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Recruitment, selection and

training of workers
Revision answers
1 i) When an employee leaves a job.
ii) When a new business is starting up.
iii) When a business is successful and wants to expand.
2 a) To study the tasks and activities that the job involves so that the business
knows what the new employee will need to do.
b) It lists the desirable and essential requirements for a particular job.
3 a) The post is filled from within the organisation.
b) External recruitment.
c) Advantage: saves time and money; the person is already known to the
Disadvantage: there will be no new ideas introduced; there may be jealousy
and rivalry among the existing employees.
4 Examples:
i) Local newspapers
ii) Internet
iii) National newspapers
iv) Specialist magazines and journals
v) Recruitment agencies
vi) Centres run by the government
5 Examples:
i) Details of the job to be included such as hours.
ii) Job description.
iii) Ensure employment laws are not broken.
iv) Where to apply for the job.
v) Closing date for applications.
vi) Pay/fringe benefits.
6 High marks would be awarded for including a good range of factors and
explaining why they are important. Examples of factors include: experience;
prior training and qualifications; personal qualities such as self-motivation and
ambition; organisational skills; leadership ability.
7 So that they can assess the suitability of the person for the job and see what
they are like.
8 i) Induction training
ii) On-the-job training
iii) Off-the-job training
9 Dismissal is when the employee is told to leave the job because they are not
carrying it out efficiently or because of misconduct.
Redundancy is when the employee is no longer needed through no fault of their
10 Examples could include description of:
i) Unfair discrimination at work or when applying for jobs.
ii) Health and safety at work.
iii) Protection against unfair dismissal.
iv) Wage protection.
Or the answer may include discussion of specific laws.

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8 Recruitment, selection and training of workers

Answers to activities
Activity 8.1
Students own answer.

Activity 8.2
Method of Advantages Disadvantages Examples of jobs
recruitment suitable for this
method of recruitment
Internal: Do not have to advertise. No new ideas are This would be suitable
Noticeboard Fewer applications therefore brought into the for most levels of
at the less time looking through business. employees within
company (or application forms/CVs. The a large business.
No new business
company person is already known to However, the more
practices will be brought
newsletter) the company they know if senior the position, the
from elsewhere.
they are punctual, reliable, more likely it is that
etc. The person already There could be jealousy someone from outside
knows the organisations and rivalry between the organisation will be
way of working and what existing employees. appointed.
is expected of employees.
It can be very motivating
for other employees to see
their fellow workers given a
External: Cheap to advertise in. Only seen by people Jobs that do not
Local in the local area and require a high level
Seen by many local people
newspapers only those who buy the of skill. Clerical and
who are likely to be able to
newspaper. manual positions, e.g.
apply for the job.
secretary, van driver,
production worker.
National The national newspapers Expensive to advertise in Usually more senior
newspapers will be read by many people national newspapers. positions where a high
who live in different parts degree of skill and/
of the country or even or qualifications are
overseas. required, e.g. senior
manager, accountant.
Specialist Seen by people who have Quite expensive to The same types of jobs
magazines the right skills for the job. advertise in. as for newspapers,
except these will
Could be missed by
usually be for well
people who do not read
qualified people, e.g.
the specialist magazine.
a research scientist,
Recruitment They advertise and interview Expensive because often This varies but usually
agencies people for you. a proportion of the the same types of
persons salary in the jobs as for national
They use their expertise to
first year will have to be newspapers and
select suitable people.
paid to the agency. specialist magazines.
It saves the business time
in not having to interview
Government- Cheap to advertise in usually Many people may not Unskilled or semi-
run Job does not cost anything. visit the centre and skilled jobs, e.g.
Centres therefore may not know production worker,
about the job. warehouse worker,

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8 Recruitment, selection and training of workers

Activity 8.3
a) The night cashier and the secretary are both jobs that would be advertised
locally. There will probably be a large number of people locally who have the
qualifications and skills required to carry out the job. The industrial engineering
professional is more highly qualified and this job will be more difficult to fill.
The advert will be in national newspapers to reach a wider number of people.
b) Students own answer.
c) Students own answer.

Activity 8.4
a) Students own answers: there are advantages and disadvantages to each
applicant and these should be discussed.
b) References so as to confirm the persons reliability; health record or criminal
record to assess their suitability; nationality in case there are restrictions on
employing them.
c) Students own design of advertisement.

