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2010 8 August 2010

33 3 Modern Foreign Languages Quarterly Vol33 No3

H313 A 1003-6105 2010 03-0276-11

Firth 1957 collocation

Carter 1987 170- ibid
173 12
Sinclair Firth
McIntosh 1967
Partington 1998 27 collocational range
Halliday 1976 75
Sinclair 1991 170
Conzett 1997 70 -87
powerful car strong tea
powerful tea strong car Nattinger DeCarrico 1992
Halliday 1976 73 1 Bahns 1993 57 2002 100
fickle flexible Partington 1998 Xiao HcEnery
2006 2002
Tognini-Bonelli 2001 18-24



2002 177
Sinclair 1987
1991 happen set in

Stubbs 2001 65
large number s
scale part quantity quantities amount s

Stubbs 2002 Partington
225 2004 154-155

Louw 2000 58

Louw 1993 156-159 3

prosody neutral prosody 31
positive prosody Stubbs 1996
76 1



2003 5 ST2 ST3
2004 151


BRING about

Flob Hundt et al
1998 Frown Hundt et al 1999
Flob Frown 1991

100 Flob Frown NP RESULT from
Lob Johansson et al CAUSE
1978 Brown Francis Ku era 1964
Lob Brown
WordSmith Tools 40
33 4

WordSmith40 41
CAUSE LEAD to RESULT in from 1
BRING about CLEC 1 Flob
Flob Frown Frown CAUSE LEAD to
BRING about 260 267 RESULT in from
Flob Frown Lob Brown 186 BRING about Flob
Frown Lob Brown 97

Halliday 1991 31

Flob Frown ST2 ST3 ST4 ST5 ST6

CAUSE 260 5 102 109 69 127
LEAD to 267 4 51 75 26 73
RESULT in from 186 0 22 29 8 16
BRING about 97* 0 9 22 7 26
* BRING about Flob Frown Lob Brown

2 5122 9 ST6 73
CAUSE 16 26 ST5 268 7
LEAD to 80 ST4
LEAD toRESULT in from BRING about
75 29 22 ST3

804 468 462 351

CAUSE about LEAD to
RESULT in from

2 Flob Frown Stubbs 2009 125

Flob Frown ST3 ST4 ST5 ST6

CAUSE 209 63 72 64 112
260 102 109 69 127
804 618 661 928 882
LEAD to 125 33 47 19 44
267 51 75 26 73
468 647 62 7 731 603
RESULT in from 86 11 18 2 14
186 22 29 8 16
462 500 621 250 875
BRING about 34 5 14 4 10
97 9 22 7 26
351 556 636 571 385

618 647 500 556
ST4 661 627 621 636
ST3 ST4 43

BRING about ST5
928 731 3
250 571 ST6 882 603 Flob Frown CAUSE
875 385 ST5 ST6 Token 260 Type 158
TTR 61
90 84 81 4


3 Flob Frown

CAUSE LEAD to RESULT in from BRING about

Token 260 267 186 97
Type 158 241 156 79
TTR 61 90 84 81
Token Type TTR

4 f3

Flob Frown CAUSE damage 18 problems 11 pain 7 death 6 disease 5 trouble 5 pressure
4 concern 4 surprise 4 harm 4 event 3 cancer 3 accident 3
degradation 3 inconvenience 3 pollution 3 symptoms 3
LEAD to accident 3 death 3 decision 3 increase 3 loss 3 problem 3
RESULT in from change 7 loss 6 increase 4 damage 3 death 3 improvement
3 injury 3 problem 3 project 3 value 3
BRING about change 7 this 6 it 4
ST3 CAUSE change 26 problem 11 shortage of 9 disease 5 it 5 pollution 3
this 3
LEAD to success 6 shortage 4
RESULT in from shortage 4
BRING about change 3
ST4 CAUSE change 21 failure 4 accident 3 death 3 problem 3 result 3 waste
of 3 this 3
LEAD to failure 10 success 9 change 4 death 4 shortage 3
RESULT in from change 3 failure 3 waste 3
ST5 CAUSE problems 10 cancer 6 disease 6 accident 3
LEAD to cancer 4 problem 3
BRING about problem 3
ST6 CAUSE trouble 9 evil 6 problems 6 controversy 5 pain 4 abuse 3
LEAD to evil 6 crime 3
BRING about painless death 8

