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Professional

Scrum
Foundations
by Scrum.org Improving the Profession of Software Development

V3.6.1
Why Are You In This Class?

Introduce yourself
One interesting fact
Have you used Scrum before?
Are you working with Scrum?
Whats your background:
Development?
IT?
Other?

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Professional Scrum at Scrum.org

Professional Professional Professional


Scrum Scrum Master Scrum
Product Owner Developer
.NET | Java

Architects
Business Analysts
Product Owners DB Specialists
Scrum Masters Designers
Executives
Developers
Testers

Professional Scrum Foundations Everyone

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Agenda

Day 1 Day 2
Introductions Sprint 3
Sprint 1 Scrum Planning
Scrum Framework: 1 Sprint 4
Sprint 2 Getting Started
Scrum Framework: 2 Keeping Scrum Healthy

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About This Course

A mix of discussion and exercise

Introduces Scrum
mechanics and practices

Focuses on delivering software

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Logistics

Classroom Hours and Days


Cell Phones
Refreshments
Materials
This course is collaborative
Talk to me
And each other

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Why are you
in this class?
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What You Do Now 1
MIN

How effective are your current


processes and practices?

Not Very

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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How familiar are you with Scrum? 1
MIN

10
9
8 Very
7
6
5
4
3 Not
2
1
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Where are you now 3
MIN

10
9
8
7
How
familiar are 6
you with 5
Scrum? 4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

How effective are your current processes and practices?


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Where are you now?
10
We know what to do Living
9 and we arent doing it the dream
8
Scrum Familiarity

7
6 Learning
5 and improving
4
3
2 This hurts. Things are just fine
1 Help. without Scrum
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Current Process Effectiveness
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Do. Or do not, there is no try.
Yoda

Sprint 1
Professional Scrum Foundations

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Preparation 10
MIN

Make roughly even-sized teams of 3-5 members


Ensure teams have a mixture of skills
Technical and non-technical skills will matter

Post for all to see:


An animal mascot for your team
1-3 things you want to learn in this class

Get requirements

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Scrum On! 30
MIN

You will show your Product in 30 minutes

The Scrum Team chooses which requirements to meet

The Development Team chooses how to


best meet the requirements

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Time for Review
Step away from the keyboards J
Sprint Review 15
MIN

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Retrospective 10
MIN

Part 1 Part 2
Teams work independently Share with class

Record Summarize
What went well? What worked well
What could improve? What could improve
What will you change or Commitments for next
retain next Sprint? Sprint

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The Scrum Framework Part 1
Professional Scrum Foundations

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Scrum in a Nutshell

1. A Team commits to delivering working software


in 30 days or less

2. A time is scheduled to show that software

3. The Team creates the software

4. The Team offers their work for inspection and adapts the plan
for the next cycle
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Scrum (n): A framework within which people can address
complex problems, and productively and creatively deliver
products of the highest possible value.

Scrum is:
One of the agile approaches
Lightweight
Extremely simple to understand
Extremely difficult to master
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What Scrum Is and Is Not
Keeping Scrum Healthy

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Scrum is only a framework
with rules
like chess

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Process Control Models

Defined Empirical

All work is understood before Frequent inspection and


execution adaptation occurs as work
proceeds
Given a well-defined set of
inputs, the same outputs are Processes are accepted as
generated every time imperfectly defined

Follow the pre-determined steps Outputs are often unpredictable


to get known results and unrepeatable
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An Empirical Model is Needed When

We dont know the exact outcomes


at the time we begin Does this
describe
We want to control software
the results and keep
quality high
development?

Steps arent always repeatable

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Empirical Processes Require Courage

Trust
Inspection & Goal
& Transparency
Adaptation realization
Courage

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Scrum Has Three Legs

We all know what


is going on.
Transparency
Check your work
as you do it.

Adaptation Inspection

OK to change
tactical direction.

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In this Module

Roles Artifacts Events

Product Increment Sprint


Owner Product Sprint
Development Backlog Planning
Team Sprint Daily Scrum
Scrum Backlog Sprint Review
Master Retrospective
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Stakeholder

Sprint Retrospective Sprint Review


Product Planning
Owner Meeting

Sprint

Increment

Daily
Product Sprint Scrum
Backlog Stakeholder Product Development Scrum
Backlog Owner Team Master
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Complexity and Scrum

Simple Scrum Thrives


Everything is known Here

Complicated
More is known than unknown

Complex
More is unknown than known

Chaotic
Very little is known Source: Ralph Stacey, University of Hertfordshire

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Scrum vs. Waterfall Working software is available.

Waterfall
Plan Design Code Test Release Review

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Plan-Driven (Waterfall) Projects
Visibility Ability to Change

Business Value Risk

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Scrum vs. Waterfall Working software is available.

