You are on page 1of 79

KERALA TECHNOLOGICAL

UNIVERSITY
Cluster No 09: Calicut

M.Tech. DEGREE COURSE


Communication Engineering and
Signal Processing

Proposed curricula, Scheme of Examinations and Syllabi


(With effect from 2015 admissions)
Kerala Technological University

M. Tech. Communication Engineering and Signal Processing

SCHEME OF EXAMINATIONS

Semester I

Hours per Sem-end


Marks
week Total exam
Subject Credits
Code Sem- Marks duration
L T P/D Intl.
end - Hrs
Mathematics for
09EC6311 Communication 3 1 - 40 60 100 3 4
Engineering
Advanced Digital
09EC6321 3 1 - 40 60 100 3 4
Communication

Advanced Digital Signal


09EC6331 3 1 - 40 60 100 3 4
Processing

09EC6341 DSP System Design 3 - - 40 60 100 3 3

09EC63x5 Elective-I 3 - - 40 60 100 3 3


09EC6351 Research Methodology 0 2 0 100 - 100 - 2

09EC6361 Seminar - - 2 100 - 100 - 2

09EC6371 Signal Processing Lab - - 2 100 - 100 - 1


TOTAL 18 2 4 500 300 800 23

NB: The student has to undertake the departmental work assigned by HOD
Electives - I
Sl No Course No. Course Title
1 09EC6315 Information Theory
2 09EC6325 Adaptive Signal Processing
3 09EC6335 Communication Networks
4 09EC6345 Digital Image Processing
5 09EC6355 Advanced Optical Communication Systems

Page 1 of 70
Kerala Technological University

Semester II
Hours per Sem-end
Marks
Total exam
Subject Credits
Code Sem- Marks duration
L T P/D Intl.
end - Hrs
Estimation and Detection
09EC6312 3 1 - 40 60 100 3 4
Theory

09EC6322 Wireless Communication 3 - - 40 60 100 3 3

09EC6332 Coding Theory 3 - - 40 60 100 3 3

09EC63x6 Elective-II 3 - - 40 60 100 3 3

09EC63x6 Elective-III 3 40 60 100 3 3


09EC6362 Mini Project - - 4 100 - 100 - 2
09EC6372 Advanced
- - 2 100 - 100 - 1
Communication Lab

TOTAL 16 - 6 400 300 700 - 19

NB: The student has to undertake the departmental work assigned by HOD
Electives -II
Sl No Course No Course Title
1 09EC6316 Multirate Signal Processing
2 09EC6326 Spectrum Analysis Techniques
3 09EC6336 Spread Spectrum and CDMA Systems
4 09EC6346 Markov Modeling and Queuing Theory

Electives -III
1 09EC6356 Communication Switching & Multiplexing
2 09EC6366 Wavelets Theory
3 09EC6376 Wireless Sensor Networks
4 09EC6386 System Design Using Embedded Processors
5 09EC6396 Secure Communication

Page 2 of 70
Kerala Technological University

Semester - III

Hours per week Marks


Sem-end
exam
Sem- Total duration
Code Subject L T P/D Intl. end Marks - Hrs Credits
09EC73x7 Elective-IV 3 - - 40 60 100 3 3
09EC73x7 Elective-V 3 - - 40 60 100 3 3
09EC7363 Seminar - - 2 100 - 100 - 2
EC
Guide
*
Masters Research
09EC7383 - - 12 - 50 - 6
Project(Phase -I)
20 30

TOTAL 6 - 14 230 120 350 14

NB: The student has to undertake the departmental work assigned by HOD
*EC Evaluation Committee

Electives IV
Sl No Course Code Course Title
1 09EC7317 Signal Compression Techniques
2 09EC7327 Speech and Audio Processing
3 09EC7337 Biomedical Signal Processing
4 09EC7347 DSP Algorithms and Architecture
5 09EC7357 Graph Theory

Electives V
Sl no Course Code Course Title
1 09EC7367 Linear Systems Theory
2 09EC7377 Optimization techniques
3 09EC7387 Transform Theory
4 09EC7397 Information Hiding and Data Encryption

Page 3 of 70
Kerala Technological University

Semester - IV

Sl Hours / End Semester


Course Code Name of the Subject Internal

Credits
No Week Exam

Marks
Total
Marks
L T P Marks Dur (h)
1. 0 0 21 30 0 100 12
09EC7384 Master Research Project Phase II

Guide

EC
30 40
Total 0 0 21 70 30 100 12

Total Credits: 68

NB: Teaching assistance of 6 hours/week in all semesters for GATE students

Page 4 of 78
Kerala Technological University

FIRST SEMESTER

Course No: 09EC6311 Credits: 3-1-0: 4 Year: 2015


Course Title: MATHEMATICS FOR COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
This course is intended to provide the necessary Mathematical foundation needed for the
subjects to be dealt with in the program. After the completion of the course, the student
should have a thorough understanding of Linear Algebra, Random Processes and their
applications.

Syllabus:
Linear Algebra: Vector space, Linear Transformations, Matrix representation of linear
transformations, Random Variables, distributions, Elements of stochastic process, Markov
Chains, Continuous time Markov Chains, second order stochastic processes, Spectral
Density, linear prediction and filtering.

Course Outcome:
The student will have a thorough understanding of Linear Algebra, Random Processes and
their applications.

References:
nd
1. Kenneth Hoffman and Ray Kunze, Linear Algebra, 2 Edition, PHI.
2. Erwin Kreyszig, Introductory Functional Analysis with Applications, John Wiley &
Sons.
th
3. Irwin Miller and Marylees Miller, John E. Freunds Mathematical Statistics, 6 Edition,
PHI.
nd
4. S. Karlin & H.M Taylor, A First Course in Stochastic Processes, 2 edition, Academic
Press, New York.
5. S. M. Ross, Introduction to Probability Models, Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd. and Academic
Press.
6. J. Medhi, Stochastic Processes, New Age International, New Delhi.
rd
7. A Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, 3 Edition,
McGraw Hill.
8. John B Thomas, An Introduction to Applied Probability and Random Processes, John
Wiley & Sons.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment:
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 5 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No:09EC6311 Title: MATHEMATICS FOR COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
(L-T-P): 3-1-0 Credits :4
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I: Linear Algebra: Vector spaces, subspaces, Linear 14 25
dependence, Basis and Dimension, Inner product spaces, Gram
Schmidt Orthogonalization Procedure, Linear transformations,
Kernels and Images , Matrix representation of linear transformation,
Change of basis, Eigen values and Eigen vectors of linear operator,
Quadratic form.
Module II: Operations on random variables: Random Variables, 7 12
Distributions and Density functions, Moments and Moment
generating function, Multivariate distributions,
FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Independent Random Variables, Marginal and Conditional 7 13


distributions, Conditional Expectation, Transformation of Random
Variables , Elements of stochastic processes, Classification of general
stochastic processes.
Module III: Random Processes: Markov Chains Definition, 14 25
Examples, Transition Probability Matrices of a Markov Chain,
Classification of states and chains, Basic limit theorem, Limiting
distribution of Markov chains. Continuous Time Markov Chains:
General pure Birth processes and Poisson processes, Birth and death
processes, Finite state continuous time Markov chains
SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV: Second Order Processes: Second Order Stochastic 14 25


Processes, Linear operations and second order calculus, Stationary
processes, Wide sense Stationary processes, Spectral density
function, Low pass and band pass processes, White noise and white
noise integrals, Linear Predictions and Filtering.
END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 6 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6321 Credits: 3-1-0: 4 Year :2015

Course Title: ADVANCED DIGITAL COMMUNICATION


Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:
To provide in-depth treatment on methods and techniques in
Representation of signals and spectra
Formatting, baseband and M-ary modulation/demodulation
Synchronization

Syllabus:
Digital communication system, Pulse amplitude modulation (binary and M-ary, QAM),
Continuous phase modulation (QPSK and variants, MSK, GMSK), Coherent and non-
coherent demodulation, Optimum rule for ML and MAP detection Performance, Pulse shape
design for channels with ISI, Performance: Symbol by symbol detection and BER, Viterbi
algorithm, synchronization techniques, Characteristics of fading channels, Rayleigh and
Rician channels, receiver performance-average SNR, outage probability.

Course Outcome:
Students will be able to
Understand the basic theory of digital communications and the most common digital
communications techniques
Understand the working principles of basic building blocks of a digital
communication system.
Identify methods of digital modulation and compare their performance using signal-
space analysis.
Understand and apply suitable digital modulation schemes for various engineering
applications and measure the Error Probability
Understand receiver techniques for detection of a signal in AWGN channel.

Text Books
1. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Fundamentals of Communication Systems, Pearson
Education, 2005.
2. S. Haykins, Communication Systems, 5th ed., John wiley, 2008.
3. M. K. Simon, S. M. Hinedi and W. C. Lindsey, Digital Communication Techniques:
Signaling and detection, Prentice Hall India, N. Delhi, 1995.
4. W. Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems, 4th Ed., Pearson
Education, 1998.
5. M. K. Simon and M. S. Alouini, Digital Communication over Fading Channels, 2000.

Page 7 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Reference Books

1. Simon Haykin,Digital Communications , 2006, John Wiley & Sons.


2. B.P. Lathi,Modern Digital and Analog Communication, 3rd Ed., Oxford
UniversityPress.
3. Sklar, Digital Communication, 2E, Pearson Education.
4. K.Sam Shanmugham,Digital and Analog Communication Systems, John Wiley
&Sons
5. R.E. Ziemer and W.H. Tranter,Principles of Communications, JAICO
PublishingHouse.
6. H.Taub and Schilling,Principles of Communication Systems, TMH
7. Pierre Lafrance,John G.Proakis,Digital Communications, McGraw Hill.
8. Couch, Analog and Digital Communication.5th Ed,PHI

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks

Internal continuous assessment :


Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 8 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No:09EC6321 Title: ADVANCED DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
(L-T-P): 3-1-0 Credits :4
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I: Digital communication system (description of different
modules of the block diagram), Complex baseband representation of
signals, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure. M-ary
orthogonal signals, bi-orthogonal signals, simplex signal waveforms.
Pulse amplitude modulation (binary and M-ary, QAM), Pulse 14 25
position modulation (binary and M-ary), Carrier modulation (M-ary
ASK, PSK, FSK, DPSK), Continuous phase modulation (QPSK and
variants, MSK, GMSK).

Module II:Coherent and non-coherent demodulation: Matched filter,


7 12
Correlator demodulator, square-law, and envelope detection.
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Detector: Optimum rule for ML and MAP detection Performance:
Bit-error-rate, symbol error rate for coherent and non-coherent
7 13
schemes.

Module III: Pulse shape design for channels with ISI: Nyquist pulse,
Partial response signaling (duo binary and modified duo binary
pulses), demodulation; Channel with distortion: Design of
transmitting and receiving filters for a known channel and for time 14 25
varying channel (equalization); Performance: Symbol by symbol
detection and BER, symbol and sequence detection, Viterbi algorithm

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV: Different synchronization techniques (Early-Late Gate,
MMSE, ML and spectral line methods).Characteristics of fading
channels, Rayleigh and Rician channels, receiver performance-
average SNR, outage probability, amount of fading and average 14 25
bit/symbol error rate.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 9 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6331 Credits: 3-1-0: 4 Year :2015

Course Title: ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING


Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
To provide in-depth treatment on methods and techniques in
Discrete-time signal transforms, digital filter design, optimal filtering
Power spectrum estimation, multi-rate digital signal processing
.Adaptive filter design, multirate signal processing

Syllabus:
Discrete random signal processing: Weiner Khitchine relation, Signal Modelling, Parametric
and non-parametric spectral estimations, Adaptive Filters: FIR adaptive filters, Adaptive
channel equalization, Multirate Digital Signal Processing: Basic operations in Multirate
Signal Processing, single stage and multistage realization, poly phase realizations,
applications.

Course Outcome:
Students will be able to
Understand the basic concepts of up/down sampling through interpolation and
decimation process.
Understand the errors caused due to interpolation and decimation in real signal
processing problems and how to solve them.
Understand the basic design of filter banks and their application in various signal
processing areas.
Understand multi resolution analysis of complex signals using wavelets.
Understand basic concepts of wavelets, wavelet decomposition, wavelet packets,
continuous and discrete wavelets etc.
Understand and apply wavelets for different signal processing applications.

Reference:
1. Monson H. Hayes, Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling, John Wiley and Sons
Inc., New York, 2006.
2. Sophoncles J. Orfanidis, Optimum Signal Processing , McGraw-Hill, 2000.
3. John G. Proakis, Dimitris G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall of India, New
Delhi, 2005.
4. Simon Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, Prentice Hall, Englehood Cliffs, NJ1986.
5. S. Kay, Modern spectrum Estimation theory and application, Prentice Hall, Englehood Cliffs,
NJ1988.
6. P. P. Vaidyanathan, Multirate Systems and Filter Banks, Prentice Hall, 1992

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks

Internal continuous assessment:


Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 10 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No:09EC6331 Title: ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
(L-T-P): 3-1-0 Credits :4
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I: DISCRETE RANDOM SIGNAL PROCESSING
Weiner Khitchine relation - Power spectral density filtering
random process, Spectral Factorization Theorem, special types
of random process Signal modeling-Least Squares method, 14 25
Pade approximation, Pronys method, iterative Prefiltering, Finite
Data records, Stochastic Models.

