You are on page 1of 18

Niru

Some Electronic
Project Schematics
Collected by Niranjan Hegde
This contains hobby Electronic Circuit Schematics which we can build
easily. And gives a much more knowledge on designing and building
of the Electronic circuits.

1 Collection By
Niranjan Hegde
Nirus
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

Contents
1. Audio Signal Tracer
……………………………………………………………………………3 - 4
2. Touch switch/Contact
switch……………………………………………………………..5 - 6
3. Color
Sensor………………………………………………………………………………
……….7 - 8
4. Touch
Switch………………………………………………………………………………
………9 - 10
5. A low Voltage
Amplifier…………………………………………………………………….11-
14
6. 18W Car Stereo Amplifier Using HA13118
IC………………………………………15-18

Niranjan Hegde 2
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

1. Audio Signal Tracer


This schematics function is to enable one to trace an audio signal through a
maze of wires running around the house.

As shown in the schematic above, when a inductor coil L1 is brought near the
wire carrying the audio signal, the audio signal will be induced into the coil and the
signal is fed to the inverting input of op-amp IC1-a. It is then amplified by and the

Niranjan Hegde 3
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

amplified output is fed to IC1-b iverting input. The second op-amp increases the
signal level to drive a set of low impedance headphone, Z1.

The coil L1 is made by using a size #30 enamel coated copper wire wound
on a 1.25 inch length of a 0.25 inch diameter ferrite rod. Use a turn of
appoximately 80 to 100 turns. It can be located several feet from the circuit and
connected it through a shielded cable.

Parts List

The parts list is as shown below.

Source : Extracted from Popular Electronics Feb 1993, By Charles D. Rakes

Niranjan Hegde 4
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

2. Touch Switch/Contact Switch


The main part of the Touch Switch Free Electronic Circuits are the two NAND
gates of the 4011 Integrated Circuit which are connected as a flip-flop. Pins 9 and
13 are the ON and OFF contacts. The two gates are connected to the positive rail
by the two 10M resistors. Shorting one of the gates with the ground rail by
touching it (this is equivalent to connecting about 50K between the gate and
ground) FLIPs the output to that state. Shorting out the other contact FLOPs it
back.

The output of the flip-flop drives a transistor connected as a switch. It


switches an LED and a relay. The relay is a 12V relay and commonly available
SPDT type 240VAC can be used to switch ON or OFF a lamp or other electrical
appliances. However, make sure that the current and voltage of the device are
within the contact relay specifications. Connecting the two 1K resistors connects
the other two NAND gates of the IC into the flip-flop and makes it much more
sensitive to touch. The touch plate may in fact work with only the first two gates
connected. But it will be much more sensitive with all four gates connected as a
flip-flop.

Ensure that an isolating transformer is used when the power supply comes
from the mains before being rectified to 12V DC for safety purposes. The
schematic diagram of the circuit is as shown below.

Niranjan Hegde 5
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

Parts List

Niranjan Hegde 6
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

3.Color Sensor
Colour sensor is an interesting project for hobbyists. The cir- cuit can sense
eight colours, i.e. blue, green and red (primary colours); magenta, yellow and cyan
(secondary colours); and black and white. The circuit is based on the fundamentals
of optics and digital electronics. The object whose colour is required to be detected
should be placed in front of the system. The light rays reflected from the object will
fall on the three convex lenses which are fixed in front of the three LDRs. The
convex lenses are used to converge light rays. This helps to increase the sensitivity
of LDRs. Blue, green and red glass plates (filters) are fixed in front of LDR1, LDR2
and LDR3 respectively. When reflected light rays from the object fall on the
gadget, the coloured filter glass plates determine which of the LDRs would get
triggered. The circuit makes use of only �AND� gates and �NOT� gates.

When a primary coloured light ray falls on the system, the glass plate
corresponding to that primary colour will allow that specific light to pass through.
But the other two glass plates will not allow any light to pass through. Thus only
one LDR will get triggered and the gate output corresponding to that LDR will
become logic 1 to indicate which colour it is. Similarly, when a secondary coloured
light ray falls on the system, the two primary glass plates corres- ponding to the
mixed colour will allow that light to pass through while the remaining one will not
allow any light ray to pass through it. As a result two of the LDRs get triggered and
the gate output corresponding to these will become logic 1 and indicate which

Niranjan Hegde 7
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

colour it is.

When all the LDRs get triggered or remain untriggered, you will observe
white and black light indications respectively. Following points may be carefully
noted :
1. Potmeters VR1, VR2 and VR3 may be used to adjust the sensitivity of the LDRs.
2. Common ends of the LDRs should be connected to positive supply.
3. Use good quality light filters.
The LDR is mounded in a tube, behind a lens, and aimed at the object. The
coloured glass filter should be fixed in front of the LDR as shown in the figure.
Make three of that kind and fix them in a suitable case. Adjustments are critical
and the gadget performance would depend upon its proper fabrication and use of
correct filters as well as light conditions

Niranjan Hegde 8
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

Niranjan Hegde 9
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

4.Touch Switch
In this Electronic Design Circuits Touch Switch project, a CMOS quad 2 input NOR
gate IC is used as a latching circuit to switch a LED ON and OFF by physically
touching the ON metal plate or OFF metal plate. The CD4001BC integrated circuit
is a monolithic complementary MOS (CMOS) IC that are constructed with N- and P-
channel enhancement mode transistors. Its input are protected against
electrostatic discharge with diodes to VDD and VSS.

