gapless states which are for
ced to be critical by the theorem, we
show that the theorem, the absence of a trivial insulator pha
se at non-integral filling, has a very
close connection to quantum anomaly. We further show that, i
n terms of symmetry realizations
on low-energy modes, low-energy spectrum, and anomaly, the
gapless states emergent from lattice
Hamiltonians are equivalent to the boundary theory of the st
rong symmetry-protected topological
phases in one-higher dimensions, where non-local translat
ional symmetry of the lattice is encoded
as some local symmetry. Once a global symmetry is realized in
a non-on-site fashion, the boundary
of the topological phases can be realized in a stand-alone la
ttice model, and the no-go theorem for
the boundary is circumvented, similar to the recent discuss
ions of the half-filled Landau level and
topological insulators. Finally we extend our analysis to t
he higher-dimensional example, the Dirac
semimetal in three spatial dimensions.

© All Rights Reserved

13 views

The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem constrains the possible l
ow-energy and long-distance behaviors
of states which emerge from microscopic lattice Hamiltonia
ns. The theorem dictates that the emer-
gent state cannot be a trivial symmetric insulator if the fill
ing per unit cell is not integral and
if lattice translation symmetry and particle number conser
vation are strictly imposed. Investigat-
ing one-dimensional symmetric gapless states which are for
ced to be critical by the theorem, we
show that the theorem, the absence of a trivial insulator pha
se at non-integral filling, has a very
close connection to quantum anomaly. We further show that, i
n terms of symmetry realizations
on low-energy modes, low-energy spectrum, and anomaly, the
gapless states emergent from lattice
Hamiltonians are equivalent to the boundary theory of the st
rong symmetry-protected topological
phases in one-higher dimensions, where non-local translat
ional symmetry of the lattice is encoded
as some local symmetry. Once a global symmetry is realized in
a non-on-site fashion, the boundary
of the topological phases can be realized in a stand-alone la
ttice model, and the no-go theorem for
the boundary is circumvented, similar to the recent discuss
ions of the half-filled Landau level and
topological insulators. Finally we extend our analysis to t
he higher-dimensional example, the Dirac
semimetal in three spatial dimensions.

© All Rights Reserved

- Laymans Guide to M-Theory [jnl article] - M. Duff (1998) WW.pdf
- On Octonionic Ternary Gauge Theories
- Fogli Standard Model
- Phase Transitions in Field Theories
- Higg Boson
- 15N Fractionation in Infrared-Dark Cloud Cores
- ans4.pdf
- Yngvason Bielefeld Proceedings ArXiv
- ex03-SecondQuantization
- Spin Physics the Basics of Nmr
- Man Zur 2007
- PhysRevD.63.024022
- Distal points for Borel measures
- 1906.10690.pdf
- Spaces_ An Introduction to Real Analysis - Tom L. Lindstrom.pdf
- 1904.02690.pdf
- MIKiS: the Multi-Instrument Kinematic Survey of Galactic G lobular Clusters. I. Velocity dispersion profiles and rotation signals of 11 gl obular clusters 1
- STOCHASTIC MODELING OF MULTIWAVELENGTH VARIABILITY OF THE CLASSICAL BL LAC OBJECT OJ 287 ON TIMESCALES RANGING FROM DECADES TO HOURS
- GPU-searches for broadband extended emission in gravitational waves in nearby energetic core-collapse supernovae
- GALAXY ZOO: MAJOR GALAXY MERGERS ARE NOT A SIGNIFICANT QUENCHING PATHWAY

You are on page 1of 11

School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 02455, Korea and

Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea

Shinsei Ryu

Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080, USA and

James Franck Institute and Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA

(Dated: May 12, 2017)

arXiv:1705.03892v1 [cond-mat.str-el] 10 May 2017

The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem constrains the possible low-energy and long-distance behaviors

of states which emerge from microscopic lattice Hamiltonians. The theorem dictates that the emer-

gent state cannot be a trivial symmetric insulator if the filling per unit cell is not integral and

if lattice translation symmetry and particle number conservation are strictly imposed. Investigat-

ing one-dimensional symmetric gapless states which are forced to be critical by the theorem, we

show that the theorem, the absence of a trivial insulator phase at non-integral filling, has a very

close connection to quantum anomaly. We further show that, in terms of symmetry realizations

on low-energy modes, low-energy spectrum, and anomaly, the gapless states emergent from lattice

Hamiltonians are equivalent to the boundary theory of the strong symmetry-protected topological

phases in one-higher dimensions, where non-local translational symmetry of the lattice is encoded

as some local symmetry. Once a global symmetry is realized in a non-on-site fashion, the boundary

of the topological phases can be realized in a stand-alone lattice model, and the no-go theorem for

the boundary is circumvented, similar to the recent discussions of the half-filled Landau level and

topological insulators. Finally we extend our analysis to the higher-dimensional example, the Dirac

semimetal in three spatial dimensions.

can be described by a conformal field theory.11 (On the

A. Motivations other hand, in higher-dimensions, impossibility of realiz-

ing a trivial gapped state does not necessarily means a

gapless spectrum, as gapped non-trivial topological order

Predicting macroscopic physics from microscopic in- can develop.) We will show that this filling-enforced CFT

formation is one of the most important theoretical prob- emerging from the lattice systems at fractional filling suf-

lems in modern condensed matter physics. In solid state fers from a quantum anomaly. We will reveal this anoma-

systems, electrons are hopping among atoms on lattices, lous structure by twisting boundary conditions and ex-

in a correlated fashion due to Coulomb interactions. hibit the anomaly associated with the theorem. I.e., we

The correlated dancing patterns of electrons at micro- can show

scopic scales result in fascinating emergent phenomena.

E.g., fractionalization and emergent low-energy symme-

try, such as pseudo-Lorentz symmetry. Such emergent Fractionally-filled Lattice Anomaly,

structures are usually difficult to be forseen from the mi-

croscopic physics. In this paper, we attempt to shed some where the fractionally-filled lattice model is enforced to

light on this by showing that certain microscopic infor- be critical due to the HOLSM theorem. It should be

mation manifests as the presence or absence of quantum noted that the condition on the filling in the theorem is

anomaly,13 which has been bringing new insights in var- purely microscopic and high-energy information, while

ious theoretical physics, ranging from string theory, par- the anomaly (which anomaly we are speaking of will

ticle physics, to condensed matter theory. We also un- be clear below)1215 on the right hand side is easily seen

cover the surprising connection between the long-distance at the macroscopic and low-energy field theory lim-

theory emergent from lattice and symmetry-protected its. (However, we note that, though the anomaly is most

topological (SPT) phases,47 which have been extensively clearly seen in the continuum IR limit, the presence or

studied recently. absence of the anomaly is generically expected to be in-

The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem and its general- dependent to the energy scale and interactions.)

izations by Hastings and by Oshikawa (the HOLSM On the other hand, quantum anomalies play an essen-

theorem)811 already hint the (potentially) anomalous tial role in understanding the robust-ness of boundaries

nature of the emergent physics at macroscopic scales. of SPT phases.1218 Although the bulk of SPT phases is

The theorem dictates the absence of a trivial insulator gapped, their edge cannot be trivially gapped while re-

phase respecting lattice translation symmetry and parti- specting all the symmetries of the SPT phases. Such ob-

cle number conservation, if the filling of particle per unit struction on the boundaries are well understood in terms

cell is non-integral. In one spatial dimension, this means of the various quantum anomaly, which can be summa-

2

rized by the following symmetry of the 2d SPT phase. The two CFTs are iden-

tical in that the symmetry actions on the fields are iden-

Boundary of SPTs Anomaly. tical and both the CFTs suffer from the same anomaly.