17610 3 disease
death deterioration loss damage

4 CAUSE damagepain death decision valuebenefit stardom

BRING about ST4 CAUSE change 21LEAD

change this it to change 4 RESULT in change 3
CAUSE failure 4LEAD to failure 10
RESULT in failure 3 CAUSE
change 26 21
4 Xiao McEnery 2006 115-
116 BNC
CAUSE change BRING about change

4321 ST3 ST4
CAUSE this CAUSE it 6
shortage 9 LEAD to shortage 4 CAUSE
RESULT in shortage 4 CAUSE BRING about
change 26 BRING about change 3

5 ST3 ST4 CAUSE change

1 In a word life expectancy was increasing infant mortality was declined What causes the
2 In 1960 one-fifth infants died of 1000 births while in 1990 one-tenth infants died The most
important reason which caused these changes was the development of
3 Second medical career make great progress and so forth In short mainly economy caused the
4 The mainly reason is that science technology is developing very fast That causes the great change

cancer 6 LEAD to cancer 4
CAUSE problem 10LEAD to problem
3 BRING about problem 3 ST6
CAUSE evil LEAD to evil 4322

CAUSE the variation LEAD to the

outcome Bahns 199361 ST3 ST4

straightforward translation

CAUSE ill CAUSE a sick
person death CAUSE fat

LEAD to forget RESULT in wrong
Howarth 1998179180 EFL BRING about inconvenient
deviation semantic deviation

1 6 ST5 ST6

ST3 CAUSE it taken place sick and death them adjust society things burned to feel alive that
LEAD to decreasing of fresh water fresh water's shortage condition improve perfect reduce the
fresh water unemploy* whole river to lake useless
RESULT in from urgent using of
ST4 CAUSE a sick person death developing of health state increase ill phenomena that
LEAD to haste makes waste come back history failing doing the things forget people's losing
sights succeed easily the population on the rise unceccess* come back history
RESULT in from wrong
BRING about inconvenient
ST5 CAUSE fat people homeless people unhealthy to reduce his life to short you life
ST6 CAUSE family violent heat controversy jealous people think public discontended*
LEAD to evil approach break-down break through
BRING about bookish
* that that

2 mistake
CAUSE CAUSE success development
BRING about improvement increase of life expectancy
BRING about pollution BRING about evils traumatic
trouble failure difficulty lossbad effect experience tragedies trouble disadvantages

BRING about

5 513

511 Corder 1981 24
idiosyncratic language
James 2001

2008 30 CAUSE

BRING about

LEAD to RESULT in from Newmark 1966 99 James 2001


Howarth 1998 180



Sinclair Renouf 1988 148


Bonelli 2001 34


Bahns J 1993 Lexical collocations A contrastive

view J ELT Journal 47 56-63

Carter R 1987 Vocabulary M London Allen

Morley Partington 2009
140 Conzett J 1997 Integrating collocation into a
reading and writing course A In J Coady T
Huckins eds Second Language Vocabulary
Louw 1993 173 Partington Acquisition C Cambridge CUP 70-87
1998 68 Corder S P 1981 Error Analysis and Interlanguage
M Oxford OUP
Firth J 1957 Papers in Linguistics M Oxford


Francis W H Ku era 1964 Manual of
Information to Accompany a Standard Sample of
Present-day Edited American English for Use
with Digital Computers M Providence Brown

