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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
• Introduction to Environment

Living organisms and their environment interact inseparably with each other.
No living organisms can survive without it’s environment. Inseparable interaction
between living organisms and their environment is beneficial for the
maintenance, development and modification of life and dynamics of
environment.

The term environment has been derived from French word ‘Environir’ meaning
to ‘Surround’. The term environment etymologically means ‘Surroundings’.

The term Environment has been used by Clerke (1965) to imply the space which
surrounds an individual organism or a group of organisms. Thus environment is a
complex of so many things i.e. physical (light,temperature,soil,water etc.)
Biological (living organisms ) and Cultural or social components which surround
and affect the life of an organism in many ways. The sum of all these living and
non-living factors makes the environment of an organism.

(A text book of Environmental Science by Dr(Mrs.)Vidya Thakur.

Definition:
• Park defined Environment as the sum total of conditions which surrounds
man at a given point in space and time

• Environment of any organisms may be described as a sum total or perhaps
better. The resultant of all the external conditions which act upon it ( Klages
1940)

• Environment may be the aggregate of all the external conditions and
influences that affecting the life and development of an organisms. (Tisdale
et al., 1985)

• The sum total of the external forces or factors both biotic and abiotic that
affect the Physiological behavior or performance of an organism or a group
of organisms in the environment.(Saran et.,1989)

The term Environment has been widely used in three different senses
(Robert’s and Robert’s, 1984). Firstly the natural environment of air, water,
light, soil and organisms which provide the setting In which a plant or
animal lives.Secondly, the ‘built environment’ comprising or urbanization,
industrialization and other development. Thirdly, the social environment
related to culture, law, economics, music and recreation,tourism etc.

• Environment and Development
• Industry is the backbone of development. It is considered as
standard to weight prosperity and civilization of the country. In
the present time it is believed that the more industrious a
nation is the more prosperous in the country.

• If development continues with the present speed then today’s
nature will be left with unnatural nature. The Rio Conference
(1992) has also drawn attention of the world on the pollution
caused by developed countries which call themselves the most
industrial develop nation.

• It is true that modernization requires technologically advanced
industries which are essential for all round development of the
nation.

• Development is the barometer to measure the progress in
civilization of a contry.The more the development the more
progressive will be a society.

The basic concept ‘development’ is highlighted by UNESCO.

Development must be designed even at the humble level, as a process of
ensuring the advancement of man through his own endeavours.

Industries are a modern tool for development. The parochial. Regional and
political consideration are deciding factor in location of industrial projects in India
rather that the environmental factors.

On development wave lengths chief Justice Bhagawati pointed out :

“We can not possibly adopt a policy of not having any chemical or other
hazardous industries merely because they pose hazard of risk to the community.
If such a policy were adopted, it would mean end of all progress and
development.”
We may sum up by saying that Indian Judiciary has ignored in favour of
development and has ignored the possible catastrophe which might result from
environmental degradation.

Of course individual justices have tried to till the balance in favour of environment
protection and preservation.

( Environment Disaster and The Law by Vinod Shankar Mishra)

• Environment and Pollution :

• Pollution is the introduction of the contaminants into a natural
environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the
ecosystem i.e. Physical systems or living organisms.

• Pollutants, the elements of pollution can be foreign substances or
energies, or naturally occurring basically a pollutant is a waste material
that pollutates air, water or soil etc.

• Three factors determine severity of a pollutant- Irts chemical nature, the
concentration and the persistence.

Different types of environmental Pollutants-

• Gases like NO, NO2, SO2, CO, CO2, halogens(Cl.Br,I etc.)

• Deposited matter like smog, dust, Grit etc.

• Noise

• Photochemical oxidents like Photochemical smog, Ozone, Peroxyacety
nitrate, nitrogen oxides etc.

• Organic complexes like benzene, ether, acetic acid etc.
• Radioactive material like Radium, thorium

• Solid wastes like Industrial ash, rubbish, garbage.

Water Pollution-

Water pollution is contamination of water boddies(eg. Lakes, oceans and
groundwater). It affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water and
damaging not only individual species and population but also natural
communities.

• Water pollution occurs when pollutants discharged directly or indirectly
into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful
compounds.