Waterfall
Plan Design Code Test Release Review

Scrum
Analyze Analyze Analyze Analyze

Design Design Design Design


Review

Review

Review

Review
Plan

Plan

Plan

Plan
Code Code Code Code

Test Test Test Test

Release Release Release Release

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Comparing Scrum And Plan-Driven
Visibility Ability to Change

Business Value Risk

Waterfall Scrum
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Roles and Responsibilities
The Scrum Framework, Part 1

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Scrum Roles

Product Owner
Scrum
Development Team
Team
Scrum Master
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Product Owner

Optimizes the value of the Product

Creates and maintains the Product Backlog


Ideally Product
Owners have
Chooses what and when to release Profit & Loss
accountability for
the product
Represents stakeholders and customers
to the Development Team

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Product Owner

May Be May Not Be


A Product Manager A committee
They might chair one
An executive They might represent one

A personnel manager The Scrum Master


This is a direct conflict of interest

A customer

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The Development Team

Creates the product Increment

Operates in a series of Sprints


Self-organizing
rarely means Organizes itself and its work
self-managing
Collaborates with Product Owner
to optimize value

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Development Team Members

May Be May Also Be


Software Developer Business Analyst
Engineer Database Specialist
Tester User Interaction Designer
Architect Requirements Engineer
Graphic Designer
Technical Writer

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The Development Team

Must have all the skills it needs to


deliver a done Increment Ideally
more than one team member has
the competency

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Scrum Master

Enacts Scrum values, practices, and rules


throughout the organization

Ensures the Scrum Team is functional and


Personifies agility
productive
and
professionalism
Provides guidance and support for the Scrum
Team

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Scrum Master

May Be May Not Be


A manager with appropriate
servant-leader skills A Product Owner

A member of the Development This is a direct conflict of interest


Team

Selected by the Development


Team

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Scrum Roles Review

Product Owner

Development Team

Scrum Master
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Scrum Roles Review

May select
(hire)
Product Owner

Development Team

Scrum Master Service flows


this way

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Scrum Artifacts
The Scrum Framework, Part 1

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Artifacts

Product Backlog

Sprint Backlog

Increment
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Product Backlog

An ordered list of desirements

Potential features of the product

The single source of truth for what is planned in the product

Public and available

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Product Backlog Item

Transparent unit of deliverable work

Contains clear acceptance criteria


Criteria for successful completion
Answering what will be true when this works

May reference other artifacts like:


Specifications, Mockups, Architecture Models

Sized appropriately
May be completed within a single Sprint
Typically with a few other PBIs

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Valid Product Backlog Items

Features
Constraints Behaviors
definitions

User actions or
Bugs / Defects Use Cases
stories

Non-functional
Desirements
requirements

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Sprint Backlog

All Product Backlog items selected for a Sprint

A plan by the Development Team to deliver them

&

The plan must provide a sum of work remaining in the Sprint

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A Common Expression of a Sprint Backlog

Product Backlog Sprint Backlog

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Sprint Backlog

Created by the Development Team during Sprint Planning

Often derived by examining and decomposing Product Backlog


items

Might be a simple To Do list

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Increment

The Increment is the sum of all the Product Backlog items


completed during the Sprint and all previous Sprints

Is usable and it works

Is potentially releasable

Must be DONE
As per Scrum Team standards
With no work remaining
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Artifacts Review

Product Backlog

Sprint Backlog

Increment
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Events and Time Boxes
The Scrum Framework, Part 1

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Scrum Events and Time Boxes Scrum uses time-boxed events, such that every event
has a maximum duration. This ensures an appropriate
amount of time is spent planning without allowing
waste in the planning process.

Sprint
Sprint Planning
Daily Scrum
Sprint Review
Retrospective
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Sprint

A container for all activities

Includes development activities and other Scrum events.

Starts with Sprint Planning

Ends with Sprint Retrospective

30 days or less
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Sprint Planning Meeting

A Sprint Goal is created

The Sprint Backlog is created


The Development Team selects Product Backlog items for the Sprint in
collaboration with the Product Owner
The selection of Product Backlog items into the Sprint Backlog
represents the Development Team's forecast for what can be completed
in this Sprint

The entire Scrum Team attends


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Daily Scrum

Same time and place each day

Scrum Master may or


may not facilitate

A daily meeting for the Development Team to:


Synchronize activities
Create a plan for the next 24 hours
Assess progress toward the Sprint Goal

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A Simple Scrum Board

PBI Todo In Progress Done

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Create Scrum Boards 10
MIN

Only work for the Sprint is ever shown here


PBI column isnt a place to store your Product Backlog

PBI To Do In Progress Done

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Sprint Review

The Scrum Team shows the product Increment

The product Increment is inspected by stakeholders (customer,


marketing, sales, )

Stakeholders are encouraged to provide feedback and to


collaborate

The Product Backlog might be adapted


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Defining Done 5
MIN

Only completed features may be shown at Sprint Review. How will


your team know what may be shown in the next Sprint Review here
in class?