Module II:
Non-Parametric methods - Correlation method - Co-variance
7 12
estimator - Performance analysis of estimators Unbiased consistent
estimators.
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Periodogram estimator - Barlett spectrum estimation- Welch
estimation - Model based approach - AR, MA, ARMA Signal
7 13
modeling - Parameter estimation using Yule-Walker method

Module III:
ADAPTIVE FILTERS
FIR Adaptive filters - Newton's steepest descent method - Adaptive
filters based on steepest descent method - Widrow Hoff LMS
Adaptive algorithm - Adaptive channel equalization - Adaptive echo 14 25
canceller - Adaptive noise cancellation - RLS Adaptive filters -
Exponentially weighted RLS - Sliding window RLS - Simplified IIR
LMS Adaptive filter

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
MULTIRATE DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
Mathematical description of change of sampling rate - Interpolation
and Decimation - Continuous time model - Direct digital domain
approach - Decimation by integer factor - Interpolation by an 14 25
integer factor - Single and multistage realization - Poly phase
realization - Applications to sub band coding - Wavelet transform
and filter bank implementation of wavelet expansion of signals.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 11 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6341 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: DSP SYSTEM DESIGN
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
The aim of the paper is to introduce to the students the architectural features as well as the
programming aspects of the latest DSPs available in the market. The students at the end of
the course should be able to choose the appropriate processor for a given application
environment and should be in a position to design stand alone systems based on DSPs, given
a set of specifications.

Syllabus:
Introduction to a popular DSPs; DSP from Texas Instruments; DSP from Analog Devices;
Sharc Digital Signal Processor: Code Generation Tools ; Simulator;
Digital Signal Processing Applications: FIR and IIR Digital Filter Design, Filter Design
Programs using MATLAB; Real Time Implementation; Applications;
Current trend in Digital Signal Processor / DSP Controller.

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability to Implement
DSP algorithms on popular DSP processors/DSP controllers.

Text Books:
1. Naim Dahnoun, Digital Signal Processing Implementation using the TMS320C6000
DSP Platform, 1st Edition.
2. Rulf Chassaing, Digital Signal Processing and Application with C6713 and C6416
DSK, Wiley-Interscience Publication
3. Steven K Smith, Newnes, Digital Signal Processing-A Practical Guide for Engineers
and Scientists, Elsevier Science.

References:
1. T.J. Terrel and Lik-Kwan Shark, Digital Signal Processing - A Student Guide,1st
Edition; Macmillan Press Ltd.
2. David J Defatta J, Lucas Joseph G & Hodkiss William S, Digital Signal Processing:
A System Design Approach, 1st Edition, John Wiley
3. Rulph Chassaing, DSP Applications using 'C' and the TMS320C6X DSK, 1st Edition;
4. Andrew Bateman, Warren Yates, Digital Signal Processing Design, 1st Edition
5. John G Proakis, Dimitris G Manolakis, Introduction to Digital Signal Processing, 2nd
Ed.
6. Kreig Marven & Gillian Ewers, A Simple approach to Digital Signal processing, 1st
Edition, Wiely Interscience

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 12 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC6341 Title: DSP SYSTEM DESIGN


(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Introduction to a popular DSP from Texas Instruments: CPU
Architecture - CPU Data Paths and Control - Timers - Internal
Data/Program Memory - External Memory Interface - Programming -
12 25
Instructions Set and Addressing Modes - Code Composer Studio -
Code Generation Tools - Code Composer Studio Debug tools
Simulator

Module II:
Sharc Digital Signal Processor: A popular DSP from Analog
5 13
Devices - Sharc/ Tiger Sharc/ Blackfin (one of them) - Architecture -
IOP Registers.
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Peripherals - Synchronous Serial Port - Interrupts -
Internal/External/Multiprocessor Memory Space - Multiprocessing -
5 12
Host Interface - Link Ports.

Module III:
Digital Signal Processing Applications: FIR and IIR Digital Filter
Design, Filter Design Programs using MATLAB - Fourier
Transform: DFT, FFT programs using MATLAB - Real Time 12 25
Implementation : Implementation of Real Time Digital Filters using
DSP - Implementation of FFT Applications using DSP - DTMF Tone
Generation and Detection
SECOND INTERNAL TEST
Module IV:
Current trends: Current trend in Digital Signal Processor or DSP
8 25
Controller- Architecture and their applications.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 13 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6315 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: INFORMATION THEORY
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
Gives a detailed concept in Information Theory. Upon completion of this course, the
student will have a deep understanding of
Information and its measurement
Various source coding schemes
Concept of Channel capacity for both discrete and continuous channels and
Shannons theorems
Rate distortion theory and its applications

Syllabus:
Information and source, Entropy, Mutual and conditional mutual information, source coding
techniques, channel capacity, continuous sources and channels, information measures, Rate
Distortion Theory, properties.

Course Outcome:
The students will be able to:
Understand and apply fundamental concepts in information theory such as
probability, entropy, information content and their inter-relationships.
Understand the principles of data compression.
Compute entropy and mutual information of random variables.
Implement and analyse basic coding and compression algorithms.
Understand the relationship of information theoretical principles and Bayesian
inference in data modelling and pattern recognition.
Understand some key theorems and inequalities that quantify essential limitations on
compression, communication and inference.
Know the basic concepts regarding communications over noisy channels.

Reference:
1. T. Cover and Thomas, Elements of Information Theory, John Wiley & Sons
2. Robert Gallager, Information Theory and Reliable Communication, John Wiley
& Sons.
3. R. J. McEliece, The theory of information & coding, Addison Wesley
Publishing Co.
4. T. Bergu, Rate Distortion Theory a Mathematical Basis for Data Compression
PH Inc.
5. Special Issue on Rate Distortion Theory, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine,
November 1998.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 14 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC6315 Title: INFORMATION THEORY


(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I :
Information and Sources: Zero Memory sources Concepts of
entropyExtension of a Zero memory sourceMarkov information
sources Entropy calculation Entropy of a discrete Random 10 25
variable Joint, conditional and relative entropy Mutual
Information and conditional mutual information.

Module II :
Source Coding: Uniquely decodable codes Instantaneous codes
5 13
Krafts inequality McMillans inequalityAverage length of a
code Optimal codes Shannon codes - Fano codes.
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Huffman Coding Optimality of Huffman CodesLempel Ziv
codes Shannons source coding theoremArithmetic coding. 4 12

Module III :
Channel Capacity: PropertiesData transmission over Discrete
Memoryless ChannelsCapacity of Binary symmetric and Binary
11 25
Erasure channelsComputing channel capacity ArimotoBlahut
algorithm Fanos inequality Shannons Channel Coding Theorem

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV :
Continuous Sources and Channels: Information measure for
Continuous sources and channelsDifferential Entropy Joint,
relative and conditional differential entropy Mutual information
Waveform channels Gaussian channels Mutual information and
Capacity calculation for Band limited Gaussian channels Shannon 12 25
limit.

Rate Distortion Theory: Rate Distortion Function Properties


Calculation of Rate Distortion Function for binary source
Gaussian

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 15 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6325 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:

To introduce adaptive systems


To understand the filter design related to adaptive signal processing
To introduce different algorithms to implement adaptive signal processing
Application of adaptive signal processing

Syllabus:
Introduction to Adaptive systems; Wiener Hopf equation; Searching performance surface-
stability and rate of convergence LMS algorithm convergence of weight vector; lattice
structure; adaptive filters with orthogonal signals; Applications of filters.

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability to understand
the fundamental concepts of adaptive systems; Apply the concepts in filter design related to
adaptive signal processing.

References:
1. Bernard Widrow and Samuel D. Stearns, Adaptive Signal Processing, Pearson
Education, 2005.
2. Simon Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, Pearson Education.
3. John R. Treichler, C. Richard Johnson, Michael G. Larimore, Theory and Design of
Adaptive Filters, PrenticeHall of India, 2002
4. S. Thomas Alexander, Adaptive Signal Processing Theory and Application,
SpringerVerlag.
5. D. G. Manolokis, V. K. Ingle and S. M. Kogar, Statistical and Adaptive Signal
Processing, Mc Graw Hill International Edition, 2000.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 16 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC6325 Title: ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Adaptive systems definitions and characteristics applications
properties examples adaptive linear combinerinput signal and
weight vectors performance functiongradient and minimum mean
11 25
square error introduction to filtering smoothing and prediction
linear optimum filteringorthogonality Wiener Hopf
equationperformance surface

Module II:
Searching performance surfacestability and rate of convergence 5 12
learning curve gradient search Newtons method
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Method of steepest descent comparison gradient estimation
performance penalty variance excess MSE and time constants
5 13
maladjustments

Module III:
LMS algorithm convergence of weight vectorLMS/Newton
algorithm properties sequential regression algorithm adaptive
10 25
recursive filters randomsearch algorithms lattice structure
adaptive filters with orthogonal signals

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
Applicationsadaptive modelling and system identificationadaptive
modelling for multipath communication channel, geophysical
exploration, FIR digital filter synthesis, inverse adaptive modelling, 11 25
equalization, and deconvolutionadaptive equalization of telephone
channelsadapting poles and zeros for IIR digital filter synthesis

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 17 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6335 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
This course provides a deep knowledge on Internet architecture, Quality of service issues in
broad band networks, and Statistical multiplexing of communication networks.

Syllabus:
Internet Architecture: Application layer, Transport layer, Network layer, Link Layer-
protocol stack. Broadband services and Quality of Service issues in networks- Queuing
Disciplines - Weighted Fair Queuing - Random Early Detection - Differentiated Services -
Multi protocol Label switching - Discrete time and continuous time Markov chains- Poisson
process- Queuing models for Datagram networks- M/M/1 queuing systems- M/M/m/m
queuing models- M/G/1 queue- Mean value analysis, Statistical Multiplexing in
Communication Networks.

Course Outcome:
After completing this course the student must demonstrate the knowledge and ability to:
Independently understand basic computer network technology.
Understand and explain Data Communications System and its components.
Identify the different types of network topologies and protocols.
Enumerate the layers of the OSI model and TCP/IP. Explain the function(s) of each
layer.
Identify the different types of network devices and their functions within a network
Understand and building the skills of subnetting and routing mechanisms.
Familiarity with the basic protocols of computer networks, and how they can be used
to assist in network design and implementation.

References:

1. James. F. Kurose and Keith.W. Ross, Computer Networks, A topdown approach


featuring the Internet, Addison Wesley.
2. D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks.
3. S. Keshav, An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking, Addison Wesley
4. Peterson L.L. & Davie B.S., Computer Networks: A System Approach, Morgan
Kaufman Publishers.
5. Anurag Kumar, D. Manjunath, and Joy Kuri, Communication Networking: An
Analytical Approach, Morgan Kaufman Publ.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 18 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC6335 Title: COMMUNICATION NETWORKS


(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Internet Architecture: Architectural concepts in ISOs OSI layered
model, layering in the Internet. TCP/IP protocol stack. Transport
9 25
layer TCP and UDP. Network layer IP, routing, internetworking.
Data link layer ARQ schemes, multiple access, LANs.

Module II:
Broadband services and QoS issues: Quality of Service issues in
networks Integrated service architecture Queuing Disciplines 6 13
Weighted Fair Queuing - Random Early Detection.

FIRST INTERNAL TEST


Differentiated Services Protocols for QS support Resource
reservationRSVP Multi protocol Label switching Real Time
5 12
transport protocol.

Module III:
Introduction to Queuing theory: Markov chain Discrete time and
continuous time Markov chains Poisson process Queuing models
12 25
for Data gram networks Littles theorem M/M/1 queuing systems
M/M/m/m queuing models M/G/1 queue Mean value analysis.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
Statistical Multiplexing in Communication Networks:
Multiplexing: Network performance and source characterization;
10 25
Stream sessions in packet networks deterministic analysis,
stochastic analysis, circuit multiplexed networks.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 19 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6345 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
Visual information plays an important role in almost all areas of our life. This course
introduces the fundamentals of digital image processing. It emphasizes general principles of
image processing, rather than specific applications. It cover topics such as image
representation, color representations, sampling and quantization, point operations, linear
image filtering and correlation, transforms and sub band decompositions, and nonlinear
filtering, contrast and color enhancement, dithering, and image restoration and compression.
It also introduces the basic concepts of video processing.

Syllabus
Image Representation, image transforms, image enhancement, histogram processing; Image
Restoration: Image Segmentation; Fundamental Concepts of Image Compression; image
compression standards; Video Processing; Representation of Digital Video, Motion
Estimation; Video Compression, Video coding standards.

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to
understand the fundamental concepts of image processing; Apply the concepts in Image
processing systems.

Text Books
1. A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of digital image processing, Prentice Hall of India, 1989.
2. R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, Pearson Education. II Ed.,
2002
References
1. W. K. Pratt, Digital image processing, Prentice Hall, 1989
2. A. Rosenfold and A. C. Kak, Digital Image Processing, Vols. 1 and 2, Prentice Hall,
1986.
3. H. C. Andrew and B. R. Hunt, Digital Image Restoration, Prentice Hall, 1977

4. R. Jain, R. Kasturi and B.G. Schunck, Machine Vision, McGraw-Hill International


Edition, 1995
5. A. M. Tekalp, Digital Video Processing , Prentice-Hall, 1995
6. A. Bovik, Handbook of Image & Video Processing, Academic Press, 2000

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 20 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC6345 Title: DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Image Representation: Gray scale and colour Images, image
sampling and quantization. Two dimensional orthogonal
transforms: DFT, WHT, Haar transform, KLT, DCT. Image
enhancement - filters in spatial and frequency domains,
11 25
histogram- based processing, homomorphic filtering. Edge
detection - non parametric and model based approaches, LOG
filters, localisation problem.

Module II:
Image Restoration: Degradation Models, PSF, circulant and block -
circulant matrices, deconvolution, restoration using inverse filtering, 5 13
Wiener filtering and maximum entropy-based methods

FIRST INTERNAL TEST


Image Segmentation: Pixel classification, Bi-level thresholding,
Multi- level thresholding, P-tile method, Adaptive thresholding,
Spectral & spatial classification, Edge detection, Hough 5 12
transform, Region growing.