Hence, using fractionally-filled lattices in which symme-

Such anomaly can be often manifested1217 when the tries do not act on-site, the edge of the 2d SPT can be

boundary conditions are twisted by (or gauging of) realized on a purely 1d lattice; The no-go theorem of

symmetry of SPTs.19,20 Furthermore, the boundary of the boundary of SPT phases can be circumvented.

(strong) SPT phases cannot stand alone without the bulk We will further extend these considerations to the

because of the anomalies, and this is usually called as the 3d Dirac semimetal on the diamond lattice,22,23 which

no-go theorem. should be anomalous and cannot be trivially gapped by

From the above considerations, both lattice models at the generalized HOLSM theorem with non-symmorphic

the fractional filling and boundaries of SPT phases are screw symmetries24 . We will show that the Dirac

anomalous, and fail to realize a trivial insulating ground semimetal suffers from a 3d non-abelian quantum

state. We are thus led to the natural question; Is there anomaly and is holographically dual to the 4d topo-

any connection between these? If there is, what would logical crystalline insulator, where the non-symmorphic

be the precise connection between the two seemingly dis- screw symmetries are replaced by symmorphic rotation

parate systems? If one can assert symmetries. Such a 4d bulk SPT phase provides the nat-

ural understanding of the anomalous nature of the Dirac

Fractionally-filled Lattice = Boundary of SPTs, semimetal via the non-abelian anomaly2528 .

we see that the anomalous nature of the lattice model C. Previous examples

can simply be understood as the anomaly of the corre-

sponding SPT boundaries.

The relation between the filling-enforced gapless (con-

One simple way to establish the connection, i.e., = formal) field theories and the edge of SPT phases, not

between the lattice and the SPTs, is to consider lattice only provides an intuitive understanding of anomalies,

models as the boundaries of various weak SPT phases,21 but also leads to non-trivial information about SPTs and

i.e., stacked 1d topological wires which are protected by lattice models. A similar (the same) cross-fertilization

translational symmetries (see below for more descrip- has recently been discussed in the context of the com-

tions). However, a more interesting possibility would posite Fermi liquid in the half-filled Landau level and its

be to associate fractionally-filled lattice models to strong relation to the boundary of topological insulators.2934

SPT phases which are protected by onsite symmetries. In this example, the low-energy theory of the half-filled

This is the possibility that we pursue in this paper. Landau level is claimed to be the same (in terms of the

parity anomaly, field contents, and symmetry actions) as

that of the surface of 3d topological insulators. Both of

B. Main results these theories contain a dynamical gauge field and a sin-

gle Dirac fermion with the anti-unitary symmetry. The

In this paper, we will find that, for fractionally-filled anti-unitary symmetry looks local in space when acting

lattice models dictated to be non-trivial by the HOLSM on the low-energy fermion fields. This seems against

theorem, their low-energy theory look identical to the the no-go theorem since the Landau level can be con-

edge theory of some strong SPT phase in one-higher di- structed from two-dimensional lattices (with projection

mension. This is seemingly against the no-go theorem to the Landau level). However, the anti-unitary symme-

for the boundaries of strong SPTs, which states that the try in the Landau level, which emerges after the projec-

boundaries cannot exist on their own without the bulk! tion to the lowest Landau level, is local but non-on-site

The trick behind this is that, while symmetries in the at lattice scales (although it acts like a local symmetry

bulk SPT phases are realized on-site, symmetries enter- in the low-energy field theory description).

ing into the corresponding HOLSM theorem are non-on- For other precursors of the current work, discussing

site. For example, we will discuss a 1d lattice model the relationship between SPT phases and the HOLSM

at fractional filling, for which we will show that its low- theorem, see, for example, Refs. 21, 3537. In partic-

energy limit realizes a chiral anomaly (or its proper ular, it is instructive to contrast our work with those

generalization where the axial U (1) is broken to its dis- which deal with weak SPT phases, e.g., Ref. 21. Ref. 21

crete subgroup Z or Zk ). On the other hand, one can find considered (d 1)-dimensional lattice models as the sur-

the same low-energy field theory (including field contents face of d-dimensional weak SPT phases, and then finds

and symmetry actions) and the same chiral anomaly are the classification of possible topological orders respecting

realized at the edge of a 2d SPT phase. In this exam- the translational symmetries from the d-dimensional SPT

ple, the relevant symmetry on the HOLSM side includes index, Hd+1 [Zdtrans G, U (1)]. Here Zdtrans is the transla-

non-local (non-on-site) translation symmetry on the 1d tion symmetry, and G is the on-site symmetry. Through

lattice, which corresponds to a local (on-site) internal the Kunneth formula, it is found that this index for the

3

Lattice Dual SPT Symmetry Anomaly II. 1D LATTICE MODELS AND 2D SPTS

1d fermion 2d QSHE Tr ZSz Chiral

1d spin 2d BQHE Tr Z2,Sz Chiral Here we consider 1d lattice models, which are enforced

2d Half-filled LL 3d TI CT CT Parity

to be critical by the HOLSM theorem, and compare the

low-energy theory of the models to the edge theories of

3d Dirac SM 4d TCI Screw Rotation Non-abelian

2d SPTs. We will find that the lattice model gives rise

TABLE I. Summary of Results. The first column represents exactly to the same effective low-energy theory as the

the lattice models and the second column represents their edge of the SPTs and have the same quantum anomaly,

dual SPTs. The third column represents the symmetries at i.e., a discrete version of chiral anomaly, where the chiral

UV and IR, connected by the arrow, i.e., UV symmetry symmetry is broken from U (1) to Z and its subgroup.

IR symmetry. CT in the second row represents the particle-

hole symmetry, which is realized in a non-on-site fashion in

the Landau level. The IR symmetry CT in the 3d TI is the A. QSHE

on-site time-reversal symmetry. The last column represents

the anomaly associated with the lattice models and SPTs. 1. Bulk QSHE and Topological Pumping

weak SPT can be given in terms of those of the lower- the QSHE, with onsite U (1)Q U (1)Sz symmetry. The 2d

dimensional strong SPTs with on-site symmetry G, i.e., bulk of this SPT phase can be realized on the honeycomb

Hr+1 [G, U (1)] (r < d), which is stacked inside the weak lattice by following Kane and Mele38

