You are on page 1of 40

The Links between

Prostitution and Sex Trafficking:
A Briefing Handbook

Prepared for the Joint Project Coordinated by the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW)
and the European Women’s Lobby (EWL) on Promoting Preventative Measures to Combat Trafficking
in Human Beings for Sexual Exploitation: A Swedish and United States Governmental and
Non-Governmental Organisation Partnership

“We, the survivors of prostitution and trafficking gathered at this press conference today, declare that prostitution
is violence against women. Women in prostitution do not wake up one day and “choose” to be prostitutes.
It is chosen for us by poverty, past sexual abuse, the pimps who take advantage of our vulnerabilities,
and the men who buy us for the sex of prostitution.” (Manifesto, Joint CATW-EWL Press Conference, 2005)


3 Introduction
• What is this briefing handbook for?
• Handbook as resource
• Project outline
• Context underpinning work to combat trafficking and prostitution

6 S E CT I O N 1
Factors driving women and children into the sex industry.

8 S E CT I O N 2
Different routes into the sex industry and the tactics of pimps and traffickers.

10 S E CT I O N 3
Demand: Men as customers, buyers and sexual exploiters of women and children.

12 S E CT I O N 4
The language of choice, consent and rights in relation to trafficked and prostituted women.

14 S E CT I O N 5
Impacts and consequences for women who are trafficked and prostituted:
Prostitution as a form of violence against women.

16 S E CT I O N 6
Responding to legalisation/decriminalisation arguments.

18 S E CT I O N 7
Rejecting false distinctions and moving towards clarity.
Naming trafficking and prostitution as violence against women.

22 S E CT I O N 8
Actions and outcomes arising from positions adopted on prostitution and trafficking.

24 S E CT I O N 9
Profits made from trafficking and prostitution.

26 S E CT I O N 10
Social/gender equality consequences of trafficking and prostitution.

28 S E CT I O N 11
Case Studies.

32 S E CT I O N 12
International Human Rights mechanisms for combating trafficking for sexual exploitation
and useful European Union reports and political statements.

36 Bibliography.

39 About the authors.

The United Nations estimates that some 80% of persons trafficking. The CATW/EWL joint initiative decided to com-
trafficked are trafficked for sexual exploitation. They are pile such a publication, which is this briefing handbook.
mostly women and children. (UN, 2003). An estimated This handbook may be used as a resource for any NGO or
120,000 women and children are trafficked into Western governmental group or authority that is interested in ad-
Europe each year. (European Commission, 2001). The US dressing the gaps in anti-trafficking programmes : the links
Department of State considers that globally some 600,000 between prostitution and trafficking, the importance of pro-
to 800,000 people are trafficked within and across borders grammes and policies that are based on gender equality,
annually, of whom some 80% are women and girls and the legal status of the sex industry, and the male demand
some 50% are minors. (US Dept of State, 2005) for prostitution that promotes sex trafficking.

Some European estimates suggest that, in 1990-1998, more
than 253,000 women and girls were trafficked into the sex Handbook as resource
industry of the then 12 EU countries. The overall number of The handbook may be used as a resource for writing, for ed-
women in prostitution in these countries has grown to more ucation, for work with women and men who wish to combat
than half a million. In Vienna, Austria, almost 70% of prosti- trafficking and to curb the growth of the sex industry, wheth-
tuted women come from Eastern Europe. There are about er locally or globally. It can also be used as an information
15,000 Russian and Eastern European women in Germany’s resource for those dealing with media – many of whom fail
red-light districts. Many are in brothels, sex clubs, massage to focus on the essential ‘ demand ’ factor, preferring instead
parlours and saunas under the financial control of criminal to keep their gaze on the woman in prostitution or provide
groups from the Russian Federation, Turkey and the former a partisan voice for those who promote the alleged “ right
Yugoslavia, according to a survey of the International Or- to prostitute ” and romanticize prostitution as “ sex work,” in
ganization for Migration. (UNESCE, 2004) essence defending the vested interests of the sex industry.

In the region of South Eastern Europe, comprising Albania, This handbook contains quotations and references, ideas

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR and research on prostitution and trafficking, while also
Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, 90% of helping to give a voice to those who have survived sexual
foreign women in the sex business are alleged victims of abuse and exploitation. It is laid out in sections that include
trafficking, 10% to 15% of these women and girls are under an introduction or statement of position, followed by bul-
the age of 18 years. The majority of victims are recruited in let points that capture succinct evidence or research and
Albania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Romania. The women and comments relevant to that section. Each part of the hand-
girls are often initially trafficked on the local market. They are book can therefore be referred to, as specific issues arise
being moved from one place to another and after a while for project promoters and those working on the ground
sold abroad. (HWWA, 2004) or at policy level to combat prostitution and sex trafficking.
Full references for all quotations used are to be found in
the bibliography.
What is this briefing handbook for ?
This handbook seeks to explore and elucidate the links be- The handbook also presents a short list and summary of
tween prostitution and trafficking, focusing on gender equal- relevant international human rights mechanisms and Euro-
ity and the issue of demand. It was initially developed for pean reports and political statements that may be useful
the 13 countries participating in the joint Coalition Against when seeking to promote the safety of women and combat
Trafficking in Women (CATW) and the European Women’s trafficking and sexual exploitation.
Lobby (EWL) Project on Promoting Preventative Measures
to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings for Sexual Exploi-
tation : A Swedish and United States Governmental and Grainne Healy & Monica O’Connor
Non-Governmental Organisation Partnership. 2006

The women, in the CATW/EWL locally based projects com-
bating prostitution and trafficking, identified a need to gather
together in one accessible document, ideas, research and
arguments to support their work to prevent prostitution and

Project Co-ordinators 3 Promote preventative and awareness raising measures
The project, Promoting Preventative Measures to Com- including legislative, social, criminal justice and educa-
bat Trafficking in Human Beings, is co-ordinated by two tional initiatives to discourage the demand for sexual ex-
NGO partners - the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women ploitation that fosters trafficking. Specifically, the project
(CATW) and the European Women’s Lobby (EWL). aims to promote the Swedish model to combat prostitu-
tion and trafficking in human beings with a focus on the
Since 1988, the CATW has provided leadership, activism law that prohibits the buying of sexual services.
and research against sexual exploitation, establishing coali- 3 Encourage alternatives to legal and policy measures that
tions in most major world regions. CATW is well-positioned attempt to legalise, regulate or decriminalise different
internationally and has changed the terms of the debate prostitution activities.
over prostitution and trafficking in many areas of the globe
and at the United Nations level. The CATW has influenced
anti-sex industry and anti-trafficking legislation in the Philip- Context underpinning work
pines, Venezuela, Mexico, Bangladesh, Japan, Sweden and to combat trafficking and prostitution
the United States. Gender equality
The project promotes awareness raising measures and ac-
The European Women’s Lobby is a non-governmental or- tion points that address the situation of women in supply
ganisation that brings together national co-ordinations of countries of sex trafficking. It focuses on measures to pro-
women’s NGOs from 25 of the Member States of the Euro- mote equality between women and men as a fundamental
pean Union and accession countries, as well as from 22 Eu- part of democracy. Many of the problems faced by women in
ropean and International organisations. The EWL’s mission the new EU Member States, in South East Europe and neigh-
is to achieve equality between women and men, to eliminate bouring countries are linked to women’s poor economic con-
all forms of discrimination against women, to ensure respect ditions. Poverty has had a more detrimental effect on women
for women’s human rights and to eradicate violence against than men and women face a lack of training opportunities

women. Since 1998, when a motion against prostitution and and a scaling down of income and social service supports.
trafficking was passed at its Annual General Assembly, it
works to combat prostitution and trafficking and seeks to Poverty
criminalise the purchase of sexual services EU wide. The focus on poverty alone however, is not sufficient. It is
not only women’s poverty but poverty itself that is preyed
upon by recruiters, pimps and traffickers. Poverty creates
General objectives of the initiative and sustains trafficking. It is therefore necessary to raise
The project, Promoting Measures to Combat Trafficking in awareness about the methods of recruiters and traffick-
Human Beings is co-ordinated by the CATW and the EWL, ers as they lure mainly poor and unsuspecting women into
in partnership with the Government of Sweden and the Of- exploitative situations, particularly prostitution.
fice to Monitor and Combat Trafficking at the United States
Department of State. The project has as its overall objective Demand
to create a knowledge and action base for target groups The focus on supply requires a comparable focus on de-
by promoting a sustainable network of non-governmental mand. It is not sufficient to address only the victims. Aware-
organisations and others in the EU, additional countries in ness raising measures must also focus on the responsibility
Eastern Europe and selected CIS countries, to prevent and of those who buy women in prostitution, and their strategic
combat trafficking and prostitution. role in the chain of trafficking.

The general goal of the project is to prevent trafficking in Women’s human rights
human beings, especially women and children through There is a need for action in the area of women’s human
the following objectives : rights to combat violence against women. Governments must
recognise the links between prostitution and trafficking and
3 Raise awareness about the root causes of prostitution that prostitution is violence against women. It is important
and trafficking in human beings for sexual purposes.
therefore, to address the political will of governments as they
3 Develop and share sustainable ‘ best practices ’ and attempt to create measures against trafficking and sexual
strategies to combat trafficking in human beings among
the project partners. exploitation. It is critical that States implement effective sanc-
tions against the pimps, the traffickers and the buyers.

This is clearly seen their lives. government representatives. the Czech Republic. which is criti- cal to the individual person. The State nars and training and other awareness raising initiatives in as regulator does not concern itself with the health and each country culminating in a conference in the Balkans to safety of the women in prostitution because the reality of focus on promoting peace. quences for women and girls are devastating. male abuser. and in venues that are both illegal and legal. men. abuse and violence perpetrated against industry and its victims. Pimps and sexual exploiters become legitimate business- vised action plans that individuals. journalists. sexual exploiter who Suppliers buy women and girls for sex. Estonia. organisations with a particular focus they maximise profit through legal and illegal methods. police and officials in the jus. in indoor/ and internal/personal factors are targeted and coerced into outdoor prostitution areas. tion and protects the consumer not the victims. Choice ticipating countries with an emphasis on legal trends and Women and girls are seen as actively choosing “ sex work ” best practices. all acts of sexual exploi- ers. the traf. i. But all women who are in the Clients sex industry are violated and sexually exploited. Promoting Preventative Measures to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings for Sexual Exploitation : A Swedish and United States Governmental and Non-Governmental Organisation Partnership Work of the project Sexual entrepreneurs Project partners in each of the partner countries have de. The tactics Sex sector or market of traffickers and pimps may differ according to domestic The sex industry becomes an element of the market place. control or safety women Where prostitution is legalised and the sex industry decrimi. it promotes prostitu- Project activities include consultations. levels and in the use of language and terminology to describe the sex extent of coercion. the prostituted woman or child. Women and does not concern itself with those false distinctions. a young woman. They aim to ensure that and local public authorities. EU and surrounding countries that are considering meas. procurers and pimps target and exploit women and girls for the purpose of sexual exploitation. researchers and other concerned levels and forms of violence perpetrated against the victims groups and individuals. is erased. perpetrator. Serbia and Montenegro.e. policy mak. The reality that the act of being pros- tituted is sexually exploitative in itself. Moldova. In legalised sex sectors. It may be a child. If it legalises and regulates prostitution. A particular target group is countries in the interest them in protecting supply for the demand. The conse- buyer. NGOs. mapping the concept of “ choice ” and “ sex work ”. in peep shows. representatives of regional tation demanded by customers. an adult woman. There are different degrees. educational semi. Latvia and Lithuania. sexual exploitation is legitimised. can exercise in different situations and at different times in nalized. They control the market and Project target groups include parliamentarians. Traffickers. The health needs of the victims only States of the EU. health and safety of the victims. industry. The sex industry is not discriminating The bodies of women and girls supply the market. State sex economy ures to legalise or regulate different prostitution activities. the needs of the ‘ consumer ’ / abuser are always met. The on women. The State cannot be ‘ neutral ’ in this matter. women’s exploitation has disappeared and is replaced by 5 The joint project will produce a research paper. . any one woman or child at any particular time. Legal and illegal collusion of State and State of- 3 EU Member States of Hungary.. regardless of the al- What does legalised sexual exploitation look like? leged or actual degree of power. is continued under the guise of protecting the rights and Albania and Kosovo. The sex in- The words consumer and client are used to describe the dustry is an inherently unsafe and dangerous environment. of either gender. deliver what the buyer wants. prostitutor. ficials continues. All and children who are vulnerable to sexual exploitation be- victims are located in the same industry almost always in cause of socio-economic /political/cultural/racial factors multiple places such as on the streets. the sex industry. on the Internet. in clubs. Poland. Russia. owners ’ of the women and the venues and they supply other pimps and club owners. the current and proposed legislation and policies in par. Supply ficked woman or child. and international contexts but their intention is the same – to It offers all forms of adult and child sexual exploitation to the benefit from the sexual exploitation of women. particularly in the new Member are not their concern. The State facilitates and regulates on behalf of the client The countries involved in the project are : and operates as a facilitator / pimp in ensuring the supply 3 Balkans – Croatia. as legitimate work. the pimps are the ‘ business ments can take to make violence against women a priority. and tice system. organisations and govern. The State profits from the 3 South East Europe – Bulgaria.