Module III:
Fundamental Concepts of Image Compression: Compression
models - Information theoretic perspective - Fundamental coding
theorem - Lossless Compression: Huffman Coding- Arithmetic 11 25
coding - Bit plane coding - Run length coding - Lossy
compression: Transform coding - Image compression standards.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
Video Processing: Representation of Digital Video, Spatio-
temporal sampling; Motion Estimation; Video Filtering; Video 10 25
Compression, Video coding standards.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 21 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6355 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: ADVANCED OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS


Pre-requisites: Nil
Objectives:
To introduce the terminology used in optical fibers
To describe the building blocks of an Optical Fiber system and to give clear
understanding of various components such as Optical fibers, Optical sources,
Photo-detectors and fiber amplifiers
To introduce loss and dispersion management
To introduce coherent and multichannel systems

Syllabus:
Introduction to optical communication: Evolution of Light wave systems, system
components, Dispersion in fibers, fiber losses non-linear effects, Optical Transmitters and
Receivers: Transmitters basic concepts, LED's structures, Spectral distributions,
semiconductor lasers, Modulation, Transmitter design, PIN and APD diode structures,
Advanced Lightwave Systems: Homodyne and heterodyne detectors, Multichannel Systems.

Course Outcome:
Fundamentals, advantages and advances in optical communication system. Types, basic
properties and transmission characteristic of optical fibers. Knowledge of working and
analysis of optical amplifiers and important parts at the transmitter (Semiconductor
lasers/LEDs, modulators etc) as well as at the receiver sides (optical detector etc.) of the
optical communications system. Configuration and architecture of coherent optical
communication, advanced system techniques and nonlinear optical effects and their
applications.
References
1. G.P.Agrawal, "Fiber Optic Communication Systems", 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2010
2. John M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition
,Pearson Education 2009
3. G. Keiser, "Optical Fiber Communication Systems", 4th edition, Tata McGrawHill. Edition,
2010.
4. Djafar.K. Mynbaev Lowell and Scheiner, "Fiber Optic Communication Technology", Pearson
Education Asia, 2009.
5. F.J.H. Franz and V.K. Jain, "Optical Communication System", Narosa Publishing House,
New Delhi 2000

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 22 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC6355 Title: ADVANCED OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I
INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL COMMUNICATION
Evolution of Light wave systems, System components, Optical fibers 10 25
- Step Index & Graded index - Mode theory, Fiber modes
Dispersion in fibers, Limitations due to dispersion - - Fiber Losses
Non-linear effects
Module II
OPTICAL TRANSMITTERS AND RECEIVERS
Transmitters basic concepts - LED's structures - Spectral
Distribution - Semiconductor lasers -Threshold conditions Single 5 12
mode semiconductor laser Laser Characteristics- Modulation

FIRST INTERNAL TEST


Transmitter design Receivers basic Concepts - PIN and APD diodes
structures- Photo detector Noise- Receiver sensitivity BER and 5 13
quantum limit - Receiver design.
Module III:
ADVANCED LIGHTWAVE SYSTEMS
Homodyne and heterodyne detectors Advanced modulation formats
- Demodulation schemes - BER in synchronous receivers - Sensitivity
degradation Systems with the DBPSK format and DQPSK System 11 25
employing Orthogonal FDM

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV
MULTICHANNEL SYSTEMS
WDM systems, multiple access networks - WDM Components -
XPM based and FWM based wavelength converters Fiber based
optical regenerator - Hetero wavelength linear crosstalk and homo 11 25
wavelength Linear Crosstalk TDM - Code-division multiplexing

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 23 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6351 Credits: 0-2-0: 2 Year :2015


Course Title: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:
To give students an insight into the steps to be followed in doing a research
To provide an idea about technical report writing

Syllabus:
Introduction to Research Methodology; Formulating a Research Problem; Conceptualising a
research design; Methods of Data Collection; Processing and Analysis of Data; Writing a
Research Report; Ethical issues related to publishing; A study of the use of the following tools
like Matlab and LaTeX.

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have clear understanding about the steps
to be followed in doing research.

Text Books:
1. Ranjit Kumar, Research Methodology: A Step-by-step Guide for Beginners,
Pearson, Second Edition
2. Kothari, C.R, Research Methodology : Methods and Techniques, New age
International publishers

Reference Books:

1. Sanjit K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing Laboratory Using MATLAB , Mcgraw-


Hill College, ISBN-13: 978-0073108582
2. Rudra Pratap, Getting Started with MATLAB: Version 6: A Quick Introduction for
Scientists and Engineers, 2001, Oxford University Press
3. Wayne Goddard and Stuart Melville, Research Methodology : An Introduction, 2nd
Edition, 2001, Juta & Co Ltd
Internal continuous assessment: 100 marks

Internal continuous assessment :


Test 1- 30 marks
Test 2- 30 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-40 marks
Total-100marks

Page 24 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC6351 Title: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
(L-T-P): 0-2-0 Credits :2
% marks
Contact
Module Internal
hours
exam
Module I: Research Methodology: An Introduction
Meaning of Research, Objectives of Research, Motivation in
Research, Applications of Research, Definition of Research,
Characteristics of Research, Types of Research, Steps in Research
Process 7 25
Formulating a Research Problem
Reviewing the Literature, Formulating a Research Problem,
Identifying Variables, Constructing Hypothesis
Module II: Conceptualising a research design
Definition of a Research Design, Need for Research Design, Functions of Research
Design, Features of a Good Design
Methods of Data Collection 7 25
Collection of Primary Data, Observation Method, Interview Method, Collection of
Data through Questionnaires, Collection of Data through Schedules
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Module III: Processing and Analysis of Data
Processing Operations, Elements/Types of Analysis, Statistics in Research,
Measures of Central Tendency, Measures of Dispersion, Measures of Asymmetry
(Skewness)
7 25
Writing a Research Report
Research writing in general, Referencing, Writing a Bibliography, Developing an
outline
Writing about a variable
Module IV:
Interpretation of Data and Paper Writing Layout of a Research Paper, Journals in
Computer Science, Impact factor of Journals, When and where to publish ?
Ethical issues related to publishing, Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism 7 25
A study of the use of the following tools
Matlab / Simulink
LaTeX/ MS Office
SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Page 25 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6361 Credits: 0-0-2: 2 Year :2015


Course Title: SEMINAR
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
This course is intended for
Increasing the breadth of knowledge
Enhancing the ability of self study
Improving presentation and communication skills
Augmenting the skill of Technical Report Writing.

Students have to register for the seminar and select a topic in consultation with any faculty
member offering courses for the programme. A detailed write-up on the topic of the seminar
is to be prepared in the prescribed format given by the Department. The seminar shall be of
30 minutes duration and a committee with the Head of the department as the chairman and
two faculty members from the department as members shall evaluate the seminar based on
the coverage of the topic, presentation and ability to answer the questions put forward by the
committee

Course outcome:
The students who successfully complete this course will have the capability to
Understand technical articles in peer reviewed journals and conferences;
Analyze and present advanced topics in signal processing.

Internal continuous assessment: 100 marks

Subject Relevance : 10 marks

Concept/ Knowledge in the topic : 20 marks

Presentation : 40 marks

Report : 30 marks

Total marks : 100 marks

Page 26 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6371 Credits: 0-0-2: 1 Year :2015


Course Title: SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB
Pre-requisites: Nil
Course Objective:

This course enables the students to explore the concepts of designing and implementing
various systems using DSP kits, Simulate and study various systems using MATLAB.

Syllabus:

Development Environment
Familiarization to DSP project development stages. Study of the features of the processor
used. Development environment.
High Level Language Project Development
Developing projects in a high level language and cross-compiling. Familiarization with the
debugging facilities of the IDE. Profiling. Optimizations in C.
Assembly Optimizations
Assembly coding. Function calling conventions. Calling assembly functions from C.
Optimization by coding core modules in assembly.
Memory Map
Understand the memory map of the processor. Optimizations by using internal memory.
Real Time Processing.
Using the ADC and DAC for signal acquisition and play back. Real time filtering.

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability to practically
implement the DSP algorithms on DSP processor.

Reference

1. Jones D. DSP Laboratory with TI TMS320C54x [Connexions Web site]. January 22,
2004. Available at: http://cnx.rice.edu/content/col10078/1.2/
2. The manuals of the IDE and Processor being used.

Internal Continuous Assessment: 100 marks

Mid Term Internal Test 40 Marks


Laboratory Experiments & Viva Voce 10 Marks
Final Internal Test 50 Marks
Total 100 Marks

Page 27 of 78
Kerala Technological University

SECOND SEMESTER

Course No: 09EC6312 Credits: 3-1-0: 4 Year :2015


Course Title: ESTIMATION AND DETECTION THEORY
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
To introduce Detection theory and impart knowledge in both single observation and
multiple observations.
To introduce the need of Estimation theory and different methods for estimation
To understand the different properties of estimators
To introduce state estimation

Syllabus:
Detection theory : Binary decisions - Single observation- Multiple observations-Vector
observations Estimation theory Methods, Properties of estimators,State estimation:
Prediction; Kalman filter, Sufficient statistics and statistical estimation of parameters

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability to
understand the fundamental concepts of estimation and detection theory.

Reference books:
1. James L. Melsa and David L. Cohn, Decision and Estimation Theory, McGraw Hill.
2. Dimitri Kazakos, P. Papantoni Kazakos, Detection and Estimation, Computer Science
Press.
3. Steven M. Kay, Statistical Signal Processing: Vol. 1: Estimation Theory, Vol. 2:
Detection Theory, Prentice Hall Inc.

4. Harry L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation and Modulation Theory, Part 1,


John Wiley & Sons Inc.
5. Jerry M. Mendel, Lessons in Estimation Theory for Signal Processing,
Communication and Control, Prentice Hall Inc.
6. Sophocles J. Orfanidis, Optimum Signal Processing, 2 nd edn., McGraw Hill.
7. Monson H. Hayes, Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modelling, John
Wiley & Sons Inc.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 28 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No:09EC6312 Title: ESTIMATION AND DETECTION THEORY
(L-T-P): 3-1-0 Credits :4
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Detection theory : Binary decisions - Single observation. Maximum
likelihood decision criterion; Neymann-Pearson criterion; Probability
of error criterion; Bayes risk criterion; Minimax criterion; Robust 14 25
detection; Receiver operating characteristics.

Module II:
Detection theory: Binary decisions - Multiple observations; 7 13
Vector observations; The general Gaussian problem;
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Waveform observation in additive Gaussian noise; The integrating
7 12
optimum receiver; Matched filter receiver.
Module III:
Estimation theory
a) Methods: Maximum likelihood estimation; Bayes cost method
Bayes estimation criterion - Mean square error criterion; Uniform
cost function; absolute value cost function; Linear minimum variance
- Least squares method; Estimation in the presence of Gaussian noise 14 25
- Linear observation; Non-linear estimation.

b) Properties of estimators : Bias, Efficiency, Cramer Rao bound


Asymptotic properties; Sensitivity and error analysis

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
a)State estimation: Prediction; Kalman filter.

b)Sufficient statistics and statistical estimation of parameters:


14 25
Concept of sufficient statistics; Exponential families of distributions;
Exponential families and Maximum likelihood estimation; Uniformly
minimum variance unbiased estimation.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 29 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6322 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objectives:

To familiarize with different channel models


To impart knowledge in the concept of fading and diversity.
To familiarize with different techniques in cellular communication
To introduce the concept of spread spectrum and CDMA
To impart knowledge in fading channel capacity in different systems

Syllabus

Fading and Diversity-Wireless Channel Models- Diversity- performance analysis for


Rayleigh fading channels. Cellular Communication-Multiple Access - Spatial reuse- Co-
channel interference Analysis - Hand over Analysis- Erlang Capacity Analysis-Spread
spectrum and CDMA-Rake Receiver- Fading Channel Capacity: Multiple Input Multiple
output (MIMO) systems- Cellular Wireless Communication Standards - GSM - IS 95 CDMA
- 3G systems

Course Outcome
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to
understand the fundamental concepts of wireless communications.

Text Books
1. Andrea Goldsmith, Wireless Communications, Cambridge University press.
2. Simon Haykin and Michael Moher, Modern Wireless Communications, Person
Education.