SPT. Though this formula helps to understand the in-

r z z (d1rr d2rr )r ,

X X

dex of the weak SPT clearly, this treats the translation H = t r r + i

symmetry physically different from the on-site symme- hr,r i hhr,r ii

try. The anomalous nature of the symmetrically-gapped

phases of the (d1)-dimensional lattice models manifests where r labels the lattice site and r = (cr, , cr, )T a

as the non-trivial indices for this weak SPT phase. On spinful fermion. The Hamiltonian clearly respects the

the other hand, we will consider e.g. the d = 2 SPT case, symmetry U (1)Q U (1)Sz at the ultraviolet (UV) scale

or one-dimensional lattice models, which are forced to be

critical instead of gapped; The translation symmetry in U (1)Q : r ei r ,

the lattice models are interpreted as the on-site symme- U (1)Sz : r eiz /2 r . (1)

try in the strong SPT side. This makes the non-on-site

translation symmetry and on-site global symmetry, e.g., The ground state is simply the combinations of the Chern

charge conservation, of the lattice model to be treated band with Chern number = 1 for spin- electrons and

on an equal footing in the SPT side. Furthermore, the the Chern band with = 1 for spin- electrons. Due

anomalous nature of the lattice models manifests as the to the topological band structure, the bulk exhibits the

proper generalizations of the chiral anomaly, which are QSHE, i.e., the electromagnetic Q -flux carries the spin-

a more historic diagnosis of gapless theories than the Sz density, Sz = 2Q . To clearly demonstrate this, we in-

indices. Currently, the link between the weak SPT in- troduce the two external gauge fields which couple to the

dex and the anomaly discussed in this paper is not ob- conserved charge and spin, i.e., conventional electromag-

vious, and thus clarifying the relationships between the netic field A and spin gauge field B , and integrate

cohomological indices Hd+1 and chiral anomalies in one- out the electrons to find

dimensional lattice models and three-dimensional Dirac 1

semimetals will be an interesting future problem. L= A B . (2)

2

Then the spin density is given by

L 1 Q

Z Z

2

D. Organization of the paper Sz = d x = d2 x ij i Aj = . (3)

B0 2 2

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. We first It is straightforward to check that the charge density is

review briefly the topological pumping of the 2d quan- zero. This pumping effect is robust against any form of

tum spin Hall effect (QSHE) and show the anomalous the symmetry-respecting interactions and disorders be-

nature of the 1d edge of the 2d QSHE. Then we show cause of Laughlins argument.

that the 1d lattice model with spinless fermion at frac-

tional filling suffers from exactly the same anomaly as

the edge of the QSHE and show the duality between 2. Anomaly of Edge of QSHE

1d spinless fermion model and edge of the QSHE. Next

we consider 3d Dirac semimetal as the dual of the 4d We would like to show that the topological spin and

topological crystalline insulator, and then we conclude. charge pumping effect of bulk the QSHE manifests as the

4

anomaly in the edge theory of the QSHE. When the open where we have used Q|0i = 0. On the other hand,

boundary condition along a spatial direction x on the [Q, VQ ] = 0 from the direct computation of the commu-

bulk QSHE is imposed, then gapless edge states emerge, tator. Hence, |Q i does not carry any charge. However,

which can be described by the low-energy Hamiltonian

[Sz , VQ ] = 2Q and this implies that |Q i carries the

Z spin Sz = 2Q . Hence, when Q = 2, the spin quan-

H = dx (x)(ivF x )z (x), (4) tum number of the twisted boundary condition results

Sz = 1 relative to the untwisted sector Q = 0. This

with (x) = ( (x), (x))T . The action of the U (1)Q is precisely the extra spin density appearing in the bulk

U (1)Sz symmetry on the edge mode is identical to that of under the adiabatic flux insertion.

the bulk Eq.(1). It is straightforward to check that there This pumped spin manifests itself when we act ei:Sz :

is no gapping term when the symmetry Eq.(1) is strictly U (1)Sz , [0, 2), on the resulting ground state

imposed on the edge. Hence the gaplessness of the edge

exp i : Sz : |2i = exp(i)|2i, (11)

theory is protected by the symmetry.

In fact, we can see the topological pumping effect as the anomalous phase factor exp(i) 6= 1. The non-

purely in terms of the edge theory Eq.(4) and here we trivial phase factor is the embodiment of the quantum

will reformulate the effect as the quantum anomaly. We anomaly; classically we do not expect the eigenvalue of

need to implement the twist of the boundary condition U (1)Sz of the ground state to be changed by twisting the

by U (1)Q on the circular edge x x + L as boundary condition by U (1)Q 2-flux because 2-flux is

invisible to electrons and U (1)Q commutes with U (1)Sz .

(x) = eiQ (x + L), (5) This anomaly requires the bulk of the QSHE, and thus a

1d lattice model with the on-site U (1)Q U (1)Sz symme-

and label the resulting ground state of this boundary

try cannot have such anomaly and hence cannot realize

condition as |Q i.

the 1d edge of the 2d QSHE. This is commonly known as

We can explicitly construct and study such a state as

no-go theorem. We also note that the anomaly here is

follows. We introduce the bosonized expression for the

the chiral anomaly. The spin Sz corresponds to the axial

boundary theory Eq.(4). We represent ei and

charge, which is pumped by the electromagnetic gauge

ei with the following commutators

flux.

Note that the discussion makes use the bosonization

[ (x ), x (x)] = 2i sgn(), (x x ), (6)

scheme which can treat interactions non-perturbatively

where sgn() = +1 and sgn() = 1. Then the densi- and the criticality remains intact as far as the symme-

ties of and are given by (x) = 2 1

x (x) and try is respected. Thus, the above spin quantum number

1 carried by the twisted boundary conditions remains the

(x) = 2 x (x). We construct the conserved charge

same, independent of the details of interactions, which

and spin number operators

is consistent with the topological pumping argument in

1 bulk of the QSHE.

Q = Q + Q , Sz = (Q Q ), (7) Finally, to facilitate the connection to emergent filling-

2

R R enforced CFT from lattice, we note that the criticality as

from Q = (x)dx and Q = (x)dx. well as the anomalous phase factor of the 1d edge survive

Now we implement the twisted boundary condition by even if we lower U (1)Sz down to ZSz , i.e., instead of

the electromagnetic gauge flux (x) = eiQ (x + U (1)Sz , we can use

L), =, . We can construct the corresponding ground

ZSz : r eiN F z r , N Z, (12)

state |Q i resulting from the boundary condition by re-

quiring which fixes = F in Eq.(11).

(x) eiQ (x + L) |Q i = 0. (8)

B. 1d Spinless Fermion

By the standard operator-state correspondence in

CFT,3941 we can represent such state by We now consider the 1d spinless fermion lattice model

at non-integral filling with the charge conservation U (1)Q

Q

|Q i = lim ei 2 ( ( )( )) |0i. (9) and lattice translation symmetry ZTr ,

X X

H = t (cx cx+1 + h.c.) cx cx , (13)

Now the (relative) quantum number carried by |Q i can x x

Q

i ( ) where U (1)Q ZTr are

be directly read off from the operator VQ e 2

because

U (1)Q : cx ei cx ,

[Q, VQ ]|0i = QVQ |0i = Q|Q i, (10) ZTr : cx cx+1 . (14)

5

Note that ZTr is manifestly a non-onsite symmetry at this where the translation symmetry ZTr , which is a non-on-

UV scale. We can find the ground state with the periodic site symmetry at UV scale, acts as if it is a local on-site

boundary condition cx = eiQ

cx+L by proceeding symmetry on the infrared (IR) field (x) at the CFT

Q =0 limit in which the UV cutoff, i.e., the lattice size, is com-

to the momentum space and fill the single particle states pletely ignored. We can further show that the IR theory

whose energy are below the chemical potential , Eq.(16) with the symmetry Eq.(17) suffers from exactly

