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Journal of Research in Biology ISSN No: Print: 2231 6280; Online: 2231- 6299

An International Scientific Research Journal

Original Research

A review on the distribution of Western Hoolock Gibbon

(Hoolock hoolock) in Northeast India
Authors: ABSTRACT:
Journal of Research in Biology

Pallab Deb1*,
Prabhat Kumar Rai1 and The Western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) occurs in the forests of
Parimal C. Bhattacharjee2. Northeastern India, found in the following states : Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura,
Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland and Mizoram. In this article, we discuss the published
Institution: information on distribution of Hoolock gibbons in Assam and other areas of Northeast.
1. Department of Several studies were carried out on the presence or absence from the protected areas
Environmental Science, but Hoolock gibbons are also present outside the protected areas particularly in
Mizoram University, Reserve Forest (RF), Private Forest (PF) and Community Forest (CF) and Village
Aizawl, Mizoram, India. Reserve Forest (VRF). The distribution status of Hoolock gibbon in Northeast India is
still not conclusively known. In the presence of above facts, this paper briefly reviews
2. Former Professor, the studies on Western hoolock gibbon across its distribution range in Northeast India
Department of Zoology, because it is essential to understand the population status and distribution of any
Gauhati University, Assam, endangered species like Hoolock gibbon for formulating action plan for their
India. conservation.

Corresponding author: Keywords:

Pallab Deb. Western hoolock gibbon, Hoolock hoolock, Northeast India, southern Assam,
distribution, conservation.

Email Id: Article Citation:

Pallab Deb, Prabhat Kumar Rai and Parimal C. Bhattacharjee.
A review on the distribution of Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in
Northeast India.
Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1301-1310
Web Address: Dates: Received: 04 Mar 2014 Accepted: 22 Mar 2014 Published: 03 Jun 2014
This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (
licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and
reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1301-1310 | JRB | 2014 | Vol 4 | No 3

Journal of Research in Biology
An International
Scientific Research Journal
Deb et al., 2014

INTRODUCTION After McCanns (1933) two months study on the

Hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) a tree behavior of the Hoolock in the Naga Hills in 1930,
dwelling ape, characterized by its white brows, also followed by an exploratory study conducted by Tilson
known as White Browed Gibbon is the only ape found (1979) in the Hollangapar Reserve Forest in upper
in the Indian Subcontinent (Figure 1 and 2). In 2005, Assam. Since 1980s , there has been a keen interest in
Mootnick and Groves described Hoolock as two distinct primate studies in Northeast. Several studies on the
species, the Western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) Western hoolock gibbons population and distribution
and the Eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys). status in Northeastern India were carried out by several
The Western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) occurs workers. In Assam (Tilson, 1979; Choudhury, 1990,
in the forests of Northeastern India, found in the 1996a, 1996b, 2000, 2001, 2009a, 2009b; Das et al.,
following states : Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, 2003a, 2003b, 2004, 2005, 2009; Kakati, 2004, 2006;
Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland and Mizoram. Where as Kakati et al., 2009), Tripura (Mukherjee, 1982; Gupta,
the Eastern hoolock gibbon (H. leuconedys) found only 2001; Gupta and Dasgupta, 2005), Meghalaya (Alfred
in the state of Arunachal Pradesh and certain places of and Sati, 1986, 1990; Choudhury, 1998, 2006; Gupta and
Assam (Chetry and Chetry, 2011). There has been a Sharma, 2005a; Sati, 2011), Mizoram (Misra et al., 1994;
gradual decline by more than 90% in the population of Gupta and Sharma, 2005b; Choudhury, 2006), Nagaland
Hoolock gibbon in the wild because of several kinds of (McCann, 1933; Choudhury, 2006), Manipur
human actions or human activities (Walker et al., 2007). (Choudhury, 2006) and Arunachal Pradesh (Chetry et al.,
The species is threatened by habitat loss, shifting 2003 and Kumar et al., 2009 and Das et al., 2009).
agriculture, expansion of tea gardens and coffee estates, The presence of Hoolock gibbon in Manipur was
various kinds of developmental projects, monoculture reported by Choudhury (2006). Hoolock gibbons were
tree plantations, hunting for food and traditional located in the wildlife sanctuaries of Bunning, Jiri-
medicine. (Choudhury, 1990, 1991, 1996a; Srivastava, Makru, Kailam,Yangoupokpi-Lokchao and Zeilad.
1999; Ahmed 2001; Malone et al., 2002; Solanki and According to Choudhury (2006) Hoolock gibbons are
Chutia, 2004, Das et al., 2006; Walker et al., 2007). In also found in the Shiroi and Anko (Anggo Ching) ranges,
this article, we discuss the published information on but the declining trend continues everywhere in Manipur.
distribution of hoolock gibbons in Assam and other areas Hoolock gibbons are still found in the jungle of Manipur
of Northeast. but it is very sad to learn that poaching is a serious threat
Hoolock Gibbon in Northeast India to this endangered species whose number is declining
The Northeastern region of India is most day by day.
significant as it represents the confluence of the Indo- Hoolock gibbons are also present in Meghalaya.
Malayan, Indo-Chinese and Indian biogeographical Survey on Hoolock gibbon in Jaintia Hills was carried
realms. The Northeastern region is unique in providing a out by Gupta and Sharma during the month of May 2003.
profusion of habitats of various primates (Srivastava, They carried out the survey in Narpuh Block-I RF and
2006). The Hoolock gibbon was first described by Narpuh Block-II RF and the corridor area joining the
Harlan and Burrough (1834) and assigned to the genus Narpuh RF ( Block-II ) with the Saipung Reserve Forest.
Hylobates by Blanford (1888-1891). Most of the earlier A total area of about 36.44 km2 was surveyed in the
descriptions of the Hoolock are of taxonomic interest or Jaintia Hills and 17 groups of gibbons were located
natural history observations (Alfred and Sati, 1986). (Gupta and Sharma, 2005a). In Nongkhyllum wild life
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Deb et al., 2014

Figure 1. Western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock), Figure 2. Western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock),
Adult male. Photo: Pallab Deb Adult female. Photo: Pallab Deb

sanctuary 15 groups of Hoolock gibbon located in this located in West Garo Hills (Sati, 2011). According to
sanctuary, ten were located inside the sanctuary, four Sati (2011) the diminishing trend of Hoolock gibbon
groups in Reserve Forests and only one group was population is 26.2% in West Garo Hills District of
located in a private forest at Umla (Gupta and Sharma, Meghalaya.
2005a). A total of 39 groups of gibbon were located in In Nagaland Gibbons have been recorded in all
West Garo Hills including Nokrek National Park and the districts (Choudhury, 2006). They occur in Intanki
Nokrek Biosphere Reserve. The Balpakram National National Park and Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary and
Park (200km ) lies in the West Garo Hills and West Singphan Reserved Forest. But according to Choudhury
Khasi Hills districts of southern Meghalaya. A total of (2006) gibbon has disappeared from Pulie Badge and
three groups were located in Balpakram National Park Rangapahar Wildlife Sanctuaries.
(Gupta and Sharma, 2005a). Four groups in Siju wild life Gupta and Sharma (2005b) estimated the
sanctuary and adjacent areas in South Garo Hills. They population of gibbons in all the existing protected areas
also surveyed Baghmara Pitcher Plant Sanctuary and and the Reserved Forests of Mizoram. And they reported
Reserve Forest and found that five groups of Hoolock 72 groups of gibbons, only 3 (4.2%) groups were
gibbon are living inside the Baghmara Reserve Forests. actually sighted of the remaining groups, 20 groups
A total of 83 gibbon groups were recorded in this study. (27.8%) were located based on the songs heard during
Choudhury (2006) also reported the presence of Hoolock the surveys and the presence of remaining 49 groups
gibbon in Balpakram and Nokrek national parks and in (68%) were based on the secondary information (Gupta
the wild life sanctuaries of Nongkhyllum and Siju. and Sharma, 2005b). Hoolock gibbons are also present in
During a long-term study on the Hoolock gibbon in West all the districts of Mizoram (Choudhury, 2006). Hoolock
Garo Hills District, a detailed survey was made by gibbon present in all the wildlife sanctuaries and
Alfred and Sati and a total of 42 family groups and four National Parks of Mizoram. According to Choudhury
solitary individuals of gibbons were recorded (Alfred and (2006) the existence of Hoolock Gibbon in Tawi
Sati, 1990). J.P. Sati again conducted a survey on Wildlife Sanctuary is doubtful.
Hoolock gibbon in West Garo Hills District in the year In Tripura, the presence of Hoolock gibbon was
2007. A total of 25 family groups of gibbons were reported by Mukherjee (1982). Gupta (2001) confirmed