Post a simple Definition of Done for your team so that all items
shown in Sprint Review are known to meet a baseline expectation
of quality and completeness.

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Sprint Retrospective

An inspect / adapt opportunity for the


Scrum Team

The Scrum Team discusses


What went well in the Sprint
What could be improved
What will we commit to improve for the next Sprint

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Scrum Events and Time Boxes Review

Sprint
Sprint Planning
Daily Scrum
Sprint Review
Retrospective
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Section Summary

Scrum Defined

Roles and Responsibilities

Artifacts of the Framework

Events and Time Boxes

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Section References
Scrum Guide from Scrum.org

Agile Project Management with Scrum by Ken Schwaber

Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle

The Enterprise and Scrum by Ken Schwaber

The Fifth Discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization by Peter Senge
[http://bit.ly/RtbhG8]

martinfowler.com/articles/itsNotJustStandingUp.html [http://bit.ly/QAWtSW]

Agile Estimating and Planning by Mike Cohn

Scrum and XP from the Trenches by Henrik Kniberg

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A little less conversation, a little more action
please
- Elvis Presley

Sprint 2
Professional Scrum Foundations

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Preparation

Collect new requirements

Identify your Teams Product Owner

The Product Owner will order requirements and accept or reject


the increment.

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Sprint Planning 10
MIN

Estimate the size of PBIs


Forecast which PBIs will be delivered
Create a plan to deliver them

The Product Owner handles questions about functionality

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Rules 30
MIN

You will show your Product in 30 minutes

The Development Team decides how to best meet the


requirements

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Time for Review
Step away from the keyboards J
Sprint Review 15
MIN

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Retrospective 10
MIN

Part 1 Part 2
Teams work independently Share with class

Record Summarize
What went well? What worked well
What could improve? What could improve
What will you change or Commitments for next
retain next Sprint? Sprint

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The Scrum Framework Part 2
Professional Scrum Foundations

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In This Module

Scrum Measurements

More on Roles, Artifacts, and Events

Self Organization

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Scrum Not an Acronym

as in Rugby, the ball gets passed within the team


as it moves as a unit up the field.

Takeuchi-Nonaka The New New Product


Development Game (1986)
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Scrum Measurements
The Scrum Framework, Part 2

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Sprint Burndown

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10

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Sprint Progress

This measurement is for


The Development Team
No one else

Used to see
How we are progressing in the Sprint
If scope should be discussed with the Product Owner

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Sprint Progress Monitoring

Can easily be (mis)used


To micromanage the Development Team
To demonstrate false progress

May change abruptly when


New work is added or removed during the Sprint
Scope is renegotiated with the Product Owner
New things are learned about the work of the Sprint

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Velocity
30

25
Functionality Delivered

20

15

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Sprint

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Velocity

A measure of Product Backlog Items (features, bugs, ) delivered


per Sprint

Used by the Product Owner to provide forecasts

Used by the Development Team to gauge how much work to pull


in a Sprint Planning meeting

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Considering the nature of velocity 3
MIN

A Development Teams Velocity may vary dramatically from one


Sprint to the next.

Each team determine:

Is this good or bad?


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More on Roles, Artifacts, and Events
The Scrum Framework, Part 2

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Product Owner

Not the Development Teams assistant


May not ever write a User Story
Needs to spend as much time with the Development Team as needed. Not less!
(as a rule of thumb 20%-30%)

Defines features and functionality


The level of this will vary
Some Product Owners will work closer to implementation details than others

Has the final word on the content and the order of the Product Backlog

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The Development Team

Composition is constant throughout a Sprint

Typically has 3-9 members with the sweet spot around 6

May have partially allocated members


Often considered an impediment
Ex: Database Administrators, User Interface Design experts, Technical
Writers

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The Development Team
Requirements
Non Sequential execution is key
Design

Code
Everyone pitches in regardless of
Test
individual skill specialty

The Development Team is held to account as a unit

Sprint n-1 Sprint n Sprint n+1


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Scrum Master

Not the Development Teams assistant


May not even attend the Daily Scrum
Is not there to drive the team or drive results

This is a servant-leader, management position


Managing the organizations Scrum use and adoption
Serving and coaching the Scrum Team
Embodying agility for all to see

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Scrum Master
Guides and cares for the Team
Adhere to Scrum values, practices,
and rules
Understand and use self-organization
Be more productive
Increase quality of Increments

