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Rusell, Quigley & Power (1976, p.XI)

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........................................................................................................................................................... ii

A. 3 ............................................................................................................................... iv

B. .............................................................................................................................................. v

. .......................................................................................................................................... vi

1. .......................................................................................................................... 1

1.1. ............................................................................................................................. 2
1.2. . .......................... 5

2. . .......................................................................................................................... 29

2.1. ........................................................................................................................... 29
2.2. ........................................................................................................................ 30
2.3. ................................................................................................................................... 31
2.4. ................................................................................................................. 31
2.5. ........................................................................................... 31
2.6. ............................................................................................................................... 32
2.7. ......................................................................................................................... 33
2.8. .......................................................................................... 41
2.8.1. ..................................................................................................................... 41
2.8.2. ......................................................................................... 42

3. .................................................................................................... 45

3.1. : ............................ 49
3.2. ......................................................................... 50
3.3. .... 53
3.4. ........................................................................................................................... 58
3.4.1. ....................................................................................... 59
3.4.2. .......................................................................................................... 62
3.4.3. ......................................................................................................... 63

................................................................................................................................................................ 64

........................................................................................................................................................ 65

................................................................................................................................................. 65

............................................................................................................................. 69

I. .... 71

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V. ............................................................................. 91

................................................................................................................ 93

VI. .............................................................. 101

VII. 1997 Rhode Island (RISD) ......................... 103

VIII. ...................................................................... 111

XIII. ................................... 114

XIV. (Cued speech) ................................................... 116

XV. - ............................................................ 121

XVI. : .............................................................................................................. 132

XVII. :
............ 161

XVIII. ............................................ 166

XIX. .................................... 169

XX. ....................................................................................... 172

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,
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(Goodluck and Terzi 1996).

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(4) (5).
, (5-6
) ,
.

3

PRO
. (
, , ,
)
,
PRO ,

.
4
,
,
.
5
10
, 23 4-5
.
, (Goodluck and
Terzi 1996).

74
.

,

(5) (4), .
4

(4) (5) ,
PRO, . ,

.

PRO

PRO (4) :
)

) .6


(4)
PRO , ,
(5) .7

6

: (,
-) PRO
(Chomsky 1981, 1995) PRO
, .
Williams (1981)
( )
PRO,
,
:
() John tries to jump over the fence. *John tries Mary to jump over the fence.
() John wants to jump over the fence. John wants Mary to jump over the fence.
Williams,
,

( Wyngaerd 1994).

(4) (5) ,
.
7

(4) (5)
(4) (5),
, , (5):
() . / * . .
() . / . .
PRO
(4) (Terzi 1992, 1997, Iatridou


75
.


(
)
() ,
. ,
(6) (7)
( ),
((6) (7))
,
(Padilla 1990, Picallo 1984):
(6) . Juani quiere PROi comer
-
( ).
. Juani quiere que proj coma.
-()
( ).
(7) . Juani intento PROj leer.
-
( ).
. Juani intento que proj leyera.
-()
( )



.

, . , .8


, ,
.

.

1998/1993)
4-5 .
88
.
Goodluck, Terzi and Chocano Diaz 1997).

76
.

, ,

. , (6), (7),

(
(6) (7)),
intentar querer .
( ) -

PRO
,
, (Culicover and Jackendoff 1997).



.


(
),
.
PRO,
,
, pro,
.



.

.


,
PRO
.
(
,
)
PRO .
,

.



, . ,

,


77
.

, ,

, .


Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht, Holland: Foris.
Chomsky, N. (1995). The Minimalist Program. MIT Press.
Culicover, P and R. Jackendoff. (1997). Semantic Subordination despite Syntactic
Coordination. Linguistic Inquiry 28: 195-217.
Goodluck, H. and A. Terzi. (1996) Controlled PRO and the Acquisition of Greek. In
A. Stringfellow, D. Cahana-Amitay, E. Huges and A. Zukowski (eds.), Proceedings of
the 20th BU Conference on Language Development, 261-271, Cascadilla Press.
Goodluck, H., A. Terzi and G. Chocano Diaz. (1997). The Acquisition of Controlled
PRO: A Crosslinguistic Perspective. In E. Clark (ed), Proceedings of the 28th
Annual Child Language Forum, Stanford Linguistics Association by the Center for
the Study of Language and Information.
Iatridou, S. (1988/1993). On Nominative Case Assignment and a Few Related
Things. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 19: 175-196.
Padilla, J. (1990). On the Definition of Binding Domains in Spanish: Evidence from
Child Spanish. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer.
Picallo, C. (1985). Opaque Domains. CUNY Ph.D. Dissertation.
Terzi, A. (1992). PRO in Finite Clauses. A Study of the Inflectional Heads of the
Balkan Languages. CUNY Ph.D. Dissertation.
Terzi, A. (1997). PRO and Null Case in Finite Clauses. The Linguistic Review 14: 335-360.
Varlokosta, S. and N. Hornstein. (1993). Control in Modern Greek. Proceedings of
NELS 23: 507-521.
Williams, E. (1980). Predication. Linguistic Inquiry 11: 203-238.
Wyngaerd, G. V. (1994). PRO-legomena: Distribution and Reference of Infinitival
Subjects. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

78
.

II. ,
: Reading, Writing and Thinking, Webster
A (1986) : Deafness, Development and Literacy. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.

, 3 ,

, .

.
. Donaldson (1978)

. Piaget
, 6-7
Piaget ,
.
,

-
.


. ,
(
).
,
. ,
. ,
,

.

;
, (
)
.
. ,

.
, ,
, .
,
; ; ;
;
,
,
,


79
.

, .
, ,
,
.

( )

.
, ,
. ( ), Clark (1976)
, (
)
.
,
.


,
, .

.

, .
,
:


(.. , , ,
, ,
.)



. ,
, : , ,
, , ,
.
;
,

. , ,

80
.

.
(interactive compensatory).
,

. ,
( )
,
.
,
, .. ,
--.

, ,
, .

, . ,

.

,
. ,
, .
, , ,
, .

,
,
. :

) ,

)
, .

,
Kyle (1980b), (
- ),
.
.

(plateau effect). , Webster,
, ,
,


81
.

.
.


, .
,
. , Dodd Hermelin (1977)

.

.

.

Conrad (1979),
.
(
)
.
, , , ,
.
,
. :

;

,
. top-
down,
.
,
.

; ;
: , ,
(, , )
(, , ), ,
,
,
, . ,
, -
.

.
, .
(, )
,
, .
. ,
.

82
.


Clark, M. M. (1976). Young Fluent Readers, London, Heinemann.

Conrad, R. (1979). The Deaf School Child, London, Harper & Row.

Dodd, B. and Hermelin, B. (1977). Phonological coding by the pre-linguistically deaf,


Perception and Psychophysics, 21, 413-17.

Donaldson, . (1978). Childrens Minds, London, Fontana.

Kyle, J. B. (1980b). Reading development of deaf children, Journal of Research in Reading,


3, 86-97.


83
.

84
.

III.
: Understanding Test Information D.M.
Sanders (1988): Teaching Deaf Children Techniques and Methods. Boston, College-Hill
Press.


. , ,
,
, ,
.
.
,
.
. Brill (1977),
,
,
. Levine (1974)
,
. ,
. Jensema (1975, 1980)
, : ,
, , .

. Vernon (1968)
, . ,


, . Moores (1978) ,
,
.
, .
,
.
,
. ,
. ,
.
,
,
,
.
. .
, , ,
. , .
Wechsler
Wechsler
, . WISC-R
,


85
.

,
.
. , ,
.

,
,

.


1) :
.
2) : ,

.
3) : ,
,
.

/ .
4) :
.
,
.
5) :
.

.
6) : ,
.
.


1) :
, .
2) : ,
.
3) :
.
4) : - ,

.
5) : ,
- .


Hiskey-Nebraska
3-16 .

86
.

,
Standford . ,
, ,
.
1972
Standford ,
.
Standford .

,
.


,
. : pretest
,

. , .

.
, .

,
.


Brill, R. (1977) Problems in testing and evaluating deaf children. Washington, D.C.: MSSD
Publications (Gallaudet College).

Jensema, C. (1975). The relationship between academic achievement and the demographic
characteristics of hearing impaired children and youth. Series R, Number 2,
Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet College of Demographic Studies.