Working in the informal women and girls. Wage differentials between sector work. limited opportunities ficking. putting migrant workers. in particular from increased economic insecurity. have contributed to jobs and long-term and hidden creating conditions favourable to unemployment. as well as atypi. between neighbouring countries. political women and girls driven into prostitution. includ- ing women. heaviest burden of cuts in social regions towards metropolitan expenditures.e. demands abuse. factors that create the condi. UNECSE identify a number of Feminisation of poverty tion and the collapse of women’s eco. an increase in smuggling and trafficking in per- women’s part-time and informal sons. smuggling and trafficking in peo- ple. for legal immigration and resur- vantage contribute to the vulnerability of gence of traditional discrimina. unemployment and 3Immigration regulations in many the loss of job security have un. and emigration – provides crimi- based privatisation – the priva. poverty. nal groups with an opportunity to tisation of national assets has a generate profits.marginalized. with women ported by any kind of humane globally receiving few privatised migrant labour regulation. of discrimination and conditions of disad. Multiple forms and poverty. in and economic parity inevitably particular : affect social stereotypes. Male. 3 Poverty among households nomic stability are global factors. tory practices against women. Homelessness. racism. migra. 3 Changes in gender. The rise in competition in the la- bour market. tion and trafficking. SECT I O N 1 P O S I T I O N Points to consider 3 Overt gender-based discrimination and intensive Male demand for a supply of women and Socio-economic / political sexual harassment in the children is the root cause of prostitu. 2004) . and cal work arrangements have tighter immigration controls on pushed women into poorly-paid the other. alongside a history of sexual – women’s interests. (UNESCE. health care and pensions. thus assets. This is not sup- strong male bias. and prostitution globalisation. being propelled into prostitution. The create the conditions in which women numbers of women and girls proportion of women working in are driven into the sex industry. institutionalisa. Women bear the declining and / or impoverished nerable to entry into prostitution. per- Studies consistently indicate that women ceptions and attitudes. including child and areas. not trafficked) Less political participation and discriminatory practices. countries on the one hand. There is and children who are exploited in the 3 Changes in gender parity a resurgence of some traditional local sex industry (i. Gender inequality. which tions in Central Europe for vast headed by working mothers. economy is an important factor developing countries and countries with higher risks of unemployment of women’s vulnerability to traf- economies in transition. welfare reform.a n d s p e c i f i c p ro b l e m s a re tivities. Internal migration from additional factors making them vul. criminalisation and cor- tion and drug addiction are some of the widely ignored because they are ruption. at risk of exploitation 3 Loss of job security and abuse. A widening encouraging a rapid growth of gender wage gap. have experienced similar economic women’s political exclusion 3 Informalising of economic ac- 6 deprivation. factors affecting trafficking workplace. economically advanced countries dermined women’s incomes and generate restrictive measures economic position. the totally unregulated and illegal Factors that impel women to take informal business sector is con- The majority of trafficked persons are the risk of illegal immigration are : siderable. cross-border migration family allowances.

the research discovered that over half had been involved in com- mercial sexual exploitation before they left care. that is. (Farley & Barkan. entrance into prostitution. it is invariably a fam.engaged in prostitution activities egon.begin exploring the link between 7 tion is 14 years of age. before they were 16.highlighted this association as saulted. institutional care and 2002) child prostitution.ple of adolescents who were tion Alternatives in Portland. 1991) ternationally the median age for was the first modern study to the entrance of girls into prostitu.’ (Daily Mirror. ‘ No-one would really choose this as a way of life ’ and prostituted ily member who prostitutes the she says. 2006) girls in prostitution report that be sexually exploited. They women interviewed for their Vic. James and Myerling and 49% had been physically as. prostitution before the age of 18. abuse within the family and/or researchers found that 57% had community seem to be significant been sexually abused as children precursors. and four had had experi- ence of prostitution before being taken into care. ‘ no-one… some days you feel very down. Based on inter- views with 22 young women who had been in institutional care and were subsequently in prostitution. “ early. 1998) early as 1977 : 65% of their sam- Likewise. reported that 85% of the had been sexually abused.” Re- 1993) Researchers agree that in.child through giving/selling them … sometimes ’ – she covers her face – ‘ it is as if your ies. the Council on Prostitu. (Kelly & Regan. the 16. white bed. 2000) . traumatic sexual tim Survivor Survey were victims objectification may be one factor of incest as girls and 90% had influencing some women toward been physically abused. Factors driving women and children into the sex industry Internal / personal factors 3 For young children under the ‘ The woman called Lolli is carefully making her neat affecting those trafficked age of 12. In a study of 130 prostituted and especially before the age of persons in San Francisco. (Hunter. the majority of women and into situations in which they will soul is getting hurt. ( in the UK.note. arranging frilly silk cushions in an elegant line. Or. child abuse. 3 In different international stud. Jan 25th. (Ekberg. For many they have been victims of male young people who are drawn into sexual violence in their girlhoods.

organised 1991. and beaten by men in relation- usually including a ring ships. and a strict vigil is 3 creating a willing victim 8 an uncanny sameness. the children’s or. in pornography and in the home. first confronted by the immediate 3 using threats. over her economic. Filipina Women in Prostitution. They find they cannot escape. 2001) 3 convincing her to agree to be techniques of disempowerment and dis. Thai. They try to make sense of 3 enforcing petty rules what is happening and figure out 3 being inconsistent and The methods that enable one human being a means of escape. (D’Cunha. his wishes titution. tionalised mechanism of control. constant inducement of fear 3 Barnardos. maintaining identities are cut off. deceit and necessary violence control and compliance of the victim. threats to family and others. to her previous life coerce and dominate their victims. locked in the house connection. ment or to pimps… The woman 3 isolating her begins to live only for the present. her love ers and survivors of torture and incarcera. The methods and techniques of violence are similar to those maintained over their interactions 3 ensuring she is compliant to that are used to subjugate women in pros. important objects and / or tion whether for the home sex industry ensuring perfect obedience and reject those she is close to or for the purpose of trafficking. After 3 months living together I found out he ran a brothel. political prison. They enslavement. He made me the receptionist but after a visit by the Gardai he closed down . tion from every corner of the globe have They are physically confined and Total dominance concealed. with his friend fliction of psychological trauma. Women and girls are subjected to multiple realizing that she has no control Taking control forms of intentional violence and abuse. 3 convincing her to destroy girls for the purposes of sexual exploita. cultural and to identification with and subor. 1998) sense of autonomy. and that of violence. what she ferent times but the intention is similar to ficked women and children are wears. 1992) Ensnaring 3 impressing the young woman 3One young woman interviewed 3 winning her trust and in a small study in Ireland describes confidence a process of being groomed and 3 making her think he is the only coerced into prostitution : one who truly understands her “ I had left care at 16. It subjects women 3 changing her name exploit socio-economic. giving her presents. and movements. 3 convincing her to have sex They include : systematic and repetitive in. four phases of entrapment into the best and easiest way is convincing the victim that the perpetrator prostitution for young women: through selling sex is omnipotent and destroying the victim’s (Barnardos.3 destroying her connections personal contexts in order to attract. SECT I O N 2 P O S I T I O N Points to consider Creating dependence 3 becoming more possessive Pimps and traffickers target women and 3 ‘ Seasoning ’ is a well-institu. external points of reference for 3 demanding that she prove The accounts of hostages. I had been abused with him. By the time 3 ensuring she falls in love I was 18.3 convincing her that he needs by inconsistent and unpredictable bursts ganisation in the U. physical and sexual life. Traf. dination to the brothel manage. from interviews with Indian. 2002. but all the unreliable to enslave another are remarkably similar. and if in that they are designed to maximise terror of kidnapping. who she sees. abuse. When I met G he knew 3 claiming the status of her this. emotional. He showered me with at- boyfriend tention and presents. 3 deciding where she goes.K identified her to earn money. 1998. (Herman. The methods and tactics may vary at dif. eats and thinks male perpetrators of domestic violence.

I must have earned girls are sold to “ madams ” and bath filled up with frozen water. He kept saying.. I brought home £200 to have no need to physically con. (O’Connor. being put into a me go back. the destruction of their rep- a house and made to have sex utations with a risk of never be- with hundreds of men. Different routes into the sex industry and the tactics of pimps and traffickers the brothel. She said ing able to return home. they find themselves caught between ‘ A young woman forced into a failed dream of love to a man sex slavery here (in Ireland) has who had sworn eternal love to revealed how she was held in them.. ’. with prom- passing through many different ises of easy earnings. They swear never to gravity. it home may be threatened or they is the family honour which binds are told that they will be passed them not to dishonour their fam- on to even more dangerous own. “ how Nigerian girls undergo much many are stolen either on their were we going to live. They cally and kept in sight. (Aghatise. Even when I was sick or ter. In her study of pros- titution in Italy. They talk about being pulous men in Albania are able locked in houses and constantly to obtain the consent of families 9 guarded by the traffickers where to take girls and young women they are subjected to beatings. to eat. 2005) lice and pay their “ debts ” without creating problems. When ers. away to what their families see as starvation and rape. I of other nationalities who are prostitution. Pimps and traffickers will exploit cultural and traditional practices to ensure maximum control over their victims. unscru- countries. to less physical control from their way home from school or from buy clothes ? ” He threatened me exploiters compared with girls work. (O’Connor. 2006) for having dishonoured the fam- ily name.made to undergo psychologically dents of extreme violence : beat- rified or had been raped he made impose the control on them. identifies different meth- ods used by traffickers according to the area of origin of the women and girls. trust and affection. If they are better opportunities in life. and easily all over.ily name on pain of death. Esohe Aghatise (2004). With uncooperative their family at many Albanian girls/women. that he had spent it noted by the Italian police that ian and Ukrainian girls reveal that all on me.fickers and madams to the po- son. the first night I shook trafficked into prostitution. 2004) they end up in prostitution. 29th January. because the rites the girls are to the other. . controlled physi- hated it. He then said he had 3 It is a special phenomenon 3Frequent stories told by Bulgar- no money.members of their own families pendent. Women trafficked into Ireland de- scribe being bought and sold by 3 Playing on the relationship of traffickers on multiple occasions. and the she was brought to Ireland to be risk of being killed by the male sold into prostitution. 2004) I did not even have enough to reveal the identity of their traf- eat. thousands over three years and I made to undergo specific magic and other situations of extreme never saw a penny… sometimes “ juju ” rites. The girls are trafficked into and forced me onto the streets. Wil. Women relate inci- of it. passed or sold off from one gang £300 a night but I never saw any trol. (Irish Inde. ” Hannah. The ings with belts.

