REPORT ON NETWORKING

REPORT ON NETWORKING

SOMIL SAHAI PUNIT RATHEE ANKIT GUPTA AVDHESH K. SHIVASWAROOP REDDY AASHISH PRATAP RAGHUVANSHI

Report on Networking

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DEFINATION OF NETWORKING:Networking is simply two or more computers connected together so that they can exchange information. A small network can be as simple as two computers linked together by a single cable.

INTRODUCTION OF NETWORKING:A computer network allows sharing of resources and informationamong devices connected to the network. The Advanced Research Projects Agency ( RPA) funded the design of the A Advanced Research Projects Agency Network ( RPANAT) for the United States Department A of Defence. It was the first operational computer network in the world. Development of the network began in 1969, based on designs developed during the 1960s.

Types of networks:-

(1) Personal Area Network:A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers, printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs, scanners, and even video game consoles. A PAN may include wired and wireless connections between devices. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters A . wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and Fire wire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically form a wireless Pan.

A loc l area ne ork (LAN) is a ne ork that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home school, computer laboratory, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings Each computer or device on the network is a node Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology, although new standards like ITU-T G.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using e isting home wires (coaxial cables, phone lines and power lines). The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (Wide Area Networks), include their higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and no need for leased telecommunication lines. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s. This is the data transfer rate. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 40 and 100 Gbit/s .      

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A Home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN which is used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of personal computers and accessories, such as printers and mobile computing devices. An important function is the sharing of Int ernet access, often a broadband service through a CATV or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) provider. It can also be referred as Office area network (OAN).

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(4) C mpus N t o :A campus network is a computer network made up of an interconnection of local area networks (LANs) within a limited geographical area. The networking equipments (switches, routers) and transmission media (optical fiber, copper plant, Cat5 cabling etc.) are almost entirely owned (by the campus tenant / owner: an enterprise, university, government etc.). In the case of a university campus-based campus network, the network is likely to link a variety of campus buildings including; academic departments, the university library and student residence halls.

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(5) Wide Area Network:A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a city, country, or spans even intercontinental distances, using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and air waves. A WAN often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies generally function at the lower thr ee layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.

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A global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off the user communications from one local coverage area to the next. In IEEE Project 802, this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless local area networks (WLAN).

(7) Ent p is Priv t N t ork:An Enterprise Private Network is a network build by an enterprise to interconnect the various company sites (production sites, head offices, remote offices, shops etc.) in order to share computer resources over the network.

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(8) Virtu l Priv t N t ork:A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunnelled through the larger network when this is the case. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security features, such as authentication or content encryption. VPNs, for exam ple, can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features. A VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. Generally, a VPN has a topology more complex than point -to-point.

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(9) Int rn t ork:An Internetwork is the connection of two or more private computer networks via a common switching (OSI Layer 2) or routing technology (OSI Layer 3) and owned by separate entities (public or private). The result is called an internetwork. The Internet is an aggregation of many internetworks; hence its name was shortened to Internet. Any interconnection between public, private, commercial, industrial, or governmental networks may also be defined as an internetwork or (more often) an extranet.

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(10) Int rn t:The Internet is a global system of interconnected governmental, academic, corporate, public, and private computer networks. It is based on the networking technologies of the Internet. It is the successor of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) developed by DARPA of the U.S. Department of Defence. The Internet is also the communications backbone underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). The 'Internet' is most commonly spelled with a capital 'I' as a proper noun, for historical reasons and to distinguish it from other generic internetworks. Participants in the Internet use a diverse array of methods of several hundred docum ented, and often standardized, protocols compatible with the Internet Protocol Suite and an addressing system (IP Addresses) administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and address registries. Service providers and large enterprises exchange information about the reachability of their address spaces through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), forming a redundant worldwide mesh of transmission paths.