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Deb et al., 2014

the presence of Hoolock Gibbon in Trishna and Gumti was done by Kakati (2004, 2006). Kakati et al., (2009)
Wildlife Sanctuaries. In 2005 Gupta and Dasgupta again carried out a survey in fragmented forests of
recorded a total of 39 groups over an area of 53km ; eastern Assam. The survey was conducted in Dibrugarh,
16 groups were confirmed through personal Digboi, Doom-Dooma and Tinsukia Forest Divisions in
communications with the local people and forest staff. 2002. They found the encounter rates for Gibbon groups
Songs were heard from 15 groups and only eight groups were lowest in the small forest fragments and increasing
were actually sighted. as the forest size increased . They recorded similar trends
In Arunachal Pradesh very few studies were with group sizes. Das et al., (2003a) recorded 80 areas as
conducted on Gibbons till 2003. Chetry et al., (2003) Hoolock gibbon habitat in Northeastern India and a total
conducted a quantitative study in Namdapha National of 379 Gibbons were recorded and the number varied
Park on the population status of gibbons. And they from 1 to 25 among these areas. Das et al., (2009)
recorded ten groups with a total population of 33. estimated the population of Hoolock gibbons in Assam
Another study on the distribution and population status to be around 4,500-5,500 individuals (excluding solitary
of Western hoolock gibbons in Namdapha National Park individuals), and the total area of Gibbon habitat as
was done by Kumar et al., (2009). They recorded a total 7,369km2. Today, most of the forest patches in Assam
of twenty groups with a total population of 50. Eleven are small and isolated. Such small size and scattered
groups (55%) were recorded by indirect observations forest fragments unable to support above 300 gibbon
where as nine groups (45%) were observed directly. Das population and some scattered forest fragments contain
et al., (2009) reported a total of 46 groups of Hoolock one pair of gibbon (Das et al., 2009). Das et al., (2011)
gibbons in Arunachal Pradesh during their surveys in identified ten priority conservation areas for long term
2005-2006 with an average group size of 3.1 individuals. conservation of Hoolock gibbon in Assam. Each priority
The distribution status of Hoolock gibbon in conservation area include a cluster of wild life
Assam was described by various researchers. Tilson sanctuaries, reserved forests and proposed reserved
(1979) observed the behaviour of Hoolock gibbon in the forests. These conservation areas or forest complexes
different seasons in Assam and he reported the group have the greatest potential for long term conservation of
size of 3.2 individuals for 25 groups and 3.4 for 7 Western hoolock gibbon in Assam. Of these ten priority
groups. Choudhury (1990) studied the population conservation areas of Assam, Karbi Anglong district of
dynamics of Hoolock gibbon at 8 different groups in central Assam, comprises five priority conservation
Assam. Choudhury (2009a) has given a rough population areas, two priority conservation areas are in Southern
estimate of Karbi Anglong district of Assam indicates part of Assam. One priority conservation areas is in
that the total numbers of Hoolock gibbons today could be Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts and Kamrup and
between 2,400 and 3,200. This number can be compared Nawgaon districts has one each. Five priority
to an estimate in 1991-1992 of 3,500-4,800. The conservation areas or forest complexes out of these ten
distribution and status of Hoolock gibbon in Tinsukia have been identified from Karbi Anglong. Of these five
and Dibrugarh district was described by Choudhury priority complexes, the Langlakso-Mikir Hills-Kalyoni
(2009b). According to him the Gibbon number was near complex and Borjuri-Jungthung-Western Mikir Hills
about 1,700 in 1995-1996 but recently their number may forest complex are two important forest complexes of
be fewer than 1,300 individuals. Study on impact of Karbi Anglong district, prioritized for long term
forest fragmentation on the Hoolock gibbon in Assam conservation of western Hoolock gibbon in the state
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Deb et al., 2014

(Biswas et al., 2013). Biswas et al., (2013) has of Barail WLS-North Cacher Complex. Hoolock gibbons
undertaken a survey of these two priority complexes to are also found in several tea estates of Barak Valley. Deb
know the habitat quality and status of the western et al., (2010-11) reported the existence of Hoolock
Hoolock gibbon. They recorded a total of 80 individuals gibbons in Rosekandy and Silcoorie tea estates. Islam
with 27 family groups of Hoolock gibbon during the et al., (2013) reported the presence of 10 family groups
survey. From Langlakso-Mikir Hills-Kalyoni forest of Hoolock gibbons with a total population of 33 in
complex they recorded 61 individuals in 20 family Innerline Reserved Forest of Barak Valley.
groups and from Borjuri-Jungthung-Western Mikir Hills Hoolock gibbon habitat is usually the closed
forest complex they recorded 19 individuals in seven canopy of tropical evergreen forests, tropical wet
family groups and the overall family groups ranging evergreen forests, tropical semi-evergreen, tropical moist
from two to five individuals (Biswas et al., 2013). They deciduous and subtropical hill forests in India (Srivastava
estimated the population of Hoolock gibbon in 1999; Molur et al., 2005). The species is threatened by
Langlakso-Mikir Hills-Kalyoni forest complex between anthropogenic activity such as fuelwood collection, use
682 to 871 groups and 2015 to 2578 individuals with the of forest resources and forest land, extracting medicinal
mean number predicted at approximately 2296. Similarly plants and wild vegetables and mainly because of
the population of Hoolock gibbon in Borjuri-Jungthung- agricultural activities. Such kind of anthropogenic
West Mikir Hills forest complex between 157 to 193 activity leads fragmentation of habitat (Kumar et al.,
groups and 465 to 571 individuals with the mean number 2009). Habitat fragmentation restricts the movement of
predicted as approximately 518. Hoolock gibbon through the canopy in search of food.
Hoolock Gibbon in Southern part of Assam Hoolock gibbon generally eat fruits, leaves and flowers.
Southern region of Assam is known as Barak When their preferable food is insufficient gibbon also
Valley. The region is named after its main river consume bamboo shoots (Kumar et al., 2013). Hoolock
Barak. Hoolock gibbons are found in the various parts gibbon is mostly frugivorous but during winter season
of Barak Valley in Assam (Choudhury, 2004; Dattagupta the choice shifted from fruit to leaves (Kakati, 2006).
et al., 2010; Das et al., 2003a; Das et al., 2011; Deb The distribution status of Hoolock gibbon in Northeast
et al., 2010-11; Islam et al., 2013). In the Southern part India is still not conclusively known. Several studies
of Assam, Hoolock Gibbons are found in Barail were carried out on the presence or absence from the
Protected Reserve Forest, North Cachar Hills Reserve protected areas but Hoolock gibbon also present in
Forest, Innerline Reserve Forest, Barail Reserve Forest, outside protected areas particularly in Reserve Forest
Katakhal Reserve Forest, Longai Reserve Forest, Singla (RF), Private Forest (PF), Community Forests (CF) and
Reserve Forest and Patharia Reserve Forest (Das et al., Village Reserve Forest (VRF).
2003a). When identifying ten priority forest complexes Conservation
Das et al., (2011) emphasized on two basic criteria, Tropical and subtropical forest of Northeast India
habitat integrity and biological importance for long-term is the habitat of Hoolock gibbon in India. But the
conservation of Hoolock gibbon in Assam. Out of ten declining trend of Hoolock gibbon population continues
priority forest complexes in Assam two priority forest in its entire distributional range (Kumar et al., 2013).
complexes are in Barak Valley viz. Innerline-Kathakhal- Hoolock gibbons are protected by law in India. But it is
Singhla-Barak complex and Barail Wildlife Sanctuary- unfortunate that their conservation has not been taken up
Barail protected Reserve Forest-Unclassified forest north seriously till date. The communities living in or near the