University Morley J A Partington 2009 A few frequently

Halliday M A K 1976 System and Function in asked questions about semantic-or evaluative
Language M Oxford OUP prosody J International Journal of Corpus
Halliday M A K 1991 Corpus studies and Linguistics 14 139-158
probabilisitc Grammar In K Aijmer B Nattinger J R J S DeCarrico 1992 Lexical
Alternberg eds English Corpus Linguistics Phrases and Language Learning M Oxford
Studies in Honour of Jan Svartvik C London OUP
Longman 30-43 Newmark L 1966 How not to interfere with
Howarth P 1998 The phraseology of learners language teaching J International Review of
academic writing and second language American Linguistics 40 77-83
proficiency A In A P Cowie ed Partington A 1998 Patterns and Meanings-Using
Phraseology Theory Analysis and Corpora for English Language Research and
Applications C Oxford OUP 161-186 Teaching M Amsterdam John Benjamins
Hundt M A Sand R Siemund 1998 Manual of Partington A 2004 Utterly content in each other's
Information to Accompany the Freiburg-LOB company Seamntic prosody and semantic
Corpus of British English M Freiburg preference J International Journal of Corpus
University of Freiburg Linguistics 14 131-156
Hundt M A Sand P Skandera 1999 Manual of Sinclair J 1987 Collocation A progress report
Information to Accompany the Freiburg-Brown A In R Steele T Threadgold eds
Corpus of American English M Freiburg Language Topics Essays in Honour of Michael
University of Freiburg Halliday C Amsterdam Benjamins 319-331
James C 2001 Errors in Language Learning and Sinclair J A Renouf 1988 A lexical syllabus
Use Exploring Error Analysis M Beijing for language learning A In R Carter M
Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press McCarthy eds Vocabulary and Language
Johansson S G Leech H Goodluck 1978 Teaching C Harlow Longman 140-158
Manual of Information to Accompany the Sinclair J 1991 Corpus Concordance Collocation
Lancaster-Oslo Bergen Corpus of British M Oxford OUP
English for Use with Digital Computers M Stubbs M 1996 Text and Corpus Analysis M
Oslo University of Oslo Oxford Blackwell Publishers Ltd
Louw B 1993 Irony in the text or insincerity in the Stubbs M 2001 Words and Phrases M Oxford
writer The diagnostic potential of semantic Blackwell
prosodies A In M Baker G Francis E Stubbs M 2002 Two quantitative methods of
Tognini-Bonelli eds Text and Technology In studying phraseology in English J
Honour of John Sinclair C Amsterdam John International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 7 2
Benjamins 157-176 215-244
Louw B 2000 Contextual prosodic theory Bringing Stubbs M 2009 John Sinclair 1933-2007 The
semantic prosodies to life A In C Heffer H search for units of meaning Sinclair on empirical
Sauntson G Fox eds Words in Context A semantics J Applied Linguistics 30 1 115-
Tribute to John Sinclair on His Retirement C 137
Birmingham University of Birmingham Tognini-Bonelli E 2001 Corpus Linguistics at Work
McIntosh A 1967 Patterns and range A In A M Amsterdam John Benjamins
McIntosh M A K Halliday eds Patterns of Xiao R T McEnery 2006 Collocation
Language Papers in General Descriptive and Semantic prosody and near synonymy A cross-
Applied Linguistics C Bloomington and linguistic perspective J Applied Linguistics
London Indiana University Press 181-199 27 1 103-129

2003 M 2 23-32
2002 M 2010-05-07
2006 200240 800
J 5 50-55 A0814091
2008 J lujunarmyyahoocomcn


2011 7 2124

1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12
Paul Drew Anita Pomerantz KK Luke

2011 2 28 800 500

2011 4

http wwwcpracomcn
http wwwsxueducn yuanxi wy indexasp

2010 7 1

assumptions and the conditions of lexical differences the chi-square test which is the main
statistical technique for lexical differences between corpora is likely to produce statistical errors
when applied to this kind of tasks Therefore in this study other statistical techniques including
the log-likelihood ratio test and the rank sum test are also applied to lexical differences between
corpora As the analysis indicates the log-likelihood ratio test is experimentally similar to the
chi-square test in examining lexical differences between corpora they both tend to cause
statistical errors due to such factors as sample size and sample representativeness The rank sum
test however can solve some of the relevant problems and obtain relatively objective statistical