Removes Impediments to the


Development Teams success that
they are unable to remove
themselves

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Product Backlog Items

Each Product Backlog item is executable within a Sprint

Best to have several in a Sprint

Each one is ideally discrete without dependencies

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Sprint Planning Meeting

Typical duration is 5% of 8 hours for 4 week


total Sprint length Sprint

Has two topics


What will we do?
How will we do it?
Often the day
following Usually less for
Sprint shorter Sprints
Retrospective
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Sprint Planning Meeting Flow
Development Team Increment + Ready Retrospective
Definition of Done
Velocity + Capacity Product Backlog Commitments

1 What

Analyze, evaluate and select


Product Backlog for Sprint
2 How
Decompose into actionable plan

Enough Work is decomposed

Sprint Goal + Forecast + Sprint Backlog

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Ins and Outs of Sprint Planning

Inputs Outcome
Definition of Done The Sprint Goal
Development Team Capacity for next Sprint
Forecast
Past performance of the Development Team

The Ready Product Backlog Sprint Backlog


60-70% known and accurate
The latest Increment
Some work is stubbed out for
Retrospective commitments discovery later
100% time commitment is going to
fail

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Sprint Planning 5
MIN

List the activities and responsibilities for each Scrum role during the
Sprint Planning meeting

Product Owner

Development Team

Scrum Master

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Sprint Goal

An objective to be Through the implementation of the PBIs selected in Sprint


Planning
met in the Sprint Providing guidance to the Development Team

Allows flexibility in
Allows wiggle room for exact implementation of PBIs
delivering the Although the Sprint Goal is fixed
increment

Is sacrosanct As the Development Team works, it keeps this goal in mind


throughout the Each Daily Scrum assesses the Teams progress toward
meeting the Sprint Goal
Sprint
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Some Sprint Goals
Decrease upstream
payloads by 30%

Deliver a minimal set


of administration
features.

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Daily Scrum

Development Inspect Adapt,


Team creates progress optimizing
a plan for the toward the the value of
next day Sprint Goal the next day

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The Daily Scrum

15 minute time box

Create a plan for the


next 24 hours

Assess progress toward the Sprint Goal

By the Development Team, for the Development Team

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The Daily Scrum Beginner Level

What did I do yesterday What will I do today to


that helped the help the Development
Development Team Team meet the Sprint
meet the Sprint Goal? Goal?

Do I see any impediment


that prevents me or the
Development Team from
meeting the Sprint Goal?

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Why a Daily Scrum?

Share commitments

Identify Impediments

Create focus A Daily Scrum in Microsoft


Patterns and Practices

Increase and maintain situational awareness

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The Sprint

All Sprints have consistent duration

Starts right after the previous one

Scope is negotiated constantly throughout


Between Development Team and Product Owner
This recognizes uncertainty even within the Sprint

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Sprint Review

The Scrum Team shows the Increment

Feedback is heard from all present

Feedback used to guide the next Increment

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Sprint Review

Typically 2.5% of Sprint 4 hours for a 4


Duration week Sprint
The entire
Scrum Team is Usually less for
present The point is the feedback shorter Sprints

+ No slides
all who care to
attend Show your work

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Mechanics of Sprint Review

Product Owner Development Team


Everyone
Shares Shares
What was done The actual Provides and hears
What wasnt Increment of feedback
State of the software
Product Backlog What happened in
Likely Release the Sprint
projections How problems
were addressed
and the effect on
the increment

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Sprint Retrospective

A discussion of:
The Scrum process
Scrum Team member behaviors
Tools used and needed
Expanding the Definition of Done

To find actionable improvements


The Scrum Team can enact next Sprint
To adapt common practices and techniques
To increase the DoD
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The Sprint Retrospective

The Scrum Teams opportunity to improve

Typically 3 hours for a 4 week Sprint


Usually less for shorter Sprints
Kaizen -
Continuous
After every Sprint Review Improvement

Whole Scrum Team participates


Scrum Master
Product Owner
Development Team
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The Retrospective Prime Directive
Regardless of what we discover, we
understand and truly believe that
everyone did the best job they could, given
what they knew at the time, their skills and
abilities, the resources available, and the
situation at hand.
- Norm Kerth,
Project Retrospectives: A Handbook for Team Reviews
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The Typical Sprint Retrospective Model

What worked What could be


well? improved?