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Deb et al., 2014

Hoolock gibbon habitat depends on forest resources and male Hoolock gibbon in Aizawl Zoological Park is not
bad economic conditions along with population influx clear. For successful captive breeding of Hoolock gibbon
play devastating role in respect of survival parameters of Central Zoo Authority of India can adopt co-operative
this species. Hoolock hoolock is listed by the IUCN Red breeding programme with other zoos in North East India
List of Threatened Species as Endangered. The species by transferring animals and sharing their off-springs. For
was listed on Schedule-I, the highest schedule on the conservation of Hoolock gibbon in the wild need a
Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act in 1972 and also in detailed strategy action plan for the future conservation.
Appendix-I of CITES. Western hoolock gibbon is also Das et al., (2011) already identified ten priority
included in the list of 25 most endangered primate conservation areas or forest complexes which have the
species of world (Walker et al., 2009). There are various greatest potential for long term conservation of western
conservation efforts for Hoolock gibbon but the species Hoolock gibbon in Assam. Similar identification of
is still not out of danger. The Government of India is not priority forest complexes are required in other North
serious enough about the conservation issues affecting Eastern states. All the states of North East India have a
the countrys only ape species (Chetry and Chetry, huge conservation scope but despite of having
2011). Immediate step for conservation of Hoolock conservation scope Hoolock gibbon is facing enormous
gibbon is to initiate baseline research both in captivity anthropogenic pressure ranging from habitat loss,
and in the wild. The species is distributed across nine encroachment, fragmentation and hunting throughout the
zoos in India with a total of 40 numbers (Srivastav and entire distribution range making the species extremely
Nigam, 2009). The species has a poor breeding history in vulnerable. The primates and the local people directly
captivity in Indian zoos. However, the species has a dependent on the same forest resource for their basic
number of animals which have the potential to contribute requirements is the main cause for concern (Kumar et al.,
their genes to the captive population (Srivastav and 2009). Most local people are unaware about the legal
Nigam, 2009). To create environment of ex-situ status of Hoolock gibbon and lack of trust towards forest
conservation awareness and to initiate captive breeding department are big conservation problem (Biswas et al.,
programme for selected endangered species of the 2013).
region, Aizawl Zoological Park, Mizoram was
established in 2002. Every effort has been made to CONCLUSION
provide required housing, feed and health care to all the For conservation of this species the government
animals in the zoo as per Central Zoo Authority of India should start a Hoolock gibbon project through out the
technical guidance and financial support. According to entire distribution range of the species to determine the
annual inventory of Aizawl Zoological Park 2007-2008, present distribution, population status and evaluate
of mammals, the opening stock of Hoolock gibbon as on different kinds of threats. It will give a baseline
01.04.2007 was one male and four female, a total of five information to formulate area specific action plan. We
individuals and closing stock as on 31.03.2008 was a need to provide alternative livelihood to the people
total of seven individuals with two male and five female settling in and around the Protected Areas, Reserve
gibbons because of acquisition of one male and one Forest, Protected Forest etc. Community education
female gibbon. No news of captive breeding of Hoolock program for local people could encourage the local
gibbon during that period of time (Mizoram State community to participate in the management process.
Pollution Control Board, 2009). But the present status of We hope that Hoolock gibbon shall continue their loud
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Deb et al., 2014

songs in the jungle of North East India in the coming Chetry D and Chetry R. 2011. Hoolock gibbon
years without any disturbances. conservation in India. Gibbon Journal. Nr.6 :7-12.

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We dedicate this study to all the primatologists
Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, India.
for providing valuable literatures on Western Hoolock
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Kakati K. 2006. Fragment-living- a study of hoolock Mootnick A and Groves C. 2005. A new generic name
gibbons in Assam, India. The Gibbons Voice 8(1): 1-4. for the hoolock gibbon (Hylobatidae). International
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Kakati K, Raghavan R, Chellam R, Qureshi Q and
Chivers DJ. 2009. Status of Western hoolock gibbon Mukherjee RP. 1982. Survey of non-human primates of
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eastern Assam. Primate Conservation 24:127-137. (1-2): 70-81.

Kumar A, Devi A, Gupta AK and Sarma K. 2013. Sati JP. 2011. Current status of Western Hoolock gibbon
Population, Behavioural Ecology and Conservation of Hoolock hoolock Harlan in west Garo Hills, Meghalaya,
Hoolock Gibbon in Northeast India. Rare Animals of India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 3(2): 1520-1526.
India. 242-266.
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Kumar A, Mary PP and Bagchie P. 2009. Present Socio-cultural aspects of Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh.
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Srivastava A. 2006. Conservation of threatened primates
Malone N, Purnama AR, Wedana M and Fuentes A.
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bird markets. Asian Primate 8(1-2):7-11. Srivastav A and Nigam P. 2009. National Studbook of
Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock). Wildlife Institute of
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the White-browed Gibbon or Hoolock (Hylobates
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1310 Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1301-1310

Journal of Research in Biology ISSN No: Print: 2231 6280; Online: 2231- 6299

An International Scientific Research Journal

Original Research

Meiosis and Chromosome Complement of Atractomorpha lata (=A. bedeli)

(Mochulsky, 1866) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) Collected in Cameroon.
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Seino Richard Akwanjoh1, 4,
Dongmo Tonleu Ingrid1,
Dongmo Alain2 and Manjeli
Yacouba3. This article presents detailed information on the meiotic process and
karyotype of Atractomorpha lata (=A. bedeli), a Pyrgomorphidae grasshopper endemic
1. Department of Animal
to the West and North-West Regions of Cameroon. It includes chromosome number,
Biology, Faculty of Science, morphology and chromosome lengths. The meiotic process in the species was normal
University of Dschang, and chiasmate with a mean chiasma frequency of 12.874 0.29. The percent rod
P.O. Box 353 Dschang, shaped bivalents present was significantly higher (P<0.05) than percent ring shaped
Cameroon. bivalents. Percent bivalents with 1, 2 and 3 chiasmata were in the series: 1 chiasmata
2. Laboratoire de Biologie et de > 2 chiasmata > 3 chiasmata. The X chromosome revealed the reversal type of
Physiologie des Organismes heteropycnosis. The detailed karyotype of A. lata from Cameroon (Africa) is here
Animaux, Facult des Sciences, described for the first time. The species has a diploid karyotype of 23 and the sex
Universit de Douala, mechanism is XX XO. Short chromosome arms were visible in mitotic Metaphase
chromosomes hence the chromosomes in the species were acrocentric. The karyotype
3. Department of Biotechnology revealed three large, five medium and one small chromosomes (3LL 5MM 1SS).
and Animal Production, Faculty Chromosome lengths varied from 8.40 to 2.10m and the haploid set was 56.39m
of Agronomy and Agricultural
Sciences, University of
long. The X chromosome was 5.6m and medium in size.
Dschang, P.O. Box 222
Dschang, Cameroon.
4. Department of Biological
Science, Faculty of Science, Keywords:
University of Bamenda,
P.O. Box 39 Bamenda,
Atractomorpha lata, Pyrgomorphidae, karyotype, meiosis.