Activity 8.5
a) Question 1 was asked to find out what the applicant thinks about the job.
Question 2 was asked to find out how keen the applicant is. Were they bothered
enough about the job to do some research into the companys background, to
know if it is a good company to work for?
Question 3 was asked to find out what sort of person they are. Are they
sociable? Will they fit in with the other employees?
Question 4 was asked to find out what qualities the applicant thinks they
possess that make them suitable for the job. What can they offer the company?
Question 5 was asked to find out if the applicant is very ambitious.
Question 6 was asked to see how keen the applicant is. They should be keen to
know about the job and ask their own questions.
b) Students own answer.
c) Students own answer.

Activity 8.6
a) Discussion about recruiting the experienced engineers from foreign countries if
they are not available locally. The labourers would be recruited locally as there
should be plenty of workers able to do the jobs required.
b) If possible the airline pilots will be recruited from a Latin American country so
that they can return home easily. The airline may need to advertise in several
countries to attract sufficient applicants of the right qualifications. The cabin
crew will also be recruited from Latin America but these should be easier to
recruit and they may come from just one country where the airlines operations
are based. Discussion of the appropriate methods to use to recruit these
employees should also be included.

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Activity 8.7
Method of training Description Advantages Disadvantages
Induction training Training carried Introduces the A lot of information is given
out when the employee into the out in one go and it may be
employee is new company. They will too much for the employee
to the post. quickly settle into their to remember.
On-the-job training The worker Individual tuition is Only really suitable for
is trained by given. Trained in the unskilled or semi-skilled
watching a more workplace which may jobs. The trainer will not be
experienced be cheaper. Some work as productive as they would
worker doing will be carried out while be while showing the
the job. They are the trainee is learning trainee what to do and not
shown what to do. what to do. working as fast as normal.
The trainer may have bad
habits that they pass on to
the trainee.
Off-the-job training The employee A broad range of skills Evening classes are tiring
goes away from can be taught. Evening for employees and they
the place of work. courses are cheaper as may be less effective at
Varied techniques the employee can still work the next day. May be
are used to train complete their normal less control over what is
the workers, for work in the day only being taught.
example, lecture, the course fees will
simulation, need to be paid. There
role play, case will not be lost output.
study, often in a

Activity 8.8
a) S&S plc may send all their employees to an off-the-job training course. They will
all need to go so it may be cheaper to get someone to come into the workplace
and train them all there, i.e. on-the-job training.
b) Sandeep will also have a combination of on-the-job and off-the-job training.
He will probably go to college to learn some of the theories behind retail
management. He will also learn from other managers in the workplace.
c) James will probably need induction training to be shown around and introduced
to other staff, and on-the-job training to be shown what to do. It is not a very
skilled job and it will not take him very long to learn the requirements of the job.

Activity 8.9
a) Students own answer.
b) Students own answer.
c) Points made could include: loyal staff, few staff leaving (low staff turnover), few
disputes with staff, high output and productivity, few staff absences.

Sample answers to exam-style

questions Paper 1
1 a) This identifies and records the responsibilities and tasks relating to a job.
b) Examples:
i) Local newspapers
ii) Government job centres
iii) Factory noticeboard
iv) Business website

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c) Examples:
i) Why should I give you the job? To see what experience in instrument
manufacturing the candidate can offer.
ii) What are your strengths? To see what skills in manufacturing the
candidate can offer.
iii) Do you have any experience in instrument manufacturing? To see if the
candidate will need training if they are offered the job.
d) Examples:
i) Employee does not need to be sent away to be trained in the manufacture
of pianos, so Sarah will save the cost of sending employees to external
training establishment.
ii) Musical instrument manufacturing is a specialised process therefore few
external establishments may offer training; own employees pass on correct
iii) Training is specific to musical instruments so piano manufacturing requires
specific skills; ensures the culture of Sarahs business is passed on to the
new employees.
e) Downsize the organisation by making these workers redundant as no longer
needed. But they are known to Sarah and may be good employees so she
may not want to lose them.
Overall conclusion/judgement needed.
Sample answers to Question 2 on the Teachers CD-ROM.

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