and this process Male abusers can act with impunity 3 Many scholars and activists of denial both draws upon and because they know that women in prosti. however. not a subject. 1992) be satisfied by a supply of women did not take for granted that they and children who can be bought. 10 vulnerabilities. Without the demand. of which is to ensure that one quently demands the existence of party is the object to the other’s a separate category of paid pub. the supply supply of women and girls from appeal of this fantasy to millions of women and girls would not be neces. Many most immediate and proximate as paying for the sexual pleas- abusers deliberately target women’s cause of the expansion of the sex ure. 3 Contrary to the position held fragmented. filment in submission. the client’s women who are legitimate targets the trade in females would not treatment of the prostitute repre- for rape and sexual exploitation. a prostitution market without the within it. that their victims find sexual ful- ficking for the purpose of sexual exploita. acts which do and do not take al expression such as marriage. she is an object. the whole purpose 3 Male sexual potency conse. cultures and of terrifyingly normal men fosters sary and the market would collapse. SECT I O N 3 P O S I T I O N Points to consider loyalty by sacrificing all other rela- tionships. backgrounds. mutuality of consideration. would see the male demand reinforces profoundly misogy- tution will not be believed or taken seri. used and abused in by the prostitution defenders that prostitution and trafficking should the interests of male biology and be separated.They do not ask women and girls tery demand that their victims whether they are in prostitution prove complete obedience and voluntarily or if they have been . (Her- mote the myth that male sexuality must trade in women and girls. If men man. There is and can be no male consumers would go broke. The erotic exploited. trol is the power dynamic at the girls who can be bought and sexually ners want unlimited access to a heart of pornography. commodified bod- ies to be appropriated. As well ously by the criminal justice system. be unprofitable for pimps. strip clubs. (O’Connell Davidson and Women in prostitution thus exist Sanchez Taylor. 3 Perpetrators of domestic bat. recruit. place. different countries. dissected. without which it would order to act as abusively as they wish. This may be son who is not a person. This constant de. or sence of the transaction is that conceptually impaired. (Ekberg. unnuanced. 1998) as sexualised. that one party does not licly sexualised women to contain use their personal desire as a cri- what cannot be fulfilled within so. an immense industry in which mand for ‘ new merchandise ’ is women and children are abused. tering or abusive. 3 Men who frequent brothels. males who buy its need for variety. physical labour and / or the making available of body parts. sexual fantasy and hegemony. massage parlours. Sex offenders demand The root cause of prostitution and traf. in industry. This have the explicit right to buy and 3 Whether he is submissive. such as a drug habit. pleas- (Raymond. 1992) women and girls in prostitution do not care about this distinction. Prostitution and the sex industry pro. the john is effectively paying the ers and traffickers to seek out a prostituted women to be a per- supply of women. 2002) sents a denial of her subjectivity and humanity. for the sex of prostitution as the nistic images of women. the es- labelled simplistic. (Herman. flat- demands the creation of a group of sexually exploit women and girls. subject. exist. Total con- tion is the male demand for women and escort agencies and street cor. what dictates the international not in fantasy but in reality. terion for determining the sexual cially legitimate contexts of sexu. 2004) ure or treatment in the prostitu- tion contract.

including child abus- fication and who acts out his mi.erately seek out children/young try. It also has tution is part of their biological a collective character. (Kelly & Regan. and a sexual experience that is on offer at their holiday that the women ask for and enjoy. (Davies ies. (Kelly & Regan. many males who differentially targeted for. over and and Pines 1984) This position over and over again. Aside from the essentialist representation of male sexuality implicit in this argument it is only sustainable by ignoring two facts : . Prostitution amounts to an acceptance that is not sexual liberation. men assaults from clients. It is he who frequently make pornography of deludes himself into believing that their abuse). including consum- Payment for sex is another con.prostituted women and children miliation. 2002) lishes loose temporary networks amongst those who recognise 3 Another common defence of similar interests. physical and sexual prostitution. but also groups of he is the subjective choice of the men whose interest is in having woman or several women. by act- ing as a form of release or “ safety valve ”. As a dren in the sex industry are both matter of fact. exploiters. it is hu. use women’s and girls’ bod. 2002) women ” or “ child abuse ’’. Consequently the violence they experience as males who use women and girls a consequence does not really in prostitution are sexual preda. and/or use girls also use adult women in vulnerable to.through deliberate organisation linity. In prostitution.organisers and strangers. vaginas. and who are indiscriminate justify this abuse in many ways as to whether this is with adult including that the sex of prosti. buyers and sexual exploiters of women and children forced.organisation of groups of men viduals. sexuality in prostitution is ultimately the 3 Sex tourists are a much more male sexual experience. destination. not only drive. an expression of mascu. it is torture.women or children. Silbert vessels of ejaculation. ego and sexual grati.ers who travel to abuse (and sogyny with impunity. (D’Cunha.recognise. is part of the indigenous to travel together and “ enjoy ” all culture. it are legitimate targets for men’s is sexual exploitation and should rage and women hatred and that be named as such. O’Neill 1995a. 1994b.count either as “ violence against tors and rapists. and the mount- is over or under 18. 1992. but also the between two consenting indi. Men sex. it is rape. Hoigard and Fins- for their sexual pleasures and as tad. 2000) 3 In the final analysis. documents and media reports conquest. or whether they are local that many prostitute users delib- or were trafficked into the coun. (Ekberg. mouths cheap sex. anuses. This group estab- science salver. something that takes place and networking. Demand : Men as customers. but look for ing evidence that women and chil- the most vulnerable female. It is he diverse group than many policy 11 who enjoys the power of money. They do not care if a female women to abuse. prostitution is that it prevents 2000) violence against women.

any alternative. physical and sexual and 7 male customers a day who pen. cause it creates two classes of fe. who. the right to health them by the buyers. (Ekberg. cannot be given 12 Promoting prostitution as a legiti. ual demands. and consent to violation is chooses. the whatever violation the buyers will consent. anally or values that women who engage Choice orally. 2002) ing the legalisation of prostitution. Their silence. Women who supposedly have therefore. violation because an important that when force is a normalized element of slavery is the accept. sexual exploi. since even in slavery there damental values of our legislation. women. are assumed lence of battered women. are blamed for being are consistently abused by those promot. 2002) tion is that women cannot access those 3 One does not have the right to rights without legalisation of prostitu. 1995) produce acquiescence and ac- quiescence is taken to mean con- Those arguing for legalisation seem 3 The use of the word consent is sent.. 1990) of “ work ” are servicing between 5 litical. because they males. slaves. terror. SECT I O N 4 P O S I T I O N Points to consider said “ yes ” to prostitution are de- nied the right to say “ no ” to rape The concepts of ‘ consent ’ and ‘ choice ’ Consent and.“ choice ” by pointing out that ing women in prostitution vulner. If. like the si- unionise as ‘ workers ’. They talk about the “ right ” to work tituted women. (D’Cunha. (Mac Kinnon. (Westerstrand. or set the terms of onstrates the uselessness of not acceptable conditions of work. respect which would be entitled to. 2004) right to better conditions. civil. part of sex.3 Consent is not a good divining consent to one’s own body be- tion and consequently those who resist rod as to the existence of oppres. to gross assault. who keep silent. Those women who do not should have protested abuse… The language of human and civil rights “ consent ” to rape. In any other context we would be have no right to refuse male sex. sion. po. 2002) the idea of a woman’s freedom to choose not slavery is a violation of human what to do with her own body and that dignity and rights. should and social welfare. One ance of their condition by many mean yes. exploitation and violence to which was some consent. raped. thus render. if consent is the human body must be shown women and girls are subjected. in prostitution. sexual encounters. That is a minimum of 25 men a in commercial sexual activity week.rights based on prevailing sexist etrate the woman vaginally.3 Kathleen Barry (1995) dem- calling this a violation of human rights. defined as inability to see. matter whether women . by the fact dation. tween people were to be toler- guage of sexual liberalism to promote rion for determining whether or ated.prostitution is not about or for able to rape with male impunity. for undermined if gross assault be- The pro-prostitution lobby use the lan. for example. cannot effectively be gauged ac- mate career or sexual service denies cording to the degree of “ con. concept. when no is taken to One cannot have the right to violation. when fear and despair only has the right to be free from violation. ing treated in whatever way one legalisation are denying women rights. but for men. the silence of most of those in is also distorted by the pro-prostitution tation and prostitution. in fact.. The implica. (Barry. It does not. consent was the crite. prostitution is a result of intimi- lobby. Consent. because it conflicts with the fun- and obscures the inherent sexual sent ”. and pros. slavery would 3This movement was not taken in those opposing legalisation are denying not have been recognised as a by concepts like consent. (Farley. It knew women the right to sell their own bodies. the right to control to have given their consent to not be misinterpreted ever as the environment in which they work. social. dissociation and in prostitution. They 3 The false analysis of male vio- are misleading and inaccurate terms when lence against women which is 3 The adage ‘ silence is consent ’ applied to the constrained and limited promoted by the pro-prostitution is mistakenly applied to women contexts in which women and girls are lobby is especially dangerous be. subject them to. for example. We blame those lured or forced into sexual exploitation. the right to organise and that they accept money handed to shame. or feel respect. Oppression assault. to gross a fact of oppression.example. consent is not a meaningful to allege that the optimum conditions a violation of economic.

exist. to be used as the raw material in and / or mentally disabled. 1990) ercive of contex ts – traf fick. In kind of “ profession ” can this be. Prostitution. it can only apply where there is no qualification exercised and what alternatives. or their sisters or female (Giobbe. that prostitutes set the sexual and economic conditions . requirement (apart from prefer- if any. ably being female and young). traditional occu- themselves. in the Netherlands women sell their organs. 3 Even within the most co. 2000) 13 (O’Connell Davidson. And equally even in since the only one who is exercis. control over their own bodies that tween working as a health care ing of women’s bodies : Even they also have the right to sell worker. of course. or liv- duce a full ban on trade in bio. (Carracedo. 2002) nor those who are prostituted the contracts she makes. (Daley. friends. (Ekberg. where ing his / her sexual freedom is the no mobility structure and where an adult woman works for herself person who uses the service. titute oneself is a highly effective social or business arrangements ies get into the male consumer tactic. is illustrated by the ideology (Westerstrand. cause those who defend it so vig. tion. It is a curious freedom be. which hides have “ chosen ” to survive by the the abusive nature of prostitu- sexual exploitation of their bodies. their children. 2200 milk. 2002) of the sexual liberals which erro- neously claims that prostitution is a career choice. their pation in communities of colour. 1998) right to sexual choice and orien- tation. nails and hair) as well as a of these “ visits ” took place in ban on organ donation between Holland. and market is irrelevant to the market. to the “ Prostitutor ”. for themselves or their children ? client remains an exploitative one. tionships are mutually beneficial abuse. that prostitu- tion epitomizes women’s sexual liberation. is have been employed by certain cannot be accepted. the client. wives. 1998) “ sexual services ”. The new Spanish Penal ing – “ choice ” can still appear Code only penalises coercive 3Within the rhetoric which seeks at certain levels. that women enter into freely. that pimp / prostitute rela- themselves as victims of men’s 3 Invoking the freedom to pros. They suggest it is implicit 3 Some argue in all seriousness 3 There is a parallel with the ban in the demand that women have that there is no real difference be- on trading in organs and the trad. The notion not an “ orientation ”. consent and rights in relation to trafficked and prostituted women claim the right or choice to be Sexual freedom of their interactions with custom- prostituted or whether they see ers. i. the critical question is the tensibly referring to prostitutes. In 1998.e. the neither those who use prostitutes and has considerable control over consumer. These women (and a few protection against exploitation same sex is not an appropriate men) regularly visit men (and a and commercialisation has thus comparison to the right to choose few women) who are physically led European countries to intro. context in which choice is being reality. though people may choose to their own sexual services if they In fact. “ Sex work ” 2002) ed. people who are not closely relat. trade in organs wish to. It uses the perverse to establish the sex industry as a “ choice ” to attempt to repay the expression : “ the right of free legitimate “ career ”. however. for example the procuring. and being in prostitution. the in. How or why female bod. a massive capitalist sex industry. The right to city councils as “ sexual samari- that the human body is worthy of choose to love someone of the tans ”. 1998) orously do not in fact want it for an acceptable. tions are seldom asked : what police. certain ques- debt rather than approach the sexual self-determination ” os. the most “ free ” context. view it as a desirable aspiration teraction between prostitute and 3 The pro-prostitution lobby dis. torts the language of women’s (Kelly & Regan. that being a prostitute or pimp is (Jeffreys. The language of choice. They have not extended the same protection to women who 3 This mythology. ing in senior housing to provide logical material (except for breast (Jeffreys. 2001).