Corresponding author: Article Citation:

Seino Richard Akwanjoh. Seino Richard Akwanjoh, Dongmo Tonleu Ingrid, Dongmo Alain and Manjeli Yacouba.
Meiosis and Chromosome Complement of Atractomorpha lata (=A. bedeli)
(Mochulsky, 1866) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) Collected in Cameroon.
Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1311-1316

Email Id: Dates:

Received: 16 Apr 2013 Accepted: 23 May 2013 Published: 03 Jun 2014

Web Address: This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (
documents/RA0352.pdf. licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and
reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1311-1316 | JRB | 2014 | Vol 4 | No 3

Journal of Research in Biology
An International
Scientific Research Journal
Seino et al., 2014

INTRODUCTION Propionic Orcein squash technique of Seino et al.,

Atractomorpha lata (=A. bedeli) is a common (2012a). Testes fixed in 3:1 Ethanol: Acetic acid were
grasshopper found in the West and North-West Regions squashed on clean microscope glass slides and stained
of Cameroon. Though this species has been reportedly a with 2% lactic propionic orcien.
pest of rice and Medicinal plants on the Asian continent The meiotic process was assessed by
(Anonymous, 1972; Kobayashi et al., 1972; Lee et al., examination of stages and substages present. Chiasma
2007), it is yet to be implicated with pest activities in frequencies were counted from ten cells in Diplotene/
Cameroon or on the African continent. Diakenesis in ten individuals. Mitotic Metaphase
Karyotype is an important asset of a species and chromosomes were measured directly from the Lietz
can serve for identification purposes (Channaveerappa photomicroscope with the help of the ocular and stage
and Ranganath, 1997). It is also a useful tool in micrometres. Chromosome morphology was determined
cytotaxonomic, evolutionary and phylogenetic studies from the presence of minute short arms and confirmed
(Verma and Agarwal, 2005). A review of Sannomiya using the shapes of the chromosomes in first meiotic
(1973), John and King, (1983) and Yao et al., (2004), anaphases and second meiotic metaphases and
revealed that some Atractomorpha species have anaphases. Chromosome size groups were determined
karyotypes with chromosome numbers that vary from from Relative Chromosome Lengths (RCL) and
2n = 19 to 38 acro-telocentric chromosomes. This separated using the Duncans Multiple Range Test
variation in chromosome number is due principally due (DMRT).
to the presence of supernumerary chromosomes. Up to
19 B, chromosomes have been reported in some RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
populations of Atractomorpha species. Meiotic process
There is a paupacy in literature of cytogenetic The meiotic stages observed in this species are
information for Cameroonian (African) Atractomorpha Prophase -1 (Zygotene, Pachytene, and Diplotene),
species. This report is therefore a first description of the Metaphase -1, Anaphase -1, Telophase-1, Metaphase- 2
karyotype and meiotic process in the African A. lata and Anaphase -2 (Figure.1). In Diplotene (Figure. 1d),
(=bedeli) collected from Cameroon. chiasmata were present. There was no precocious
movement of chromosomes in Anaphase- 1(Figure. 1f).
MATERIALS AND METHODS As per the criteria of Verma and Agarwal, (2005), the
Ten male individuals used for this study were meiotic process in this species was judged as normal and
collected on the Campus of the University of Dschang, chiasmate. This type of meiotic process is reportedly
Cameroon. Two of the insects were pre-treated with ancestral and characteristic for the Orthoptera (White,
colchicine to ensure that mitotic chromosomes were 1973; Hewitt, 1979). Chiasma frequency per cell varied
obtained while the others were not so treated in order to from 11 16 with a mode of 13 and a mean of
easily obtain meiotic chromosomes (Tepperberg et al., 12.840.29. A perusal of Table 1 revealed the mean
1997). percent rod shaped bivalents (69.2%) to be significantly
Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were higher (P<0.05) than the mean percent ring shaped
respectively obtained from individuals treated with 1% bivalents (32.9%). Also the mean percent bivalents with
colchicine and untreated individuals of A. lata. 1, 2 and 3 chiasmata were in the series: 1 chiasmata
Chromosome smears were prepared with the Lactic (67.1%) > 2 chiasmata (23.1%) > 3 chiasmata
1312 Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1311-1316
Seino et al., 2014

a b c

d e f

g h i

Figure 1: Meiotic stages in Atractomorpha lata: a) Leptotene; b) Zygotene;

c) Pachytene; d) Diplotene; e) Metaphase- 1; f) Anaphase -1; g) Early
Telophase -1; h) Anaphase -2; i) Telophase -2; Arrow = X- chromosome;
ch = chiasma; ct = centromere

(9.7%). Similar observations have been reported for the diploid chromosome number for A. lata was 19
Taphronota thaelephora and Dictyophorus griseus (2n=19) with the XX XO sex determining
(Seino et al., 2012 a and b). The X chromosome stained mechanism. This is another example of the characteristic
darker than the autosomes in Prophase-1 but stained Pyrgomorphidae karyotype since Pyrgomorphidae
lighter than the autosomes in Metaphase-1 and species show karyotype uniformity with 19
Anaphase-1, therefore exhibiting the reversal type of chromosomes (White, 1973; Hewitt, 1979; Seino et al.,
heteropycnosis. Reversal heteropycnosis has been 2012 a & b). The chromosome number recorded for
considered characteristic of the Orthoptera grasshoppers A. lata in this study is in agreement with that recorded
(White, 1973; Hewitt, 1979). for A bedeli (Sannomiya; 1973; 1978) and seven
Karyotype Atractomorpha species (A. sinensis, A. burri,
Few karyotype studies have been done on A. yunnanensis, A. peregrina, A. sagittaris, A. psittacina
African Pyrgomorphidae in general and of species from and A. lata) in Guizhou (Yao et al., 2004). However
Cameroon in particular. Mitotic Metaphase chromosome presence of B chromosomes (varying from 1 7) in the
counts revealed 19 chromosomes in males (Figure. 2). Tofuwato Japan population of A. Bedeli (=lata)
There were also 9 bivalents and one univalent X reported by Sannomiya (1973) is not found in this
chromosome in Diplotene and Metaphase -1. Therefore Cameroonian population.

Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1311-1316 1313

Seino et al., 2014


Relative Chromosome Length


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 X
Chromosome pair

Figure. 2: Mitotic Metaphase chromosomes in A. lata. Figure. 3: Idiogram of karyotype of A. lata. The
Short chromosome arms (arrowed) are visible in chromosomes occur in size groups of long, medium and
most of the chromosomes short (3LL: 5MM: 1SS). The X chromosome is medium.