Y the same anomaly Eq.(15) as its UV counterpart Eq.(13),

|GS, Q = 0i ck |vaci, i.e., the anomaly is identical at UV and IR scales (see ap-

|k|kF pendix A 2). Furthermore, the anomaly here is also the

chiral anomaly as in the QSHE case.

where |vaci is the Fock vacuum. This ground state is Now we can clearly see that the continuum IR limit

a gapless metal which can be easily seen from the band Eq.(16) with the symmetry U (1)Q ZTr Eq.(17) is iden-

structure of Eq.(13), if the filling = kF / Z. Fur- tical to the edge Eq.(4) of the QSHE with the symmetry

thermore, the HOLSM theorem9 in 1d dictates that if U (1)Q ZSz (upto velocities which are irrelevant details

the translation symmetry Tr and U (1)Q are not broken, to the anomaly). Remarkably, the two theories realize the

then the ground state should be always gapless even in same Z-symmetry actions (or appropriate subgroup of Z

the presence of interactions. Hence it is a filling-enforced if the filling is rational fraction) at the IR limit though

critical state. the symmetry has very different origins at the UV scales.

Can we associate this filling-enforced critical state with In the lattice scale, the translation symmetry is non-local

the quantum anomaly as observed in the edge of the (non-on-site) Eq.(14), but becomes local Eq.(17) in the

QSHE? To investigate this, we follow the anomaly ar- IR scale and matches the onsite spin rotation symmetry

gument of the 1d edge of the QSHE on this 1d system of the edge of the 2d QSHE. Furthermore, the two theo-

by placing it on the ring x x + L. We first construct ries have the same form of the anomaly. Hence this shows

the ground state |GS, Q = 2i resulting from the adi- that the 1d spinless fermion lattice model at fractional

abatic insertion of 2-flux to the system by considering filling realizes the edge of the 2d QSHE by circumventing

the boundary condition cx = eiQ cx+L , and see if the the no-go theorem.

resulting ground state has the different eigenvalue of Tr The above discussion is exactly parallel to the pro-

ZTr than |GS, Q = 0i. By following Oshikawa (see posed dual description of the half-filled Landau level,

appendix A 1 for a brief review), we can show which turns out to be identical to the (dual) low-energy

theory of the 2d boundary of the 3d topological insula-

Tr|GS, Q = 2i = e2i |GS, Q = 2i, (15) tor. In these descriptions, the symmetries of the low-

energy theory is realized differently at the UV scales in

where the nontrivial phase factor e2i 6= 1 at the frac- the two cases, though they look identical in the IR limit.

tional filling

/ Z manifests the anomalous momen- The topological insulator has local time-reversal symme-

tum pumping under the flux threading. Furthermore, try, which is a well-defined local symmetry at the UV

the anomalous phase factor is robust against interactions scale. On the other hand, the half-filled Landau level

(A 1). Hence, the system should be gapless due to the has the particle-hole symmetry, which acts locally in the

anomaly if the symmetries are stricitly imposed. Note IR limit and identically to the time-reversal symmetry

that exactly the same structures Eq.(15) and Eq.(11) of the 3d SPT, and charge conservation. However, the

emerge from the two completely different systems. particle-hole symmetry cannot be encoded locally at the

To further reveal the connection between this 1d lattice UV scale in the half-filled Landau level. Here, inspired by

model and the edge of the QSHE, we now proceed to the the relation between the half-filled Landau level and the

continuum IR limit of the theory Eq.(13) surface of topological insulators, we have provided a con-

Z crete example which circumvents the no-go theorem by

H = dx (x)(ivF x )z (x), (16) deriving the low-energy theory as well as the symmetry

actions at the IR scale from the 1d lattice model and

matching them to those of the 1d edge theory of the 2d

where (x) = (R (x), L (x))T is the low-energy fermion SPT.

field near the Fermi point. The microscopic fermion cx

can be expanded as One may worry that the model Eq.(13) has unneces-

sary symmetry such as mirror or time-reversal symmetry

cx R (x)eikF x + L (x)eikF x . and is restricted to the single-species fermion. In fact, we

can relax such unnecessary symmetry and consider the

The symmetry actions of U (1)Q ZTr within this low- multiple fermion species case, and still show the above

energy theory Eq.(16) can be easily derived result intact (see appendix A 1). Furthermore, the inclu-

sion of the interactions (in the non-perturbative way!),

U (1)Q : (x) ei (x), which turns the free fermion into the Luttinger liquid,

z does not change the result and this confirms that the

ZTr : (x) eikF (x), (17) anomaly has the topological origin.

6

C. Effect of Interaction for all i, j. This implies that bi exp(ili ) are mutually

bosons. We further require bi invariant under U (1) and

Now we elaborate on the non-trivial implication of ZN .42 Then, the condensation of {bi } will gap out the

the duality between the SPT and the 1d model on the gapless modes without breaking symmetry (if there is no

classification of the 2d QSHEs, which is particularly in- spontaneous symmetry breaking due to the condensation,

teresting when the Fermi momentum is commensurate, which should be checked separately). For our system

kF = N

, N = 2, 3, in Eq.(17), i.e., = N1 . In Eq.(18) with symmetries Eq.(19), we can always find a

this case, the translation symmetry, which is Z at the set of li

UV scale, is effectively encoded as ZN at the low-energy

l1 = (+1, 1, +1, 1, , +1, 1),

limit. This corresponds to the 2d QSHEs where the spin

rotation is allowed only by the multiples of the angles l2 = (+1, 1, 1, +1, 0, 0, 0, 0),

F = 2N . l3 = (0, 0, +1, 1, 1, +1, 0, 0),

The non-interacting classification for such QSHEs is

Z because there is no mass term allowed to the theory

Eq.(4) at the quadratic level. However, from the view of lN = (0, 0, 0, 0, + 1, 1, 1, +1),

the lattice system, it is clear that N copies of the system whose condensate does not break any symmetry. This

will be at the integral filling tot = N = 1 and hence proves the breaking down of Z ZN .

can be gapped without breaking U (1)Q ZN . Hence, the This breakdown Z ZN of the classification can be

complete interacting classification of the QSHE should be also implied from the view point of the anomaly Eq.(15).

ZN broken down from Z, which can be explicitly demon- The anomalous phase factor will be absent if we consider

strated by finding appropriate symmetric gapping terms. N -multiples of the original ground state |GS, Q = 2i =

To illustrate this, we consider the following theory i=1,2,N |GS, = N1 , Q = 2ii because

n

Tr|GS, Q = 2i = |GS, Q = 2i,

X

HN = i Ra x Ra La La , (18)

a=1

and hence the N -copy of Eq.(4) is anomaly-free as ex-

T

in which a = (Ra , La ) transform as following pected.