Reference Books

1. T.S. Rappaport, Wireless Communication, principles & practice, PHI, 2001.


2. G.L Stuber, Principles of Mobile Communications, 2nd edition, Kluwer Academic
Publishers.
3. Kamilo Feher, 'Wireless digital communication', PHI, 1995.
4. R.L Peterson, R.E. Ziemer and David E. Borth, Introduction to Spread Spectrum
Communication, Pearson Education
5. A.J.Viterbi, CDMA- Principles of Spread Spectrum, Addison Wesley, 1995

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 30 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC6322 Title: WIRELESS COMMUNICATION


(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits : 3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Fading and Diversity: Wireless Channel Models- path loss and
shadowing models- statistical fading models- Narrow band and
wideband Fading models- Review of performance of digital
modulation schemes over wireless channels-Diversity- Repetition
11 25
coding and Time Diversity- Frequency and Space Diversity- Receive
Diversity - Concept of diversity branches and signal paths-
Combining methods- Selective diversity combining - Switched
combining-maximal ratio combining- Equal gain combining-
performance analysis for Rayleigh fading channels.
Module II:
Cellular Communication: Cellular Networks- Multiple Access:
5 13
FDM/TDM/FDMA/TDMA- Spatial reuse- Co-channel interference
Analysis
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Hand over Analysis- Erlang Capacity Analysis- Spectral efficiency
and Grade of Service - Improving capacity - Cell splitting and 4 12
sectorization.
Module III:
Spread spectrum and CDMA: Motivation- Direct sequence spread
spectrum- Frequency Hopping systems- Time Hopping.- Anti-
jamming - Pseudo Random (PN) sequence- Maximal length
sequences - Gold sequences - Generation of PN sequences - Diversity
11 25
in DS-SS systems- Rake Receiver- Performance analysis. Spread
Spectrum Multiple Access - CDMA Systems- Interference Analysis
for Broadcast and Multiple Access Channels- Capacity of cellular
CDMA networks- Reverse link power control- Hard and Soft hand
off strategies
SECOND INTERNAL TEST
Module IV:
Fading Channel Capacity: Capacity of Wireless Channels - Capacity
of flat and frequency selective fading channels-Multiple Input
Multiple output (MIMO) systems- Narrow band multiple antenna
system model- Parallel Decomposition of MIMO Channels- Capacity
11 25
of MIMO Channels. Cellular Wireless Communication Standards -
Second generation cellular systems: GSM specifications and Air
Interface - specifications, IS 95 CDMA - 3G systems: UMTS &
CDMA 2000 standards and specifications

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 31 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6332 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: CODING THEORY
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:

Provides a thorough understanding of the theory and design of Channel codes for error
control. The course begins with an introduction to the basic Mathematical concepts and
develops systematically through Linear block codes to the Convolutional Codes.

Syllabus:
Finite Field Arithmetic - Groups- Rings- Fields- Arithmetic of Galois Field- Polynomial
Rings- Minimal polynomial and conjugates- Vector space- Linear Block Codes - Error
detection and correction - Hamming codesPerfect and Quasi-perfect codes- Extended codes-
Hadamard codes - Cyclic Codes - Generator and Parity check matrices - Cyclic encoders-
Error detection & correction- - BCH codes- Decoding of BCH codes-The BerlekampMassey
decoding algorithm. Reed Solomon codes- Convolutional Codes - Generator matrices and
encoding- state, tree and trellis diagram- Transfer function - Maximum Likelihood decoding
Hard versus Soft decision decodingThe Viterbi Algorithm- Soft Decision and Iterative
Decoding - Soft decision Viterbi algorithm- Two way APP decoding- Low density parity
check codes- Turbo codes- Turbo decoding

Course Outcome:

Students will learn both the theory and application of error-correcting codes.

References:

1. Shu Lin and Daniel. J. Costello Jr., Error Control Coding: Fundamentals and
applications, Prentice Hall Inc.
2. R.E. Blahut, Theory and Practice of Error Control Coding, MGH.
3. W.C. Huffman and Vera Pless, Fundamentals of Error correcting codes, Cambridge
University Press.
4. Rolf Johannesson, Kamil Sh. Zigangirov, Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding,
Universities Press (India) Ltd.
5. Sklar, Digital Communication, Pearson Education.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 32 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC6332 Title: CODING THEORY


(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Introduction to algebra: Groups Rings Fields Binary Field
arithmeticArithmetic of Galois Field Integer Ring Finite Field
based on Integer Ring Polynomial Rings Finite Field based on
10 25
Polynomial RingsPrimitive elements Construction and basic
properties of Finite Fields Computations using Galois Field
arithmetic Vector spaces Vector subspaces Linear independence.

Module II:
Linear Block Codes Matrix description of Linear Block codes
Minimum Distance of a Block code Error detecting and correcting 5 13
capabilities of a Block code - Standard Array and Syndrome
decoding.
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Hamming codes Perfect and Quasiperfect codes Extended codes
Hadamard codes. 5 12

Module III:
Cyclic Codes: Polynomial descriptionMinimal polynomial and
conjugates Generator and parityCheck matrices of cyclic codes
Encoding of cyclic codes Syndrome computation Error detection
11 25
decoding of cyclic codes Cyclic Hamming codes Binary Golay
codes BCH codesPerformance Decoding of BCH codes, Reed
Solomon codesEncoding and Decoding

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
Convolutional Coding: Structural propertiesEncoders for
convolutional coding State representation and the state diagram
The Tree diagram The Trellis diagram Transfer function of a
Convolutional code Systematic and Non systematic
Convolutional codes Catastrophic error propagation in
11 25
Convolutional codes Maximum likelihood decoding of
Convolutional codes Hard versus Soft decision decoding The
Viterbi Algorithm Sequential decoding Concept of interleaving
Block interleaving Convolutional interleaving Concatenated
codes Turbo codes Basic concepts Encoding with recursive
systematic codes.
END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 33 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6316 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING


Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:

The course focuses on multirate signal processing which is the basic to modern signal
processing. Topics include multirate signal processing material such as decimation,
interpolation, filter banks, polyphase filtering, advanced filtering structures and nonuniform
sampling and the cosine modulated filter banks

Syllabus
Fundamentals of Multirate Theory and filter banks; Poly phase representation; M-channel
perfect reconstruction filter banks; Perfect reconstruction (PR) filter banks; quantization
effects in filter banks; Cosine Modulated filter banks

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to
understand the fundamentals of Multi-rate systems and filter banks; design multi rate systems
and filter banks.

Text Books
1. P.P. Vaidyanathan. Multirate systems and filter banks, Prentice Hall. PTR. 1993.
2. N.J. Fliege. Multirate digital signal processing, John Wiley 1994.

Reference Books
1. Sanjit K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing: A computer based approach, McGraw Hill.
1998.
2. R.E. Crochiere. L. R., Multirate Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall. Inc.1983.
3. J.G. Proakis. D.G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing: Principles. Algorithms and
Applications, 3rd Edn. Prentice Hall India, 1999.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 34 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No:09EC6316 Title: MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Fundamentals of Multirate Theory: The sampling theorem
sampling at sub Nyquist rate Basic Formulations and schemes
Basic Multirate operations Decimation and Interpolation Digital
Filter Banks DFT Filter Bank Identities Polyphase representation 11 25
Maximally decimated filter banks: Polyphase representation
Errors in the QMF bank Perfect Reconstruction (PR) QMF Bank
Design of an alias free QMF Bank

Module II:
Mchannel perfect reconstruction filter banks: Uniform band and non 5 13
uniform filter bank tree structured filter bank -
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Errors created by filter bank system., Polyphase representation
perfect reconstruction systems 5 12

Module III:
Perfect reconstruction (PR) filter banks: Paraunitary PR Filter
Banks Filter Bank Properties induced by paraunitarity Two
channel FIR paraunitary QMF Bank Linear phase PR Filter banks
11 25
Necessary conditions for Linear phase property
Quantization Effects: Types of quantization effects in filter banks.
coefficient sensitivity effects, dynamic range and scaling.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
Cosine Modulated filter banks: Cosine Modulated pseudo QMF
Bank Alas cancellation phase Phase distortion Closed form 10 25
expression Polyphase structure PR Systems.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 35 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6326 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: SPECTRUM ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

To introduce Power spectral density


To impart knowledge in different methods of PSD estimation both in Non-parametric &
parametric methods
To introduce the filter bank methods

Syllabus:

Power Spectral Density, PSD Estimation - Non-parametric methods, Parametric methods,


Parametric method for line spectra, Filter bank methods

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to
understand the fundamental concepts of spectrum analysis techniques.

References:

1. Introduction to Spectral Analysis, Stoica , R.L. Moses, Prentice Hall


2. Modern Spectral Estimation Theory & Applications, Kay SM, Prentice Hall

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks

Internal continuous assessment :


Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 36 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No:09EC6326 Title: SPECTRUM ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Power Spectral Density: Energy spectral density of deterministic
signals, Power spectral density of random signals, Properties of
10 25
PSD

Module II:
PSD Estimation - Non-parametric methods: Estimation of PSD from
5 13
finite data, Non-parametric methods : Periodogram properties, bias
and variance analysis, Blackman-Tuckey method
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Window design considerations, time-bandwidth product and
resolution - variance trade-offs in window design, Refined
5 12
periodogram methods : Bartlet method, Welch method.

Module III:
PSD Estimation - Parametric methods: Parametric method for
rational spectra:- Covariance structure of ARMA process, AR
signals, Yule-Walker method, Least square method, Levinson-
Durbin Algorithm, MA signals, Modified Yule-Walker method,
Two stage least square method, Burg method for AR parameter
estimation. 12 25

Parametric method for line spectra: Models of sinusoidal signals in


noise, Non-linear least squares method, Higher order Yule-Walker
method, MUSIC and Pisayenko methods, Min-norm method,
SPIRIT method

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
Filter bank methods: Filter bank interpretation of periodogram,
Slepia base-band filters, refined filter bank method for higher
10 25
resolution spectral analysis, Capon method, Introduction to higher
order spectra.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 37 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6336 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: SPREAD SPECTRUM AND CDMA SYSTEMS
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
Upon completion of this course, students will have deep insight on spread spectrum
communication systems. The course imparts knowledge about principle of spread spectrum
and use of orthogonal codes, performance of CDMA systems under AWGN and fading
channels, use of CDMA systems in cellular communication and important CDMA
standards.

Syllabus:
Direct sequence spread spectrum, frequency-hop spread spectrum system, Spreading
sequences, Synchronization and Tracking. Performance of spread spectrum system in
jamming, AWGN and fading environments. Capacity and Coverage of cellular systems.
Multuserdetection and interference cancellation. CDMA cellular system standards

Course Outcome:
The student should be able to:
Understand the architecture and elements of a spread-spectrum system and a CDMA
system
Understand the characteristics of spread-spectrum signal waveforms
Understand the methods for spread-spectrum and CDMA system performance analysis
Apply their knowledge of Spread Spectrum technology to CDMA and wireless
systems.
Capture most recent development in CDMA and its role in 3G wireless systems

Reference books:
1. R. L. Peterson, R. Ziemer and D. Borth, Introduction to Spread Spectrum
Communications, Prentice Hall.
2. A. J. Viterbi, CDMA Principles of Spread Spectrum Communications,
AddisonWesley.
3. Vijay K. Garg, Kenneth Smolik, Joseph E. Wilkes, Applications of CDMA in
Wireless/Personal Communications, Prentice Hall.
4. S. Verdu, Multiuser Detection , Cambridge University Press.
5. M. K. Simon, J. K. Omura, R. A. Scholts and B. K. Levitt, Spread Spectrum
Communications Handbook, McGraw Hill.
6. Cooper and McGillem, Modern Communications and Spread Spectrum McGraw Hill.
7. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, McGraw Hill, 4th ed.
8. S. Glisic and B. Vucetic, Spread Spectrum CDMA Systems for Wireless
Communications, Artech House,

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 38 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC6336 Title: SPREAD SPECTRUM AND CDMA SYSTEMS


(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Introduction to spread spectrum communication, pulse noise
jamming, low probability of detection, direct sequence spread
spectrum, frequencyhopping and timehopping spread spectrum
systems, correlation functions, spreading sequences
11 25
maximallength sequences, gold codes, Walsh orthogonal codes
properties and generation of sequences Synchronization and
Tracking: delay lock and taudither loops, coarse synchronization
principles of serial search and match filter techniques.

Module II:
Performance of spread spectrum system under AWGN, multiuser
Interference, jamming and narrow band interferences Low probability 5 12
of intercept methods

FIRST INTERNAL TEST


Optimum intercept receiver for direct sequence spread spectrum,
Error probability of DSCDMA system under AWGN and fading
5 13
channels, RAKE receiver.

Module III:
Basics of spread spectrum multiple access in cellular environments,
reverse Link power control, multiple cell pilot tracking, soft and
hard handoffs, cell coverage issues with hard and soft handoff,
spread spectrum multiple access outage, outage with imperfect
power control, Erlang capacity of forward and reverse links. 11 25
Multiuser Detection MF detector, decorrelating detector,
MMSE detector. Interference Cancellation: successive,
Parallel Interference Cancellation, performance analysis of
multiuser detectors and interference cancellers.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
General aspects of CDMA cellular systems, IS95 standard,
Downlink and uplink, Evolution to Third Generation systems, 10 25
WCDMA and CDMA2000 standards, Principles of Multicarrier
communication, MCCDMA and MCDSCDMA.
END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 39 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6346 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: MARKOV MODELING AND QUEUEING THEORY
Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:
This course is a thorough treatment of Markov chains and Markov models of systems. It also
deals with the essential queuing theory and application of Markov models in the analysis of
queuing networks.

Syllabus
Stochastic Processes: Renewal Processes - Reward and Cost Models, Poisson Process; Point
Processes; Regenerative Processes; Markov Models: Discrete Time Markov Chain;
Continuous Time Markov Chain - PureJump Continuous-Time Chains, Regular Chains, Birth
and Death Process, Semi-Markov Processes; Single Class & Multi-class Queuing Networks:
Open queuing networks; Closed queuing networks; Mean value analysis; Multiclass traffic
model; Time Delays and Blocking in Queuing Networks: Time delays in single server queue;
Time delays in networks of queues; Types of Blocking; Two finite queues in a closed
network; Aggregating Markovian states.

Course Outcome:
The student should be able to do the following:
construct simple Markov chain models in discrete and continuous time and describe their
asymptotic properties and behaviour, in particular the Poisson process
model simple queueing systems with birth and death processes and calculate theoretical
quantities in these models such as expected queueing time and queue length.
Determine whether or not a Markov model is applicable to a given network performance
calculation.
Describe and assess the differences between the Markov and M/G/1 queuing models.
Construct or select a model and use it to analyse the performance of various protocols,
technologies and telecommunication networks.
Design optimal topologies for telecommunication networks.