The chromosomes of A. lata were all The individual chromosomes were also
characterised by being a simple rod type with a near characterised by length. A perusal of Table 2 revealed
terminal attachment at the tapering ends. Short that chromosomes in A. lata ranged from 7.52 to 3.42m
chromosome arms were present in most of the and the total haploid length (including the X
chromosomes (Figure.2). Centromeres were therefore in chromosome) was 56.39 m. The X chromosome was
the near terminal regions of the chromosomes. As per the 5.6m long. The chromosomes were occurred in three
criteria of Levan et al., (1964), the chromosomes in sizes; long, medium and short (Figure. 3) (Table 3).
A. lata collected in Cameroon were therefore acrocentric There were 3 long, 5 medium and 1 short chromosome
in morphology. The acrocentric nature of these pairs (3LL: 5MM: 1SS). The X- chromosome was
chromosomes was confirmed by the V-shaped nature of medium (Table 3). Chromosomes in most Orthoptera
the chromosomes in Anaphase -1 (Figure1 f) and the grasshoppers occur in size groups of long, medium and
I -shaped nature of the chromosomes in Anaphase- 2 short (White, 1973; Seino et al., 2012 a and b). This
(Figure. 1i) (William and Ogunbiyi, 1995). No secondary report is in agreement with the report of Yao et al.,
constrictions were observed. (2004) who also observed the chromosomes of seven

Table 1: Mean chiasma frequency per cell, percent rod and ring shaped bivalents and percent bivalents with
1-, 2- and 3- chiasmata determined from ten cells in Diplotene of Atractomorpha lata.
Mean Cell
Rod shaped Ring shaped Bivalents with Bivalents with Bivalents with
bivalents bivalents 1- chiasma 2 -chiasmata 3 -chiasmata
X % X % X % X % X %
A.lata 12.840.29 0.692 69.2 0.329 32.9 0.671 67.1 0.231 23.1 0.097 9.7

Table 2: Mitotic Metaphase chromosome lengths (m) and long: short arm ratio in Atractomorpha lata
1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10m
Total length 7.52 6.93 6.91 5.65 5.18 5.08 5.04 5.03 3.42 6.1
Long arm 6.49 5.91 5.92 5.04 4.22 4.20 4.03 4.22 2.8 5.3
Short arm 1.03 1.02 0.99 0.61 0.96 0.88 1.01 0.81 0.62 0.8
Long arm: short arm ratio 6.60 5.79 5.98 8.26 4.40 4.77 3.99 5.21 4.52 6.63
1314 Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1311-1316
Seino et al., 2014

Atractomorpha species collected in Guizhou to occur in

Size of X

three size groups of long medium and short. However,
the X chromosome in this study was medium in size
while in the Guizhou species of Atractomorpha the X
Length (m ) of chromosome was the longest chromosome in the
X chromosome genome.

5.63 m
The apparent absence of B chromosomes in this
study does not dismiss the existence of supernumeraries
in Cameroonian populations of A. lata (= bedeli). The
Table 3: Morphometric characters of the karyotype of A. lata collected from Cameroon

presence of B chromosomes are known to vary with

All Acrocentric
Morphology of

population (Camacho et al., 2000). During this study no

meiotic and karyotype aberrations were detected.

Total chromosome

We are deeply indebted to Mr Akongte Peter,

(Haploid set)
length (m)

56.39 m

MSc student in the Department of Animal Biology of the

University of Dschang, Cameroon, who collected the
specimens used for this study. Our sincere thanks go to
Professor Mpoame Mbida, Head of the Applied Ecology
Number of chromosome

Laboratory (LABEA), Department of Animal Biology in

per size group

the University of Dschang, Cameroon, for laboratory




Anonymous. 1972. A list of plant diseases, insect pests

and weeds in Korea; Seoul, Korean Society of Plant
Sex determining

Protection, 424.

Camacho JPM, Sharbel TF and Beukeboom LW.

2000. B-chromosome Evolution. Phil. Trans. R. Soc.
Lond., 355(1394): 163 178.
chromosomes per cell in
Total number of

Channaveerappa H and Ranganath H. 1997.

the male

Karyology of a few species of South Indian acridids. II.


Male germ line karyotypic instability in Gastrimaargus.

Journal of Biosciences, 22(3): 367 374.

John B and King M. 1983. Population cytogenetics of

Atractomorpha similes I. C-band variation. Chromosoma

A. lata

88(1): 57 -68.

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Hewitt GM. 1979. Grasshoppers and Crickets. Animal damaged spermatocytes and a possible checkpoint at
cytogenetics. Insecta, I. Orthoptera. Vol. 3. Grebruger Pachytene. Chromosoma, 106(3): 183 192.
Borntraeger Ed. Berlin Stuttgart.
Verma PS and Agarwal VK. 2005. Cell Biology,
Kobayashi T, Hasegawa T and Kegasawa K. 1972. Molecular Biology, Evolution and Ecology. Chand &
Major insect pests of leguminous crops in Japan. Trop. Company Ltd. Ram Nagar, New Delhi 110 055.
Agric. Res. Ser., Japan, 6: 109 126.
White MJD. 1973. Animal cytology and Evolution. 3rd
Lee DW, Park JC, Kim DS, Kim CS and Choo HY. edition. Cambridge University Press. 961.
2007. Kinds and occurring time of insect pests in
William GO and Ogunbiyi BI. 1995. Chromosome
medicinal plant Garden. Http://
morphology and meiosis in Zonocerus variegatus L.
(Orthoptera, Pyrgomorphidae). Cytologia, 60(2):111-
Levan A, Fredga K and Sondberg AA. 1964. 116.
Nomenclature for centric position of chromosomes.
YAO Shi-hong XIE Ai-lin and XU Ping-li. 2004.
Hereditas, 52(2): 201 - 220.
A comparative study on the karyotypes and c-banding of
Sannomiya M. 1973. Cytogenetic studies on normal seven Atractomorpha species in Guizhou. Journal of
populations of grasshoppers with special reference to B- Guizhou Normal University (Natural Science) 2004 - 2.
chromosomes. I. Atractomorpha bedeli. Chromosoma
44: 99 - 106.

Sannomiya M. 1978. Relationship between crossing-

over and chiasma formation in a translocation
heterozygote of Atractomorpha bedeli (Acrididae,
Orthoptera). Heredity 40(2): 305 - 308.

Seino RA, Tongleu ID and Manjeli Y. 2012a.

Cyotgenetic characterisation of Taphronota thaelephora
Stal.1873.(Orthoptera: Pyrgo morphidae) fro m
Cameroon. II. Description of mitotic chromosomes.
International Journal of Biological and Chemical
Sciences, 6(4): 1624 1632.
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Seino RA, Manjeli Y and Dongmo TI. 2012b. Advantages
Cytogenetic studies in Dictyophorus griseus (Reiche & Easy online submission
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Faiemaire, 1849)(Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) from Affordable Charges
Cameroon. II. Karyotype. Agriculture and Biology Quick processing
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Journal of North America, 3(7): 292 295.
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Tepperberg JH, Moses MJ and Nath J. 1997.
Colchicine effects on meiosis in the male mouse. 1.
Meiotic prophase: synaptic arrest, univalents, loss of
1316 Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1311-1316
Journal of Research in Biology ISSN No: Print: 2231 6280; Online: 2231- 6299

An International Scientific Research Journal

Original Research

Diversity, distribution, threats and conservation action of fish fauna in

Chinnar Reservoir, Tamil Nadu
Authors: ABSTRACT:
Journal of Research in Biology

Manickam Raja,
Rajendiran Ramkumar The freshwater fish fauna of the Chinnar reservoir/Chinnar River a tributary
and Pachiappan Perumal. of the Cauvery River system in the Tamil Nadu at the Eastern part of Ghats was
studied. A total of thirty two (32) species of freshwater fish belonging to seven (7)
orders, ten (10) families and twenty four (24) genera were recorded. Out of the 32
Institution: species, the present study recorded the presence of three (3) threatened, one (1)
1. Department of vulnerable and twenty eight (28) least concerned species. The highest species diversity
Biotechnology, Periyar was recorded in Chinnar Reservoir (n=22) and lowest diversity was found in the
University, Periyar Palkalai Gujjarahalli (n=9). The fish fauna of the Chinnar reservoir is threatened due to
Nagar, Salem- 636 011 anthropogenic activities such as deforestation leading to siltation, sand mining, over
Tamil Nadu, India. fishing by using dynamite, organic and inorganic pollution. Hence, there is an urgent
need to develop and implement conservation plans that are needed.