What will we
commit to doing in
the next Sprint?
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Event lengths and Sprint length

Event 30 Days 3 Weeks 2 Weeks 1 Week


Less than 8 hours Less than 8 hours Less than 8 hours
Sprint Planning 8 hours (~6 hours) (~4 hours) (~2 hours)

Daily Scrum 15 min

Less than 4 hours Less than 4 hours Less than 4 hours


Sprint Review 4 hours (~3 hours) (~2 hours) (~1 hour)

Less than 3 hours


Less than 3 hours Less than 3 hours
Sprint Retrospective 3 hours (~2 hours 15
(~1 hour 30 mins) (~45 mins)
mins)

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Self Organization
The Scrum Framework, Part 2

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Self Organization

A structure or pattern appears in a system without a


central authority or external element imposing it
through planning.
The skill is using
It is a primal behavior in nature self organizing
Swarms teams to the
Flocks organizations
Herds
advantage
Scrum exploits this

You have seen it today

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Productive Self Organization

Requires skill
In the domain at hand
In the constraints of the framework
In the software development craft

Skills needed in software teams using Scrum


Scrum itself Languages and frameworks
The business domain Levels of testing
Useful technologies Mastery of development tools
Practices of software Build and Deploy Automation
craftsmanship Emerging architecture or design
The science of user experience Many, many more

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Self Organization 5
MIN

Each team consider:

What does it mean


for a Development Team
to be self-organizing?

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Self Organizing Scrum Development Teams

Select the work to complete

Determine how best to


meet requirements

Get help with external disruptions


(Impediments)

Select their own Scrum Master


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What does Scrum require? 3
MIN

A Development Team new to Scrum is trying to create their first


Definition of Done and create a loose plan for their first Sprint.
Many topics are being discussed.

They want to know which of these Scrum requires. What is your


guidance?
TDD User Acceptance Testing Sprint Retrospective
Continuous Integration Sprint Planning Demo to customer
Daily Scrum Backlog Refinement Dedicated QA resources
Loose coupling Planning Poker Product Backlog
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2 Parts of the Scrum Discussion

People Practices Engineering Practices


Planning Design
Empiricism Coding
Collaboration Testing
Self-organization Automation
Leadership Deploying
Communication User experience
Transparency Emergent Architecture

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Using Self-Organizing Teams Well

Provide clear goals and desired outcomes

Provide a framework within which the team operates


Scrum rules
Prescribed Engineering Practices
Team-evolved principles, norms, and culture

Sprint challenge and pressure

Remove Impediments to the teams progress


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Impediments

Anything that:

Impedes a teams progress


The Scrum
Masters bread Cannot be resolved by the team internally
and butter
Requires cooperation of non-team members

Affects the work of the current Sprint


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Handling Impediments 5
MIN

You are the Scrum Master. The Development Team reports having 2
Impediments:

Network operations is late delivering a needed server


One of the developers refuses to attend the Daily Scrum

What do you do?

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Section Summary

Scrum Measurements

More on Roles, Artifacts, and Events

Self Organization

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Sprint 3
Professional Scrum Foundations

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The Sprint Structure 65
MIN

Sprint Planning (10m)


Sprint Goal
Forecast
Sprint Backlog
Development (30m)
Deliver a Done Increment
Sprint Review (15m)
Sprint Retrospective (10m)

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Time for Review
Step away from the keyboards J
Scrum Planning
Professional Scrum Foundations

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In this Module

Planning Levels

Estimating Software Development

Owning a Product Backlog

Defining Done

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Planning Levels
Scrum Planning

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Scrum Planning

Plan constantly, not just in the beginning

Planning is an activity, not a document

Recognize, embrace, and support change rather than trying to


control it

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Scrum Planning

Changing the
Constantly
Focuses on plan doesnt
and
historical mean
consistently
performance changing
transparent
timing

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Scrum Focuses Here

Product
Backlog
Product Owner
owns this
Release
Backlog

Sprint
Entire Backlog
Scrum Team
owns this
Development Teams
own this
Daily Plan

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Backlog Accuracy and Item Detail

Vague Understood Estimated PBIs Tasks

Other Next
Next Next This
Backlog Next
Release Sprint Sprint
Items Sprint

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Keep a Rolling Backlog Projection Current Sprint

PBIs are estimated and ordered for


approximately the next 3 Sprints

The current Sprint is detailed


Next Sprint
Broken into Sprint Backlog Tasks
Very granular detail

Next 2 Sprints are understood


by the entire Scrum Team Next, Next Sprint
Estimated
Valued
Ordered
Loosely planned
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Product Backlog Refinement

Refining means
Planning the PBL to an actionable level of detail
Maintaining a Rolling Backlog Projection

Plan 10% of the Sprint capacity of the Development Team to be


spent on refining the Product Backlog

Top ordered Product Backlog items are well understood and


easily selected in Sprint Planning.
They are Ready
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It is very difficult to make a vigorous, plausible, and
job-risking defense of an estimate that is derived by
no quantitative method, supported by little data, and
certified chiefly by the hunches of the managers.

The Mythical Man-Month, Fred Brooks (1975)

Estimating Software Development


Scrum Planning

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Estimating with Groups

Group derived estimates are demonstrably


more accurate than estimates by individuals

When guessing the number of jellybeans


any given jar, the average of all guesses is
typically within 2-3% of the correct answer.