Reference
1. Ronald W. Wolff, Stochastic Modeling and The Theory of Queues, PrenticeHall
International.
2. Peter G. Harrison and Naresh M. Patel, Performance Modeling of Communication
Networks and Computer Architectures, AddisonWesley.
3. Gary N. Higginbottom, Performance Evaluation of Communication Networks,
Artech House.
4. Anurag Kumar, D. Manjunath, and Joy Kuri, Communication Networking: An
Analytical Approach, Morgan Kaufman Publ.
5. D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks, Prentice Hall of India.
6. Ross, K.W., Multiservice Loss Models for Broadband Telecommunication
Networks, SpringerVerlag.
7. Walrand, J., An Introduction to Queueing Networks, Prentice Hall.
8. Cinlar, E., Introduction to Stochastic processes, Prentice Hall, 1975.
Page 40 of 78
Kerala Technological University

9. Karlin, S. and Taylor, H., A First course in Stochastic Processes, 2nd edition
Academic press, 1975.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC6346 Title: MARKOV MODELING AND QUEUEING THEORY
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam

Module1
Stochastic Processes: Renewal Processes Reward and Cost Models,
10 25
Poisson Process; Point Processes; Regenerative Processes; Renewal
Theorems.

Module 2
Markov Models: Discrete Time Markov Chain Transition
5 12
Probabilities, Communication Classes, Irreducible Chains;
Continuous Time Markov Chain
FIRST INTERNAL TEST

PureJump ContinuousTime Chains, Regular Chains, Birth and Death


5 13
Process, SemiMarkov Processes.
Module 3
Single Class & Multiclass Queuing Networks: Simple Markovian
queues; M/G/1 queue; G/G/1 queue; Open queuing networks; Closed 11 25
queuing networks; Mean value analysis; Multiclass traffic model;
Service time distributions; BCMP networks; Priority systems.
SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module 4
Time Delays and Blocking in Queuing Networks: Time delays in
single server queue; Time delays in networks of queues; Types of 11 25
Blocking; Two finite queues in a closed network; Aggregating
Markovian states.
END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 41 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6356 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: COMMUNICATION SWITCHING AND MULTIPLEXING
Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:
The purpose of this course is to provide in-depth treatment on methods and techniques in
various switching and multiplexing schemes used in telecommunication networks

Syllabus:
Switching: Time and Space division switching, Generalized circuit switching, Fast packet
switching, Self routing Banyan networks, Types of blocking for a packet switch; Traffic
analysis: lost calls cleared, Erlang-B formula, lost calls returning and lost calls held models,
delay systems, Erlang-C formula; Blocking probability: Analysis of single stage and
multistage networks, Lee approximation, Jacobaeus method; Multiplexing: Stream sessions
in packet networks, Elastic transfers in packet networks - adaptive bandwidth sharing;
Statistical multiplexing: Effective Bandwidth approach for Admission control, Models for
traffic flow in packet networks, long range dependence and self similar processes.

Course Outcome:
The student will be able to:
understand the basic principles of switching and multiplexing schemes;
understand the concept of various switching and multiplexing schemes within the
telecommunication networks;
understand the conflicting issues and resolution techniques in switching and
multiplexing scheme.

References:
1. A. Kumar, D. Manjunath, J. Kuri, Communication Networking: An Analytical
Approach, Morgan Kaufman Publishers.
2. Hui, J.Y., Switching and Traffic Theory for Integrated Broadband Networks, Kluwer.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks

Internal continuous assessment :


Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 42 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC6356 Title: COMMUNICATION SWITCHING AND MULTIPLEXING
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits : 3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I
Switching: Performance and architectural issues: Packet switches
Circuit switches. Time and Space division switching Point to point
circuit switching multistage switching network Paulls matix for
11 25
representing connections Strict sense non blocking Clos network.
Generalized circuit switching Cross Point Complexity (CPC) Fast
packet switching Self routing Banyan networks Combinatorial
limitations of Banyan networks.
Module II
Types of blocking for a packet switch Output conflicts HOL
blocking. Traffic analysis: Traffic measurements, arrival
distributions, Poisson process, holding/service time distributions, loss 5 13
systems, lost calls cleared ErlangB formula, lost calls returning
and lost calls held models, lost calls cleared and held models with
finite sources, delay systems, Littles theorem, ErlangC formula ,
M/G/1 model.
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Blocking probability: Analysis of single stage and multistage
networks Blocking for Unique path routing Alternate path
5 12
routing The Lee approximation The Jacobaeus method.

Module III
Multiplexing: Network performance and source characterization;
Stream sessions in packet networks deterministic analysis, 10 25
stochastic analysis, circuit multiplexed networks. Elastic transfers
in packet networks-adaptive bandwidth sharing.
SECOND INTERNAL TEST
Module IV
Statistical multiplexing: blocking analysis in circuit multiplexed
networks, with single rate or Multirate traffic Models for
performance analysis of integrated packet networks; deterministic 11 25
models, worst case analysis; stochastic models, large deviations
analysis. The effective Bandwidth approach for Admission control
Models for traffic flow in packet networks, long range
dependence and self similar processes.
END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 43 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6366 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: WAVELETS THEORY


Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:
This course provides the students with a thorough foundation of Wavelet theory, construction
of wavelets and their applications in signal analysis.

Syllabus:
Fourier and Sampling Theory: Generalized Fourier theory, Fourier transform, Short-
time(windowed) Fourier transform, Time-frequency analysis, Fundamental notions of the
theory of sampling.Theory of Frames-Definition of frames, Geometrical considerations and
the general notion of a frame windowed Fourier frames.Wavelets: The basic functions,
Specifications, Admissibility conditions, Continuous wavelet transform (CWT), Discrete
wavelet transform (DWT).The multiresolution analysis (MRA) of L2 (R) - Regularity and
selection of wavelets - Construction of wavelets -Wavelet transform: Wavelet decomposition
and reconstruction of functions in L2 (R). Fast wavelet transform algorithms - Relation to
filter banks, Wavelet packets Construction of wavelets Biorthogonality and biorthogonal
basis, Biorthogonal system of wavelets - construction, The Lifting scheme.

Course Outcome:
The students will be able to:
understand the fundamentals of wavelet theory
familiar with the most commonly used wavelets (e.g Daubechies wavelets)
understand how to design perfect reconstruction filter banks
understand the link between design of filter banks and construction of discrete and
continuous-time bases for efficient signal analysis.
Enter into various concrete aspects of functional analysis which has interest for other
parts of mathematics.
Apply the fundamental aspects of the subject in the development of tools and
techniques which may be used in signal theory, communication techniques, graphical
algorithms and numerical analysis.

References:
1. Stephen G. Mallat, A wavelet tour of signal processing 2nd Edition Academic Press.
2. M. Vetterli, J. Kovacevic, Wavelets and subband coding Prentice Hall Inc.
3. Gilbert Strang and Truong Q. Nguyen, Wavelets and filter banks 2nd Edition
Wellesley Cambridge Press.
4. Gerald Kaiser, A friendly guide to wavelets Birkhauser/Springer International Edition.
5. L. Prasad and S. S. Iyengar, Wavelet analysis with applications to image processing
CRC Press.
6. J. C. Goswami and A. K. Chan, Fundamentals of wavelets: Theory, Algorithms and
Applications WileyInterscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons.
7. Mark A. Pinsky, Introduction to Fourier Analysis and Wavelets Brooks/Cole Series in
Advanced Mathematics.
8. Christian Blatter, Wavelets: A primer A. K. Peters, Massachusetts.
Page 44 of 78
Kerala Technological University

9. M. Holschneider, Wavelets: An analysis tool Oxford Science Publications.


10. R. M. Rao and A. Bopardikar, Wavelet transforms: Introduction to theory and
applications AddisonWesley.
11. Ingrid Daubechies, Ten lectures on wavelets SIAM.
12. H. L. Resnikoff and R. O. Wells, Jr., Wavelet analysis: The scalable structure of
information

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 45 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC6366
Title: WAVELETS THEORY
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module 1
Fourier and Sampling Theory, Generalized Fourier theory, Fourier
transform, Short time (windowed) Fourier transform,
Timefrequency analysis, Fundamental notions of the theory of 11 25
sampling. Theory of Frames: Bases, Resolution of unity, Definition
of frames, Geometrical considerations and the general notion of a
frame, Frame projector, Example windowed Fourier frames.
Module II
Wavelets: The basic functions, Specifications, Admissibility
conditions, Continuous wavelet transform (CWT), Discrete wavelet
5 12
transform (DWT). The multiresolution analysis , MRA axioms,
Construction of an MRA from scaling functions The dilation
equation and the wavelet equation,
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Compactly supported orthonormal wavelet bases Necessary and
sufficient conditions for orthonormality. Regularity and selection of
6 13
wavelets: Smoothness and approximationorder Analysis in
Soboleve space, Criteria for wavelet selection with examples
Module III
Splines, Cardinal Bspline MRA, Subband filtering schemes,
Compactly supported orthonormal wavelet bases. Wavelet
2
decomposition and reconstruction of functions in L ( ). Fast wavelet 10 25
transform algorithms Relation to filter banks, Wavelet packets
Representation of functions, Selection of basis.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV
Biorthogonality and biorthogonal basis, Biorthogonal system of 10 25
wavelets construction, The Lifting scheme.
END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 46 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6376 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS


Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
This subject is framed to set the required background in wireless communication.
Being the backbone for all the IT based developments; Wireless Sensor Network has
seen tremendous growth in the past decade. There are new techniques and protocols
emerging from time-to-time to cater the requirements of this rapidly growing area.
The subject will cover fundamentals and advanced topics of Wireless Sensor
Networks.
The treatment would look at current and upcoming wireless sensor networks,
protocols for various automation applications.

Syllabus:
Issues in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Sensor Networks Comparison with Adhoc wireless
networks-Challenges for WSNs, Enabling Technologies for Wireless Sensor Networks,
Sensor Network Architecture, Gateway Concepts, MAC Protocols MAC Protocols for Sensor
Networks, Routing Gossiping and Agent based Unicast Forwarding, Energy Efficient
Unicast-Broadcast and Multicast Geographic Routing.

Course Outcome:
After successful completion of the course, students should be able to:
Understand the different wireless sensor network basics and protocols .
Understand the basics of wireless sensor network development.

Text Books:
1. Holger Karl and Andreas Wiilig, Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor
Networks John Wiley & Sons Limited 2008.
2. I.F .Akyildiz and Weillian, A Survey on Sensor Networks,IEEE Communication
Magazine, August 2007.

References:
1. Wilson , Sensor Technology hand book, Elsevier publications 2005.
2. Anna Hac Wireless Sensor Networks Design, John Wiley& Sons Limited
Publications 2003.
3. C.Siva Ram Murthy and B.S.Manoj Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Pearson Edition
2005.

In addition, manufacturers Device data sheets, IEEE publications and application


notes are to be referred to get practical and application oriented information

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks
Page 47 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC6376 Title: WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I
Issues in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Medium Acces Scheme-
Routing-Multicasting-Transport Layer Protocols-Self Organization-
Security-Addressing and Service Discovery Energy management-
Scalability-Deployment Considerations, Ad Hoc Wireless Internet.
Sensor Networks Comparison with Adhoc wireless networks-
12 25
Challenges for WSNs - Difference between sensor networks and
Traditional sensor networks Types of Applications Enabling
Technologies for Wireless Sensor Networks Single Node
Architectures Hardware Components Energy Consumption of
Sensor Nodes, Issues in Designing a Multicast Routing Protocol. OS
for WSN.
Module II
ARCHITECTURES
Sensor Network Architecture Data Dissemination-Flooding and 4 12
Gossiping-Data gathering Sensor Network Scenarios Optimization
Goals and Figures of Merit.
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Design Principles for WSNs- Gateway Concepts Need for gateway
WSN to Internet Communication Internet to WSN 5 13
Communication WSN Tunneling.
Module III
NETWORKING OF SENSORS
MAC Protocols MAC Protocols for Sensor Networks -Location
Discovery-Quality of Sensor Networks-Evolving Standards-Other 10 25
Issues- Low duty cycle and wake up concepts- The IEEE 802.15.4
MAC Protocols Energy Efficiency -Geographic Routing Mobile
nodes.
SECOND INTERNAL TEST
Module IV
INFRASTRUCTURE ESTABLISHMENT
Routing Gossiping and Agent based Unicast Forwarding-Energy
Efficient Unicast-Broadcast and Multicast Geographic Routing- 11 25
Mobile nodes-Security-Application Specific Support - Target
detection and tracking-Contour/ edge detection-Field Sampling.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 48 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6386 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: SYSTEM DESIGN USING EMBEDDED PROCESSORS


Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:
The objective is to impart the concepts and architecture of Embedded systems and to make
the students capable of designing Embedded systems. To achieve this, the architecture and
programming of Industry popular 32-bit Microcontroller, ARM Cortex is covered in detail.

Syllabus:
Embedded Concepts, Architecture of embedded systems, ARM Architecture, Cortex-M3
Basics, Exceptions, Instruction Sets, NVIC, Interrupt Behaviour, Cortex-M3/M4
Programming, Exception Programming, Memory Protection Unit and other Cortex-M3
features, STM32L15xxx ARM Cortex M3/M4 Microcontroller Memory and Peripherals,
Development & Debugging Tools.

Course Outcome:

After successful completion of the course, students should be able to:

Understand the Embedded Concepts and Architecture of Embedded Systems


Understand the architecture and programming of Industry standard 32-bit popular
ARM Cortex Microcontroller
Select a proper Microcontroller for a particular application
Understand the usage of the development and debugging tools.