Corresponding author: Keywords:

Manickam Raja. Chinnar reservoir, Eastern Ghats, biodiversity status, sand mining, threats.

Email Id: Article Citation:

Manickam Raja, Rajendiran Ramkumar and Pachiappan Perumal.
Diversity, distribution, threats and conservation action of fish fauna in Chinnar
Reservoir, Tamil Nadu.
Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1317-1327

Web Address: Dates: Received: 11 Mar 2014 Accepted: 22 Mar 2014 Published: 06 Jun 2014
This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (
licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and
reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1317-1327 | JRB | 2014 | Vol 4 | No 3

Journal of Research in Biology
An International
Scientific Research Journal
Raja et al., 2014

INTRODUCTION Rema Devi et al., (1999), Easa and Shaji (1997), Rema
The ichthyofauna of Eastern Ghats have not been Devi and Raghu Nathan (1999), Arunachalam and
thoroughly studied as that of the Western Ghats. Rema Sankaranarayanan (1999), Rema Devi and Indra (2000),
Devi and Indra (2003) have listed 127 fish species from Arunachalam and Muralidharan (2007, 2008 and 2009),
Eastern Ghats based on their extensive collections and Arunachalam et al., (2006, 2013, and 2014), Raja et al.,
the earlier reports beginning with Day (1878). The (2014). So far, very little scientific studies have been
Eastern Ghats are a series of broken and weathered relict carried out on the reservoirs of Tamil Nadu.
embodies as a series of isolated hills in the peninsular The Chinnar River takes its origin from a
plateau (Mani 1974). Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri parts wetland system called Thali Lake or Thali Big Tank.
of the Eastern Ghats are the discontinuous patches of Sanathkumar River, the name at its origin from Thali
hills with fragmented dry deciduous forest types by Lake and the adjoining streams waters from fragmented
which small streams originate. The region is mostly hilly terrain were regulated with several Anicut/check
covered with agricultural lands (66.5%), the dry dams, confluences with Chinnar River and regulated as
deciduous and dry deciduous scrub forests constitute Chinnar Reservoir. The Chinnar Reservoir (Panjapalli
about 6.8%. Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests forms Dam) is located (1229'29"N 7755'26"E) in Panjapalli-
about 0.3% (NRSA, 2007). village of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu. The
The reservoirs and lakes were the main assets reservoir formed by the dam is a lake of 420 acres
exploited due to inland fisheries. The understanding of impounding 500 mile cubic feet of water at its maximum
fish faunal diversity is a foremost feature for the level. The reservoir comprises of an earthen dam of 365
exploitation of freshwater reservoirs (Battul et al., 2007). m length across river Chinnar. The irrigation network
The detailed information of fishery resources, their consists of one main canal, two distributaries and twelve
availability and distribution in a particular water body is direct sluices. The reservoir provides irrigation for
essential for proper consumption of its fishery resource 1600.63 ha of land under the old and new commands in
(Pawar et al., 2007). The spatial and temporal patterns of Palacode and Karimangalam Taluks of Dharmapuri
diversity, distribution and species composition will be District apart from services by means of groundwater
useful to study the factors influencing the fish recharge, nutrient supply, water purification, recreation
community structure (Galacatos et al., 2004). Many fish and habitats for various biota. The Chinnar river
species have become highly endangered by human confluences with Cauvery river at Hogenakkal, which is
engrossment in the riverine ecosystems as a result of situated at 61Km from Chinnar reservoir.
habitat loss (Lima-Junior et al., 2006; Mas-Marti et al., Chinnar reservoir is one of the important
2010). Freshwater fishes are one of the most threatened reservoirs in northern part of Tamil Nadu that need
taxonomic groups (Darwall and Vie, 2005) because of serious attention in its management and conservation of
their high sensitivity to the alteration of aquatic habits fishery resources. Detailed studies on fish fauna of this
(Laffaille et al., 2005; Sarkar et al., 2008; Kang et al., reservoir are still lacking. To fill this gap, the present
2009). study was carried out in order to examine the diversity,
Ichthyofauna diversity on different river systems distribution, threats and conservation plan for fish fauna
of India have been surveyed by Jayaram et al., (1982), in the different spreads of Chinnar reservoir.
Talwar and Jhingran (1991), Menon (1992) and
contemporary works include those of Rema Devi (1992),
1318 Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1317-1327
Raja et al., 2014

Figure 1. Showing the locations/ study sites of upstream/downstream

areas of Chinnar Reservoir, Tamil Nadu.

MATERIALS AND METHODS 7% formalin and preserved in 70% alcohol for voucher
The fish survey and collections were done collection. The collected specimens were transported to
covering in 12 sites upstream/downstream of Chinnar the Department of Biotechnology Cum Laboratory
reservoir in Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu (Fig. 1) museum of the Periyar University Museum of Natural
viz; Chinnar Reservoir (S1), Panjapalli (S2), Periyanoor History (PUMNH- a newly started one in the year 2013),
(S3), Samanur (S4), Marandahalli (S5), Upparahalli (S6), Salem, Tamil Nadu, India and assigned the specimen
Chikkapavalli (S7), Sukkanahalli (S8), Nallur (S9), catalogue numbers (Accession number PUMNH 71-102.
Ganganahalli (S10), Chikkamarandahalli (S11) and The species identification was carried out using Talwar
Gujjarahalli (S12). Fish were collected with the help of and Jhingran, (1991); Jayaram, (2010) and nomenclatural
gill nets, cast nets and drag nets during January- names were followed by the catalogue of fishes of the
December, 2013. The sampling was made in 100-200 m California academy of sciences (Eschmeyer and Fricke,
stretches of each site. Local fisherman was involved in 2011; Pethiyagoda et al., 2012) and fish status was
netting and collection. The specimens were lively checked in IUCN red list (IUCN, 2013).
photographed with Canon 1100 Digital SLR camera and
representative specimens of each species were fixed in

Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1317-1327 1319

Raja et al., 2014

Figure 2. Showing the some of the fish species collected from

Chinnar Reservoir.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION and four (4) genera were seen. One species of
The details of fish species recorded from the Mugiliformes, Cyprinodontiformes and
present study sites are given in Tables 1 & 2. The Synbranchiformes such as Xenentodon cancila,
Chinnar reservoir preserves a rich variety of fish species, Aplocheilus lineatus and Mastacembelus armatus and six
on the basis of studies conducted so far, as it harbour (6) species of Perciformes belonging to three (3) families
thirty two (32) species of fish species (Fig.2); belonging and four (4) genera are identified.
to seven (7) orders, ten (10) families and twenty four In the upstream/ downstream of Chinnar
(24) genera. Among those only one species of reservoir the presence of highest species diversity
Osteoglossiformes- Notopterus notopterus was recorded. (Fig. 3) was recorded in Chinnar reservoir (S1; n=22),
Cypriniformes dominates the catch list with seventeen followed by the Panjapalli (S2; n=18). The lowest
(17) species belonging to twelve (12) genera also, five species diversity was recorded in the Gujjarahalli (S12;
(5) species of Siluriformes belonging to two (2) families n=9) and Nallur (S9; n= 10). The present survey records
1320 Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1317-1327
Raja et al., 2014

Figure 3. Species diversity within the study sites of Chinnar Reservoir, Tamil Nadu.