• Industrial waste containing toxic chemicals, acids, alkalies, metallic salts,
phenols, radioactive substances etc. are sources of water pollution.

• Synthetic detergents used in washing and cleaning produce foam and
pollute water.

Air Pollution-

Air pollution is a change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics
of air that causes adverse effects on humans and other organisms.

Sources:

• Stationary sources include smoke, stacks of power plants, manufacturing
facilities and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of
fuel-burning heating devices.

• Mobile sources include Motor vehicle, marine vessel, effect of sound etc.

• Chemicals,dusts and controlled burn practices in industry.
• Fumes from Paints, sprays, aerosol sprays and other solvents.

Soil Pollution-

Soil contaminants accurs when the chemicals are released by spill or
underground leakage among the most significant soil contaminants are
hydrocarbons, heavy metals, pesticides.

Radioactive-

The Radioactive contamination resulting from 20th century activities in the
atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research,
manufacture and deployment.

Noise Pollution-

Noise is a unwanted sound. Sound is a form of energy which is emitted by a
vibrating body and on reaching the ear causes the sensation of hearing through
nerves.

A noise problem generally consists of three inter related elements- Source,
Receiver and Transmission path.

Major sources of Noise Pollution-

• Transportation vehicle

• Constructions

• Machines

• Moving of furniture
• Industrial Materials

(Environment and Ecology by Anuj Kumar Rana and Manoj Kumar Rana)

• Industry and GDP:

Changing profile of GDP in India during 1950-51 to 2001-02 over
period of 51 years.

The data reveal that GDP for primary sector declined from 59% in
1950-51 to 46%in 1970-71 and thereafter, sharply declined to 16.1% in
2011-12. This was partly neutralised by an increase in the share of
secondary sector from 13% in 1950-51 to about 22% in 1970-71 and further
increase to 24.3% in 2011-12. But the biggest hike in GDP share occured in
case of service from about 27% in 1950-51 to 32% in 1970-71 to 59% in
2011-12. The emerging structure changing in GDP shares witnessed a big
decline in the share of agriculture, coupled with a modest increase in the
share of industry and a much sharper increase in the share of services
which now account for nearly half of the total GDP.

GDP at factor cost by industry of origin (At 1993-94prices )

-All India (in Crore)

• Introduction to Topic of Project-
At the outset the industry has to derive its Occupational health and Safety
Policy (OH & S) in order to commit to its OH & S management systems.

• In managenment should ensure thst appropriate organisational
arrangements for implementing the corporate safety policy are
established.

• Management responsible for an installation should be actively involved
in developing and updating the local safety arrangements of that
installations should be actively involved in developing and updating the
local safety arrangements of that installation should be designed to
satisfy the time bound broader corporate safety objectives , which the
participation of employees concerned.

• As a natural sequence, the organization defines, Designates ,documents
and communicates OH & S responsibilities, othority to act and report
relationship for all levels of functionaries including sub contractors and
visitors.

• It demands critical and systematic assessment of the existing standerds
of safety achieved in the company with respect to the targeted goals to
be achieved for the fulfillment of the system.

• Health and safety is one of the most important aspects of an
organization smooth and effective functioning. Good health and safety
performance ensures and accident free industrial environment.

• Hazard identification, risk assessment and risk procedures should be
incorporated in each of the design cycles namely development,
validation and change.

• Management should ensure that all employees have appropriate
personal protective equipments and ensure that it is maintained in a
good condition.

• Employees should be responsible for using the PPE’s in accordance with
safety procedures and policies.
(Industrial Safety Management by L.M. Deshmukh)

1.6 Scope of the Study:

Time scope :

Worked for the duration of one month in the foundry for the Industrial Safety
Management.

Workplace Scope :

• The main aim is to study about the Occupational Health and Safety
Management in the foundry.

• Study of industrial Hygiene, Hazard controls and fire protections etc.

• Workers behavior , education and training for personal as well as
environmental safety and health.

• Awareness about health and safety work, safety policy for workers.

Study Scope :

The aim of industrial safety management is to minimize the possibility of risks,
accidents and injuries by implementation of varied techniques of risk and safety
management. It consists on use of protective gear, gloves and helmets to
maintain workplace security. It is essential to abide by all the norms regarding
safety to minimize the probability of hazards, injuries, risks and accidents which
has brought by industrial revolution along major industrial progress.