Text Books:
1. The Definitive Guide to the ARM Cortex-M3, Joseph Yiu, Second Edition, Elsevier
Inc. 2010.
2. Embedded/Real Time Systems Concepts, Design and Programming Black Book,
Prasad, KVK.
3. David Seal ARM Architecture Reference Manual, 2001 Addison Wesley, England;
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
4. Andrew N Sloss, Dominic Symes, Chris Wright, ARM System Developer's Guide -
Designing and Optimizing System Software, 2006, Elsevier.

References:
1. Steve Furber, ARM System-on-Chip Architecture, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education
2. Cortex-M series-ARM Reference Manual
3. Cortex-M3 Technical Reference Manual (TRM)
4. STM32L152xx ARM Cortex M3 Microcontroller Reference Manual
5. ARM Company Ltd. ARM Architecture Reference Manual ARM DDI 0100E
6. ARM v7-M Architecture Reference Manual (ARM v7-M ARM).
7. Ajay Deshmukh, Microcontroller - Theory & Applications, Tata McGraw Hill
8. Arnold. S. Berger, Embedded Systems Design - An introduction to Processes, Tools
and Techniques, Easwer Press
9. Raj Kamal, Microcontroller - Architecture Programming Interfacing and System
Page 49 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Design 1st Edition, Pearson Education


10. P.S Manoharan, P.S. Kannan, Microcontroller based System Design, 1st Edition,
Scitech Publications

In addition, manufacturers Device data sheets and application notes are to be referred
to get practical and application oriented information.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC6386 Title: SYSTEM DESIGN USING EMBEDDED PROCESSORS
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I
Embedded Concepts
Introduction to embedded systems, Application Areas, Categories of
embedded systems, Overview of embedded system architecture,
Specialties of embedded systems, recent trends in embedded systems,
Architecture of embedded systems, Hardware architecture, Software
architecture, Application Software, Communication Software, 10 25
Development and debugging Tools.
ARM Architecture
Background of ARM Architecture, Architecture Versions, Processor
Naming, Instruction Set Development, Thumb-2 and Instruction Set
Architecture.

Module II
Overview of Cortex-M3
Cortex-M3 Basics: Registers, General Purpose Registers, Stack
Pointer, Link Register, Program Counter, Special Registers,
Operation Mode, Exceptions and Interrupts, Vector Tables, Stack
Memory Operations, Reset Sequence. 6 13
Instruction Sets: Assembly Basics, Instruction List, Instruction
Descriptions.
Cortex-M3 Implementation Overview: Pipeline, Block Diagram,
Bus Interfaces on Cortex-M3, I-Code Bus, D-Code Bus, System Bus,
External PPB and DAP Bus.
FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Page 50 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Exceptions: Exception Types, Priority, Vector Tables, Interrupt


Inputs and Pending Behavior, Fault Exceptions, Supervisor Call and
Pendable Service Call.
NVIC: Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller Overview, Basic
Interrupt Configuration, Software Interrupts and SYSTICK Timer. 6 12
Interrupt Behavior: Interrupt/Exception Sequences, Exception
Exits, Nested Interrupts, Tail-Chaining Interrupts, Late Arrivals and
Interrupt Latency

Module III
Cortex-M3/M4 Programming: Overview, Typical Development
Flow, Using C, CMSIS (Cortex Microcontroller Software Interface
Standard), Using Assembly.
Exception Programming: Using Interrupts, Exception/Interrupt 10 25
Handlers, Software Interrupts, Vector Table Relocation.
Memory Protection Unit and other Cortex-M3 features: MPU
Registers, Setting Up the MPU, Power Management, Multiprocessor
Communication.
SECOND INTERNAL TEST
Module IV
Cortex-M3/M4 Microcontroller
STM32L15xxx ARM Cortex M3/M4 Microcontroller: Memory
and Bus Architecture, Power Control, Reset and Clock Control.

STM32L15xxx Peripherals: GPIOs, System Configuration


10 25
Controller, NVIC, ADC, Comparators, GP Timers, USART.

Development & Debugging Tools:


Software and Hardware tools like Cross Assembler, Compiler,
Debugger, Simulator, In-Circuit Emulator (ICE), Logic Analyzer etc.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 51 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6396 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: SECURE COMMUNICATION


Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:

To introduce the basic concept encryption techniques


To familiarize with the concept of private key and public key crypto systems.
To introduce the concept of Elliptic curves

Syllabus:

Rings and fields Homomorphism- Euclidean domains - Unique Factorization Domains --


Basic encryption techniques -Private key and Public key crypto systems - Message
authentication and hash functions Digital signatures -Elliptic curves -ECDSA

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to
understand the fundamental concepts of secure communication.

Text Books
1. Douglas A. Stinson, Cryptography, Theory and Practice, 2nd edition, Chapman &
Hall, CRC Press Company, Washington
2. William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security, 3rd edition, Pearson
Education

Reference Books
1. Lawrence C. Washington, Elliptic Curves, Chapman & Hall, CRC Press Company,
Washington.
2. David S. Dummit, Richard M. Foote, Abstract Algebra, John Wiley & Sons
3. Evangelos Kranakis, Primality and Cryptography, John Wiley & Sons
4. Rainer A. Ruppel, Analysis and Design of Stream Ciphers, Springer Verlag

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 52 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC6396 Title: SECURE COMMUNICATION
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam

Module I:
Rings and fields - Homomorphism- Euclidean domains - Principal Ideal
Domains - Unique Factorization Domains -- Field extensions- Splitting 10 25
fields - Divisibility- Euler theorem - Chinese Remainder Theorem
Primality

Module II :
Basic encryption techniques - Concept of cryptanalysis - Shannon's 5 13
theory - Perfect secrecy - Block ciphers - Cryptographic algorithms
FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Features of DES - Stream ciphers - Pseudo random sequence generators


linear complexity - Non-linear combination of LFSRs - Boolean 5 12
functions.

Module III:
Private key and Public key crypto systems - One way functions - Discrete
log problem - Factorization problem - RSA encryption - Diffie Hellmann
11 25
key exchange - Message authentication and hash functions Digital
signatures - Secret sharing - features of visual cryptography - other
applications of cryptography

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
Elliptic curves - Basic theory - Weirstrass equation - Group law - Point at
Infinity -Elliptic curves over finite fields - Discrete logarithm problem on
11 25
EC - Elliptic curve cryptography - Diffie Hellmann key exchange over
EC - Elgamal encryption over EC ECDSA

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 53 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6362 Credits: 0-0-4: 2 Year : 2015


Course Title: MINI PROJECT
Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

To apply the concepts introduced in the courses to a moderately complex


communication and signal processing problems.
Syllabus:
The mini project work can be a design project, experimental project on any of the
topics in Communication engineering/ Signal processing area. The assessment of all the mini
projects should be done by a Committee consisting of three or four faculty members
specialized in the various fields of Communication engineering/ Signal processing. The
students will present their project work before the Committee. Each student group consisting
of maximum two members shall prepare and submit the project report to the Department
through respective guides. The head of the department will certify the reports and a copy of
the report will be kept in the Department Library.

Internal Continuous Assessment: 100 marks

Internal continuous assessment is in the form of evaluation, demonstration, presentation etc.


The assessment details are to be announced to the students, right at the beginning of the
semester by the teacher.

Attendance & Regularity 20 Marks


Evaluation I 30 Marks
Evaluation II 30 Marks
Assessment by Guide 20 Marks
Total 100 Marks

Page 54 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC6372 Credits: 0-0-2: 1 Year :2015


Course Title: ADVANCED COMMUNICATION LAB
Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

Upon completion, the students will


Be able to design enlisted experiments and implement using hardware
Acquire sufficient expertise in simulating these systems using MATLAB
Be able to design and implement self standing systems of their choice with
sufficient complexity.

Tools :
Numerical Computing Environments GNU Octave or MATLAB or any other
equivalent tool
Lab:
1. Implementation of digital modulation schemes BASK, BFSK, BPSK. Plot BER vs
Eb / N0. in AWGN channels.
2. Performance comparison of QPSK, DPSK, MSK & GMSK.
3. Communication over fading channels Rayleigh fading & Rician fading
channels.
4. Comparison of diversity combining techniques SC, EGC & MRC.
5. Simulation of CDMA systems.
6. Implementation of Matched filter, Correlation receiver & Equalizer.
7. Gram Schmidt Orthogonalization of waveforms.
8. Carrier recovery and bit synchronization.
9. Implementation of multicarrier communication.
10. Plotting Eye pattern.
11. Constellation diagram of various digital modulation schemes.
Mini project:
12. Mini project in the area of advanced communication/signal processing
Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have the ability to implement
major concepts introduced in advanced digital communication.
Internal Continuous Assessment: 100 marks

Mid Term Internal Test 40 Marks


Laboratory Experiments & Viva Voce 10 Marks
Final Internal Test 50 Marks
Total 100 Marks

Page 55 of 78
Kerala Technological University

THIRD SEMESTER

The student has to credit 2 theory subjects from the two groups of electives listed.

3 hours lecture per week


Course No: 09EC7317 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015
Course Title: SIGNAL COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objectives:
To familiarize with different coding techniques.
To introduce the concept of rate distortion theory.
To introduce different types of transforms
To familiarize with different data compression standards

Syllabus:
Review of Information Theory; Compression Techniques ; Huffman Coding; Arithmetic
coding, Run Length Coding, Dictionary Techniques; Rate distortion theory; Quantization;
vector quantization and structures for VQ; Mathematical Preliminaries for Transforms;
Data Compression standards; Speech Compression Standards; Audio Compression standards;
Image Compression standards; Video Compression Standards.

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have fundamental knowledge about
different coding schemes; rate distortion theory; various transforms and different
compression standards.

Text books
1.Khalid Sayood, Introduction to Data Compression, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.,
Second Edn, 2005.
2.David Salomon, Data Compression: The Complete Reference, Springer Publications, 4th
Edn., 2006.
3.Thomas M. Cover, Joy A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory," John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., 1991.

Reference books
1. Toby Berger, Rate Distortion Theory: A Mathematical Basis for Data Compression,
Prentice Hall, Inc., 1971.
2. K.R.Rao, P.C.Yip, The Transform and Data Compression Handbook, CRC Press.,
2001.
3. R.G.Gallager, Information Theory and Reliable Communication, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1968.
4. Ali N. Akansu, Richard A. Haddad, Multiresolution Signal Decomposition:
Transforms, Subbands and Wavelets, Academic Press., 1992
5. Martin Vetterli, Jelena Kovacevic, Wavelets and Subband Coding, Prentice Hall
Inc., 1995.

Page 56 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 57 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC7317 Title: SIGNAL COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I
Review of Information Theory: The discrete memoryless information
source - Kraft inequality; optimal codes Source coding theorem.
Compression Techniques - Lossless and Lossy Compression -
Mathematical Preliminaries for Lossless Compression -Huffman
Coding - Optimality of Huffman codes - Extended Huffman Coding 10 25
Adaptive Huffman Coding - Arithmetic Coding - Adaptive
Arithmetic coding, Run Length Coding, Dictionary Techniques -
Lempel-Ziv coding, Applications - Predictive Coding - Prediction
with Partial Match Burrows Wheeler Transform, Dynamic Markov
Compression.
Module II
Rate distortion theory: Rate distortion function R(D),Properties of
R(D); Calculation of R(D) for the binary source and the Gaussian 5 13
source, Rate distortion theorem, Converse of the Rate distortion
theorem
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Quantization Uniform & Non-uniform - optimal and adaptive
quantization, vector quantization and structures for VQ, Optimality
5 12
conditions for VQ, Predictive Coding - Differential Encoding
Schemes
Module III
Mathematical Preliminaries for Transforms, Karhunen Loeve
Transform, Discrete Cosine and Sine Transforms, Discrete Walsh
11 25
Hadamard Transform, Lapped transforms - Transform coding -
Subband coding - Wavelet Based Compression - Analysis/Synthesis
Schemes
SECOND INTERNAL TEST
Module IV:
Data Compression standards: Zip and Gzip, Speech Compression
Standards: PCM -G.711, ADPCM G.726, SBC G.722, LD-CELP
G.728, CS-ACELP (-A) G.729, MPC-MLQ , G.723.1, GSM HR
VSELP, IS-54 VSELP, IS-96 QCELP, Immarsat - B APC, MELP, FS
11 25
1015, LPC10, FS1016, CELP, G721. Audio Compression standards:
MPEG, Philips PASC, Sony ATRAC, Dolby AC-3, Image
Compression standards: JBIG, GIF, JPEG & JPEG derived industry
standards, CALIC, SPIHT, EZW, JPEG 2000. Video Compression
Standards: MPEG, H.261, H.263 & H264.
END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 58 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC7327 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING


Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

To study the mechanisms of speech production and various models used for speech
processing
To provide a knowledge of different coding methods used in speech and audio processing

Syllabus:
Digital models for the speech signal - mechanism of speech production - acoustic theory -
coefficients - Spectral analysis of speech- Auditory Perception-Speech coding -Speech
synthesis - homomorphic speech processing -.Speech Transformations - Automatic speech
recognition systems - pattern classification - speaker recognition systems - speaker
verification systems - speaker identification Systems. Audio Processing: - Modeling -. Music
Production - Content based retrieval.

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to
understand the fundamental concepts of speech and audio processing.

