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Assumptions: A and B both are Vodafone Delhi Subscribers (Ported In or normal).

A is postpaid number.

Let us now go through signaling flow.

1) A sends an SMS to B. Mobile Originated Forward Short Message (MO-FSM) is send to STP/MNP with
destination as SMSC address (SMSC GT). SMSC address is already stored in SIM. MO-FSM also contains B
number to which SMS is sent.

2) MNP check its database attaches RN/LRN to B number and forward MO-FSM to SMSC.

3) SMSC acknowledges the MO-FSM by

FSM Response to MSC. These three steps
complete the MO leg of SMS Flow and
handset receives an indication "SMS sent"
at this point of flow.

4) Step4 marks the beginning of SMS

terminating flow. SMSC checks this is our
own RN/LRN removes RN from B number
and sends Send Routing Info- Short
Message (SRI-SM) to STP/MNP. This
message can be directly send to HLR also
that depends on network topology.

5) SRI-SM is forwarded to HLR with B


6) HLR responds SRI-SM Response with the VLR address where subscribers are currently registered and
IMSI of B number.

7) On receiving VLR address now SMSC knows where to send MT-FSM. SMSC send MT-FSM to that
particular VLR with B number IMSI and SMS data.

Here after MSC tries to deliver this message to B Subscriber using standard MT SMS flow.

8) MSC/VLR acknowledge SMSC by MT-FSM response which contains status of MT SMS.

i.e delivered or failed cause if SMS is not delivered to B number.

This sums the SMS flow in case of MNP, our main motive was to highlight the difference between normal
and MNP SMS Flow. Hope we fulfilled that and hope this post was informative for you.
MNP Prepaid Call Flow

Assumptions: A and B both are Vodafone Delhi Subscriber in different MSC/MSS coverage area.

Let us discuss call flow step by step.

1) Subscriber A (prepaid) call B.

2) Since A is prepaid first query(IDP) should go IN/SCP with "calling party number" Subscriber A MSISDN
and "called party Subscriber" Subscriber B MSISDN. Here is change from normal prepaid call flow, in
normal case IDP would have gone straight to serving SCP but in case of MNP IDP will sent to MNP server.

3) MNP server will check its database for B MSISDN and add LRN/RN according to operator to which B
subscriber is registered, in above case it is Vodafone Delhi.
After addition of LRN/RN IDP is forwarded to SCP.

4) IDP received by SCP

contains LRN/RN + B
MSISDN in "called party
number" field and "calling
party field" contains A
MSISDN. Charging is done
based on LRN/RN. Here
LRN is of Vodafone Delhi so
local call rates apply to this
call. In normal scenario
charging would have be done
on the basis on B party
In response to IDP SCP
revert with
Connect/Continue message
to MSC which contains
"called party number" as

5) MSC check called party number and removes LRN (as its own LRN) and forward SRI to MNP server.

Hereafter normal MNP call flow is followed which is already discussed in detail in earlier post.

6) MNP server checks B MSISDN and forward SRI to HLR.

7) HLR queries with MSC B and provide MSRN to MSC A

8) IAM is send out to MSC B with called number at B party MSRN.

Thereafter normal terminating call flow taken place.

MNP Call Flow to Ported Out or Another Operator

1) Ported In/Out--> Ported In/Out subscriber are those which have changed their Service provider
Exp: A was originally Airtel Subscriber and availed MNP and changed to
Vodafone so A will be Ported in number for Vodafone and Ported out Number for Airtel.

2) RN/LRN--> Called as Routing Number(RN) for NLD calls or Local Routing number(LRN) in case of
Local call. Is four-digit Unique Number allocated by TRAI to each operator.

Now let us go through call flow.

Here again i have taken

example of Vodafone
Delhi, call is originated by
A which is Vodafone
Delhi subscriber to B
number which is either
other operator number or
Ported out number.

Let us go through call

flow in steps:

1) A dials B number

2) After receiving B
number MSC send SRI to
MNPDB. This is major
difference between normal/MNP call flow. In normal call flow there would have been IAM to other operators

3) MNP check its database and returns with RN/LRN+ B number in SRI response as its not Vodafone Delhi

4) After receiving RN/LRN+ B Number MSC again checks its B number routing table and sends IAM to that

Call flow remains same in case NLD also, IAM (LRN + B number) is sent to NLD in that case.

After this calls flow remains same as in case of normal call which already posted in this blog.
MNP Call Flow Normal Mobile to Mobile Call

Before coming to the point i would like to elaborate some terms which will used later in explanation.