2004) words. and control through the use of Mortality rates drugs/alcohol. cutting and control are extremely high. 2001) and battered tween a buyer and several wom. women (Valera & Berenbaum. I wouldn’t into Greece. hit. slashing the woman with razor 2003). The sexual service into objects such as dashboards provided in prostitution is most which have been documented often violent. (Farley. hundreds man raped me. and urinating and defecating on sexual assault. degrading and abu. (Raymond et al 2002) emotional abuse. I went to the ceil- of corpses of trafficked women ing and I numbed myself because who have been beaten to death. I was very frightened. burning rates and frequency of violence the women with cigarettes. 3 In [this] five–country report. (Raymond et 3Canadian Commission Special al. 2004) even feel like I was in my body. 2002) Committee on Pornography and Prostitution (1985) found that the death rate of women in prostitu. 2004) to experience leaving my body. I would while crossing a mountain range numb my feelings. I did not want to feel what I was shot or strangled are found each feeling. 2004) blades. 22 women were left while I was in prostitution I used to freeze to death during a blizzard to do that all the time. paid rape… prostitution is In this survey murder accounted like rape. it is nec. It’s like when I was 15 for 50% of the deaths of women years old and I was raped. well being of women and girls.entirely consisting of unwanted proximating those observed in sex acts or even in one woman’s our cohort ”. I used in prostitution. (HWWA. then prostitution has U. tying women to bedposts and lashing them until they bleed. intrinsic to prostitution. Iacobino.. including sex be. kicked in the head.. Prostitution is violence 3 Women who have worked in ing systematically sexually exploited against women prostitution exhibit the same in- and inevitably has devastating im. biting women’s breasts. SECT I O N 5 P O S I T I O N Points to Consider Physical violence and injury Being prostituted in itself means be.Rape tion was 40 times higher than the general population. more than 60%. verbal threats more than 70%. almost 80%. en. more than 80%. cidents of traumatic brain injury pacts on the physical and mental 3 To understand how violence is (TBI) as a result of being beaten. with physical harm. in torture survivors (Jacobs & sive sexual acts. (Farley. almost 70%. A mor. lead- 14 ing the indicators. women. prostitution noted that “ no an extremely high rate of rape population of women studied because many survivors view previously had the percentage of prostitution as almost always deaths due to murder even ap.“ If rape is defined as any unwant- tality survey of 1600 women in ed sex act. And year. I mean that’s what I did when that 3 According to Europol. (Potterat et al. her arms. In 2002. strangled essary to understand the sex of or having one’s head slammed prostitution. I would actually leave my body . legs and genital areas.S.

” (Funari in Farley. you. decreased sexual one of them. we both have been consistently found to jerked away and stared at each be related to forced sex.. 2001) the night and yet are aware of the to constant verbal onslaught of dangers and risks of not being humiliating and degrading sexu. and it was over with. These other. alert. lying in bed after work I touched my belly. a primary source of infection ognised as a severe impact of I don’t know how else to explain it among women and girls. 2000) Mental health consequences 3 There is extensive medical 3Survivors of torture. You show. 2004) Last night. genital irritation. fibroids. abuse and disassociation expe- scribed as “ toxic verbal assaults ”. (Herman. 89% of sexual abuse yet it is a necessary except that it felt like rape. 2005) alised language which is intended pact on intimate sexual relations to demean her and justify his ex. my breasts. (Raymond. with partners because of the ploitation. diction and compound mental been documented and accepted and 45% said that men became health consequences. 2001) and in a vive. ’ (Giobbe. emotional reality. an essential rape to me. integrity. stoned and drunk to get through Prostituted women are subjected Hughes et al. Impacts and consequences for women who are trafficked and prostituted : prostitution as a form of violence against women and go somewhere else with my suaded. (Giobbe.” Away from work my these people want to do this to body has continuity. to numb the pain and cope with 3The impacts of constant verbal 73% said that men offered to pay prostitution lead to long term ad- and sexualised verbal abuse have more for sex without a condom. 1992) study of US prostitution 47% of Verbal abuse the women stated that men ex. chronic pelvic pain and urinary tract infections. desire. Shocked. Somehow the glass had include vaginal bleeding or infec. You wonder how could you when they touch my body is let yourself do this and why do “ product. It was customers refused condoms in part of prostitution. sex acts without condoms are what is happening. association. rienced by women in prostitution. (Lawless & Wayne. ” (S in Farley. Women as traumatic and long lasting in abusive if women insisted that consistently describe being their impact on battered women. This is rec- til he got off. 1990) Funari describes her feelings after just one year working in a peep 15 “ It is internally damaging. When (her partner) kissed me I inadvertently shrunk 3Gynaecological complications from his touch. 3The use of drugs and alcohol pected sex without a condom. pain 2004) during intercourse. 3Prostitution has a profound im. (WHO. Disconnecting from Rape and being coerced or per. leaving one’s . 1990) a Canadian study (Cunningham strategy used by women to sur- and Christensen. condoms be used. by paying her more for body so as to disassociate from thoughts and with my feelings un. These could be de.dissolved and he had become tion. and victims of all forms of sexual mitted from john to prostitute abuse consistently describe dis- via vaginal and anal intercourse. They felt like Capri’s (her peep Sexual and show name) and they refused to Reproductive health switch back. hostages documentation that HIV is trans. become in your own mind what these people do and say with “ At work what my hands find you.

the protection and health of “ sex Legalisation promotes the expansion of all fectively becomes another pimp. or Unfortunately. twisting the women in prostitution. 2002) . by tion signals that in any of these le. We call legalized buy women. systems vary. johns who can ensure the supply of women and traf ficking. at the same time and consequently the bizarre. glass a healthier supply of prostituted bottles. They al- and birds through the control of low brothel owners to cast out in- vaginal and abdominal muscles. (Farley. “ safer sex ” and that women are sexual commodities such as the genital insertion and condom use programs insure and that prostitution is harmless fun. or else When legal barriers disappear so too do and explicitly stimulating him. or regulated prostitution State.for promoting legalisation. that it works to dismantle the sex ness is likely to increase. response would promote the With the growth of the industry. Legaliza. A more mals.. masking the fact term State-sponsored prostitu.gers all women. procuring and ment is that the system of pros. ment.tri-partite partnership that endan- pediment to pimping. lap dancing where the women proposals that mandate health try seeks to protect. sponsored prostitution because ments that support state-spon- although legalized or regulated sored sex industries comprise a Legalisation removes every legal im.. living off the earnings of women the fifth was to protect children. where the dancer sits on protect the male buyers and not a man’s lap gyrating. The 3The health and safety of women prostitution industry. the public health safety of the customer which the indus. sex shows. fected women and bring in a fresh public displays of sex with ani. dais. (Raymond. dren and adult women : including tabletop in prostitution. 2004) brothels. ( used consistently as the reason that women have been trafficked. groups promoting girls for the purpose of sexual exploita. Commission which establishes peep shows. 2002) tensifying the violation of women.legalised prostitution and govern- tion with the approval of the State. There are no “ safe dance half or fully naked on a checks for the women seek to zones ” for women in the sex industry. the common ele. stock of female bodies. These latter events ers. bondage and discipline centres. SECT I O N 6 P O S I T I O N Points to Consider 3 Legal sex businesses provide locations where sexual harass- Legalisation promotes the sex industry 3 We believe that State-spon. health and safety of women within the diversification of sex services the sex industry.” recognize the sex industry as a ing in New Zealand had to do with legitimate enterprise. phone sex. attendant or ambulance staff! disguise the reality that it is the health and same-sex prostitution. and double act heterosex. Four of coaching them to describe themselves galized or regulated systems that the five reasons given for legalis- as independent “ migrant sex workers. the State ef. snakes women for male buyers. thus in. Traffickers can use work per. sored prostitution is one of the lence against women are perpe- able career for girls and women. titution itself becomes accepted mits to bring foreign women into the and legitimated by the State. (D’Cunha. ethical and effective public health ual and homosexual intercourse. go-go. 2002) The NZ Accident Compensation dancing. sexual exploitation and vio- as a legitimate business and an accept. industry. 3 Services in sex bars that are risk assessments for different oc- integral to the legal hospitality cupations categorized prostitu- 16 Claims that legalisation is necessary to sector in parts of Southeast Asia tion as a safer job than childcare safeguard the health of women are used to include routine heterosexual sex. (Farley. and pornography. cigarettes. darts. Pimps significant root causes of sex trated with impunity. workers ” and public health and forms of sexual exploitation of both chil. ejection of razor blades. proposals would also mandate the social and ethical barriers to treating high-priced kinky acts and live health checks for the male buy- women as sexual merchandise. 2004) tion of prostitution sends the message include specialised and hazard- to new generations of men and boys ous acts for public entertainment 3 Ultimately.

… Ali and Moiud are the social workers on duty.” the exploitation of women. if you over.” Young men sky you couldn’t do that. How does having a designated area keep the women safe ? “ They have to come to the Safe zones : safe for whom ? police station to register before starting work. ” This is who seem to be “ looking out ” for the women are riding up and down on their bicycles. Crimes I visit Europe’s oldest tolerance zone. legally raphy and hunt women. but I don’t like it. out. so we can make sure they are not trafficked or underage. “ The council rying a quality guarantee for the an increase of violence against haven’t cleaned up yet. In one. hoods go up. So we Schoenmaker is proud of his work. Minne. so a woman could cal safety of those involved. January. Unlike the zones that have been shut due to selves as “ sex entrepreneurs ”. I meet Officer Jan are that : other neighbourhoods unless Schoenmaker. Also. you must done. There this inherently dangerous busi.practice. ” she explains. and car. children in those neighbour. ” he explains. Pale and thin. and there was no one to lation is 96 percent white and 4 help. clean. effects of pornography. He takes us to the “ Prostituted women will be offered have a new form of segregation enclosure where sex takes place.” Her boyfriend put her on the streets situation in one U. I’m told.S. as much money from you as possible. (Dwor. as well as one for cyclists. city. runs like clock- work. just behind the Tip- for sale like any other consumer in our cities created by the social pelzone. incongruously. pointing to the mountain of can keep women from harm in semen-soaked articles covering the ground. One is tated. 2006) … Rebecca has come in from the cold and is eager to talk. were dropping it down from the “ There’s a lot of competition out there.” he sighs. although she has escaped him. “ They do it on benefit of the “ prostitutor ” as well the women and children. healthy. “ Dear kerb crawlers. was unlucky to meet him. zone has not yet been threatened with closure. is no doubt Schoenmaker cares about the women and the neighbourhood.Sundays. The tolerance zone is great in some ways. no one will come criminal activity. (Carracedo.” Black and Native Americans. At the Marco Polo police station in Utrecht. Everyone seems to accept it as a way of life. Imagine looking for DNA is no amount of protection that among all this. responsible for policing the zone… they want pornography. 1990) tissues. and. she tells me she is 19. There are 12 parking spaces separated by 6 product. Thank you. a pair of men’s underpants lies among the debris. or at least are forced to 17 be fucked until you drop on the ground. “ I apolis is a city in which the popu. “ How did 100 percent of the por. street prostitution and suck you until your cunt is very sore. torn gift-wrapping paper. mostly it can make it easier to carry on doing this. but looks younger. but percent people of colour. and a few men what happens.” A response scrawled opposite reads. often described registered with the Ministry of of violence against women and by UK advocates of legalisation as an example of best Employment. “ I’m only on the streets until I save enough 3 Andrea Dworkin describes the to buy a car. this one. nography land in the coloured coordinating the condom and needle distribution. Men from all parts of the city . We have ft-high wooden partitions. we hate you men. at the women with no intention of buying. 2004 a national organisation. We want to get pression that communities con. clumps of hair and human 2002) excrement. cles are painted different colours. titution Strategy. While Do the women ever report violent attacks ? “ Oh yes. are “ window shopping ” – driving around gaping ies become economically devas. Co-ordinated Pros. she has found it impossible to get off the streets. We fuck and accept. They refer to them. Maybe that is why the ness. when she was 15 and. Schoenmaker translates some graffiti on the wall : rangement – could give the im. half The objectives of the association into those neighbourhoods from an hour’s drive from Amsterdam. Legitimate business moves openly masturbating.Julie Bindel – The Guardian Saturday May 15. ‘ I was raped in the red cubicle ’ which would make DNA testing easier. managed areas may offer some we do get that. “Fucking whores. or those who wish to stand up to have sex.” 3 The creation of a managed area – even as a short-term ar. “ So they get customers quickly. kin. used condoms and cigarette butts. I am recommending that the cubi- opportunity to improve the physi. Responding to legalisation / decriminalisation arguments 3In Spain procurers have formed come in at night to buy pornog. Ali kisses each condom for luck before handing it neighbourhoods ? I mean.” The floors of the cubicles are littered with as a use-by-date ”. there say. Those parts of cit. There are empty food cartons. we know who to look for if they disappear. Home office. (UK. There is no sign of the police.