the presence of three (3) economically important as well value due to small size and bright colours can be used as
as near threatened species, Mystus armatus, Ompok aquarium fishes. The economically important and high
bimaculatus, Oreochromis mossambicus; one (1) commercial valued fish species such as Notopterus
vulnerable species Cyprinus carpio and twenty eight notopterus, Gibelion catla, Labeo calbasu, Labeo rohita,
(28) species are in least concerned categories. According Ompok bimaculatus, Clarias batrachus, Heteropneustes
to IUCN 'Red list 2013' 3% of the species are in fossilis, Mastacembelus armatus, Channa marulius, and
vulnerable state, 9% are near threatened and 88% are Channa punctata were also found in much abundance.
least concerned in Chinnar reservoir (Fig. 4). Whereas, only one species of hill adapted fish species,
The fish species such as Devario aequipinnatus, Garra mullya was recorded.
Rasbora cauverii, Dawkinsia filamentosa, Puntius chola, The fish fauna of Chinnar River is under threat as
Puntius dorsalis, Pethia ticto, Pethia conchonius, a result of several anthropogenic interferences;
Aplocheilus lineatus having the prominent ornamental deforestation leading to siltation, inorganic pollution of
the river, dynamite fishing, and recreational activities are
common in most of the stretches of the river. The
evidence collected from the local people and local
fisherman shown high decline in the fish population in
previous decade due to dynamite fishing by nearby black
granite quarry mining workers and excessive in stream
sand-and-gravel mining of the river belt.
The scientific studies on the environmental
impact of mining were carried out at different forest
regions (Ram Prasad, 1992). During October 10, 2009
Figure 4. Conservation status of fish species collected the High court of Madras, appointed Professor
from different study sites of Chinnar Reservoir,
Tamil Nadu. M. Arunachalam as an Expert-Commissioner to provide
an assessment of sand/gravel mining impact on Chinnar

Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1317-1327 1321

Table 1 List of fish species in Chinnar Reservoir, Tamil Nadu.

List of Fishes Order Family Vernacular name Status- (IUCN
1 Notopterus notopterus Osteoglossiformes Notopteridae Chottavalai, Chappathi, Chennavalai Least Concern
2 Salmophasia bacaila Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Valachel, Vellachi- kenda Least Concern
3 Salmophasia boopis Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Sampaj Least Concern
4 Barilius gatensis Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Artcandee Least Concern
5 Barilius bendelisis Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Vennathi- kendai, Akkili varatankendai Least Concern
6 Devario aequipinnatus Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Vannathipodi, Selaiparavai Least Concern
7 Rasbora cauverii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Pattakunju, Bhavani kendai Least Concern
8 Amblypharyngodon melettinus Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Pachathalai kendai Least Concern
9 Cyprinus carpio Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Carp Vulnerable
10 Dawkinsia filamentosa Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Chavalle, Mocha- kendai Least Concern
11 Puntius chola Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Putti- kendai, Karoon Least Concern
12 Puntius dorsalis Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Sall- kendai, Palpooran, Mookanam- kendai Least Concern
13 Pethia ticto Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Pulli kendai Least Concern
14 Pethia conchonius Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Valli kendai Least Concern
15 Gibelion catla Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Katla,Thoppa meen, Koora kendai, Karavai Least Concern
16 Labeo calbasu Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Kakkameen, Karuppusel, Karunchel, Kurrimenu Least Concern
17 Labeo rohita Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Kennadi- kendai, Rohu Least Concern
18 Garra mullya Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Kallu koravai Least Concern
19 Mystus armatus Siluriformes Bagridae Sonanng keletee Near Threatened
20 Mystus cavasius Siluriformes Bagridae Naikeluthi, Vellakelete Least Concern
21 Ompok bimaculatus Siluriformes Bagridae Savallai, Silaivalai Near Threatened
22 Clarias batrachus Siluriformes Clariidae Thal- meen, Thal- kendai Least Concern
23 Heteropneustes fossilis Siluriformes Clariidae Thaylee/ Thailimeen Least Concern
24 Xenentodon cancila Mugiliformes Belonidae Kokkumeen, Vellai mooral Least Concern
25 Aplocheilus lineatus Cyprinodontiformes Cyprinodontidae Mundakanni, Manankanni, Vanampartha meen Least Concern
26 Mastacembelus armatus Synbranchiformes Mastacembelidae Aarrah Least Concern
27 Parambassis ranga Perciformes Centropomidae Kannadi meen Least Concern
28 Etroplus maculatus Perciformes Cichlidae Setha kendai, Bommi Least Concern
29 Etroplus suratensis Perciformes Cichlidae Sella- kasu, Puradi, Selladai meen Least Concern
30 Oreochromis mossambicus Perciformes Cichlidae Tilapia, Jilabi-meen Near Threatened
31 Channa marulius Perciformes Channidae Aviri-Puveral, Iru vraal Least Concern
32 Channa punctata Perciformes Channidae Korava Least Concern

Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1317-1327

Raja et al., 2014
Table 2. Fish distribution from upstream/downstream areas of Chinnar Reservoir, Tamil Nadu. (+ = Present; - = Absent)

Sl.No. List of Fishes S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12

1 Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769) + - - - - + - - + - - -
Raja et al., 2014

2 Salmophasia bacaila (F.Hamilton, 1822) + - + + + - - - + - - +

3 Salmophasia boopis (F.Day, 1874) + + - - - + + - - + - +
4 Barilius gatensis (Valenciennes, 1844) + + + - + + - - + + + +
5 Barilius bendelisis (F.Hamilton, 1807) + - + - - - + + - + - +
6 Devario aequipinnatus (McClelland,1839) - + + + + + - + + + + -
7 Rasbora cauverii (Jerdon, 1849) - + - + + - - + - + + -
8 Amblypharyngodon melettinus (Valenciennes, 1844) + - + + - - - + - - + -
9 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 + - - + - - + - - - - -
10 Dawkinsia filamentosa (Valenciennes, 1844) - + - + - + - + - - + -
11 Puntius chola (F.Hamilton, 1822) - + + - - + - + - + - +
12 Puntius dorsalis (Jerdon, 1849) - + - - - + - + - + - +
13 Pethia ticto (F.Hamilton, 1822) + - - + - - + - - + - +

Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1317-1327

14 Pethia conchonius (F.Hamilton, 1822) + + + - + - + - + - + -
15 Gibelion catla (F.Hamilton, 1822) + + - - - - + - - - - --
16 Labeo calbasu (F.Hamilton, 1822) + - - - + - - + - - + -
17 Labeo rohita (F.Hamilton, 1822) + + + - - + - - + - - +
18 Garra mullya (Sykes, 1839) - + - + - - - + - - + -
19 Mystus armatus (Day, 1865) + - - - + - + - - - + -
20 Mystus cavasius (F.Hamilton, 1822) + + - - - + - - + - + -
21 Ompok bimaculatus (Bloch, 1794) + + + - - - + - - + - -
22 Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) + + - + - - - + - + - -
23 Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794) + + - - - - - - - + - -
24 Xenentodon cancila (F.Hamilton, 1822) - - + - - - + - + - + -
25 Aplocheilus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1846) + - + - + + - + + + + +
26 Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) - + - + - - - - - + - -
27 Parambassis ranga (F.Hamilton, 1822) - - + + - - - - - - + -
28 Etroplus maculatus (Bloch, 1795) + + - - - + - + - - - -
29 Etroplus suratensis (Bloch, 1790) + - + - + - - - - - + -
30 Oreochromis mossambicus (W.K.H Peters, 1852) + - - - + + - - + - - -
31 Channa marulius (F.Hamilton, 1822) - + - - + - + - - - - -
32 Channa punctata (Bloch, 1793) + - - - + + + - - - - -