Jensema, C. (1980). Considerations in utilizing achievement tests for the hearing impaired.
American Annals of the Deaf, 125, 495-498.

Levine, E. (1974). Psychological tests and practices with the deaf. Volta Review, 76, 298-319.

Moores, D. (1978). Current research and theory with the deaf: Educational implications. In L.
Liben (ed.), Deaf children: Developmental perspectives. New York: Academic Press.

Vernon, M. (1968). Fifty years of research on the intelligence of deaf and hard-of-hearing
children. A review of literature and discussion of implications. Journal of
Rehabilitation of the Deaf, 1, 1-2.


87
.

88
.

IV. ,

Tucker, V. & Cole, J. : A Guide to Language, Speech and
Ability Tests Used with Hearing Impaired Children, A. Jackson
(1981): WAYS AND MEANS 3. Hearing Impairment. Globe Education.

V. Tucker J. Cole
.
,
.
,
.
Wechsler
4 6 . Wechsler
6 17 :
, .
Stanford Binet
. .
,
.

(210 )
:
( )
(, )
( ).
Hinkey Nebraska
3 17
.
Snidjers Oomen ,
2 7 ,
7 17 (Staren Snidjers - Oomen).
Reynell

.
, .
.
Boehm
, , , .,
.
Aston ,
,

.
Edinburg
.


89
.


3 18 .
, Crystal, Fletcher Gorman ,
, (LARSP),
,
.

90
.

V.
, (1993). .
. . 30. , 1993.

,
,
. ,

.

. ,

(Moores, 1987, Martin, 1984).

.

.
, ,
(Quigley & Paul, 1984).

,
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
,
. ,
, Quigley
& Paul (1984)
(. 142).

.
(Schulze,
1965) (Myklebust, 1964). Cooper
Rosenstein (1966)
. ,
(content), , , ,
(function) , ,
. . Webster
(1986)
. ,
,
, .
, , ,
. ,
.


91
.

. Wilbur
(1977)
. ,
(, , )
( : , , , , , .).
(Aker &
Blondeau, 1990).
,
-- (Quigley et al, 1976).
, (Webster, 1986)
,
. , ,
, .
.

.

: ) ,
(
), )
, (
)
(
, ,
, , , ), )
, (

).

20 , 11 9 .
1990-91
.
80 dB (..= 82 dB)
, .

. . 12 17
(..=14) 6 13 (..=11) .
.
.
.
20 ,
1990 (, 1990), .
.
120 .
11 12 .
40 , ,
- . ,
.

92
.


.
.
,
.
, ,
. .
.
.
40 (20 )
40 .
, : ) , )
) .
)
: 1)
2)
.
(Quigley & Paul, 1984).
) type-token ratio,
Templin (1957) Quigley & Paul (1984)
. (ratio) :

,
. ,
(, , ) (,
, ) .
:


(Webster, 1986).
) ,
. ,

(Quigley et al, 1976).
. - ,

.
.
.

. 98,7%, 96,2%
98,3%.
.


93
.

)
,
, .
, ( )
74.5
S.D. = 32.23 ,
128.7 (S.D. = 38.0).

1% ( = 4.87).

( ). 85.45 (S.D. = 43.06),
128.20 (S.D. = 31.20).
1% ( = 3.59).
,
.
5.23 (S.D. = 0.91), 5.15 (S.D.
= 0.69). ( = -
0.33). 5.92 (S.D.
= 1.28) 6.38 . ( =
1.32).

)
,

, .
,
0.51 (S.D. = 0.19) 0.72
(S.D. = 0.06).
,
100 51 ,
72 100.

1% ( = 4.55).
0.46
(S.D. = 0.23), 0.66 (S.D. = 0.06).
1% ( = 3.79).

(, , ) (, ,
).
3.91 (S.D. = 3.45),
1.78 (S.D. = 0.36). ,
3.91 , 1.78
.

( 1). 1%
( = -2.74).

94
.

.
2.57 (2.57 ) S.D. = 1.84,
1.67 (S.D. = 0.22).
5% ( = -2.31).

)

,
. ,

, (
2).
0.10 (S.D. = 0.07),
0.47 (S.D. = 0.31). 1% ( =
5.03). , = 0.08 (S.D. =
0.10), = 0.36 (S.D. = 0.15).
1% ( = 6.56).