the pace local prostitution industries expe. 70% experienced ver- adult and child prostitution are distinct. The pro-legalisation lobby bases its argu. it does not discriminate by pimps and trafficked for pros.Snow of the Prostitutes Collec- texts in which the idea of “ free tive of Victoria (The Age. 28 Feb. SECT I O N 7 P O S I T I O N Points to consider the sex industry – that their entry into it was through sexual exploi- The sex industry has the capacity to Trafficking and prostitution tation as a child or young person. regardless of whether the It promotes the ideas that : prostitution frequency of violence than did in. those opposing legalisation are denying physical violence by buyers. or the health of the victims. tituted women suffered physical be protected by legal indoor prostitution. (D’Cunha. choice ” has minimal relevance. Her study of the impact of including the reality for many in legalisation on the conditions of . nonetheless both our realises that she has no control studies indicate that women in over the choice of client. al trafficking. exploitative purpose of the activ. 2005) the demand side of the equation. the trafficked woman or child. centre of our deliberations the adult woman. we must distinguish between forced and free trafficked into U. 86% of the U. women who had been trafficked prostitution or sexual abuse by from abroad. study. that they had been subjected to bal threats of physical assaults. women and girls can only For example. or the nature of rience similar kinds of violence as the sexual activity. there are “soft and harm. It ensures that or across borders that matters viders/exploiters in maintaining the needs of the consumers are always (Jõe-Cannon.focusing only on the routes into against anyone including children of titution and forced labour within the sex industry to placing at the either gender. met. The sex industry is not concerned (Kelly and Regan. In the U.S. prostitution is legal 60% of pros- prostitution.establishments were legal or il- ternational women who had been legal. 2002) can pay a price for sex and for her body.the conditions in which prosti- ble to make a clear and stable tuted women are sexually ex- boundary between “ forced ” and ploited according to Jocelyn “ free ” prostitution. in 40% experienced sexual violence women agency. the their own countries. Although we esti. 2002) Free / forced 3 Legalisation has not improved 3 The insistence that it is possi.the lack of viable alternative eco- ity rather than the movement of nomic and social options.S.. In the Netherlands where 18 and trafficking are not connected. women in research that prostitution es- are not reflected in the reality of the lives in local prostitution industries tablishments did little to protect of women and children in the sex industry. sex industries.S. 1999). mate there was underreporting 1994) of violence by the internationally trafficked women due to many 3 Once in prostitution a woman reasons.acquaintances. women in prostitution reported assaults. and The industry rejects no act of exploitation persons either inside a country the role of customers and pro- demanded by customers. She is the internationally trafficked women. denies con. child. reported higher incidence and them. we found that 3 Women consistently indicate ments on a series of false distinctions that higher numbers of U. include all forms of adult and child Thus the question must shift – for sexual exploitation in what it offers 3 Women and girls are controlled both adults and children – from to the buyer. 2000) about acts of violence perpetrated against 3Whether it’s local or internation- the victims. It is the contexts which hold them there. shared property of any male who (Raymond et al. the prostituted woman or abuse and control exist.S.or price of work. Coercion. contrast to 28% of international and 40% had been forced into less” sides to the pornography industry. the young woman. (Vanwesenbeek. women endure the Legal / illegal same kind of violence and harm.

force. policy . tated. Entry into prostitution 3 Lithuania – 200 child prostitutes in Vilnius decline in attractiveness to men. involvement in the sex industry is women and girls who are raped exploitation and illegal. homeless girls. 2002) no separate “ markets ” for chil- 3 Russia – children make up 25% dren or for trafficked women of Moscow prostitutes (1999) Health control and girls. One in five clients still adult women in European (and 3 Poland – estimates of several hundred request unsafe sex. in Kelly and Regan.What process can occur in 24 selves. Naming trafficking and prostitution as violence against women exploitation faced by prostituted led formulations. day – their birthday – when ily. Rejecting false distinctions and moving towards clarity. 85% had been sexually abused condom use : the need of women the dignity and integrity of human and compelled into prostitution to make money. in barracks at the border crossings tituted women have over their al exploitation of children is facili- 3 Russia – Moscow boasts a “ nympho ” club bodies in prostitution venues. a form of work ? use of condoms to protect them. 2000) 3 Poland / Germany – minors involved in money needed for a drug habit roadside prostitution has flourished along the or to pay off the pimp. (Farley. By insisting on an absolute where minors do strip tease and are tattooed (Raymond. The arrogance. ” (Sullivan other) sex industries. and to create an impermeable bound- ary between “ forced ” and “ free ” prostitution are doomed to failure since both are analytic. pimp of coercion. How prostitution to insist on condom can it be that on one day when use fail to recognise the reality of the young person is 15 or 17 their victimisation. the distinctions Data on child prostitution in Eastern Europe women found “ The worst thing and boundaries collapse when 3 Romania – 129 convictions for under was the clients. Battered women. sex industries are tolerated. young and demands.All data taken from Crossing Borders Project. older women’s beings. There are children in prostitution (1999) and Jeffreys. drug addicted they are 16 or 18. the the lives of children. this becomes girls and women in prostitution not just legal but legitimate. sexu. and becoming entrapped within competition from places that it. comprise complex mixtures 3 Latvia – 40-50% of prostitutes are minors do not require condoms. and the 3 The simple fact is that where border where under 18s live like prisoners general lack of control that pros. the violence. (Kelly & Regan. 2000 which focus on getting women in atic – logic is re-enforced. but on the and sexually abused in the fam. 3 Estonia – 20-30% of prostitutes are minors with no condom for more money. and an other harm reduction strategies implicit – but deeply problem. Abusers have the power hours that transforms something to target. 2004) Adult-Child debate 3 The attempts to disconnect child and adult prostitution. a are not in a position to enforce the matter of choice. deception. 14 their virginity is sold to the highest bidder 3 HIV education campaigns and tion to 18 is undermined.inherently exploitative into an is- suade for their gratification with sue of choice and consent ? (Kelly no concern for the well being of & Regan. nor is there a form of prostitution which is not in some 3 Russia – of 750 girls in a reception 3 Many factors militate against fundamental way exploitative of centre. depend- pressure on women to have sex ence and choice. coerce and per. looked at through the realities of 18 prostitution offences (1995) the smelliness. 2004) separation of children and adults 19 with their owners mark and when they reach the argument to extend protec. 2000) the victim.

(Kelly & Regan. 2000) and forced himself on me. alcohol or both. 2005) member. phone sex.” Indoor and street prostitution 3 Some studies indicate that women in indoor prostitution are 3 Women almost always work in less able to control the conditions a variety of locations depending and interaction with men. 66% had of “ victimism ”. but need massage parlours. violence and abuse. 2004) time in the sex industry is a pas- sive victim. not signify a permanent state and escort services. but it is likely to interviewees in New Zealand had be an anguished agency much been in many different kinds of constrained by circumstance locations : as strip clubs. traf. brothels 20 their agency is severely limited and windows. street. All of a are actions taken in the context sudden he pushed me back on of already constraining circum. Noth- ing strange before. (Kramer. (Vanwesenbeek. Agency / victimhood that 59% of 119 respondents had been prostituted for the longest 3 Victim has a literal meaning period of time in multiple indoor in describing the recipient of locations such as strip clubs. Women can in. Pulled it (the condom) off stances. internet. men’s violence was emphasise children’s (and wom.unpredictable: en’s) agency. escort. Even regulars can and coping / survival strategies. and / or an addiction to women describe that despite drugs. 22% had their talents. no warning.Chapman & Marshall (1993) sug- lice harassment. 2003) 47 ing decisions. Each will endeavour 3 In a study of women in legal to use whatever limited options indoor prostitution in the Nether- and choices that are available to lands they found great emotional protect their physical and mental stress and extreme nervousness health. peep shows. But tuted primarily in clubs. change for the worse. violent partner or family Ireland (Lawless & Wayne. (Farley.” Both involve individuals acting in relation to their own needs and “ I was raped once. 1998) been domestically trafficked and 6% had been trafficked from an- 3No woman or child who spends other country. phone and devoid of the exultation of sex. No indication. on money and demand and po. longest time. In many of their attempts to control their en- the commentaries which seek to vironment. by the conditions and context of 1994) their lives.3 In interviews with women in ficker. “ choosing ” between glorious bar. Boyer.the car. whether this includes being controlled by a pimp. been in street prostitution for the deed express agency by mak. very little discussion takes place about the difference “ You are getting into cars with between “ free choice / action strangers. and they use their agency among women who were prosti- every day simply to survive. One study found gested that women in strip clubs . circumstances – but the latter We were just finishing. (Jeffreys. brothel prostitution possibilities for the exercise of and at military bases.

Women talk about pornography used by the rapist… being alone in a room with the Links with pornography : Over a quarter of this group of customer. the accounts of rape. 3 The global sex industry. physical that many were abused outside and sexual abuse experienced by their work environment and in women in strip club prostitution their childhood prior to entering which included being grabbed on prostitution. These 200 . not being able to reject young prostitutes had also been customers or warn each other. Session 11. 2004) borders and clients able to travel duced in pornography. world with ease. (D’Cunha. enslavement. with Internet technology. the cli. at one used in child pornography.ity is denied and our bodies are scribe the demand by customers ent may be in one continent while violated for sexual pleasure. I could wanted their money’s worth. 3 In her research with 200 wom- such as lap dancing and peep en in prostitution. the by pornography in legitimising vic- line between prostitution and lap timization. Mimi Silbert shows which. and documented the verbal. almost a physical harm than women on (Farley. (Sil- that they are not encouraged level. “ It got harder to be with the cli.The study documented that the bing. and children trafficked across system. Holsopple (1998) was seen as part of their job. 2005) also de. ping now involve touching. women to sexual destinations around the are defined and acted upon 3 Women in the Irish study (Law. grab. child or woman in another conti. However. nent. Rejecting false distinctions and moving towards clarity. Just under two thirds dancing is so blurred that many of the women working currently forms of lap dancing and strip. the tricks of the trade by men ex- ents would pay for an hour but posing us to porn and us trying only stay 20 mins. 2004) quarter (23%) made reference to the street.1990) ents. At another level. In prostitution were 16 or under. Naming trafficking and prostitution as violence against women and brothels had less control of trated vaginally and anally. Many of the descrip- the breasts. as sexual objects. and pene. Private women recounted 193 instanc- the conditions of their lives and lap dances are bought where the es of rape and 178 experiences probably faced greater risks of customer at least expects ejacu. buttocks and geni. Before the cli. spit on.tions of these sexual assaults tals as well as being kicked.” not stress enough what a huge influence we feel this was (Public The “ softer ” side Hearings before the Minneapolis of the Industry City Council. She promised the clients more than 3 As one woman said “ Porn 21 I’d do and then clients would stay was the text book. but these ones to mimic what we saw. our human- less & Wayne. I changed work.made reference to the role played ten. slapped. the for more time and intimacy : directing and watching a live strip bodies of our sisters are literally show. pinching and stimulating sexual abuse of street prostitutes men’s genitals. bert & Pines. articulated and repro- ley. do not also recognised the role played involve penetration. I hated it. We learned the full two hours. 1984) to report violence or prosecute ment in different venues in any violent customers and having to part of the globe. bit. 2000) places to an upmarket place. and lation but usually penetration. Decem- ber 1983) 3 Some activities in the sex in- dustry are presented as mild. (Leidholdt. or the sexual abuse of a marketed for profit. with women 3 Within the predominant sexual service pimps and guards. organizes sexual pornography. (Far. it is alleged. of sexual abuse in childhood.

3 Focus on safety. 3 Promotion of alternatives for women. It is also necessary to rec. . the buyers/pimps/sex industry and decriminalises women. 3 Integration of prostitution The view that prostitution is a form of and trafficking in legislation. 3 Responses to victims of sexual exploitation clearly recognise that prostitution is a form of violence against women and support women in this recognition. tion. policies and programs that treat women as victims. violence against women has major im- plications that underpin direct services 3 A zero tolerance of prostitution and trafficking. What we believe. 22 to women which respects their rights. promotion of men’s right to buy and sexually exploit women. policies. harm elimination and the prevention of re-victimisation. 3 Accountability and criminal sanctions are sought for the abusers / johns / pimps. and that this position is 3 Increased awareness consistent with a non-judgmental attitude of the links between adult and child sexual exploitation. not as criminals. 3 Men buying women are recognised as abusers and sexual exploiters. sex industry. 3 Increased research and information on all forms of male sexual violence. SECT I O N 8 P O S I T I O N Points to Consider Two very different sets of outcomes result from how practitioners view It is critical to identify the actions and PROSTITUTION AS A FORM OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN outcomes arising from the perspec- Legal/Social/Political Outcomes: tive that prostitution and trafficking of women for sexual exploitation must be 3 Legislation and policy that criminalise eliminated. 3 Integrated responses to women. as service providers. to women. 3 Recognition that prostitution is always dangerous and damaging for women. and programs. influences our interactions 3 Increased public awareness with individual women exploited in the of the violation experienced by women exploited in prostitution. as a legitimate business and career. Practitioners need to know that when they hold the position that 3 Growing intolerance for the permission and prostitution is a form of sexual exploita. girls and children are developed which do not distinguish between a “ free ” or “ forced ” entry route. ognise the inevitable outcomes of a standpoint that promotes prostitution 3 Legislation. they are protecting women from further harm. Service Provision Outcomes : 3 Development of exit programs for women in prostitution. 3 Advocacy that promotes the right to get out of prostitution.