U (1) : a ei a ,

z D. Bosons and Generalizations

ZN : a ei N a . (19)

From the symmetry action, we can confirm that the free The above connection can be generalized to the bosonic

fermion classification for such theory is Z, i.e., Eq.(18) case. For example, we can consider the spin- 12 system,

is always critical, because any charge-conserving back- where the HOLSM theorem dictates the filling-enforced

scattering criticality, and find that it is dual to the 2d bosonic inte-

ger quantum Hall effect with U (1)Q Z2 ,42 where the

H Ra M ab Lb + h.c., translation symmetry in 1d lattice model is identified

with the onsite Z2 symmetry.

is prohibited by ZN . On the other hand, we will show To show this explicitly, we note that the spin- 21 chain

that if n = N in Eq.(18) and interactions are included, at the low-energy is described by

the theory can be gapped without breaking symmetries. v h i

Hence the non-interacting Z classification is breaking H= (x )2 + (x )2 , (23)

4

down to ZN . For this, we use the bosonization formalism,

in which such that [(x), x (x )] = 2i(x x ). The local spin

operator S is represented as

Ra ei2a1 , La ei2a , (20)

S = JR + JL + (1)x n

, (24)

whose kinetic energy is described by

1 h i where {JR , JL } are the ferromagnetic component of

L= (t )T K(x ) (x )T V (x ) . (21) the spin and n is the Neel component. The detailed form

4 of the operators in the bosonized langauge is not impor-

Here K = z z z is a 2N 2N matrix (de- tant below (though they can be found in any standard

termining the canonical commutator) and V determines bosonization textbook). We pay attention, however, to

the velocities. Here = (1 , 2 , 2N )T . To open up how the fields transform under the spin rotation USz (1)

the gap for the modes, we need to find N null vectors42 and translation Tr:

{li Z2N , i = 1, 2, N } such that

USz (1) : + , ,

liT K 1 lj = 0, (22) Tr : + , + . (25)

7

This is nothing but the edge of the Z2 bosonic SPT42 enough) as far as we impose the particle-number con-

enhanced by U (1) if the translation symmetry in the spin servation, time-reversal symmetry, inversion symmetry,

chain is interpreted as Z2 . In parallel to the fermionic and three screw symmetries. Can we understand such

case, we find that both the symmetries Z2 and U (1) are anomalous nature of the Dirac semimetal Eq.(27) by

implemented as the local symmetries in the SPT phase. some sort of the quantum anomaly? We now connect

Hence, the critical theory with U (1)Q Z2 (= Tr) is the anomaly of the Dirac semimetal to that of the 4d

anomalous because it is the edge state of the bosonic SPT SPT, which is closely-related to the non-abelian SU (3)

and this allows us to understand intuitively why the asso- quantum anomaly.25,27

ciated partition function is anomalous, as demonstrated Following our discussion for 1d cases, the anomalous

in Furuya and Oshikawa.35 Furthermore, the discussion nature of the Dirac semimetal should be clearly seen if

here can be straightforwardly generalized to the other 1d we can find an appropriate 4d SPT state whose boundary

chains (whose symmetry contains U (1) subgroup) which theory is the Dirac semimetal. Here the natural candi-

are critical due to the HOLSM theorem. date for the bulk 4d SPT state is a 4d topological crys-

talline insulator state, where the symmetry actions on

the boundary match those of the Dirac semimetal. Here,

E. Without U(1) symmetry we will show that the nonsymmorphic screw symmetry

on the Dirac semimetal is replaced by symmorphic rota-

Here we will consider a case without the continuous tion symmetry in the bulk topological crystalline insula-

U (1) symmetry for the spin chain. Instead we will con- tor because the wavelength of the low-energy field in

sider the case of Z2 ZT2 in which Z2 is the translation Eq.(27) is much larger than the unit cell and thus the

symmetry Eq.(25). On the other hand, the time-reversal translation part in the nonsymmorphic symmetry is ef-

symmetry is encoded as fectively invisible to . The 4d topological crystalline

insulator is a generalization of the 4d topological band

ZT2 : , + . (26) insulator27,43 with the three symmorphic four-fold rota-

tions C4a , a = x, y, z, inversion P, and time-reversal sym-

Microscopically, this corresponds to the extension of the metry T ,

HOLSM theorem where we have a Kramers doublet per

3

unit cell, which is expected to give rise the gapless ground X

state24 . We can straightforwardly confirm that this is in H = I33 F0 (k) 0 + z Fi (k) i + F4 (k) 4 ,

i=1

fact the boundary of the bosonic (2+1)d SPT42 with the

(28)

symmetry Z2 ZT2 and must be gapless. In accordance

with the previous examples, here the translation sym- where the functions Fa are derived from the lattice tight-

metry is encoded as the on-site symmetry when we map binding model in 4d space (x, y, z, w)

the one-dimensional lattice to the edge of the SPT state.

This theory must be anomalous which can be manifested 4

X

by considering the non-orientable spacetime, e.g., cross- F0 (k) = m + 2c cos(ki ),

cap state.1214 i=1

Fi (k) = sin(ki ), i = 1, 2, 3, 4. (29)

0 = x 0 , i = z i , 4 = y 0 . (30)

In the light of the 1d cases and the HOLSM theo-

rem, we now consider a filling-enforced critical state in This topological crystalline insulator has the boundary

3d, i.e., Dirac semimetal on the diamond lattice.2224 theory, which has exactly the same form of the low-

The Dirac semimetal is a critical state protected by the energy theory Eq.(27) as well as the symmetry actions

three non-symmorphic screw symmetry S4a , a = x, y, z (see appendix B 3). Now because the boundary of the

(the fractional translation followed the four-fold rota- SPT cannot have a trivial symmetric insulator phase, the

tion), charge conservation U (1), inversion symmetry P Dirac semimetal cannot have a trivial symmetric insula-

and time-reversal symmetry T . The tight-binding model tor phase, which is consistent with the HOLSM theorem.

on the Diamond lattice gives rise the three Dirac fermions With this mapping in hand, we now shed the light on

the connection of the Dirac semimetal to the SU (3) quan-

H = k I33 z k k . (27) tum anomaly. We first notice that the discrete lattice

symmetries with time-reversal and inversion symmetries

The detailed forms of the symmetry actions, which are lead to the emergent SU (3) symmetric theory Eq.(27) at

not important in the following discussion, can be found low energies, which has flavor SU (3)R SU (3)L symme-

in the appendix B 1. Now the generalized HOLSM the- try. Of course, the symmetry-respecting quartic correc-

orem dictates that the theoy Eq.(27) remains critical tions to Eq.(27) lowers the symmetry explicitly down to

(or topologically-degenerate if the interactions are strong the discrete symmetries of the diamond lattice, but they

8

are irrelevant in the sense of the renormalization group became aware of the work by Jian, Bi, and Xu,47 in which

at the Gaussian fixed point Eq.(27). Such an SU (3)- the similar consideration is made.

symmetric theory is known to suffer from the non-abelian

anomaly, where the symmetry cannot be gauged consis-

tently. This anomaly then implies that a symmetric in- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

sulator phase, where the symmetry can be gauged con-

sistently at the lowest energy, cannot be reached from Authors thank helpful discussion for Takahiro Mori-

Eq.(27). In fact, to have a consistent gauge-invariant moto, Eun-Gook Moon, and Sungbin Lee and acknowl-

theory,25 we need to supplement the theory with the 4d edge the financial supports from the National Science

bulk system,25,27 which cancels exactly the anomaly of Foundation grant DMR-1455296 (S.R.), Brain Korea 21

Eq.(27). In our identification of the Dirac semimetal as PLUS Project of the Korea government (G.Y.C.) and

the boundary of the 4d SPTs, the desired 4d bulk sys- NRF of Korea under Grant No. 2016R1A5A1008184

tem is the topological crystalline insulator that we have (G.Y.C.). G.Y.C. also acknowledges the support from

constructed above. Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS) grant funded

by the Korea government (MSIP).