- James Surowiecki
The Wisdom of Crowds

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Myth
With more
analysis and
effort, estimates
get significantly
more accurate.
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Estimation is Often Expensive

Accuracy

Effort or Time

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Estimating the Unknown 3
MIN

A Development Team refuses to estimate Feature X because no one


on the team has any experience with the technology to be used.

The Product Owner proposes the following Product Backlog Item.


What is your advice to the Development Team?

Learn how the new technology works and understand any relevant
design implications to Feature X.

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Estimating the Unknown 3
MIN

A Development Team is uncomfortable estimating Feature Z


because no one on the team fully understands the architecture
needed for the feature. There is no need for a new technology, but
a new technique or design pattern.

The Product Owner proposes the following Product Backlog Item.


What is your advice to the Development Team?

Experiment with options for implementing Feature Z.

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Story Points

Very common way to estimate Points are additive


work
Based on historical reality
Based on size, effort and
complexity, not duration Easy to use and understand

Unitless and numerically relative

Different for each team of


estimators

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Story Point Values

Non-linear in progression
Can you distinguish 1 point from 2?
Can you distinguish a 17 from an 18? Include big and
How about a 99 from a 100? small outliers if
you want.
Use units that make sense
1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21
0, , 100, 300,

1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32

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Using Story Points
Product Backlog
Cost: 13
We can see right away
Cost: 21
Cost: 21 Defect
1. Which work items cost the most
Cost: 3 Requirement

Cost: 5 Constraint
2. Total cost of all the work Cost: 1
Cost: 8
3. Total cost to an iteration Cost: 13
Cost: 3
Cost: 34
Cost: 13
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Planning Poker Rules

Each developer has a deck of estimation cards.

Customer/Product Owner reads a story and its discussed briefly.

Each developer selects a card thats his or her estimate.

Cards are turned over so all can see them (synchronously).

Discuss differences (especially outliers).

Re-estimate until estimates converge.

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Avoid Anchoring
This is an easy one
Please dont
Broadcast opinions before
I am throwing a 3
estimations are made
Show cards early
This is huge

Because it
This will be a 5
Causes reactive estimates
Shuts down discussion
May leave important details undiscovered I have no idea.

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Planning Poker

Homer

Marge
1
Bart Lisa Maggie

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Planning Poker

Homer

Marge
3
Bart Lisa Maggie

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Planning Poker

Homer

Marge
5
Bart Lisa Maggie

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Make Your Decks 5
MIN

Create a deck of cards as follows:


1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21
? = I still have questions
= Too big to estimate

* Note: The above sequence uses


the actual Fibonacci sequence

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Planning Poker 1 5
MIN

Choose 3-5 PBIs of varying size your team has already delivered.

Choose 1 of medium size and label it as an 5

Estimate the other completed PBIs

Use the estimated items as a comparison point to the items you


are estimating.

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Planning Poker 2 10
MIN

Using the completed and


estimated PBIs for reference,
estimate PBIs not yet worked
on.

Try and get 3-5 PBIs


estimated.

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Owning a Product Backlog
Scrum Planning

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Product Backlog Item Attributes

Title: ...
As a . . .
I want . . .
So that . . .
Development Team Alpha

Scenario: ...
Given . . .
13
When . . . Business Value
Effort Estimate 5
Then . . . ROI 2.6

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Business Value
Money to be earned
The Product Owner is
responsible for this Clients to be retained

Delight to bring to users


It isnt always just revenue
Market share to capture
Can be estimated or calculated Money to be saved
MoSCoW
1100 Improvement to
User Experience

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Ordering the Product Backlog

Risk
Identify risk for items in the Backlog
Do highest risk items first

Return on Investment
Estimated ROI Index
Simple business value
ranking system
This gives a single number
by which to rank work

Because the Product Owner says so


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ROI Index Ordering Product Backlog

Can see value at a glance 5.7


4.8
4.3
Less subjective 4.3
3.2
3.1
Not the last word
2.3
Thats the Product Owner
1.7
ROI Index is a tool 0.0
.73
.04

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Rule #1

An accurate release plan


requires an ordered
and estimated backlog
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Rule #2

An accurate release plan


requires known Velocity

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2 Basic Types of Release Planning

Date Target Planning Feature Target Planning


The product will release on a The product will release when
specific date specific features are ready

We Must Answer We Must Answer


How much of the backlog will be When will features A, B, and C be
complete by a given date? ready?