3 Harm reduction model focussing on health consequences. 3 Major expansion of the sex industry. 3 False distinction between adult and child sexual exploitation. Women forced to satisfy the increasing. not as exploiters. Legal. Increase in child prostitution. . perverse demands by buyers. Actions and Outcomes Arising from Positions Adopted on Prostitution and Trafficking prostitution – as a form of violence. Increase in demand and numbers of men who sexually exploit. 3 Separation of prostitution and trafficking in legislation. Service Provision Outcomes: 3 No exit programs needed if prostitution is seen as a legitimate job. 3 Male buyers seen as consumers. or as a choice or form of work. 23 3 States legalizing or decriminalizing the sex industry have no priority to provide alternatives for women in prostitution. 3 Action directed to improving the working conditions in the sex industry. 3 Identifying prostitution as an unacceptable violation is seen as being judgmental of the women themselves. 3 Facilitating and colluding with johns/pimps/abusers. HIV and sexually transmitted disease. 3 Advocacy that promotes the “ right ” to prostitution. Denial of women as victims. social and ethical legitimisation of the sex industry. 3 Denial and minimisation of the violence and damage inherent in prostitution. policies and programs. Denial of the harm of sexual exploitation to women. 3 Glamorisation of prostitution as a career choice for women. 3 Increased social acceptance of men’s entitlement to buy girls and women. PROSTITUTION AS A CHOICE OR A FORM OF WORK Legal / Social / Political Outcomes : 3 Legislation and policy that legalises/regulates/decriminalises the sex industry and makes it acceptable. 3 It is difficult for women to name the violence and sexual exploitation inherent in prostitution if it is seen as a part of the job. 3 Promotion of sex work as a choice and an acceptable job for women. not assisting women to get out.

3 Globalisation of the economy 3 The expansion and consolida- making enterprise based on the marketing also means globalisation of the tion of the sex industry with its of women and girls. principally girls and and organized crime. (D’Cunha.gressive appropriation and deci- legal permission to exploit and make the dustry in the EU. This large-scale accumulation of political will by states to create adequate (European Parliament Report on capital takes place through a pro- laws and ensure police enforcement give the Consequences of the Sex In. bodies. It results in the In any system of legalised or regulated the purpose of trafficking. It is estimated that the aided by its incorporation and prostitution and trafficking networks illegal sex industry turns 5-7 bil. The indus- less punishment and shorter sentences. The U. 2003) mation of women’s and children’s sexual violence against women invisible. women and girls. The collusion and lack of 2001 went on various porn sites. The sexual exploita. sexualities and entire be- ings. entertainment and leisure drugs and guns. SECT I O N 9 P O S I T I O N Points to consider The global sex industry is a massive profit.gins reportedly equalling those nancially from the sexual exploitation of ternet users spent on the net in in the arms and narcotics trade. industry. the travel and transport be sold multiple times and in multiple estimates that some 4 million industry. and the criminals receive individuals. underground narcotics ways for profit.trans-national linkages has been tion of women and girls in international dustry. women and children can budgets in the world. sex slave trade and the sex in. 2002) 24 . women are transported annually try has high levels of organization within and between countries for and profitability. Unlike than the annual total of all military tourist. 70% of generation of massive profit mar- prostitution the State is benefiting fi.contracts with legitimate branch- has become one of the major aspects lion US$ per year – more money es of the corporate sector – the of transnational organised crime.N.the £252 million that European In.

This shows how profitable it international criminal networks is for both traffickers and owners and maximizing their profits by of adult entertainment establish- creating economies of scale. Total annual revenues of traffickers are estimated to range from US$ 5 billion to US$ 9 bil- lion. (UNESCE. where pros- criminal groups to extend their titution is legal. generates almost US$ 1 billion a tablishing links with foreign and year. (UNESCE. One ments. Italy. According to vari- ous estimates up to 80% of the women and girls trafficked from Central. 3 The sex industry in the EU ing of countries in transition to Member States has become one the world economy have cre. Belgium. Profits made from trafficking and prostitution 3 Globalisation and the open. the sex industry illicit economic activities by es. Germany and United Kingdom) and the United States. of the most lucrative businesses. Eastern European and CIS countries to Western Europe 25 are destined for the sex services market. ated an opportunity for national In the Netherlands. 2004) of the most rapidly growing illicit activities over the past two dec- ades has been trafficking women and girls mainly for the sex in- dustry in Western Europe (Neth- erlands. 2004) .

and legitimise the traditional ties. butch More girls and women will be and femme. They see them- rights of women will be eroded. such as sadomasochism. these states the national level as well as inter- Promoting the idea that some women are saying that it is right that nationally. (Winberg. legitimate targets for exploitation. Gender equality will must be available for sale to satisfy women. 2005) Prostitution and trafficking promotes 3 Legitimising prostitution will 3 Where feminists seek to trans- sexism and racism as men are encour. SECT I O N 10 P O S I T I O N Points to consider 3 The Swedish Government has long given priority to combating Gender inequality is inherent in the pro. and men and will retard the de. 2002) pro-sex tradition.3 It is not acceptable for States prostitution and trafficking in hu- motion and normalisation of prostitution. men’s to legalise men’s sexual exploi. as “ other ” and as relationships between women and ending women’s inequality. that display women’s humiliation and the individual and collective and degradation. Enshrined within state legislation. More boys and men will be sexuality of dominance and sub- socialized to maltreat women as mission. just and empowering keeping women and children safe countries as less. can and will be put up for men buy sell and exploit women of women who are excluded from the sale. By legalising part of Sweden’s goal for equal- tion to a society based on gender equality. Pro-sex turns out to mean pro-sexual domi- nance and submission. 2002) and Communications. protection afforded under national any other commodity. brothels and other prostitution ity between women and men. Employment and international human rights law.This objective is an important right to buy women is a direct contradic. thus progres- sively also dehumanising men. and in some cases chil. the libertarians seek to promote velopment of humane communi. violated. form sexuality in the interests of aged to see women from poorer foreign cal. and so-called erotica drawn into prostitution. at related activities.remain unattainable as long as men’s sexual needs is to create a group dren. that call themselves democratic man beings for sexual purposes. tation of women. bought and consumed like and children by prostituting them. equal. They eroticise practices that rely on power imbalance. thwart efforts towards recipro. (Ministry of Industry. (Jeffreys. 26 normal practice. 1990) . selves as being in the so-called (D’Cunha.

2002) and evaluated on everything from skin colour to presence of scars 3 We cannot dissociate prostitu. and perceive the events only from nation by males of females in all their self-interested perspec- countries around the world. are graphic detail. male violence against colonization. Sexual exploita- tion eroticises women’s inequality and is a vehicle for racism and “ first world ” domination. 2002) or political crisis and the accom- panying poverty are advantages. information on the internet see nor from the systematic subordi. 3 Sexual exploitation preys on which produce cheap labour women and children made vul. The are to be available for purchase. for men. CATW Position State- ment. 3 Currently the Internet is being and this respect’s significance used by men to promote and en- for our understanding of what it gage in the sexual exploitation of means to be a woman or a man women. The men tion from other forms of male vi. Social/gender equality consequences of trafficking and prostitution 3 Respect for women’s bodies. dispro- portionately victimizing minority and “ third world ” women. buying women and posting the olence against women and girls. how desperate the women are 27 nomic development policies and and how little men have to pay. A country’s economic and slavery. their experience of totally dependent on if women using women and children. In a tive. often in and which rights that ensue. Often men describe nerable by pover ty and eco.. patriarchy. (Ekberg.. Men describe. 1997) persons and on women in the mi- grating process. inequalities and of course sexism erful tools used to keep women is limited to how those forces af- and girls in a state of oppression fect them. refugee and displaced (Hughes. practices. (CATW brochure. 1988) . women are completely objectified (Westerstrand. Their awareness of racism. and firmness of flesh. global economic women is one of the most pow.

purchasing – or at- tempting to purchase – sexual The governments of South Korea services has constituted a crimi. . but also to services in Sweden are very society at large. 2005) chase of sexual services has had a positive result as regards traf- In Sweden.much discretion … (to pimp) it is nofridslagstiftningen). afraid of being discovered and they demand that the purchase In the legislation on gross viola. as has the recruitment of women into prostitution.. buyers.(now) necessary to have several ish Government and Riksdag (the apartments or other premises Parliament) defined prostitution available … and . prostitution is regard. Public support for the legislation is widespread and growing accord- ing to opinion polls conducted by the SIFO. SECT I O N 11 Sweden From the 5th NCID Situation Re- port of the Swedish National Rap- Swedish legislation : porteur on Trafficking. in interrogations. Ministry of …there have been obvious indica- Industry. according to informa- tion provided by the police and social services. 2003 : a summary From (Fact Sheet.been in contact with. do not con- dren that constitutes a significant sider Sweden a good market for social problem. pimping ac- 28 as a form of male violence against tivities in Sweden must be more women and children. Since the Act came into force there has been a dramatic drop in the number of women in street prostitution.ficking in human beings. Finland will vote on a law The women and children who against the demand sometime in are victims of prostitution and 2006.tions that the Act relating to pur- munications. Since Janu.organised to be profitable. It is told that pimps and traffickers officially acknowledged as a form in human beings that they have of exploitation of women and chil. Employment and Com. against women and children. Several ed as an aspect of male violence women have.and the Philippines have passed nal offence punishable by fines or similar legislation against the up to six months imprisonment. which is harmful these activities … Another aspect not only to the individual that the purchasers of sexual tuted woman or child.. the Swed. trafficking do not risk any legal repercussions. The number of men who buy sexual services has decreased.of sexual services take place with tion of a woman’s integrity (Kvin. ary 1 1999. an opinion and social research consultancy firm.

slavery. Department Policy Paper. Department of State. The Links Between Prostitution and Trafficking) There is no evidence that legalisa- tion in any country has reduced the number of trafficking victims. the of America United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UN The U.S. sexual services by UN peace- humanizing. and NGOs working in the field note that the number of trafficking victims often increase. This or tolerated. a form of modern-day prohibits the patronage of bars. and those who are trafficked in- mercial sex slavery. Bureau of Public Affairs. purchase of sexual services be- crease in the number of women tween locally prostituted women and children trafficked into com. nightclubs. this UN policy still prohibits the purchase of sexual services 29 check-ups or licenses don’t ad- dress the core problem : the rou. 2004) . Legalised prostitution is a trafficker’s best shield. brothels or hotels where sexual exploitation and Where prostitution is legalized prostitution are present. in which the peacekeepers oper- titution by introducing medical ate. and fuels trafficking keeping personnel and also in persons. Trafficking in Persons Report. thus prohibits the purchase of tion is inherently harmful and de. ficking recognizes that the use ized prostitution in a December of prostituted women in mission 2002 National Security Directive areas is exploitative. (U. Government adopted DPKO) policy on human traf- a strong position against legal.S.S. there is a greater groundbreaking policy does not demand for human trafficking distinguish its prohibition of the victims and nearly always an in. since it identifies such purchase tine abuse and violence that form as an act of sexual exploitation. Even if prostitution is not a crime in the jurisdiction State attempts to regulate pros. ternationally. the prostitution experience and (Human Trafficking and United brutally victimize those caught in Nations Peacekeeping DPKO its netherworld. (U. Case Studies United States On an international level. allowing him to legitimise his trade in sex slaves and mak- ing it more difficult to identify traf- ficking victims. 2004) of State. The DPKO based on evidence that prostitu.