Raja et al., 2014

river ecosystem and the land use pattern along the genetic diversity. The removal of the exotic species,
stretches of river below the reservoir. His report Oreochromis mossambicus is advantageous to reservoir
concluded that, the river system under assessment needs fishery. The presence of tilapia decreases the population
at least five years to restore and hence sand/gravel of other fish species. Thus, it is beneficial to remove this
mining should not be carried out for the next five years population by selective fishing. In view of the existing
(Arunachalam, 2009). practices there is an urgent need to take up certain
Instream sand mining resulted in the habitat loss conservation approach to control the drastic drop down
and channel morphology alteration leads to dreadful in fish population and to save the vulnerable, threatened
conditions of aquatic biota; this continued mining cause species from wiping out of the region. Though, there are
the entire stream to excavation (Kondolf et al., 2002) and certain legal restrictions in few areas, but it remained un-
negative effects on aquatic life (Johnes and OSullivan, productive due to lack of uniformity in its
1989). An increase in the amount of fine sediments implementation.
increase the amount of sediment-associated nutrients
(especially phosphorus) and contaminants in the river ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
water. This increases the amount of water quality The corresponding author is grateful to SERB-
degradation caused by excessive nutrients with the DST (Government of India) - Start up Research Grant for
resulting negative impacts to aquatic life (Owens and Young Investigators (vide File No. DST No. SB/YS/LS-
Walling, 2002; Correll, 1998). Ecosystem integrity also 36/2013) and also thank Mr. S. Mariappan for line
embodies the degree of self-organization (Muller et al., drawing.
2000). Once the systems reliability is troubled by human
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Journal of Research in Biology ISSN Number: Print: 2231 6280; Online: 2231- 6299

An International Scientific Research Journal

Original Research

New Locality Record of Yellow Collared Wolf Snake Lycodon flavicollis

Mukherjee and Bhupathy, 2007 from Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve,
Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India
Journal of Research in Biology

Authors: ABSTRACT:
Bubesh Guptha M*,
Thulasaiah T and
Sivaram Prasad NV.
During field survey, we encounter live specimen of Lycodon flavicollis while it
was crossing the path at about 1130 hrs on 20th September 2013. Near a close to the
famous temple of Sri Lord Venkateswara (13 42 N & 79 20E). During the time of
collection, it was cool and cloudy. Subsequently, the specimen was photographed and
Bio - Lab of Seshachalam
Hills, Wildlife Management released after collection of morphometry measurements. In the present paper, we
Circle, Kapilatheertham, provide additional and new locality record in Eastern Ghats.
Tirupati - 517 501,
Andhra Pradesh, India

Corresponding author: Keywords:

Bubesh Guptha M. Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve, Lycodon flavicollis, New Locality Record,
Andhra Pradesh.

Email Id: Article Citation:

Bubesh Guptha M, Thulasaiah T and Sivaram Prasad NV.
New locality record of yellow collared wolf snake Lycodon flavicollis mukherjee and
bhupathy, 2007 from seshachalam biosphere reserve, Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1328-1331

Web Address: Dates: Received: 19 Oct 2013 Accepted: 02 Dec 2013 Published: 11 Jun 2014
This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (
licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and
reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1328-1331 | JRB | 2014 | Vol 4 | No 3

Journal of Research in Biology
An International
Scientific Research Journal
Guptha et al., 2014

INTRODUCTION: Seshachalam hill ranges. These hill ranges are a part of

Amphibians and reptiles play a major role in the Eastern Ghats, spread over Chittoor and Kadapah
ecological food wed, as both predators and prey. Herpits districts of Andhra Pradesh. The predominant vegetation
also provide a significant benefit to agriculture and type is tropical southern dry mixed deciduous forest
recreational activity as consumers of insects, rodents, and (Champion and Seth, 1968). The vegetation is a mix of
other pest species Amphibians and reptiles, 2006). the tropical southern dry mixed deciduous types and
Lycodon, one of the most widespread Asiatic snake taxa, includes three protected areas, namely Sri Venkateswara
ranges from the Caspian Sea to the Philippines and Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara National Park and
Indonesia. Over 25 species have been reported to date Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve. This range is the
(Smith, 1943; Biswas and Sanyal, 1965; Lanza, 1999; richest floristic hot spot harboring many endemic and
Slowinski et al., 2001; Daltry and Wuster, 2002), and 11 rare plants. The entire sanctuary is an uninhabited large
of them occur within the Indian subcontinent (Mukherjee chunk of dry deciduous Red Sanders bearing forest
and Bhupathy, 2007). The Eastern Ghats is of broken and (Bubesh et al., 2013).
isolated hills of the Deccan Plateau, unlike the
continuous mountain range of Western Ghats of the METHODOLOGY:
southwestern India (Chettri and Bhupathy, 2010). The Totally 53 field days were spent to rapidly assess
collection site of Lycodon flavicollis is located in the Herpetofauna Since August 2011 onwards, we are

Source: Google Earth.

Figure 1: Distribution map for Lycodon flavicollis in India (after Mukherjee and Bhupathy 2007),
with an Yellow spot indicating the earlier record from Anaikatti Hills, Tamil Nadu, Western Ghats
and Pink spot indicating the new locality record for Seshachalam Hills, Andhra Pradesh, Eastern

1329 Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1328-1331

Guptha et al., 2014

carrying out a detailed biodiversity inventory of the Table 1: Morphometry of Lycodon flavicollis from
Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve in Chittoor and Kadapa Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve

districts, Andhra Pradesh. Data collection will be carried Particulars Measurements

out by using Visual Encounter Survey Method. The Ventral 217
sanctuary area was different and all habitats were Sub Caudal 68
randomly explored on the basis of habitat and Supralabials 9
availability of the species. All important major and minor Tail Length 41mm
water bodies, including seasonal rivulets were Head Length 8mm
extensively explored for aquatic species. Head Width 5mm
Total Length 280mm

RESULT AND DISCUSSION Yellow Collared Wolf Snake Lycodon

During nature trail in Seshachalam Biosphere flavicollis is a species of non venomous snake, Snout
Reserve we encounter live specimen of Lycodon broad, much depressed, long, spatulate, with the upper
flavicollis dated 20 September 2013 at 1130 hrs. The lip swollen. Uniform brownish grey above, with a yellow
specimen was collected from the habitat close to the collar (Figure- 2 and 3).
famous temple of Sri Lord Venkateswara (1342N and Threats
7920E) (Fig-1). Surrounding mixed vegetation forest. Management intervention should ensure
During the time of collection, it was cool and cloudy. checking of illegal entry especially red sander smugglers,
Subsequently, the specimen was photographed and livestock pressure etc. Forest fire is one of the major
released after collection of morphometry measurements. threats in the Seshachalam hills.
All measurements are in mm (Table-1). So far very little
information is available or published about this species, RECOMMENDATION:
Lycodon flavicollis a new species were described We recommend that further studies be carried out
recently from Anaikatti Hills, Tamil Nadu, Western in the Eastern Ghats and its surrounding areas at the
Ghats (Mukherjee and Bhupathy 2007). earliest possible opportunity to confirm the presence of

Figure 2: Showing head and aspects of dorsal Figure 3: Showing aspects of head and dorsum
coloration in Lycodon flavicollis of Lycodon flavicollis

Journal of Research in Biology (2014) 4(3): 1328-1331 1330

Guptha et al., 2014

many such new species. Also everyone should realize Daltry JC and Wuster W. 2002. A new species of Wolf
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Champion HG and Seth SK. 1968. A revised survey of Affordable Charges
the forest types of India. Govt. of India Press, Delhi. Quick processing
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reptile species from the Araku Valley, Eastern Ghats
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