(forums.highereducationinindia.com)

1.7 Objectives of Study-
The main objective of the industrial safety is to ensure safety and health is to
ensure safety, health and welfare of the workers in the factory by effective
enforcement of provisions of factories act and rules made there under.

It also helps in preventing not only the major industrial accidents, but also
prevent the accident causing permanent or partial disablement.

(http://mahakamgar.maharashtra.gov.in)

• Zero Accident

• Eliminate unsafe working condition

• Create awareness about safety about the management and workers by
arranging seminar, workshops, training programmes.

1.8 Review of Literature –

(1.1) Introduction to Environment

Author-Dr(Mrs.) Vidya Thakur; 2012

Book- A text book of Environmental Science

Published by- Scientific Publishers (India)

E mail- info@scientificpub.com

Website- www.scientificpub.com

ISBN- 978-81-7233-755-1 (HB)

-978-81-7233-756-8 (PB)

Page no. 14,15

(1.2) Environment and Development

Author- Vinod Shankar Mishra
Book- Environment. Disaster and Law

Published by- S.B.Nangia (A P H Publishing corporation)

E Mail- aphbooks@vsnl.net

ISBN- 978-81-313-0524-9

Page no. 1,2,54,55,56,57

(1.3) Environment and Pollution

Author- Anuj Kumar Rana

Manoj Kumar Rana

Book- Environment and Ecology (2nd edition 2015)

Published by- Global Academic Publishers and Distributors

E mail- info@globalvisionpub.com

globalgvph@gmail.com

Website- www.globalvisionpub.com

ISBN- 978-93-81696-61-6

Page no. 173,174,175,190,191,192

(1.5) Introduction to topic of Project

Author- L.M.Deshmukh

Book- Industrial safety management (Hazards, Identification and Risk controls)

Published by- McGraw Hill Education (India) private limited

ISBN- 978-0-07-061768-1

0-07-061768-6

Page no.
(1.7) Scope of Study

Site- forums.highereducationinindia.com

(1.8) Objectives of the Study

Site- https://mahakamgar.maharashtra.gov.in
CHAPTER-2

COMPANY PROFILE
2.1 Location

Plot no. 90 , L. K. Akiwate Ind.Estate,

Jaysingpur- 416 144

Dist- Kolhapur

(Maharashtra State) India.

Lattitude- 16.77061

Longitude-74.57348

2.2 Company Website and E mail

Website- www.supercraftfoundry.com

E Mail- kprscf@gmail.com

2.3 Raw Materials and Products
Raw Materials-

• Bentonite- Used as sand bond in Iron and steel casting

• Pitch Powder-Used to protect core and mould and produce clean surface
on the casting.

• Thinner-Used to remove paint or oil from the surface of iron or metal cast.

• Triethylamine-Used as catalyst to cool binders.
• Starch-

• Diesel

• Paints

• Hydraulic Oil

• Grease

• Argon Gas

Products-

• Brake Drum

• Hubs

• Brake Discs (LCV’s, MCV’s, HCV’s)

• Brake components

• Chassis Components

• Engine and gear box components

• Ductile Iron components(For windmill)

• Actuating Discs

• Carrier housings

2.4 Environment Clearance

2.5 Policy
Mission of Foundry-
• We at SUPERCRAFT (SFC) shall enhance the level of customer satisfaction in
terms of Quality, Delievery and Cost though strategy of continues
improvement and team work.

• We incorporate the use of energy efficient alternatives and eco friendly
technology while making our product.

Vision-

• Approach towards Zero defects

• Use of continues improvement techniques towards productivity and
quality.

• Continuesly upgrating skill levels of every employee with proper training.

2.6 Quality reference to Environment safety

• Our foundry is well equipped with all modern machines like
CNC,VMC,HMC, VTL, and SPM’s to process any kind of critical casting.

• Using Eco friendly technology while manufacturing our products.

• Certified with the Standard ISO/TS 16949-2009

2.7 Certificates

• Special Citation of Distinction Award from TATA MOTORS at Macau-2013

• Standard- ISO/TS 16949-2009