peep shows. The tens of thousands of men the real growth area is in the illegal who use women in the sex in- sector. Tabletop ceptable to insult. found an increase in the study did not use condoms when number of legal brothels from 40 exploiting prostituted women. many will fail to under- sion of forms of sexual exploi. 1999) remarks. in fact it has had the any other commodity. a decade ago to 94 today. the Prostitutes’ Collective . It would be are supported by a 1998 study surprising if it did not. Forty percent of men in the in 1999. at a time when other is not the answer : women are seeking to desexual- The example of Victoria. If it is ac- tation in the industry. practices “ include women be- sation would control expansion of ing lined up and looked over like the industry. for instance. whilst their female workmates in Since the legalisation process factories and offices are not. abuse dancing. Legalisation in Victo.” able objects for their unwanted (The Age. The demand violence and exploitation that is for oral sex. Aus. An investigative re. hands and penises. Ironically. more demanding in the type of ria has perpetuated the culture of services they want. phone just because a man has paid for sex and pornography – all are it. frequently demonstrated the expansion and diversification by men simply sticking their fin- of the industry. along with 84 escort agencies. The new been replaced by the demand for liberalised climate has facilitated anal sex.course.stand this distinction. 1 March. since this conducted by the Mac Farlane is the very reason that business Burnett Centre for Medical Re- interests are pushing so hard for search done in conjunction with legalisation. Of began there has been an explo. Collective of Victoria (PCV) have son as to why legalisation is not explained that men are becoming the answer. why should it shock a woman developing profitably as part of in another place to have the same a multi-million dollar industry of treatment ? sexual exploitation. gers into women’s anuses during their “ bookings. The over 100 unlicensed dustry in the State of Victoria brothels outnumbered the “ le.” Other normal Though it was hoped that legali.are expected to understand that gitimate ” sex businesses in 1999 women in prostitution are suit- and had trebled in 12 months. Spokespersons for the Prostitutes tralia provides a good object les. The experience of Victoria. ise their workplaces assisted by Australia trade unions. grab. women employed By Mary Sullivan and in the sex industry are expected Sheila Jeffreys (2004) to endure behaviour not toler- ated in other work environments.Vic- port by Victoria’s Age newspaper toria. . These views 30 opposite effect. bondage and discipline and harass a woman in one place centres. Australia “ Sex work ” empowering for prostituted women ? Legalising prostitution In Victoria. Legalisation leads to massive expansion. has inherent in prostitution.” and sex without condoms.

a whole new culture of men-only trafficking of women into prostitu. Legalisation has more justified and confident through the sex industry create brought with it an explosion in the in their prostitution behaviour. Case Studies Rise of the black market Effect of legalised the power and privilege men Legislation was intended to elimi. Club owners supply naked wom- en on the table at tea breaks and at lunchtime. men bond through the it has been revealed that Victorian with men in which they are re. stantly expanding obstacle. Recently have egalitarian relationships clubs ”. priving them of their passports Legalising prostitution maintains and earnings until their contracts that low status and makes it 31 were worked off. The tabletop venues oper- ate and often describe themselves as “ gentlemen’s clubs ”. As the fering women to men as objects trade run by crime syndicates industry grows. 9 Whilst women in the State of Vic- May 1999) This man has since re.” de. collective abuse of women. prostitution on the status gained from men-only facilities. for instance. Whereas. women to the role of sex objects. Prostitution is an industry that One Melbourne sex trafficker arises from women’s low so- brought 40 Thai women into Vic. The women have that they should be treated with to have sex with 500 men before dignity and respect. Meanwhile women’s desire to bonding. receiving any money and were imprisoned by him (The Age. span major roads which is worth $A30 million in women are finding that they have in Melbourne educating new gen- Australia. partners are doing. that Australian brothels earned to avoid recognising what their $A1 million a week from this il. Wom- rage of those who want the traffic en have sought to gain equality in of women into sex slavery taken employment opportunities in cor- seriously. This is called much harder for women to assert debt bondage. In the new “ gentlemen’s tion by organised crime. Women executives are not likely to attend such meet- ings. toria strive to improve their status. women as subordinates. such as tabletop clubs. In fact the reverse Legalisation allows men to feel the new men’s facilities created has happened. nate organised crime from the of women and gained right of entry to many. to the out. An Australian Institute the choice to accept the way their erations of men and boys to treat of Criminology study estimated male partners treat other women. sex industry. more and more for sexual use. of- in the lucrative international sex more impossible to fulfil. ceived an 18-month suspended the sex industry provides a con- sentence and a fine. porations. Some examples of the trade came to light in 1999. once women sought to challenge . Ad- sex “ businessmen ” are involved spected becomes more and vertisements for these clubs. These clubs market themselves as spaces where companies can hire rooms with whiteboards to write on for product launches and meetings. cial status and the relegation of toria as “ contract workers. legal trade. for meetings and entertain- ing corporate clients. or to leave. This is se- riously undermined by corporate use of facilities.

of Discrimination against Women (1979) derline that a gender perspective should be fully integrated into all follow up processes of the UN Conferences. The convention tion (1995) and the Outcome Document of the 23rd Ses. to suppress all forms of The promotion of equality between women and men into all traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women.’ polices and programmes is a main principle for the further CEDAW builds on the 1949 Convention. and are listed below: ventions exist which can be invoked as evidence and even used as resources to insist that Governments move to UN Convention of 1949 for the Suppression of the Traf- protect their citizens from the ravages of trafficking and fic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution sexual exploitation. Stipulates that ‘ States parties shall take all appropriate 32 measures. The convention advocates punishment for those ‘ who pro- Building on the United Nations (UN) Beijing Platform for Ac. not considered as criminals but as victims to be protected. other texts also offer protection for women – the advancement of the UN Millennium Declaration and Article 6 of Convention on the Elimination of All Forms the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals un. including legislation. to combat trafficking and prostitution protocols and political statements and human rights con. entice or lead ’ others into prostitution.’ The preamble sets forth the principle that support women’s human rights and to create the necessary prostitution and trafficking is ‘ incompatible with the dignity infrastructure to promote gender equality and ensure that and worth of the human person ’. by introducing ‘all development and implementation of all EU treaties since the forms of’ traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of Treaty of Amsterdam (1998) and the Treaty of Nice (2000).cure. human rights. . This section seeks to summarise the of Others – The convention is one of the international hu- key international mechanisms and can be used by projects man rights instruments that addresses ‘ slavery and slavery and NGOs to remind Governments of their commitments to like practices. women and acknowledges that new forms of trafficking and sexual exploitation exist and must be curbed. directives. 2000) states that countries cannot regulate prostitution or subject wherein Governments expressed commitments to progress women in prostitution to registration or other administrative and implement actions to promote gender equality and controls.establishes a link between prostitution and trafficking and sion of the UN General Assembly (Beijing Plus 5. SECT I O N 12 Introduction Certain UN documents are useful A large collection of international agreements. Women in prostitution are women and children can live free from violence.

It is intended to jumpstart national laws and harmo- Women (CEDAW) to make suggestions and general rec. Since the 1949 Convention came into force.5 Trafficking in Persons especially Women and stipulates that States Parties ‘ shall take or strengthen leg- Children. Resolution 49/2. women’s lower economic status. supplementing the UN Convention islative or other measures … to discourage the demand Against Transnational Organised Crime (2000) that fosters all forms of exploitation of persons. The defini- and violence. perpetrators UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW). thus recognising Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) that the victim of trafficking should not bear the burden of Maintains the spirit of the 1949 Convention in its articles 34 proof. 33 have organised new and pernicious forms of trafficking such 2005.nise regional legislation against trafficking in women and ommendations based on the examination of reports and children. the issue of the DE- Protocol to Prevent.6/2005/11) . The Protocol also provides protection measures for and 35 and adds other forms of sexual exploitation such victims. trafficking cannot be dissociated from the exploitation of which highlights the interconnections between trafficking prostitution. Suppress and Punish MAND that promotes trafficking is addressed. that leads to trafficking ’. International Human Rights mechanisms for combating trafficking for sexual exploitation and useful European Union reports and political statements Article 21 of the Convention on the Elimination of All The Protocol is a wide-ranging agreement to address the Forms of Discrimination against Women empowers the crime of trafficking in persons. as pornography. E/CN. 19 in 1992. For the first time in a UN Convention. Eliminating Demand as trafficking in women and children for mail order bride for Trafficked Women and Girls for All Forms of industries and for sex tourism. Article 9. CEDAW clarified that trafficking is a form of gender-based violence when The text follows the 1949 Convention in recognising that it adopted General Recommendation No. tion of trafficking also states that the consent of the victim to the intended exploitation is irrelevant. It initially targets ‘ the exploitation of prostitution in women. armed conflict of others and other forms of sexual exploitation ’. especially women and chil- Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against dren. Exploitation in the Report of the 49 th Session (E/2005/27. especially (The Palermo Protocol) women and children. information received from States parties.

Integration of the Human Rights of ficking in Human Beings Warsaw. It calls upon Council Decision Endorsing the Declaration Governments to take all appropriate measures to eliminate the demand for trafficked women and girls and empha. “ to deter exploiters and eliminate calls for effective coordinated actions between the origin. including for sexual exploitation. reasons tionals who are victims of trafficking in human beings against legalizing prostitution and the sex industry.illegal immigration. the meaning of de. who cooperate with the competent 34 phasis on prosecuting perpetrators. This excellent report addresses the interpretation of the defi. The Declaration cluding legislative ones.29/4/2004 Council Directive 2004/81/EC of 29 April 2004 nition of trafficking in the UN Protocol. States Parties that maintain legalized pros- titution are far from satisfying this obligation.This declaration was made in Brussels in 2002 and is on sizes that commercial sexual exploitation overwhelmingly Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings affects women and girls. the report authorities states. against the demand for sexual exploitation (Art.5 of the UN Protocol against trafficking by affirming that to combat trafficking and prostitution : “ eliminating the demand for trafficked women and girls for all forms of exploitation. Brussels Declaration (2002) is a key element to combating trafficking ”. criminalizing the use of prostituted persons. Significantly.19/07/2002 Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA ficking … States parties with legalized prostitution industries of 19 July 2002 on Combating trafficking in human be- have a heavy responsibility to ensure that … their legalized ings prostitution regimes are not simply perpetuating widespread and systematic trafficking. that “ For the most part. the demand ”. 6). It encourages all measures. in. prostitution as actually prac- tised in the world usually does satisfy the elements of traf.” . based on Focus on the Demand for Commercial Sexual UN Protocol 2000 and affirms the necessity to take action Exploitation and Trafficking (2006). the UN Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons. Report of Sigma Huda.on the Residence permit issued to third-country na- mand. transit and destination countries among all national and in- ternational players in the relevant fields. Especially Women Council of Europe Convention on Action against Traf- and Children.– the Global Challenge for the 21st Century. 16/5/2005 Contains an Women and a Gender Perspective with a Special internationally-recognized definition of trafficking. As current conditions throughout the world attest. and a or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate human rights approach to trafficking that includes an em. The 2005 CSW Resolution on Demand reinforces Article European documents useful 9.

committed for the purpose of sexual or labour exploitation as defined in the Framework Decision of 19 July 2002 on combating trafficking in human beings. The Communication aims at further strengthening the com- mitment of the European Union and the Member States to prevent and fight against trafficking in human beings. in based on gender equality across the EU. . criminal proceedings (COM (2004) 54 final/2). their needs and rights shall be at the centre of the EU policy against hu- man trafficking. Committee on on the basis of Article 18 of the council Framework De. The report makes useful links between trafficking and pros- 20/10/2003 Council Resolution of 20 October 2003 on titution in Member States and supports actions which are Initiatives to combat trafficking in human beings. This proposed 35 action plan has still to be discussed by the Council and the European Parliament. International Human Rights mechanisms for combating trafficking for sexual exploitation and useful European Union reports and political statements 22/03/2001 Council Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA European Parliament Report on strategies to prevent of 15 March 2001 on the Standing of victims in criminal the trafficking of women and children who are vulner- proceedings (16/02/2004 Report from the Commission able to sexual exploitation (2004/2216(INI). COM(2005) 514 final). support and rehabilitation of its victims.Fighting traf- ficking in human beings : an integrated approach and proposals for an action plan (52005DC0514. 18/10/2005. This means first and foremost a clear com- mitment of EU institutions and Member States to follow a human rights centred approach and to promote it in their external relations and development policies. Rapporteur : Chris- cision of 15 March 2001 on the standing of victims in tina Prets. particular women. and to the protec- tion. It recognised that the persons concerned. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council .Women’s Rights and Gender Equality.