References:
1. .Rabiner L.R. & Schafer R.W., Digital Processing of Speech Signals, Prentice Hall
Inc.
2. OShaughnessy, D. Speech Communication, Human and Machine. Addison
Wesley.
3. Thomas F. Quatieri , Discretetime Speech Signal Processing: Principles and Practice
Prentice Hall, Signal Processing Series.
4. Deller, J., J. Proakis, and J. Hansen. DiscreteTime Processing of Speech Signals.
Macmillan.
5. Ben Gold & Nelson Morgan , Speech and Audio Signal Processing, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc.
6. Owens F.J., Signal Processing of Speech, Macmillan New Electronics
7. Saito S. & Nakata K., Fundamentals of Speech Signal Processing, Academic Press,
Inc.
8. Papamichalis P.E., Practical Approaches to Speech Coding, Texas Instruments,
Prentice Hall
9. Rabiner L.R. & Gold, Theory and Applications of Digital Signal Processing, Prentice
Hall of India
10. Jayant, N. S. and P. Noll. Digital Coding of Waveforms: Principles and Applications to
Speech and Video. Signal Processing Series, Englewood Cliffs: PrenticeHall
11. Thomas Parsons, Voice and Speech Processing, McGraw Hill Series
12. Chris Rowden, Speech Processing, McGrawHill International Limited
13. Moore. B, An Introduction to Psychology of hearingAcademic Press, London, 1997
14. Zwicker and L. Fastl, Psychoacousticsfacts and models, SpringerVerlag., 1990

Page 59 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 60 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC7327 Title: SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I
Digital models for the speech signal - mechanism of speech
production - acoustic theory - lossless tube models - digital models -
linear prediction of speech - auto correlation - formulation of LPC
equation - solution of LPC equations - Levinson Durbin algorithm -
10 25
Levinson recursion - Schur algorithm - lattice formulations and
solutions - PARCOR coefficients - Spectral analysis of speech - Short
Time Fourier analysis - filter bank design. Auditory Perception:
Psychoacoustics - Frequency Analysis and Critical Bands Masking
properties of human ear
Module II
Speech coding -subband coding of speech - transform coding -
channel vocoder - formant vocoder cepstral vocoder - vector
5 13
quantizer coder- Linear predictive Coder. Speech synthesis - pitch
extraction algorithms - gold rabiner pitch trackers - autocorrelation
pitch trackers
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
voice/unvoiced detection - homomorphic speech processing -
homomorphic systems for convolution - complex cepstrums - pitch
5 12
extraction using homomorphic speech processing. Sound Mixtures
and Separation - CASA, ICA & Model based separation.
Module III
Speech Transformations - Time Scale Modification - Voice
Morphing. Automatic speech recognition systems - isolated word
recognition - connected word recognition large vocabulary word 11 25
recognition systems - pattern classification - DTW, HMM - speaker
recognition systems - speaker verification systems speaker
identification Systems.
SECOND INTERNAL TEST
Module IV
Audio Processing: Non speech and Music Signals - Modeling -
Differential transform and subband coding of audio signals &
standards - High Quality Audio coding using Psychoacoustic models
11 25
- MPEG Audio coding standard. Music Production - sequence of
steps in a bowed string instrument - Frequency rSPonse measurement
of the bridge of a violin. Audio Data bases and applications - Content
based retrieval.
END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 61 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC7337 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: BIOMEDICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objectives:
To impart knowledge about the principle of different types of bio-medical signals
To give ideas about the interpretation of various signals in biomedical applications

Syllabus:
Introduction to Biomedical signals, Origin of bio-potentials - Fourier Transform and Time
Frequency Analysis - -spectral estimation
Concurrent, coupled and correlated processes - Adaptive and optimal filtering - Modeling of
Biomedical signals - Detection of biomedical signals in noise
Cardio vascular applications : ECG parameters & their estimation - Arrhythmia analysis -
Data Compression: - Heart Rate Variability - Spectral analysis of heart rate variability -
Neurological Applications: - EEG applications- Model based spectral analysis

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to
understand the fundamental concepts of biomedical signal processing

Reference Books:
1. Bruce, Biomedical Signal Processing & Signal Modeling, Wiley, 2001
2. Srnmo, Bioelectrical Signal Processing in Cardiac & Neurological Applications,
Elsevier
3. Rangayyan, Biomedical Signal Analysis, Wiley 2002.
4. Semmlow, Marcel Dekker Biosignal and Biomedical Image Processing, 2004
5. Enderle, Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, 2/e, Elsevier, 2005
6. D.C.Reddy , Biomedical Signal Processing: Principles and techniques, Tata McGraw
Hill, New Delhi, 2005

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 62 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC7337 Title: BIOMEDICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I
Introduction to Biomedical Signals - Examples of Biomedical signals
- ECG, EEG, EMG etc - Tasks in Biomedical Signal Processing -
Computer Aided Diagnosis. Origin of bio-potentials - Review of
10 25
linear systems - Fourier Transform and Time Frequency Analysis -
(Wavelet) of biomedical signals- Processing of Random & Stochastic
signals - spectral estimation Properties and effects of noise in
biomedical instruments - Filtering in biomedical instruments
Module II
Concurrent, coupled and correlated processes - illustration with case
studies - Adaptive and optimal filtering - Modeling of Biomedical 5 13
signals - Detection of biomedical signals in noise - removal of
artifacts of one signal embedded in another
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Maternal-Fetal ECG Muscle -contraction interference. Event
detection - case studies with ECG & EEG - Independent component
5 12
Analysis - Cocktail party problem applied to EEG signals -
Classification of biomedical signals.
Module III
Cardio vascular applications : Basic ECG - Electrical Activity of the
heart- ECG data acquisition ECG parameters & their estimation -
Use of multiscale analysis for ECG parameters estimation - Noise &
Artifacts - ECG Signal Processing: Baseline Wandering, Power line
11 25
interference, Muscle noise filtering QRS detection - Arrhythmia
analysis - Data Compression: Lossless & Lossy- Heart Rate
Variability Time Domain measures - Heart Rhythm representation -
Spectral analysis of heart rate variability - interaction with other
physiological signals.
SECOND INTERNAL TEST
Module IV
Neurological Applications: The electroencephalogram - EEG rhythms
& waveform - categorization of EEG activity - recording techniques -
EEG applications- Epilepsy, sleep disorders, brain computer
interface. Modeling EEG- linear, stochastic models - Non linear
11 25
modeling of EEG - artifacts in EEG & their characteristics and
processing - Model based spectral analysis - EEG segmentation -
Joint Time-Frequency analysis - correlation analysis of EEG channels
- coherence analysis of EEG channels.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 63 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC7347 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: DSP ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURES
Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:
The evolving field of ASIC design enables the customized design of DSP algorithms on
dedicated chips. This paper introduces systematic approaches for mapping algorithms to
VLSI architectures. It deals with representation of DSP algorithms, various techniques to
optimize these architectures for various parameters such as computation time, hardware,
space and power consumption. It also introduces fast DSP algorithms for efficient hardware
implementation.

Syllabus:
DSP Algorithm Design; DSP representations; fixed-point DSP design; filter structures;
System modelling and performance measures;
Circuits and DSP Architecture Design; Fast filtering; VLSI performance measures; Analog
signal processing for fast operation;
DSP Module Synthesis; Distributed arithmetic; Implementation of elementary functions;
High performance arithmetic unit; Parallel algorithms and their dependence; Applications to
some common DSP algorithms; Algebraic technique for mapping algorithms.

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability for mapping
DSP algorithms to ASIC/VLSI architectures.

References:
1. Sen M.Kuo , Woon-Seng S. Gan, Digal Signal Processors: Architectures,
Implementations, and Applications Prentice Hall 2004.
2. Keshab K. Parhi, VLSI Signal Processing Systems, Design and Implementation, John
Wiley & Sons,1999.
3. Uwe Meyer-Baese, Digital Signal Processing with Field Programmable Gate Array,
Springer- Verlag 2001
4. John G. Proakis , Dimitris Manolakis K, DSP Principles, Algorithms and
Applications, Prentice Hall 1995
5. Pirsch, Architectures for Digital Signal Processing, John Wiley and Sons, 1998.
6. Lars Wanhammar, DSP Integrated Circuits, Academic Press, 1999
7. Parhami, Behrooz, Computer Arithmetic: Algorithms and Hardware Designs, Oxford
University Press, 2000
8. Israel Koren, A. K. Peters, Natick, Computer Arithmetic Algorithms, MA, 2002

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 64 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC7347 Title: DSP ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURES
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I
DSP representations (data-flow, control-flow, and signal-flow graphs,
block diagrams),fixed-point DSP design (A/D precision, coefficient
quantization, round-off and scaling), filter structures (recursive, non- 10 25
recursive and lattice), algorithmic simulations of DSP systems in C,
behavioral modeling in HDL. System modeling and performance
measures.
Module II
Fast filtering algorithms (Winograd's, FFT, short- length FIR), re-
timing and pipelining, block processing, folding, distributed 5 13
arithmetic architectures, VLSI performance measures (area, power,
and speed), structural modeling in VHDL.
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Analog signal processing for fast operation. Impact of non ideal
characteristics of analog functional blocks on the system 5 12
performance.
Module III
Distributed arithmetic (DA). Advantageous of using DA. Size
reduction of look-up tables. Canonic signed digit arithmetic.
Implementation of elementary functions Table-oriented methods.
Polynomial approximation Random number generators. Linear 11 25
feedback shift register. High performance arithmetic unit
architectures (adders, multipliers, dividers), bit-parallel, bit-serial,
digit-serial, carry-save architectures, redundant number system,
modeling for synthesis in HDL, synthesis place-and-route.
SECOND INTERNAL TEST
Module IV
Applications to some common DSP algorithms. System timing using
the scheduling vector. Projection of the dependence graph using a
projection direction. The delay operator and z-transform techniques
for mapping DSP algorithms onto processor arrays. Algebraic
11 25
technique for mapping algorithms. The computation domain. The
dependence matrix of a variable. The scheduling and projection
functions. Data broadcast and pipelining Applications using common
DSP algorithms.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 65 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC7357 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015
Course Title: GRAPH THEORY
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objectives:
To introduce different concepts in graph theory

Syllabus:
Introduction to graphs, basics in graphs, operations on graphs, Trees: definitions and
properties, Matrix representation of graphs, Planar graphs, Euler formula, Hamiltonian
graphs, graph colouring and chromatic polynomials, Network flows and max-flow min-cut
theorem, Digraphs: connectivity, Polynomial algorithms and NP completeness, BFS, DFS,
Kruskals, Prims, Dijkstras & Floyds algorithms.

Course Outcome:
After the course the student will have a strong background of graph theory which has diverse
applications in the areas of computer science, biology, chemistry, physics, sociology, and
engineering.

References:
1. Gary Chartrand, Ping Zhang, Introduction to Graph Theory, McGraw Hill
International Edition, 2005.
2. J Clark and D. A Holton. A First Look at Graph Theory. Allied Publishers (World
Scientific). New Delhi, 1991.
3. R. P. Grimaldi, Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics: An Applied Introduction.
Addison Wesley, 1994.
4. T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson and R. L. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms PHI
1990.
5. C. R. Foulds, Graph Theory Applications, Narosa Publishing House, 1994
6. Harary. F, Graph Theory, Addison Wesley, 1972.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks

Internal continuous assessment :


Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 66 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC7357 Title: GRAPH THEORY


(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Introduction to graphs, definitions, subgraphs, paths and cycles,
isomorphism, cut vertex, bridge, block, bipartite graph, complement
10 25
of a graph, vertex and edge connectivity, degree sequence, metric ,
eccentricity, centre , median.

Module II:
Trees, definitions and properties, rooted trees, trees and sorting,
5 13
weighted trees and prefix codes, Matrix representation of graphs.

FIRST INTERNAL TEST


Adjacency, Incidence and Distance matrices, Matrix tree theorem,
5 12
biconnected components and articulation points.
Module III:
Planar graphs, Euler formula, platonic bodies. Hamiltonian graphs,
graph colouring and chromatic polynomials, Network flows and max- 11 25
flow min-cut theorem.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
Digraphs, connectivity, acyclic digraphs, tournaments, Algorithms
and complexity, Polynomial algorithms and NP completeness, BFS,
11 25
DFS, Kruskals, Prims, Dijkstras & Floyds algorithms.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 67 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC7367 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: LINEAR SYSTEMS THEORY


Pre-requisites: Nil

Objectives:
Upon completion of this course, the students will have deep knowledge and insight on vector
space representation of signals, bases, orthonormal bases, analysis of linear systems, eigen
values and eigen vectors, infinite dimensional vector spaces and Hilbert spaces.

Syllabus:
Finite Dimensional Signal Space: Vector Spaces Definition, Properties. Subspaces, Inner-
Product Spaces , Linear Functionals and Adjoints, Standard Ordered Bases, DFT Bases, DCT
Bases. Linear Systems :Linear Maps, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Operators on Inner-
Product Spaces, Some Important Classes of Linear Systems, Infinite Dimensional Signal
Spaces, Metric Spaces Hilbert spaces.

Course Outcome:

The students will be able to rigorously apply the mathematics of linear analysis to
characterize and approximate the behaviour systems.