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(11) Intran t and Extran t:Intranets and extranets are parts or extensions of a computer network, usually a local area network. An intranet is a set of networks, using the Internet Protocol and IP-based tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications, i.e., are under the control of a single administrative entity. That administrative entity closes the intranet to all but specific, authorized users. Most commonly, an intranet is the internal network of an organization. A large intranet will typically have at least one web server to provide users with organizational information. An extranet is a network that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity and also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually, but not necessarily, trusted organizations or entities (e.g., a company's customers may be given access to some part of its intranet creating in this way an extranet, while at the same time the customers may not be considered 'trusted' from a security standpoint). Technically, an extranet may also be categorized as a CAN, MAN, WAN, or other type of network , although, by definition, an extranet cannot consist of a single LAN; it must have at least one connection with an external network.

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(12) Ov rlay N t ork :An overlay network is a computer network that is built on top of another network. Nodes in the overlay can be thought of as being connected by virtual or logical links, each of which corresponds to a path, perhaps through many physical links, in the underlying networ k. A sample overlay network: IP over SONET over Optical Nodes in the overlay can be thought of as being connected by virtual or logical links, each of which corresponds to a path, perhaps through many physical links, in the underlying network. For example, many peer-to-peer networks are overlay networks because they run on top of the Internet. Internet was built as an overlay on the telephone network [6]. Overlay networks have been around since the invention of networking when computer systems were connected over telephone lines using modem, before any data network existed. Overlay networks have also been proposed as a way to improve Internet routing, such as through quality of service guarantees to achieve higher-quality streaming media. Previous proposals such as IntServ, DiffServ, and IP Multicast have not seen wide acceptance largely because they require modification of all routers in the network. On the other hand, an overlay network can be incrementally deployed on end -hosts running the overlay protocol software, without cooperation from ISPs. The overlay has no control over how packets are routed in the underlying network between two overlay nodes, but it can control, for example, the sequence of overlay nodes a message traverses before reaching its destination.

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NETWORK TOPOLOGY:Network topology is defined as the interconnection of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. Network Topologies can be physical or logical. Physical Topology means the physical design of a network including the devices, location and cable installation. Logical topology refers to the fact that how data actually transfers in a network as opposed to its physical design.

(1) BUS TOPOLOGY:In local area networks where bus topology is used, each machine is connected to a single cable. Each computer or server is connected to the single bus cable through some kind of connector. A terminator is required at each end of the bus cable to prevent the signal from bouncing back and forth on the bus cable. A signal from the source travels in both directions to all machines connected on the bus cable until it finds the MAC address or IP address on the network that is the intended recipient. If the machine address does not match the intended address for the data, the machine ignores the data. Alternatively, if the data does match the machine address, the data is accepted. Since the bus topology consists of only one wire, it is rather inexpensive to implement when compared to other topologies. However, the low cost of implementing the technology is offset by the high cost of managing the network. Additionally, since only one cable is utilized, it can be the single point of failure. If the network cable breaks, the entire network will be down.

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(2) STAR TOPOLOGY:In local area networks with a star topology, each network host is connected to a central hub. In contrast to the bus topology, the star topology connects each node to the hub with a point-to-point connection. All traffic that transverse s the network passes through the central hub. The hub acts as a signal booster or repeater. The star topology is considered the easiest topology to design and implement. An advantage of the star topology is the simplicity of adding additional nodes. The pr imary disadvantage of the star topology is that the hub represents a single point of failure.

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(3) RING TOPOLOGY:In local area networks where the ring topology is used, each computer is connected to the network in a closed loop or ring. Each machine or computer has a unique address that is used for identification purposes. The signal passes through each machine or computer connected to the ring in one direction. Ring topologies typically utilize a token passing scheme, used to control access to the network. By utilizing this scheme, only one machine can transmit on the network at a time. The machines or computers connected to the ring act as signal boosters or repeaters which strengthen the signals that transverse the network. The primary disadvantage of ring topology is the failure of one machine will cause the entire network to fail.

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(4) MESH TOPOLOGY:The value of fully meshed networks is proportional to the exponent of the number of subscribers, assuming that communicating groups of any two endpoints, up to and including all the endpoints, is approximated by Reed's Law.