Appendix A: Anomalous Momentum Pumping in

We show that filling-enfoced criticality by the HOLSM 1d Lattice

theorem is manifested as the quantum anomaly, and

hence reveal the connection between the theorem and 1. Lattice Calculation

anomaly. We further connect the anomaly of the CFT

emerging from lattice to that of the SPTs, where the no- In this appendix, we re-interpret Oshikawas proof of

go theorem for the boundary of the SPTs is circumvented. the Luttinger theorem.9 Imagine a 1d lattice model put

Our main results are summarized in the table I. Thus we on a circle x x + L. Then to see the pumping of the

clarify the relations between the HOLSM theorem, quan- momentum, we compare the two ground states, |0 i be-

tum anomaly, and SPT phases. Such connection is not

fore threading any flux and another state |2 i, resulting

only interesting itself but brings several non-trivial im- insert the 2-flux adiabatically. The ground state

|2 i

plications on interacting classifications of SPTs, and new 2

H

is the state with the gauge Ax = L so that Ax dx = 2,

insights on the origin of anomalous nature of the lattice and the momentum is measured by the traslation sym-

systems at non-integral fillings and Dirac semimetals. metry operator Tx = exp(iPx ) with Px being the total

We now comment on the potential extensions to our momentum operator.

work. First of all, our work suggests that the bound- We first note that, while inserting the flux adiabati-

ary of the SPTs can stand alone without the bulk if cally, the momentum, which is not broken, is expected

the symmetries are encoded differently than the bulk of to be conserved, i.e.,

strong SPTs at UV scales. In particular, the edge of

the SPTs with onsite symmetries, e.g., the QSHE, can Px |0 i = Px0 |0 i,

be realized from the non-onsite symmetry, translation.

Px |2

i = Px0 |2

i.

However, there are alot of other non-onsite symmetries

available in lattice such as mirror and inversion. It would

This seems to imply that the momentum is not pumped

be interesting to search for the lattice models with these

under the adiabatic insertion of the flux. However, we

non-onsite symmetries which can realize the boundaires

note that the momentum is gauge-dependent quantity,

of 10-fold topological insulators and superconductors and

and hence we need to perform the gauge transformation

investigate the implications of the interacting classifica-

back to the original gauge to compare the momentum

tion tables of the SPTs on lattice systems. Secondly,

correctly. The gauge transformation that we need to

though we have concentrated only on the critical states,

perform is given by U = exp( 2i

R

L dx xn x ). Hence the

another possible form of the boundary of the SPT is the

state with the 2-flux in the original gauge is given by

topological order. Such topological order cannot stand

|2 i = U |2 i. Then we find

alone and should be accompanied by the bulk of SPTs

to be consistent. We can ask if we can circumvent the 0

no-go theorem for such topological order and realize such Tx |0 i = eiPx |0 i,

0

topological order on lattice system. For example, we can Tx |2 i = ei(Px +2) |2 i,

ask if R2x = 1 (reflection) for spinon and vison (which

is the surface topological order of topological crystalline which clearly exhibits the momentum pumping by 2.

insulator and hence cannot be realized purely in 2d)44 Note that here we do not assume any of the spectrum, or

can be realized in 2d lattice system by replacing R with structure of the fermions. Hence the momentum pump-

some nonsymmorphic glide symmetry45,46 . ing under the flux insertion should be independent of any

- Note Added : After the completion of the work, we microscopic details.

9

matrix acting on the sublattice index. There are three

The continuum calculation of the anomalous momen- Dirac points in momentum space, X a , a = 1, 2, 3 such

tum pumping starts from the low-energy Hamiltonian that X 1 = (2, 0, 0), X 2 = (0, 2, 0), X 3 = (0, 0, 2). By

Eq.(16) and symmetry Eq.(17). In the low-energy, the performing expansion near the points, we find the low-

twisted ground state is represented by energy theory

H[X 2 ]q = z (qz y qx z ) qy x ,

Under acting of the translation symmetry operator

H[X 3 ]q = z (qx y qy z ) qz x . (B5)

R/L R/L kF , we find that |2i ei2kF |2i =

e2i |2i, which matches the anomalous momentum We embed these

P three Dirac fermions into a single 1212

pumping of the lattice calculation. matrix, H = q q Hq q , with

H[X 1 ]q 0 0

Appendix B: Dirac Semimetal Hq =

0 H[X 2 ]q 0

(B6)

0 0 H[X 3 ]q

1. From Lattice to Continuum

Now we specify the symmetry actions. The symmetries

We first start with the lattice model Hamiltonian de- that we are interested in are the three screw symmetries

fined on the diamond lattice. The nearest neighbors of S4a , a = x, y, z inversion P, and the time-reversal symme-

the sites in the diamond lattice are connected by the four try T .

following vectors, First of all, the time-reversal and inversion symmetries

are diagonal in the flavor space, i.e., they do not mix

1 different X a points.

a

1 = (1, 1, 1),

4

1 T : q i y z I33 Kq , KiK = i,

a

2 = (1, 1, 1),

4 P : q y I33 q , (B7)

1

a

3 = (1, 1, 1), leaving the Hamiltonian invariant, i.e.,

4

1 T : (i y z I33 )Hq (i y z I33 ) = Hq ,

4 = (1, 1, 1),

a (B1)

4 P : ( y I33 )Hq ( y I33 ) = Hq . (B8)

and there are two sites per unit cell. Then the lattice

Hamiltonian is given by Secondly, the three screw rotations mix the different

X X a points. We define Va = x exp(i 4 a ). Then the three

H =t cr, cr , screw rotations S4a : Hq a Hq a with q = C4a [q] (the

hr,r i map of q under the four-fold rotation C4a around the a-

axis) are specified by the following matrices.

d~1 d~2 ] cr , .

X

+ i cr, [ (B2)

hhr,r ii Vx 0 0

x = 0 0 Vx ,

Performing the Fourier transformation, we obtain

X 0 Vx z 0

H = z( fa (k) a ) + GR (k) x + GI (k) y , (B3)

a=1,2,3

0 0 Vy z

y = 0 Vy 0 ,

where the functions are given by Vy 0 0

kx ky kz

f1 (k) = sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) , 0 Vz 0

2 2 2 z = Vz z 0 0 ,

(B9)

ky kz kx 0 0 Vz

f2 (k) = sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) ,

2 2 2

kz

kx ky

where S4a clearly mixes the different Dirac points.

f3 (k) = sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) ,

2 2 2

kx ky kz 2. Chiral Basis

GR (k) = cos( ) cos( ) cos( ),

4 4 4

kx ky kz We now proceed to the chiral basis for the Dirac

GI (k) = sin( ) sin( ) sin( ), (B4)

4 4 4 semimetal to fercilitate to construct the 4d topological

10

the chiral basis, we find that the Dirac semimetal can be Insulator

described as

We now attempt to construct the 4d topological crys-

H = k z k I33 k , (B10) talline insulators whose 3d boundary realizes the the

Dirac semimetal in the chiral basis. The building block

where the inversion and time-reversal symmetry actions for the construction is the 4d topological band insulator

are

X

P : k y k , H= Fa (k) a , (B16)

a=0,1,4

T : k i y z Kk . (B11)

On the other hand, the three screw rotations S4a : q where the functions Fa are derived from the lattice tight-

a q , a = x, y, z with q = C4a [q] are represented by the binding model in 4d space (x, y, z, w)

following matrices a with Ua = z exp(i a ).