References:
1. Sheldon Axler, Linear Algebra Done Right, Springer
2. G. F. Simmons, Introduction to Topology and Modern Analysis, Tata McGraw
Hill.
3. Paul R. Halmos, FiniteDimensional Vector Spaces, Springer
4. Todd K. Moon and Wynn C. Stirling, Mathematical Methods and Algorithms for
Signal Processing, Pearson
5. Arch W. Naylor and George R. Sell, Linear Operator Theory in Engineering and
Science, Springer
6. Peter D. Lax, Linear Algebra, Wiley Students Edition.
7. Michael W. Frazier, An Introduction to Wavelets Through Linear Algebra, Springer.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks

Internal continuous assessment :


Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 68 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: : 09EC7367 Title: LINEAR SYSTEMS THEORY


(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Finite Dimensional Signal Space: Vector Spaces : Complex Numbers,
Definition of Vector Space, Properties of Vector Spaces, Subspaces,
Sums and Direct Sums, Span and Linear Independence, Bases, 11 25
Dimension InnerProduct Spaces : Inner Products, Norms,
Orthonormal Bases, Orthogonal Projections and Minimization
Problems, Linear Functionals and Adjoints Some Important Bases :
Standard Ordered Bases, DFT Bases, DCT Bases.
Module II :
Linear Systems :Linear Maps : Definitions and Examples, Null Spaces
5 12
and Ranges, The Matrix of a Linear Map, Invertibility. Eigenvalues and
Eigenvectors
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Invariant Subspaces, Polynomials Applied to Operators,
UpperTriangular Matrices, Diagonal Matrices, Invariant Subspaces on 5 13
Real Vector Spaces
Module III:
Linear Systems : Operators on InnerProduct Spaces : SelfAdjoint and
Normal Operators, The Spectral Theorem, Normal Operators on Real
InnerProduct Spaces, Positive Operators, Isometries, Polar and 11 25
SingularValue Decompositions. Some Important Classes of Linear
Systems : Shift Invariant systems and Toeplitz matrices. Operators and
square matrices. Self adjoint operators and Hermitian matrices.
Projections and idempotent matrices. Rotations and unitary matrices.
SECOND INTERNAL TEST
Module IV:
Infinite Dimensional Signal Spaces : Metric Spaces : Definition,
Convergence and Completeness. Hilbert spaces : Introduction [Ref 3,
Appendix]. l2 and L2 spaces. Definition and some properties.
10 25
Orthogonal Complements, Orthonormal Sets, Fourier Expansion.
Conjugate Space, Adjoint of an Operator, Self Adjoint Operators,
Normal and Unitary operators, Projections.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 69 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC7377 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015


Course Title: OPTIMISATION TECHNIQUES
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
The aim of this course is to expose students to various deterministic optimization tools and
techniques. The course generally covers topics such as: an overview of mathematical
modeling, linear and non linear programming and various constrained & unconstrained
optimization techniques which will be useful for engineering applications.

Syllabus:
Mathematical Background Sequences and Subsequences Minima and maxima of functions-
Differentiable functions. Linear transformation; Introduction to Linear Programming: -
Optimization model, formulation and applications; Classical optimization techniques;
Sensitivity analysis and parametric programming, Nonlinear Programming: Minimization and
maximization of convex functions,. Unconstrained optimization methods. Constrained
optimization examples, Convex programming problems.

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability to develop
optimization algorithms and use them in signal processing applications.

References:
1. David G Luenberger, .Linear and Non Linear Programming., 2nd Ed, Addison
Wesley.
2. S.S.Rao, .Engineering Optimization.; Theory and Practice; Revised 3rd Edition, New
Age International Publishers, New Delhi
3. S.M. Sinha, Mathematical programming: Theory and Methods, Elsevier.
4. Hillier and Lieberman Introduction to Operations Research, McGrawHill, 8th edition.
5. Saul I Gass, Linear programming, McGrawHill, 5th edition.
6. Bazarra M.S., Sherali H.D. & Shetty C.M., Nonlinear Programming Theory and
Algorithms, John Wiley, New York.
7. Kalyanmoy Deb, Optimization for Engineering: DesignAlgorithms and Examples,
Prentice Hall (India).

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks


Internal continuous assessment :
Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 mark
Total-40mark

Page 70 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC7377 Title: OPTIMISATION TECHNIQUES


(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I: Mathematical Background: Sequences and Subsequences-
Mapping and functions- Continuous functions- Infimum and Supremum
of functions- Minima and maxima of functions- Differentiable
functions. Vectors and vector spaces-Matrices- Linear transformation-
Quadratic forms- Definite quadratic forms- Gradient and Hessian-
Linear equations- Solution of a set of linear equations -Basic solution
11 25
and degeneracy. Convex sets and Convex cones-Introduction and
preliminary definition- Convex sets and properties- Convex Hulls-
Extreme point- Separation and support of convex sets- Convex
Polytopes and Polyhedra- Convex cones- Convex and concave
functions- Basic properties- Differentiable convex functions-
Generalization of convex functions.
Module II: Linear Programming: Introduction -Optimization model,
formulation and applications -Classical optimization techniques: Single
and multi variable problems-Types of constraints. Linear optimization 5 13
algorithms: The simplex method -Basic solution and extreme point -
Degeneracy
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
The primal simplex method -Dual linear programs - Primal, dual, and
duality theory - The dual simplex method -The primal-dual algorithm-
5 12
Duality applications. Post optimization problems: Sensitivity analysis
and parametric programming
Module III: Nonlinear Programming: Minimization and maximization of
convex functions- Local & Global optimum - Convergence-Speed of
convergence. Unconstrained optimization: One dimensional
minimization - Elimination methods: Fibonacci & Golden section search
11 25
- Gradient methods - Steepest descent method. Constrained
optimization: Constrained optimization with equality and inequality
constraints. Kelley's convex cutting plane algorithm - Gradient
projection method - Penalty Function methods.
SECOND INTERNAL TEST
Module IV: Constrained optimization: Lagrangian method - Sufficiency
conditions - Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions- Rate of convergence -
10 25
Engineering applications Quadratic programming problems-Convex
programming problems
END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 71 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC7387 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015
Course Title: TRANSFORM THEORY
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objectives:
To impart a thorough knowledge in Discrete Fourier Transform and the Karhunen-Loeve
transform

Syllabus:
Review of Linear Algebra , Spectral Theorem for Matrices, The Discrete Fourier Transform,
The Discrete Time Fourier Transform, The Fourier Transform, The Karhunen-Loeve
transform, Optimal Transform, Independent Component Analysis.

Course Outcome:
Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to
understand the fundamental concepts of transform theory.

References:
1. Michael W. Frazier, An Introduction to Wavelets Through Linear Algebra, Springer.
2. Aapo Hyvrinen, Juha Karhunen, and Erkki Oja, Independent component analysis,
John Wiley

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks

Internal continuous assessment :


Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 72 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No:09EC7387 Title: TRANSFORM THEORY
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Review of Linear Algebra : Vector Spaces and Bases, Linear
Transformations, Matrices, and Change of Basis, Diagonalization of
10 25
Linear Transformations and Matrices, Inner Products, Orthonormal
Bases, and Unitary Matrices, Spectral Theorem for Matrices.

Module II:
The Discrete Fourier Transform: Basic Properties of the Discrete
5 13
Fourier Transform, Translation-Invariant Linear Transformations

FIRST INTERNAL TEST


Circulant Matrices, Convolution Operator, Fourier Multiplier
Operator. 5 12

Module III:
The Discrete Time Fourier Transform : l2(), Hilbert Spaces,
Complete Orthonormal Sets in Hilbert Spaces, L2([-,]) and Fourier
Series, The Fourier Transform and Convolution on l2(). 11 25
The Fourier Transform: L2() and Approximate Identities. The
Fourier Transform on .

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
The Karhunen-Loeve transform: Whitening of a Random Process.
Optimal Transform. Dimensionality Reduction. Independent 11 25
Component Analysis.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 73 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No: 09EC7397 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015
Course Title: INFORMATION HIDING AND DATA ENCRYPTION
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objectives:
This course deals with the principles and implementation of secure communication.
It extensively covers cryptography, steganography, their methods and applications.

Syllabus:
Information security, digital rights management, digital watermarking and steganography,
watermarking in spatial domain, steganography in spatial domain, watermarking and
steganography in frequency domain, watermark detection, quality evaluation, watermark
security, steganalysis, steganography and cryptography, watermarking with visual
cryptography.

Course Outcome:
The students will be able to:
Identify techniques for data hiding
Analyse models of watermarking and Steganography
Identify different types of attacks
Apply data hiding techniques into different domains

References:
1. Ingemar Cox, Matthew Miller, Jeffrey Bloom, Jessica Fridrich, Ton Kalker Digital
Watermarking and Steganography, 2nd Ed., Morgan Kaufman Publishers
2. Fundamentals of Digital Image Watermarking Book Description, John Wiley & Sons
Fernando Perez Gonzalez, Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy
3. Fabien Petitcolas Stefan Katzenbeisser Information Hiding Techniques for
Steganography and Digital Watermarking, Artech publihsers
4. Wang, F. Pan, J. Jain, L. C. Innovations in Digital Watermarking Techniques, Springer.

Internal continuous assessment: 40 marks

Internal continuous assessment :


Test 1- 15 marks
Test 2- 15 marks
Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks
Total-40marks

Page 74 of 78
Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN
Course No:09EC7397 Title: INFORMATION HIDING AND DATA ENCRPTION
(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3
% marks in
Contact end
Module
hours semester
exam
Module I:
Information security Digital rights management copy right
protection Information integration Digital watermarking and
steganography difference between watermarking and
steganography Classification, applications in content
11 25
authentication, medical images, audio and video requisites of
watermarking and steganography data hiding capacity, robustness
and imperceptibility Watermarking with side information fragile
watermark benchmark for watermarking data hiding in text

Module II:
Watermarking in spatial domain Additive methods, spread spectrum
5 13
based methods Steganography in spatial domain Information
theoretic approach for watermarking
FIRST INTERNAL TEST
Watermarking and steganography in frequency domain Based on
Discrete cosine transform, Discrete Wavelet transform and
Contourlet transform different methods Comparison between 5 12
frequency domain and spatial domain methods

Module III:
Watermark detection Operating characteristics Recovery of
embedded data Blind and non blind methods Quality evaluation
of data hidden images, audio and video. Quality evaluation with
11 25
and without reference Watermark securitysecurity requirements -
watermark security and cryptography some significant known
attacks - steganalysis statistical based techniques for steganalysis.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST


Module IV:
Difference between steganography and cryptography Encryption
and decryption for Watermarks Embedding and Extraction 10 25
Procedures Image hashing Watermarking with Visual
Cryptography Analysis of different methods.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 75 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC7363 Credits: 0-0-2: 2 Year :2015


Course Title: SEMINAR
Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:
This course is intended for
Increasing the breadth of knowledge
Enhancing the ability of self study
Improving presentation and communication skills
Augmenting the skill of Technical Report Writing.

Students have to register for the seminar and select a topic in consultation with any faculty
member offering courses for the programme. A detailed write-up on the topic of the seminar
is to be prepared in the prescribed format given by the Department. The seminar shall be of
30 minutes duration and a committee with the Head of the department as the chairman and
two faculty members from the department as members shall evaluate the seminar based on
the coverage of the topic, presentation and ability to answer the questions put forward by the
committee

Course outcome:
The students who successfully complete this course will have the capability to
Understand technical articles in peer reviewed journals and conferences;
Analyze and present advanced topics in signal processing.

Internal continuous assessment: 100 marks

Subject Relevance : 10 marks

Concept/ Knowledge in the topic : 20 marks

Presentation : 40 marks

Report : 30 marks

Total marks : 100 marks

Page 76 of 78
Kerala Technological University

Course No: 09EC7383 Credits: 0-0-12: 6 Year :2015


Course Title: MASTERS RESEARCH PROJECT (PHASE I)
Pre-requisites: Nil
Objective:
The main objective of the Master Research Project is to identify current issues in the area
of Communication Engineering and Signal Processing. The ability of the student to address
contemporary issues and to find practical solutions to the issues increases. Also, continued
and self learning skill of the student is enhanced.

Project work is to be carried out in the third and fourth semesters. The project work
can be a design project/experimental project and/or computer simulation project on any of
the topics in communication/signal processing area and is allotted individually on different
topics.

Normally students are expected to do the project within the college. However they
are permitted to do the project in an industry or in a government research institute under a
qualified supervisor from that organization. Progress of the project work is to be evaluated
at the end of the third semester. For this a committee headed by the head of the department
with two other faculty members in the area of the project, of which one shall be the project
supervisor. If the project is done outside the college, the external supervisor associated with
the student will also be a member of the committee.

Project work is to be evaluated both in the third and the fourth semesters. Based on
these evaluations the grade is finalised in the fourth semester.

Course outcome:
The students who successfully complete this course will have the demonstrated capability to
Formulate a research problem and perform literature review
systematically carrying out a research and write technical reports

Internal Continuous assessment: (50 marks)

Progress evaluation by the Project Supervisor/Guide : 20 Marks


Presentation and evaluation by the committee : 30 Marks

Page 77 of 78
Kerala Technological University

FOURTH SEMESTER
Course No: 09EC7384 Credits: 0-0-21: 12 Year :2015
Course Title: MASTERS RESEARCH PROJECT (PHASE - 2)
Pre-requisites: 09EC7383

Objectives:

To improve the professional competency and research aptitude by touching the areas which
otherwise not covered by theory or laboratory classes. The project work aims to develop the
work practice in students to apply theoretical and practical tools/techniques to solve real life
problems related to industry and current research.

Syllabus:
rd
Project phase II is a continuation of project phase I started in the 3 semester. Final
evaluation of the project will be taken up only on completion of the project in the fourth
semester. This shall be done by a committee constituted for the purpose by the principal of
the college. The concerned head of the department shall be the chairman of this committee.
It shall have two senior faculty members from the same department, project supervisor and
the external supervisor, if any, of the student and an external expert either from an
academic/R&D organization or from Industry as members. Final project grading shall take
into account the progress evaluation done in the third semester and the project evaluation in
the fourth semester.

If the quantum of work done by the candidate is found to be unsatisfactory, the


committee may extend the duration of the project up to one more semester, giving reasons
for this in writing to the student. Normally further extension will not be granted and there
shall be no provision to register again for the project.

Course outcome:
The students who successfully complete this course will have the demonstrated capability to
Formulate a research problem in signal processing area
systematically carrying out a research
Write technical reports and research publications

Internal Continuous assessment:

Supervisor/ Guide Evaluation End Semester


Committee Exam/Viva Voce

Project Review 30 Marks 40 Marks 30 Marks

Page 78 of 78