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(5) TREE TOPOLOGY:The type of network topology in which a central 'root' node (the top level of the hierarchy) is connected to one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i.e., the second level) with a point -to-point link between each of the second level nodes and the top level central 'root' node, while each of the second level nodes that are connected to the top level central 'root' node will also have one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i.e., the third level) connected to it, also with a point -to-point link, the top level central 'root' node being the only node that has no other node above it in the hierarchy (The hierarchy of the tree is symmetrical.) Each node in the network having a specific fixed number, of nodes connected to it at the next lower level in the hierarchy, the number, being referred to as the 'branching factor' of the hierarchical tree.

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A VANTAGES OF NETWORKING:”

Most of the benefits of networking can be divided into two generic categories: connectivity and sharing. Networks allow computers, and hence their users, to be connected together. They also allow for the easy sharing of information and resources, and cooperation between the devices in other ways. Here, in no particular order, are some of the specific advantages generally associated with networking: 

Conn ctivity and Communication : - Networks connect computers and the
users of those computers. Individuals within a building or work group can be connected into local area networks (LANs); LANs in distant locations can be interconnected into larger wide area networks (WANs). Once connected, it is possible for network users to communicate with each other using technologies such as electronic mail. This makes the transmission of business (or non-business) information easier, more efficient and less expensive than it would be without the network. 

Data Sharing : - One of the most important uses of networking is to allow the
sharing of data. Before networking was common, an accounting employee who wanted to prepare a report for her manager would have to produce it on his PC, put it on a floppy disk, an d then walk it over to the manager, who would transfer the data to her PC's hard disk. (This sort of shoe -based network was sometimes sarcastically called a sneaker net .) 

Hard are Sharing : - Networks facilitate the sharing of hardware devices. For
example, instead of giving each of 10 employees in a department an expensive colour printer (or resorting to the sneaker net again), one printer can be placed on the network for everyone to share. 

Internet Access: The Internet is itself an enormous network, so whenever you
access the Internet, you are using a network. The significance of the Internet on modern society is hard to exaggerate, especially for those of us in technical fields. 

Internet Access Sharing: - Small computer networks allow multiple users to
share a single Internet connection. Special hardware devices allow the bandwidth of the connection to be easily allocated to various individuals as they need it, and permit an organization to purchase one high -speed connection instead of many slower ones.

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DISADVANTAGES OF NETWORKING:-

Now that I have portrayed the great value and many useful benefits of networking, I must bring you crashing back to earth with that old nemesis of the realistic: TANSTAAFL. For those who are not Heinlein fans, this acronym stands for There Isn t No Such Thing as a Free Lunch . Even though networking really does represent a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts , it does have some real and significant costs and drawbacks associated with it. Here are a few of the items that balance against the advantages of networking. 

Net ork Hard are, Soft are and Setup Costs : - Computers don't just
magically network themselves, of course. Setting up a network requires an investment in hardware and software, as well as funds for planning, designing and implementing the network. For a home with a small network of two or three PCs, this is relatively inexpensive, possibly amounting to less than a hundred dollars with today's low prices for network hardware, and operating systems already designed for networks. For a large company, cost can easily run into tens of thousands of dollars or more. 

Hard are and Soft are Management and Administration Costs : - In all
but the smallest of implementations, ongoing maintenance and management of the network requires the care and attention of an IT professional. In a smaller organization that already has a system administrator, a network may fall within this person's job responsibilities, but it will take time away from other tasks. In more substantial organizations, a network administrator may need to be hired, and in large companies an entire department may be necessary. 

Undesirable Sharing : - With the good comes the bad; while networking allows
the easy sharing of useful information, it also allows the sharing of undesirable data. One significant sharing problem in this regard has to do with viruses, which are easily spread over networks and the Internet. Mitigating these effe cts costs more time, money and administrative effort. 

Illegal or Undesirable Behaviour: - Similar to the point above, networking
facilitates useful connectivity and communication, but also brings difficulties with it. Typical problems include abuse of com pany resources, distractions that reduce productivity, downloading of illegal or illicit materials, and even software piracy. In larger organizations, these issues must be managed through explicit policies and monitoring, which again, further increases man agement costs.

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