4

4

X

Ux 0 0 F0 (k) = m + 2c cos(ki ),

x = 0 0 Ux ,

i=1

0 0 Uy z The a is the gamma matrices

y = 0 Uy 0 .

Uy 0 0 0 = x 0 , i = z i , 4 = y 0 . (B18)

0 Uz 0

z = Uz z 0 0 .

(B12) The (4+1)d spacetime is parametrized by the coordinates

(t, x, y, z, w), and having a spatial boundary in w = 0

0 0 Uz

for the 4d topological insulator Hamiltonian generates a

single chiral fermion

These can be easily derived from the unitary matrix con-

necting the Hamiltonian Hq in Eq.(B6) to the chiral ba-

sis, Hbdry =

k. (B19)

M Hq M = z

k I33 , (B13)

We now would like to decorate this fundamental

with topological insulator to construct the 4d topological crys-

talline insulator as exactly like the 2d topological band

Mx 0 0 insulator can be thought as like the time-reversal sym-

M = 0 My 0 .

(B14) metry decorated quantum Hall state. It is not difficult

to find such Hamiltonian

0 0 Mz

3

Each Ma , a = x, y, z is a 4 4 unitary matrix.

X

H = I33 F0 (k) 0 + z Fi (k) i + F4 (k) 4 ,

i=1

0 1 1 0 (B20)

1 1 0 0 1

Mx =

2 1 0 0 1 which has the desired properties.

0 1 1 0 In this 4d hypercubic bulk, the inversion and time-

reversal symmetry actions are given by

1 0 0 i

1 0 1 i 0

My = T = z i y K,

2 0 i 1 0

i 0 0 1 P = y , (ki , k4 ) (ki , k4 ). (B21)

0 1 0 1

On the other hand, the nonsymmorphic screw rotations

1 1 0 1 0

are encoded as the symmorphic rotation C4a : q

Mz = (B15)

2 0 1 0 1 a q , q = C a [q], a = x, y, z by noting that the hyper-

4

1 0 1 0 cube is the symmorphic lattice.

11

1 24

X.-G. Wen, Quantum field theory of many-body systems: H. Watanabe, H. C. Po, A. Vishwanath, and M. Zale-

from the origin of sound to an origin of light and electrons tel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112,

(Oxford University Press Oxford, 2004). 14551 (2015).

2 25

S. Weinberg and O. Greenberg, Physics Today 50, 67 C. Hull and B. Spence, Nuclear Physics B 353, 379 (1991).

26

(1997). E. Witten, Communications in Mathematical Physics 92,

3

E. Fradkin, Field Theories of Condensed Matter Systems, 455 (1984).

27

Advanced Books Classics, Vol. 82 (Westview Press, 1998) M. Creutz, Reviews of Modern Physics 73, 119 (2001).

28

p. 368. E.-G. Moon, arXiv preprint arXiv:1503.05199 (2015).

4 29

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 D. T. Son, Physical Review X 5, 031027 (2015).

30

(2010). S. D. Geraedts, M. P. Zaletel, R. S. Mong, M. A. Metlitski,

5

X.-L. Qi and S.-C. Zhang, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057 A. Vishwanath, and O. I. Motrunich, Science 352, 197

(2011). (2016).

6

T. Senthil, Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics 6, 29931(2015).

C. Wang and T. Senthil, Physical Review X 5, 041031

7

X. Chen, Z.-C. Gu, Z.-X. Liu, and X.- (2015).

32

G. Wen, Phys. Rev. B 87, 155114 (2013), M. A. Metlitski and A. Vishwanath, arXiv preprint

arXiv:1106.4772 [cond-mat.str-el]. arXiv:1505.05142 (2015).

8 33

E. Lieb, T. Schultz, and D. Mattis, Annals of Physics 16, D. F. Mross, J. Alicea, and O. I. Motrunich,

407 (1961). Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 016802 (2016).

9 34

M. Oshikawa, Physical review letters 84, 1535 (2000). C. Wang and T. Senthil, Physical Review B 93, 085110

10

M. B. Hastings, Physical review b 69, 104431 (2004). (2016).

11 35

X. Chen, Z.-C. Gu, and X.-G. Wen, Physical review b 83, S. C. Furuya and M. Oshikawa, Physical Review Letters

035107 (2011). 118, 021601 (2017).

12 36

G. Y. Cho, C.-T. Hsieh, T. Morimoto, and S. Ryu, Phys- H. C. Po, H. Watanabe, C.-M. Jian, and M. P. Zaletel,

ical Review B 91, 195142 (2015). arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.06882 (2017).

13 37

C.-T. Hsieh, G. Y. Cho, and S. Ryu, Physical Review B H. Song, S.-J. Huang, L. Fu, and M. Hermele, Physical

93, 075135 (2016). Review X 7, 011020 (2017).

14 38

C.-T. Hsieh, O. M. Sule, G. Y. Cho, S. Ryu, and R. G. C. L. Kane and E. J. Mele,

Leigh, Physical Review B 90, 165134 (2014). Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 226801 (2005).

15 39

G. Y. Cho, J. C. Teo, and S. Ryu, Physical Review B 89, J. G. Polchinski, String theory (Cambridge university

235103 (2014). press, 2003).

16 40

E. Witten, arXiv preprint arXiv:1508.04715 (2015). P. H. Ginsparg, arXiv preprint hep-th/9108028 63 (1988).

17 41

X. Chen, F. J. Burnell, A. Vishwanath, and L. Fidkowski, P. Mathieu and D. Senechal, Conformal field theory (New

Physical Review X 5, 041013 (2015). York: Springer, 1997).

18 42

S. Ryu, J. E. Moore, and A. W. Ludwig, Physical Review Y.-M. Lu and A. Vishwanath, Phys. Rev. B 86, 125119

B 85, 045104 (2012). (2012).

19 43

M. Levin and Z.-C. Gu, Phys. Rev. B 86, 115109 (2012). X.-L. Qi, T. L. Hughes, and S.-C. Zhang, Physical Review

20

S. Ryu and S.-C. Zhang, Physical Review B 85, 245132 B 78, 195424 (2008).

44

(2012). Y. Qi and L. Fu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 236801 (2015).

21 45

M. Cheng, M. Zaletel, M. Barkeshli, A. Vishwanath, and S. Lee, M. Hermele, and S. Parameswaran, arXiv preprint

P. Bonderson, Physical Review X 6, 041068 (2016). arXiv:1605.08042 (2016).

22 46

S. M. Young, S. Zaheer, J. C. Teo, C. L. Kane, E. J. Mele, S. Parameswaran, arXiv preprint arXiv:1508.01546

and A. M. Rappe, Physical review letters 108, 140405 (2015).