. , .



. ,
,
.

, . ,
, .
.
, (Quigley & Paul, 1984). , ,
,

.
,
.
.
,
.
.
, ,
.
, ,
. , ,
.
.
. Simmons (1962), ,
.
, ,


95
.


(Van Uden, 1977).

, , ,
(, , ) ,
.
, ( ).

(Webster, 1986).
.
, Wilbur (1977),
.


.
, ,
.
. ,
, --
. .
,
. , ,
, , ., .


(Kretschmer, 1978). ,


.
,

. , ,
.
. ,



.
,
.


, . (1990). .
, .... .
Klecan-Aker, J. & Blondeau, R. (1990). An Examination of the Written Stories of Hearing-Impaired
School-Age Children. The Volta Review, Vol. 92, (6), 275-282.
Kretschmer, R.R. (1978). Comparison of the spontaneous written language of hearing and deaf
children. In Kretschmer, R.R. & Kretschmer, L.W. (Eds.), Language Development and
Intervention with the Hearing-Impaired, 120-1, Baltimore, University Park Press.

96
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Martin, D. (1984). Cognition, Education and Deafness. Washington: Gallaudet College Press
Moores, D. (1987). Educating the Deaf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Myklebust, H. (1964). The Psychology of Deafness (2nd ed.). New York: Grune and Stratton.
Quigley, S., Wilbur, R., Power, D., Montanelli, D., & Steinkamp, M. (1976). Syntactic Structures in
the Language of Deaf children. Urbana: University of Illinois, Institute for Child Behavior
and Development.
Quigley, S. & Paul, P. (1984). Language and Deafness. San Diego, California. College-Hill Press.
Schulze, G. (1965). An Evaluation of Vocabulary Development by 32 Deaf Children Over a 3-year-
period. American Annals of the Deaf, 110, 424-35.
Simmons, A. (1962). A comparison of the type-ratio of spoken and written language of deaf children.
Volta Review, 1962, 64, 417-421.
Templin, M. (1957). Certain Language Skills in Children, their Development and Interrelationships.
Institute of Child Welfare Monograph Service, 26. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press.
Webster, A. (1986). Deafness Development and Literacy. London: Methuen and Co Ltd.
Wilbur, R.B. (1977). An Explanation of Deaf Childrens Difficulty with Certain Syntactic Structures
in English. Volta Review, 79, 85-92.
Van Uden, A. (1977). A World of Language for Deaf Children, Part 1. Basic Principles. Amsterdam,
Holland: Swets and Zeitlinger.


97
.


1:
.

1 :

62,1
70

60

50 40,8
35,2
40
30
15,25
20

10

2 :

69,95
70

60
48,15
50 43

40
23,5
30

20

10

98
.

2:
.

1 :

17,55
18
16 13,2
14
12
7,8
10
8

6
4 1,35
2
0

2 :

15
16 13,4
14
12
10

8 5,35
6
4 1,2
2
0


99
.

100
.

VI.

, ,
, , .

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, .

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).

, .

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.

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.


101
.

102
.

VII. 1997
Rhode Island (RISD)


RISD /



103
.



-



/




:
( )












:

104
.


( Prizant & Wetherby, )

: 9- 13

,
.
-
.
: 13- 18
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.

: 5- 8
, , ..
, ,

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,
,
,


105
.

Deborah J. Topol
Elizabeth A. Engen

Rhode Island School for the Deaf


Corliss Park
Providence, Rhode Island
1979

:_____________________
:_______________ _________
:
1 ___________________________
2 ___________________________
:______________________

106
.

12




/ ,




______________

/
/
/


( )
( )
( )


1.




2.



3.



4.




5.


6.
(.. !)

_________________________


107
.


1. ,
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3.



4.


5. /

12- 24

-


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/
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108
.

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+

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,



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109
.


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.

110
.

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111
.

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.
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.

(M.A.K. Halliday)

112
.





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.

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91
.




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,


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
92
.

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
_________________________
Deborah Topol
Mary Jane Johnson
Zenaida Sousa
RHODE ISLAND SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF
1985


93
.




(, )






















(, )


94
.