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Product Backlog

Cost: 13

Cost: 21

Cost: 21
When will
Cost: 3
item A
Cost: 5
likely ship?
Cost: 1

Cost: 8
Average Team Velocity = 33
Sprint Length = 2 weeks
Cost: 13

Cost: 3 A

Cost: 100

Cost: 13 6 weeks
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Product Backlog
Defect A
Size: 13

What will be
Defect B
Size: 1
Requirement A
Size: 2
Requirement B
Size: 8
ready in 8
Requirement C
Size: 5
Constraint A
All This weeks?
Size: 13
Requirement D Average Team Velocity = 18
Size: 3
Requirement E Sprint Length = 2 weeks
Size: 13
Constraint B
Size: 5
Requirement F
Size: 8
Constraint C
Size: 2

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Projecting with Velocity
30
Top 3
Avg 23
25 Best Case

20 Middle 3
Story Points

Avg 19
Likely Case
15
Bottom 3
10 Avg 14
Worst Case
5

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Sprint

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Projecting Velocity for 3 Sprints
Product Backlog

Estimate: 2

Estimate : 20 Worst Case:


3 Sprints X 14 points = 42 points
Estimate : 20

Estimate : 3
Most Likely Case:
Estimate : 5 3 Sprints X 19 points = 57points

Estimate : 1

Estimate : 8 Best Case:


3 Sprints X 23 points = 69 points
Estimate : 13

Estimate : 3

Estimate : 100

Estimate : 13 Top 3 Middle 3 Bottom 3 Avg


Avg 23 Avg 19 14
Best Case Likely Case Worst Case
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Product Backlog Burndown Chart
700

600
Functionality Remaining

500 How is the release


going if this is
400
the ship date?
300

200

100

0
1 2 3 4 5 6

Sprint
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Defining Done
Scrum Planning

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When can you ship or release? 3
MIN

What is done and present for a piece of functionality so that you


can put it into production or release it?

How do you know that there is no work remaining?

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Definition of the Definition of Done

The Definition of Done is a shared


understanding of completeness

Must be universally understood and


agreed upon for transparency

The common denominator of quality


for the product

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DoD Tips

In general the DoD is for the Increment and all Product Backlog Items
Checklists for Definition of Done at various levels and checkpoints can
be helpful

Visit Definition of Done in each Retrospective

If the development organization does not have a common Definition of


Done for that product, product family, or system (to reflect product fit for
purpose), it defaults to the Development Team to define and own.

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Section Summary

Planning Levels
Estimating Software Development
Owning a Product Backlog
Defining Done

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Section Summary

Product Backlog
Release Plan

Sprint Plan

Daily Plan

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References

Agile Estimating and Planning, Mike Cohn

Cone of Uncertainty
www.construx.com/Page.aspx?hid=1648

It's Not Just Standing Up: Patterns of Daily Stand-up Meetings


http://martinfowler.com/articles/itsNotJustStandingUp.html

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Sprint 4
Professional Scrum Foundations

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The Sprint Structure 65
MIN

Sprint Planning (10m)


Development (30m)
Sprint Review (15m)
Sprint Retrospective (10m)

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Time for Review
Step away from the keyboards J
Getting Started
Professional Scrum Foundations

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In this Module

Getting
Ready

Starting
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Change is the only constant.

Heraclitus, Greek philosopher

Getting Ready
Getting Started

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Scrum Values 10
MIN

Where is the value of the Scrum


values for your daily work as
Scrum Master in a Scrum Team?

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Agility Requires Organizational Change

Todays culture is finely tuned to


produce current conditions

Agility is an entirely new state Culture


Culture must change to achieve
Agility

Organizational change is a
The way we do
difficult multi-step process that
requires leadership
things here.
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Each Team Answer 3
MIN

Should we use Scrum?

Why or why not?


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Each Team Answer 3
MIN

What will happen if we


dont change?
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Each Team Answer 3
MIN

Why havent previous


efforts worked?
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Each Team Answer 3
MIN

What support do we most


need, and from whom?

What help will they need?


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Each Team Answer 3
MIN

If we change soon, what will be


true:
In 6 months?
In 1 year?
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Agile Transition Backlog 15
MIN

Create and order a backlog


for your organizations
transition to agility with
Scrum.
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Refining the Scrum Implementation Backlog 2
MIN

Who will be the Product Owner for this Scrum Implementation


Backlog?

Who will work with this Product Owner to refine this backlog?
Ideally, 1 person from each team in class
Plus the highest ranking person in class

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Kotter's 8-Step Change Model

1. Establish a sense of urgency


2. Create a guiding coalition
3. Develop a vision and strategy
4. Communicate and share the vision
5. Create an agile implementation backlog
6. Empower broad-based action
7. Generate short-term wins
8. Anchor new approaches into the culture

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Starting
Getting Started

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Who Fills These Roles and Why?

Product Owner

Scrum Master
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What is a reasonable DoD for a first Sprint?

Where is the Increment deployed? By whom?

What tests accompany it?

What documentation accompanies it?

Will bugs known today still be present?

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Product Backlog

Is there one today?


If not, when will one exist?

How and where will the Product Backlog


be managed and made visible?

Are the PBIs estimated and ordered?