47

(2012). C.-M. Jian, Z. Bi, and C. Xu, arXiv preprint

23

B.-J. Yang, T. Morimoto, and A. Furusaki, Physical Re- arXiv:1705.00012 (2017).

view B 92, 165120 (2015).

- Laymans Guide to M-Theory [jnl article] - M. Duff (1998) WW.pdfUploaded byUmer Zubair
- On Octonionic Ternary Gauge TheoriesUploaded byKathryn Wilson
- Fogli Standard ModelUploaded byantonyluk
- Phase Transitions in Field TheoriesUploaded bychichieinstein
- Higg BosonUploaded byMusab Hashmi
- ans4.pdfUploaded byShweta Sridhar
- Yngvason Bielefeld Proceedings ArXivUploaded byStephenDedalus
- ex03-SecondQuantizationUploaded byMartín Figueroa
- Spin Physics the Basics of NmrUploaded by16_dev5038
- Man Zur 2007Uploaded byJoakin Bahamondes
- PhysRevD.63.024022Uploaded byAdriano Braga Barreto

- 15N Fractionation in Infrared-Dark Cloud CoresUploaded byjesusdark44
- Distal points for Borel measuresUploaded byjesusdark44
- 1906.10690.pdfUploaded byjesusdark44
- Spaces_ An Introduction to Real Analysis - Tom L. Lindstrom.pdfUploaded byjesusdark44
- 1904.02690.pdfUploaded byjesusdark44
- MIKiS: the Multi-Instrument Kinematic Survey of Galactic G lobular Clusters. I. Velocity dispersion profiles and rotation signals of 11 gl obular clusters 1Uploaded byjesusdark44
- STOCHASTIC MODELING OF MULTIWAVELENGTH VARIABILITY OF THE CLASSICAL BL LAC OBJECT OJ 287 ON TIMESCALES RANGING FROM DECADES TO HOURSUploaded byjesusdark44
- GPU-searches for broadband extended emission in gravitational waves in nearby energetic core-collapse supernovaeUploaded byHoang Tran
- GALAXY ZOO: MAJOR GALAXY MERGERS ARE NOT A SIGNIFICANT QUENCHING PATHWAYUploaded byjesusdark44
- PHYSICAL ORIGINS OF GAS MOTIONS IN GALAXY CLUSTER CORES: INTERPRETING HITOMI OBSERVATIONS OF THE PERSEUS CLUSTERUploaded byjesusdark44
- Cusps in the center of galaxies: a real conflict with observations or a numerical artefact of cosmological simulations?Uploaded byjesusdark44
- The Hubble Legacy Fields (HLF-GOODS-S) v1.5 Data Products: Combining 2442 Orbits of GOODS-S/CDF-S Region ACS and WFC3/IR Images.Uploaded byjesusdark44
- Tracing HI Beyond the Local UniverseUploaded byjesusdark44
- The chemistry of episodic accretion in embedded objects. 2D radiation thermo-chemical models of the post-burst phase.Uploaded byjesusdark44
- Extended Red Emission in IC59 and IC63Uploaded byjesusdark44
- A REDSHIFT SURVEY OF THE NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTER ABELL 2199: COMPARISON OF THE SPATIAL AND KINEMATIC DISTRIBUTIONS OF GALAXIES WITH THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUMUploaded byjesusdark44
- Impact of an AGN featureless continuum on estimation of stellar population propertiesUploaded byjesusdark44
- Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The galaxy stellar mass function to z = 0.1 from the r-band selected equatorial regionsUploaded byjesusdark44
- Parsec-scale obscuring accretion disk with large scale magnetic field in AGNUploaded byjesusdark44
- IFU spectroscopy of Southern Planetary Nebulae IV: A Physical Model for IC 418Uploaded byjesusdark44
- ALMA IMAGES OF THE ORION HOT CORE AT 349 GHZUploaded byjesusdark44
- JOINT STRONG AND WEAK LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE MASSIVE CLUSTER FIELD J0850+3604Uploaded byjesusdark44
- Accretion driven turbulence in filaments I: Non-gravitational accretionUploaded byjesusdark44
- Evidence of ongoing AGN-driven feedback in a quiescent post starburst E+A galaxy *Uploaded byjesusdark44
- TYPE 2 AGN HOST GALAXIES IN THE CHANDRA-COSMOS LEGACY SURVEY: NO EVIDENCE OF AGN-DRIVEN QUENCHINGUploaded byjesusdark44
- Lyα ABSORBERS AND THE COMA CLUSTERUploaded byjesusdark44
- The Gaia-ESO Survey: Dynamical models of flattened, rotating globular clustersUploaded byjesusdark44
- Extension of photon surfaces and its area: Static and stationary spacetimesUploaded byjesusdark44
- Search for intermediate mass black hole binaries in the first observing run of Advanced LIGOUploaded byjesusdark44

- Banishing RitualsUploaded byPieter-Jan Beyul
- 204208729 Item AnalysisUploaded byJohnnyBernales
- Readers and Point of ViewUploaded bylibor.prager
- Syllabus Spring 2015Uploaded bystargear
- LancelotUploaded byStem1973
- Kanban for Software DevelopmentUploaded byRenato Barbieri
- 70470492 Myerhoff B Life History Among the ElderlyUploaded byRodrigo Murguía
- freespan-120822234657-phpapp01Uploaded byUNETI
- Group Assignment report.docxUploaded bypushmba
- Health and Human Services: self cooperativeUploaded byHHS
- Black and White or Shades of Gray: Are Gender Differences Categorical or Dimensional?Uploaded byFábio Duarte
- CBE Life Sci Educ-2016-Mulnix-.pdfUploaded byq234234234
- SSC CGL Pattern English Test1 AnsUploaded byAnonymous v5QjDW2eHx
- PRSUCCESS Spring 2011 EditionUploaded byGrace Naugle
- Archetypes in King LearUploaded byHeloise Pechan
- Epistemology and Spiritual AuthorityUploaded bychetanpandey
- ACE Paper 3 Issue 11Uploaded byRizky Anggawiguna Tanjung
- Dhammananda QuotesUploaded byCalvin Sweatsa Lot
- On Liberty SummaryUploaded bySahir Khan
- Virginia Saldanha-bishop Fathers Child by NunUploaded byFrancis Lobo
- Reflections on the Shakespeare Authorship ConspiracyUploaded byMorten St. George
- Atividade Notícia NMUploaded byCamila Clivati Sodré
- Human Reliability EngineeringUploaded byDaniel Chiriac
- persuasive speech outlineUploaded byapi-302068572
- Foundations of the Sunnah (Usool as-Sunnah)Uploaded byBanglaRaj
- esm310 assignment cummings jolly martin wilsonUploaded byapi-294362869
- Palazzolo v. Rhode Island, 533 U.S. 606 (2001)Uploaded byScribd Government Docs
- Course Brochure NonlinearUploaded bygeorge
- Tangible-and-intangible-cultural-heritage.pptxUploaded byMikko Miks Matining
- The Regius Manuscript.pdfUploaded byNerv Rulz