H.. Stress Prostitution Harms Prostitution Activities ”. the Swedish Government. Rapporteur : Marianne Eriksson. Vol. A Critical Analysis organised by the Swedish Terror. August 12. Sage. (ED.. BARRY. Sweden. Nagle. the debate on Prostitution in Spanish Society Paper FARLEY. & MARSHALL. 5-6 November. Raymond. “ The International Debate about Prostitution and Trafficking in Women : Refuting the Arguments. 1998. 37. and DRAGOS. 2. Violence Against Women: an International and Interdisciplinary Journal. BOYER. 1997. Seattle. Pergamon. DALEY. J. http://www. CARRACEDO BULLIDO. Gunilla S. . WA: Northwest Resource Associates. 1992. Sweden. Melissa presented at Seminar on the Effects of Legalization of “ Bad for the Body. DAVIES.. Raymond. 2004. Jean and the Attack on Feminism. 10. New York University Press. Tanja. D. D. 2002. “ Confronting the Liberal Lies About Prostitution ” in Leidholdt. Radu of Women. FARLEY. Issue : The Case Against Legalizing Prostitution ”.U. Survival Sex in King County: Helping Women Out.. A Critical Analysis organized by Women Even if Legalized or Decriminalized. Women and Health.K. Andrea “ Trafficking for Prostitution in Italy : Possible Effects “Woman-Hating Right and Left” of Government Proposals for Legalization of Brothels in Leidholdt. Elena. October 2004. L. 27. In J. 1995. The Sexual Liberals Special Issue : The Case Against Legalizing Prostitution ”. M.. Draft Report on The Consequence of the Sex Industry in the E. Enlargement. V. Vol. Government. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Prostitution. J. Ilford. Eds. Violence Against Women : an International and CATW Brochure. 5-6 November. Nasty: Peepshow reflections. (HWWA) Report 247. Interdisciplinary Journal. 10. 5-6 November 2002. Paper presented at HERMAN LEWIS. GIOBBE. CHAPMAN. 1990. Paper BARNARDOS presented at Seminar on the effects of Legalisation of Whose Daughter Next ? Children Abused through Prostitution Activities ”. Bad for the Heart. 2001. Violence against Women and Post-Traumatic in the Baltic Sea Region. New York Times. Special the Swedish Government. CATW Position Statement. 1998. EKBERG. EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT BINDEL.. STIRBU. Julie Committee on Women’s Rights and Equal Opportunities : The Guardian. Sweden. 1998. Hamburg Institute of International Economics. 1993. The Prostitution of Sexuality : the Global Exploitation LAZARIOU.) Whores and other Feminists. From Domestic Abuse to Political Activities”. D. Eds.. 2002. Sage. “Legalising prostitution : In search of Alternative from a Gender and Rights Perspective. E.. Barnardos. Rosario (2003/2107 (INI)). Sebastian. and BARKAN. Pergamon. Judith Seminar on the effects of Legalisation of Prostitution Trauma and Recovery. Naked. 10. CBSS WORKING GROUP ON ASSISTANCE TO D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTIONS IN S PECIAL S ESSION. 1988. 1990. Migration and Trafficking in Women : The Case of South Eastern Europe. 1994. No. Hamburg Welt-Wirtschafts-Archiv.. AGHATISE. New York: Routledge. Suzanne FUNARI. London Pandora. Esohe DWORKIN. Naughty. The Sexual Liberals D’ Evelina The Guardian. 29th. “ New Rights for Dutch Prostitutes . Nick “ Please Sir I want to be a prostitute ”. Aug. A Critical Analysis organised by Prostitution. October 2004.. 2004. but No Gain ”. No.U. B. and the Attack on Feminism. Kathleen EL-CHERKEH. 36 “ The Position of the Spanish Government on Prostitution.

2003.05. in Leidholdt. (Available at www.Y.. 1990. Hilary Stripclubs according to strippers: exposing workplace Prostitutes’ Experience of Being in Care : Results of violence. 1990. 2000. N. The Sexual Liberals and the Attack on Feminism. Dorchen and Raymond. (January . MA: 2002. D. 1998. The Sexual AND TRAFFICKING. Archives of Sexual Behaviour. a Study of a Safe Project Investigation. HUDA.91-94. Sigma Integration of the Human Rights of Women and a Gender KRAMER. The Report of the Special Rapporteur “ Emotional Experiences of Performing Prostitution ”.. Birmingham Community Health Trust. JAMES.12. 2003. C. Trafficking. Raymond. 1990. “ Liberalism and the Death of Feminism ”. Ilvi Primer. Dorchen Demand and the Debate.. TSA Consultancy. L. (http://www.ohchr. Pergamon.web.. 1990. and the Attack on Feminism. S ULLIVAN. Money and Love. shtml?x=16747 accessed on 5. The Sexual Liberals and the Attack on Feminism. J. JÕE-CANNON. Rhetorics and Realities : Sexual Exploitation of Children in Cambridge Polity Press. Donna Ruhama. Pergamon. October 17th. The Sexual Liberals Early Sexual Experience as a Factor in Prostitution. Eds.catwinternational. Perspective.12. and FINSTAD.. North Amherst.). N.: Haworth. 32. JEFFREYS.. Prostitution. of Victoria. D. KINNEL. 2005. JANICE G. http://action. 1992. V. of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Torture and its Consequences : A Challenge to Clinical Prostitution of Others. and Children ”. .. 2001. Michigan Journal of Gender and Law. and Traumatic in persons. S. and R EGAN. L. and Practice. CATW-EWL Press Conference. Eds. U.. especially women and children. and IACOBINO. Amherst: Coalition Against Neuropsychology. J. and Raymond. LEIDHOLDT.. K. L. EDS.. Unpublished manuscript. “ Sexology and Antifeminism Feminism ” MANIFESTO OF S URVIVORS OF PROSTITUTION in Leidholdt. Anne docs/62chr/ecn4-2006-62. HUNTER. J. Estonia. Spinafex. 2002. Catharine A. KELLY. Malka Guide to the UN Convention of 1949 for the Suppression JACOBS. Susan Kay http://action. S. and JEFFREYS. Raymond. Backstreets : Prostitution. European Parliament. 1977. Bibliography HOIGARD. Farley (Ed. Liberals and the Attack on Feminism. MACKINNON. Binghamton. UN Commission on Human Rights. 1991.doc) The Next Step Initiative. Legalising Prostitution is not the answer: the Example Pergamon. JEFFREYS. The Idea of Prostitution.. Professional Psychology : Research Trafficking in Women. Safe Project. HUGHES. and MYERLING. “ Prostitution is Cruelty and Abuse to Women shtml?x=53793 accessed 05. 2006. Pergamon. Australia. M. MARCOVICH. 1993. Research Report on Barriers affecting women in 2005). Dorchen “ When Women Defend Pornography ”. Kerry and Wayne. 2005. Stress.web. LEIDHOLDT. on the human rights aspects of the victims of trafficking In M. J. 37 p. in Leidholdt. Eds. 1998.. J. 7. LAWLESS. L. HOLSOPPLE.05. LEIDHOLDT. Tallinn 2005.

Swedish Deputy Prime Minister. Margareta and a Legal Response to the Demand for Prostitution”.B.K. Carol Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States : Links WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION between International and Domestic Sex Industries. Speech at the Seminar In Melissa Farley. 1998. Amherst. 2003. Region. N. Jenny Paper presented at Seminar on the effects of Legalization “ Prostitution and the Cunning Patriarchy. S. 1988. and BRODY. R AYMOND.Q. Pornography and Sexual Abuse of Women. 2002. Profiles and Health Consequences of Sexual Exploitation in Five Countries. SWEDISH MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY. 1984. Prostitution. STITES. Prostitutes Well being and Risk. Women. J. Sex Roles. Aida A Comparative Study of Women Trafficked in the Migration Process : Patterns. Niamh Secrecy. .. Mary against women in the North West Inner City. against Women. A. Patricia. 1994. in Hester. Amherst. Stockholm. and PINES. and Radford. A Critical Analysis organized a new understanding ”. WOODHOUSE. Jacqueline Prostitution.E. Jean. Janice G. “ Kommunen Betalar Annekes Alskare ”. Special Issue : The Case Against Legalizing Prostitution ”. D.28?2004/10. Violence and Male Power. Sweden. S ILBERT. H. Janice G. POTTERAT. VALERA. E. 2005. I. 159. 10:11/12.. S.B. Sweden. 1994. an analysis of violence S ULLIVAN. 2002. 2001. 5-6 November. 2002. J. World Report on Violence and Health. Sweden.. EMPLOYMENT AND COMMUNICATIONS OUP. 1999. MA. in Kommunalarbetaren. Power and Freedom. O’CONNOR. Siti. RUHAINI DZUHAYATIN.J. Amsterdam. 2003. No. Guidelines for Policy..M. “Ten Reasons for Not Legalizing Prostitution WINBERG. ROTHENBERG. ECE/AC/. Fact Sheet : Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings.catwinternational. “State Sponsored Prostitution”. R AYMOND. WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION STD control in prostitution. MUTH. Janice. J. Donna. 2006. N. Kelly. A Critical Analysis organized by the Swedish Government. 2005.. Ayala Cambridge Polity Press.10. ed. D’CUNHA.. VU University Press. Monica First Report of the National Observatory on Violence SJOLANDER.. North West What Happens When Prostitution Becomes Work? Inner City Women’s Network and Combat Poverty. Milton Keynes. M. Monica and WILSON. 2004. Traumatic Stress. MA. 71.. 38 American Journal of Epidemiology. Julia. Consumers. on the effects of Legalisation of Prostitution Activities. O’NEILL. H. R AYMOND. and BERENBAUM.towards of Prostitution Activities. R.. Amherst: Coalition Against Trafficking in Women. Eds. 5-6 November. Mimi. New York : Haworth Press. 2004. Zoraida and SANTOS. D. M. and GOMEZ. HYNES. O’CONNOR. Economic Causes of Trafficking in Women in the UNECE Mortality in a long term open cohort of prostitute women.D. “Researching Prostitution and Violence : Towards a Feminist Praxis”.. “ Prostitution on Demand : Legalizing the Buyers as Sexual Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. N. Bibliography R AMIREZ RODRIGUEZ. O’CONNELL DAVIDSON. Coalition against Trafficking in Women. R AYMOND. (Available at www. 5-6 November. BREWER. HUGHES. 2002. UNITED NATIONS : ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL MUTH. 2004.. L.. A Critical Analysis organised by the Swedish Government. R AYMOND. Vol. Paper presented at Seminar by the Swedish Government. Trafficking and on the effects of Legalization of Prostitution Activities. Sage.. Janice G. and SANCHEZ TAYLOR. 10. 2002. “ Brain Injury in Battered Women ”. Ireland. Violence Against Women : an International VANWESENBEEK. and Interdisciplinary Journal. Silence and Shame. Janice. An Update on Legalisation of Prostitution in Australia.

P. O’Connor.. 3 Vision Action Change : Feminist Principles 39 and Practice of Working on Violence against Women. for abused women and children for seven years and went woman of the National Women’s Council of Ireland. former EWL Board member and Chair. 2004. 2005. Silence and Shame. was appointed as the Irish expert to the European Wom- en’s Lobby Observatory on Violence against Women. 1999. Kelleher. O’Connor. Kelleher Associates and O’Connor. 3 Secrecy. 2001... She is an independent consultant in the areas of research. A Model of Transitional Supported Housing for Women and Children out of Home because of Violence. policy development and training and is the co-author of many pub- lications on violence against women. Wilson. training and Violence Intervention Agency (Ireland).. O’Connor. She worked in a crisis refuge against Women. N. M. THE AUTHORS WOULD LIKE TO THANK COLETTE DE TROY. an analysis of violence against women in the North West Inner City. Women’s Aid. M. GEORGIA TSAKLANGANOS AND JANICE RAYMOND FOR THEIR INVALUABLE SUPPORT AND INPUT TO THIS HANDBOOK.. She is on to work with Women’s Aid in Dublin during which time the current Executive Chairwoman of the National Domestic she was responsible for policy development.. Domestic Violence and the Enforcement of the Law in Ireland. Sonas Housing Association. North West Inner City Women’s Network and Combat Poverty. Women’s Aid. These include : 3 Making the Links.. projects manager and social policy analyst. She was a member of the first Irish Government Observatory on Violence Against Women and is a trainer.. National Women’s Council of Ireland. . O’Connor. M. N. N. 1995. M. Wilson. M. and O’Connor. 3 Safe Home. 3 First Report of the Irish Observatory on Violence against Women. 2003. MARY MCPHAIL. About the authors Grainne HEALY is a feminist activist and the Chairwoman Monica O’C ONNOR has worked in the area of violence of the European Women’s Lobby’s Observatory on Violence against women since 1987. and Wilson. A National Survey on Violence against Women in Intimate Relationships with Men. Women’s Aid. a member of the Irish research. M. 3 Safety and Sanctions. Task Force on Violence against women and in 1997 she editor. European Women’s Lobby Coalition Against Trafficking Women www. – www. graphic design TexTure www.