1) MNPDB--> Mobile Number Portability Database, where in all details of subscriber is stored.
2) Ported In/Out--> Ported In/Out subscriber are those which have changed their Service provider
Exp: A was originally Airtel Subscriber and availed MNP and changed to
Vodafone so A will be Ported in number for Vodafone and Ported out Number for Airtel.

These terms
are enough to
get a feel of
mobile to
mobile in

Here i have
taken example
to Vodafone
Delhi where
Subscriber A
in MSC1 and
Subscriber B
in Coverage
of MSC2.
Let us now go
signaling flow
in steps:
1) Subscriber A Dials Subscriber B
2) MSC1 receives B number and SRI is sent to MNP server instead of HLR as in case of traditional call flow.
3) MNP checks its database and founds that this is own subscriber and relays that SRI to HLR.
4) HLR on receiving SRI check the VLR address of subscriber and send PRN to MSC2.
5) In response to PRN MSC2 returns with MSRN.
6) HLR forward that MSRN number to MSC1 in SRI Response Message
7) MSRN is now dialed out from MSC1 to MSC2 to establish the voice path between two MSCs
After this call flow remains same as in case of traditional call flow which is already posted in this blog.
**There may be some changes in call flow as Implementing MNP is operator specific, they implement the
way which is best feasible for them.
But Implementing Concept remains the same.
MNP - Mobile Number Portability

Mobile Number Portability (MNP) enables Mobile telephone users to RETAIN their mobile
telephone number, when changing from one service provider to another or their Location.
In this, if a customer is dissatisfied on the service by mobile operator either he should reluctantly
accept the service or switch to another service provider that he wishes. In the latter case, he should drop his
identity, the mobile number. In most cases when the mobile number is used for all business and family
correspondence, it becomes generally impossible to leave the number. To overcome these hardships, the
concept of MNP (Mobile Number Portability) was introduced.

Types of Number Portability: -

The various types of number portability are:

Service Provider Number Portability: Subscribers can change the service provider while retaining the
same phone number It is also called operator portability.
Location Number Portability: Subscribers can change their service location while keeping the same
mobile telephone number.
Service Portability: Subscribers can change the subscribed services while retaining the same telephone
number. It allows the subscribers to enjoy the subscribed services in the same way when they roam
outside their home networks.

Concept: -
MNP functionality is used only in MT (Mobile Terminating) transactions of voice and messaging.
For MO (Mobile Originating) transactions, the current flow scenario remains unchanged.
Only for the MT functionality, the mobile number should be identified and the corresponding service
provider should be interrogated for optimal routing of the service.

Basic Terms: -

Ported out If a subscriber moves to new service provider, for the old service provider, he is a
ported out subscriber.
Ported in - If a subscriber moves to new service provider, for the new service provider, he is a ported
in subscriber.
Donor The service provider left by the subscriber. OR It is the network that first assigns a telephone
number to a subscriber
Recipient The service provider joined by the subscriber. OR It is the network that currently serves
the ported number. A recipient network is a network that a subscribers number is ported to when the
subscriber switches the service provider.
Old Serving Network The old serving network is the network that previously served the ported
number before the number was ported to the new serving network. Since a subscriber can switch
service provider any number of times, the old service provider is not necessarily the same as the donor
Participant A Participant is a service provider who is not related to the porting process in any way
and still needs the routing information for call routing and various other activities.
CDB / NPDB Central Database or Number Portability Database.
ACQ All Call Query
There are two basic implementations of MNP.

Indirect Routing or decentralized or bilateral architecture:

This model works bilaterally between the donor and recipient service providers who are responsible for
informing all others of the change. It would suit to markets with less number of service providers. Each
provider will have a dedicated setup and comprehensive database of ported out and ported in subscribers. As
the number of service providers increases, the
bilateral approach becomes a great burden to all
service providers involved in terms of time, cost and
resources. FNR (Flexible Number Register) will help
the service providers have the ported database in
addition to the original HLR database.

Direct Routing or centralized architecture:

In direct routing, the concept of CDB comes into

picture. This central database or Central clearing
house will handle all activities related to porting of
subscribers between service providers. This model is suited for markets with several service providers and this
model is currently used almost in all MNP implementations. Two options are available with this model with
all the service providers updating the ported number database in synchronization with the CDB and the other
is to query the CDB for all call interrogation to get proper routing procedure. After obtaining the rules, rest of
the call is handled normally.

Call Routing Schemes: -

There are 4 schemes of call routing that support number portability.

1. All Call Query (ACQ) - Most Efficient (No dependency on other network for routing the call, Easy
Billing, Minimum Call Set-Up Time, Minimal Impact on Signaling, Impact on network complexity is
very less, etc.)
2. Query on Release (QoR).
3. Call Dropback.
4. Onward Routing (OR) - Least Efficient.