Project K

Rhode Island School for the Deaf

:
Lori Van Houten
Deborah Topol
Elizabeth Engen
Marilyn Cooney
Bridgett Crook
Helen Litterst


95
.


. ,
.

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96
.


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97
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102
.

( )

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______________

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lego /



.

:
Bonnie ______________________
Melode _____________________
Meg ________________________
Al __________________________

Young Childrens Social Development: A Checklist, ERIC Digest


:
McCellan, D.E. & Katz, L. G.


103
.


. ,

,
. Hartup

(1992).
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,
IQ
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104
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105
.

.
:
1.
2. ,

3.
4.
5.
6.
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7.
8.

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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14. , ,

.
:
1.
2.
,
Assessing the Social Development of Young
Children, Dimensions of Early Childhood, Fall 1992 (pp. 9- 10)

106
.

Whats So New About the Project Approach?


Project;
Mary Trepanier- Street

project, ,

. ,
- , , ,
-
(Katz & Chard, 1989).
projects ;
, , .
,
, , .
project
;

project .
Katz Chard, Engaging Children s Minds: The Project Approach
(1989), project, ,
, .
project,
Forman et al (Forman & Hill, 1980; Forman & Kuscher, 1977)
Kamii De Vries (Kamii & De Vries, 1978, 1980)
project.
Reggio Emilia project
(Gandini, 984; Gandini & Edwards, 1988; Katz, 1990; New,
1990).

project .

Projects
,

.
. ,
,
. .
,
.
. ; (
).
, project . T project
. ,


107
.


. ,
project,
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.
, .
,
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, .
projects,

(Forman & Hill, 1980; Forman & Kuschner, 1977).
,
. projects, ,
,
.
.
Projects
.
,
(Katz & Chard, 1989). projects
. ,
, , .
project ,
(Katz
& Chard, 1989).
. project
(Katz &
Chard, 1989).
project,
,
(Katz & Chard, 1989).
(Gandini & Edwards, 1998).

108
.

projects, ,
,
,
.
,
.
.
project
, (Gandini
& Edwards, 1988).

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project ,
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109
.


project ,

(Katz & Chard, 1989).
project, . projects
,

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,
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.
project .
, project ,

.

110
.

VIII.

NAIMAN, D.W. (ED.). INSERVICE TRAINING OF


AFTERSCHOOL STAFF IN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS FOR DEAF CHILDREN.


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112
.


113
.

XIII.

Neate, D.M. : The Organisation of Speech Teaching in a
School for the Deaf, Jackson A. (1981) : WAYS AND MEANS
3. Hearing Impairment. Globe Education.

D. Neate
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115
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XIV. (Cued speech) .


Dixon, J.P. : The Use of Cued Speech in the Classroom,
Jackson A. (1981) : WAYS AND MEANS 3. Hearing Impairment.
Globe Education.

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XV. -
Apple Tree (Program) J. Caniglia, N.J.Cole, W.Howard, E.Krohn, and M.Rice (1972).

Language, Learning and Deafness (Text) A.H.Streng, R.R.Kretschmer, and


L.W.Kretschmer (1978)

Lessons in Syntax (Program) J.E. McCarr (1973a, 1973b)

Natural Language for Deaf Children (Text) M.A.Groht (1958)

Sentences and Other Systems (Program/Text) P.M.Blackwell, E.Engen,


J.E.Fischgrund, and C.Zarcadoolas (1978)

Structured Tasks for English Practice (Program) E.Costello (1975); E.Costello and
S.D.Lopez (1975-1977); E.Costello and I.B.Pittle (1977); Lane (1979); Lopez and Lane
(1978); Pittle (1980); Pittle and Melman (1981)

TSA Syntax Program (Program) S.Quigley, and D.J.Powers (1979)

: Apple Tree
J.Caniglia, N.J.Cole, W.Howard, E.Krohn, and M.Rice

:
Dormac, Inc., Dominie Press Limited,
P.O. Box 752, 345 Nugget Avenue, Unit 15,
Beaverton, OR 97005 Agincourt, Ontario M1S 4J4

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123
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A.H.Streng, R.R.Kretschmer, and L.W.Kretschmer