If not, when and where will that occur?
Who will schedule it?
How will PBIs be estimated?

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The First Sprint

How long will Sprints be and why?

When will the first one begin and end?

What might be a valid Sprint Goal


for your first Sprint?

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Information Radiators

Where will they be?

What will they show?

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Who will Schedule These Events?

Sprint Planning

Daily Scrums

Sprint Review

Sprint Retrospective

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Refining

Will you refine?

How
When
Where

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Section Summary

Getting Ready

Starting
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Keeping Scrum Healthy
Professional Scrum Foundations

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In this Module

Monitoring Your Health

Patterns of Healthy Scrum Teams

Staying the Course

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Monitoring Your Health
Keeping Scrum Healthy

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Retrospective commitments for the next Sprint

Answer: Sprint # What we committed to for the next Sprint


What will your team do in the
next Sprint? 3 All Increments shown in Sprint Review build
via automated build

4 New features will have corresponding unit


Keep these visible to all tests

Keep a growing list of them 5 Tests will run as part of the automated build
processes
Watch DoD grow over time 6 All increments release with a functional
installer

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Ask Questions Like These Regularly

Is our DoD increasing in scope?


Is our quality improving?
Are we learning more from each other?
Are we hiding or ignoring anything?

These questions make a


And for each answer nice addendum
why or why not. discussion to Sprint
Retrospectives

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Information Radiators

Walls work well Information Radiator Candidates


Development Team plan
Updated regularly with Build and Test automation status
Scrum events Release plan or Burndown
Sprint Burndown
DoD checklists
Visited frequently
Retrospective commitments
during discussions
Others?

Keep important information visible and transparent at all times

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What Will You Do? 5
MIN

The Development Team has been together for several months. You
are a Scrum Master. Velocity is fairly stable.

The CTO asks why, What are you doing to help the team improve
their velocity?

What is your response?

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Patterns of Healthy Scrum Teams
Keeping Scrum Healthy

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An Active Team Room

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Anti-Pattern: Poor Use of Retrospectives

A: Everything went wrong


that time.

B: Whatll we do about it?

A: Forget that ever happened.

B: Good idea.

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Fewer Specialists

In a multi-disciplinary Development Team


of appropriate size, specialization is
simply not possible

Task pairing and sharing grows everyone

Focus shifts from fulfillment of individual


duties to the overall success of the team

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Self Organizing Development Teams

The Development Team determines

Who does what & when


Who is needed on the team and not
When it needs help resolving
Impediments
Needed process improvements
Technology practices
Their own Scrum Master
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Undone Work 5
MIN

It is the last day of a Sprint and the Development Team has


completed all work, except one item. The remaining item is too
small to be split. It is too large to be completed.

The Development Team is unsure what to do.

What is your guidance?

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Anti-Pattern: Reverting to Bad Behavior

Scrum is simple, but hard

Giving up when it feels hard


undermines everyone else

Scrum Teams need time and support


to adopt the successful disciplines

Just this one time with no unit tests


Dont do it.
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Anti-Pattern: The Hero Developer

High functioning organizations


do not need heroes

Heroes almost always ignore quality:


Tests, Documentation, Automation

Needing a hero means the overall


system is fundamentally broken

Heroes resist Scrum as focus moves


to the team
away from the individual

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Actual Software at Sprint Review

Power Point No slides! No models! Just


misses the point working software!

The product is ready to be


deployed if needed No special effects

Preparation is minimal, no
more than 2 hours Real software.
Real feedback.
Real value.
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Anti-Pattern: Absent Product Owner (APOP)

Very common and very destructive

Increases wait time and creates waste

A quarreling Product Owners is worse

Feature decisions are often decided


by those least appropriate to do so

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Staying the course
Keeping Scrum Healthy

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Know Your Supporters

Identify organizational leaders


who will want Scrum to succeed

Why do they want it? Specifically?


Can those things be measured to see Scrums effect?
How can you help your supporters?

Consider Agility Path

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Have the Right Scrum Master

Scrum Master is not a Project Manager

Good Scrum Masters are fit via temperament and facilitation


skills, not job title

Good Scrum Masters are ferocious advocates


For Scrum
For the Development Team

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Will this Really Work? 3
MIN

Will You Try Scrum by the Book for 3 Months?


With sincerity
Allowing time before deciding the process doesnt work.
Realizing that it wont be easy
Knowing early failures often precede success

What does this mean to:


- Your organization?
- Your team?
- You?
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Section Summary

Monitoring Your Health

Patterns of Healthy Scrum Teams

Staying the Course

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Professional Scrum Master 1 Assessment

Included in your class $150 per student value

Instructor submits information to Scrum.org


85% is a passing score
The Scrum Open assessment is great practice
Professional Scrum Master certification upon passing

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Thank You!

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Thank You

Scrum On!