L2 vocabulary acquisition study based on Reading Plus by Wu Jianshe Lang Jianguo

Fu Li and Chen Jing p258
Research on Reading Plus has shown that better vocabulary acquisition could be made if
learners do vocabulary enhancement exercises after reading It has been revealed that learners
vocabulary size achievements vocabulary learning strategies learning styles and motivations
all play important roles in their vocabulary acquisition The present paper examines how these
factors exert influences on learners immediate vocabulary acquisition and delayed retention
under the Reading Plus framework It is found that correctness in completing vocabulary
enhancement exercises vocabulary size and vocabulary use strategy produce significantly
positive effects on immediate vocabulary acquisition while correctness in completing
vocabulary enhancement exercises vocabulary use strategies and motivations contribute
significantly to their delayed vocabulary retention

Pragmatic constraints of information status on the acquisition of English preposings by

Yin Hongshan p268
English preposing constructions are constrained by both syntactic and pragmatic factors
This study explores the pragmatic constraints on the acquisition of English preposings by
Chinese EFL learners from the perspective of information status The results show that subjects
tend to accept preposings whose preposed elements represent active information but reject the
preposings in which the preposed elements carry inferentially accessible information It is found
that they are able to identify the explicit constraints imposed by information structure on
preposings in discourse but unable to identify the implicit ones Their English language
proficiency causes significant differences in dealing with the latter type of preposings It is
argued that in the absence of morphological clues the Chinese EFL learners have more difficulty
in recognizing the pragmatic relations of preposing constructions and more cognitive efforts are
therefore needed

A corpus-based study on collocational behavior and semantic prosody of near synonyms in

Chinese learner English by Lu Jun p 276
This study explores the collocational behavior and semantic prosody of near synonyms

through a corpus-based contrastive analysis between Chinese learners English CLE and native
English The data show that near synonyms differ in their collocational behavior and semantic
prosody CLE exhibits much deviation in both dimensions and different types of CLE exhibit
varying degrees of synonymous substitution and prosodic clash It is found that the above CLE
characteristics and developmental patterns are closely related to word-for-word translation and
learners inadequate knowledge about collocational behavior and semantic prosody of near
synonyms is the underlying factor

A study of linguistic characteristics and score predictors for different reading-to-write

tasks by Zhang Xinling Li Qinghua and Zhang Jie p287
Different reading-to-write tasks are employed for corresponding teaching and testing
purposes under different multimodal situations However research available does not
synchronize testing practice quantitatively and qualitatively The present investigation into
linguistic characteristics of the summaries and the augmentations of 189 subjects in question
yields the following findings i linguistic complexity content and coherence of the two are
significantly different ii important score predictor s are the percentage error-free T-unit for
the summary the percentage error-free T-unit type-token ration and type-token ratio of
cohesive ties for the argumentation respectively

Comprehension of Garden Path sentences among Chinese learners of English Exploration

into working memory capacity and language proficiency by Gu Qiyi and Cheng Xiuping
This research explores the final representations of Garden Path GP sentences among
Chinese learners of English and the roles of working memory capacity and language proficiency
in the process of their comprehension The results show that incomplete final representations are
caused by both disambiguation and the lingering of the initial misinterpretation Although both
positively correlated with the resolution of GP ambiguity neither working memory capacity nor
language proficiency correlates significantly with the generation of these incomplete
representations in L2 GP sentence comprehension

L2 listening comprehension research in China and abroad between 2000 and 2010 A
comparative study by Fang Lan p305
This paper offers a comprehensive summary of research on L2 listening comprehension that
has been conducted in China and abroad between 2000 and 2010 Comparisons are made about
relevant research projects in this field with focuses on research type orientation topics and
findings Some remaining problems are found about L2 listening comprehension research in
China such as narrower research topics and a lack of integrated and interdisciplinary
interpretations of findings or conclusions for which an inadequate investigation into both the
cognitive processes of listening comprehension and the application of the new technology to
teaching is one of the major causes