:
Grune and Stratton, Inc., Grune and Stratton, Inc.,
111 Filth Ave. 55 Barber Greene Road,
New York, N.Y. 10003 Don Mills, Ontario M3C2A1

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124
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J.E. McCarr

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Dormac, Inc., Dominie Press Limited,
P.O. Box 752 345 Nugget Avenue, Unit 15,
Beaverton, Oregon 97005 Agincourt, Ontario M1S4J4

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125
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P.M. Blackwell, E. Engen, J,E.F. Fischgrund, & C. Zarcadoolas

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3417 Volta Pl., N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20007

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127
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128
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:
Gallaudet College,
Division of Public Services
Florida Ave. at 7th St. N.E.
Washington, D.C. 20002

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S. Quigley & D.J. Power

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Dormac, Inc., Dominie Press Limited,
P.O. Box 752 345 Nugget Avenue, Unit 15,
Beaverton, Oregon 97005 Agincourt, Ontario M1S4J4

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131
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XVI. :


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Calden Collins
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Barbara Simon-Olsen

Rhode Island

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1996, Barabara Simon-Olsen ()


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150
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151
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160
.

XVII.
:


Shawn Davies. : Attributes for success,
Attitudes and Practices that facilitate the transition toward bilingualism,
Ahlgren & Hilde (1994) : Bilingualism in
Deaf Education. Hamburg: Signum.

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161
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162
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165
.

XVIII.

: Specialized Aspects of Language Development,
: Language Learning Practices with Deaf Children McAnally P., Rose
S., Quigley S.P. (1987). Boston, Mass Little, Brown and Company (Inc.).

,
.
, , , ...
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.
Piaget
.
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166
.


.


' .

Wilbur, Fraser and Fruchter (1981), Page (1981), Payne (1982), Iran- Nejad,
Rittenhouse, Ortony, Morreau (1981) ... ,

.
Iran-Nejad, Ortony Rittenhouse (1981),

.
Rittenhouse, Morreau Iran-Nejad (1981),
, .,

, ,
.


.

, . ,

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.

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.

. Martin (1984),
" " (Mediated Learning Experiences)
Feuerstein (1979). ,
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.


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. ,


167
.

. ,

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,
.
,
.
:
, , , , ,
.
, (
).
(
).

, ,
o " ".


Pollio, M., and Pollio, H. (1979). A test of metaphoric comprehension and some preliminary developmental data,
Journal of Child Language, 6, 111120.
Matter, G.A., and Davis, L.A (1975). A reply to metaphor and linguistic theory. Quarterly Journal of Speech,
61, 322-327.
Wilbur, R., Fraser, J., and Fruchter, A. (1981). Comprehension of idioms by hearing impaired students. Paper
presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention, Los Angeles.
Page, S. (1981). The effect of idiomatic language in passages on the reading comprehension of deaf and hearing
students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Muncie, IN: Ball State University, (Abstract). Muncie, IN
Payne, J.A. (1982). A study of the comprehension of verb-particle combinations among deaf and hearing
subjects. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Iran-Nejad, A., Ortony, A., and Rittenhouse, R. (1981). The comprehension of metaphorical uses of English by
deaf children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 24, 551556.
Rittenhouse, R.K., Morreau, L.E., and Iran-Nejad, A. (1981). Metaphor and conservation in deaf and hard-of-
hearing children. American Annals of the Deaf, 126, 450453.
Martin, D. (1984). Cognitive modification for the hearing impaired adolescent: The promise. Exceptional
Children, 51, 235242.

168
.

XIX.

Harlan Lane, Robert Hoffmeister, Ben
Bahan: A Journey into the Deaf World.

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169
.

Cummins " ".



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170
.


171
.

XX.
Understanding and Appraising Reading,
Webster A. (1986) : Deafness, Development and Literacy.
London, Methuen & Co. Ltd

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182
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( 9-12) 434 58.1 19.8 77.9 19.1 58.1 77.2 10.4 26.0 36.4 6.2 25.8 32.0

( 13-15) 289 36.0 21.7 57.7 12.8 42.6 55.4 12.5 29.7 42.2 4.2 21.7 25.9

( 16-18) 250 15.2 17.6 32.8 12.8 31.2 44.0 16.8 26.8 43.6 3.2 16.0 19.2
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199