The
circuit
below
shows the

schematic diagram of the touch circuit of which the NOR gates are configured as a
simple latching circuit. When the skin contact is made between contacts T1 and T2
or T3 and T4, the LED switches ON and OFF respectively. The latching circuit is to
ensure that the output will not fluctuate between ON and OFF. When the T1 and T2
contacts are bridged through the skin contact, the output of U1-a will go to logic
"0" and caused the output of U1-b to go to logic "1". This output will in turn caused
NOR gate U1-c to go to logic "0" causing transistor Q1 to turn ON, and hence LED
will turn ON. The circuit will remain latched with the LED ON until contacts T3 and
T4 are bridged of which the output of U1-a will go to logic "1", output of U1-b will
go to logic "0", output of U1-c will go to logic "1" and the transistor Q1 will turn
OFF. The LED will then turn OFF.
It is important to ensure that 9V battery

is used as its DC source. If one uses the mains supply to step down the voltage
using a transformer for rectification and filtering to get the 9V DC supply, ensure
that the transformer is designed in such a way that it follows the safety standard

Niranjan Hegde 10
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

requirement of UL. This is important to ensure the safety of the user that is using
the metal contacts to ON/OFF the LED.

Parts List

Niranjan Hegde 11
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

5. A low voltage preamplifier (Optimised for 3V


operation)

Description:
This is a special low voltage version of my audio preamp. T1's emitter voltage is
biased close to half supply voltage (1.5V) to allow for maximum output voltage
swing. Both transistors are direct coupled and have closed loop feedback to aid
temperature stability.

T2 realizes the amplifiers full voltage gain, and for low noise operation, T2 collector
current is about 70uA. T1 merely buffers T2 and operates in emitter follower mode
providing a good low output impedance. The overall S/N ratio measured at the
output is shown below:

Niranjan Hegde 12
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

Signal to Noise Ratio

Capacitor C3 decouples the emitter resistor of T2. Without C3 the gain of T2 would
be approximately R1 / R4. With C3 the gain of T2 is now R4 in parallel with the
input impedance of T1 / the small signal emitter resistance of T2. The overall
voltage gain of the circuit is around 28 times as shown below. Harmonic distortion
is about 8%.

Harmonic Distortion

Frequency response is flat from 50Hz to around 200KHz. Phase change across this
range varies little, see bode plot below.

Niranjan Hegde 13
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

Bode Plot

One drawback of this circuit is that the input impedance is fairly low. This is
because the input of T2 is low and has C3 decoupling the emitter. The inclusion of
R7 in series with the base of T2 raises input impedance slightly. A plot of input
impedance versus freqency response is shown below.

Input Impedance

The output impedance is very low, around 66 ohms as shown in the plot below.
Note that this is a preamp and therefore designed to feed into a power amplifier
not drive direct loads directly.

Niranjan Hegde 14
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

Output Impedance

Niranjan Hegde 15
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

18W Car Stereo Amplifier Using HA13118 IC

This car stereo amplifier project is a class AB audio power amplifier using the
Hitachi HA13118 module. It not only can be used in car application but also in any
portable or home amplifier system. It is easy to construct and has a minimum of
external components. The module has a high power output from a low voltage
supply using the bridge tied load method, and a high gain of 55dB.

This project will be especially useful in applications where the input signal is a low
level, without requiring the use of a separate pre-amplifier. This IC module has a
built in surge protection circuit, thermal shut down circuit, ground fault protection
circuit and power supply

fault protection circuit making it extremely reliable.

The Specifications of this project are:

D.C. Input : 8 – 18V at 1-2 A

Power output : 18W maximum, 4 ohm load, 18V DC supply

S/N ratio : > 70 dB

THD : < 0.2% @ 1W

Freq. Response : ~ 30 Hz to 30 kHz, –3 dB

Input level : < 25 mV, for full output (G > 50dB)

Input Impedance : ~ 30 k ohm

The supply voltage required for this project is 8 -18V DC, at least 1 to 2 Amps.
Maximum output power will only be obtained with a power supply of 18V at greater
than 2 A, using a 4 ohm speaker. The power supply should be well filtered to
reduce mains hum, a regulated supply will reduce noise even further. Extra
filtering is unnecessary if operating from a battery supply.

Niranjan Hegde 16
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

Circuit Diagram Description

Most of the circuitry is contained within the amplifier module. C10 is the input
coupling capacitor and blocks DC from the input. C11 bypasses any RF which may
be present at the input. C1 & C2 provide an AC ground for the inverting inputs of
the IC. R1/C7 and R2/C8 provide a high frequency load for stability with difficult
speakers. C5 and C6 provide “bootstrap” feedback for the IC. C9 and C12 provide
power supply filtering.

An externally mounted logarithmic potentiometer of between 10k ohm and 50k


ohm, is used depending on the desired input impedance. The impedance should be
keep as high as possible for a guitar amp, unless using a separate pre-amp. Make
sure that the heat sink is mounted to the module.

Niranjan Hegde 17
Nirus SOME ELECTRONIC PROJECT SCHEMATICS

Parts List

You may download the


full data sheet for the
the Car Stereo Amplifier
HA13118 here.

Niranjan Hegde 18