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You are on page 1of 79

UNIVERSITY

Cluster No 09: Calicut

Communication Engineering and

Signal Processing

(With effect from 2015 admissions)

Kerala Technological University

SCHEME OF EXAMINATIONS

Semester I

Marks

week Total exam

Subject Credits

Code Sem- Marks duration

L T P/D Intl.

end - Hrs

Mathematics for

09EC6311 Communication 3 1 - 40 60 100 3 4

Engineering

Advanced Digital

09EC6321 3 1 - 40 60 100 3 4

Communication

09EC6331 3 1 - 40 60 100 3 4

Processing

09EC6351 Research Methodology 0 2 0 100 - 100 - 2

TOTAL 18 2 4 500 300 800 23

NB: The student has to undertake the departmental work assigned by HOD

Electives - I

Sl No Course No. Course Title

1 09EC6315 Information Theory

2 09EC6325 Adaptive Signal Processing

3 09EC6335 Communication Networks

4 09EC6345 Digital Image Processing

5 09EC6355 Advanced Optical Communication Systems

Page 1 of 70

Kerala Technological University

Semester II

Hours per Sem-end

Marks

Total exam

Subject Credits

Code Sem- Marks duration

L T P/D Intl.

end - Hrs

Estimation and Detection

09EC6312 3 1 - 40 60 100 3 4

Theory

09EC6362 Mini Project - - 4 100 - 100 - 2

09EC6372 Advanced

- - 2 100 - 100 - 1

Communication Lab

NB: The student has to undertake the departmental work assigned by HOD

Electives -II

Sl No Course No Course Title

1 09EC6316 Multirate Signal Processing

2 09EC6326 Spectrum Analysis Techniques

3 09EC6336 Spread Spectrum and CDMA Systems

4 09EC6346 Markov Modeling and Queuing Theory

Electives -III

1 09EC6356 Communication Switching & Multiplexing

2 09EC6366 Wavelets Theory

3 09EC6376 Wireless Sensor Networks

4 09EC6386 System Design Using Embedded Processors

5 09EC6396 Secure Communication

Page 2 of 70

Kerala Technological University

Semester - III

Sem-end

exam

Sem- Total duration

Code Subject L T P/D Intl. end Marks - Hrs Credits

09EC73x7 Elective-IV 3 - - 40 60 100 3 3

09EC73x7 Elective-V 3 - - 40 60 100 3 3

09EC7363 Seminar - - 2 100 - 100 - 2

EC

Guide

*

Masters Research

09EC7383 - - 12 - 50 - 6

Project(Phase -I)

20 30

NB: The student has to undertake the departmental work assigned by HOD

*EC Evaluation Committee

Electives IV

Sl No Course Code Course Title

1 09EC7317 Signal Compression Techniques

2 09EC7327 Speech and Audio Processing

3 09EC7337 Biomedical Signal Processing

4 09EC7347 DSP Algorithms and Architecture

5 09EC7357 Graph Theory

Electives V

Sl no Course Code Course Title

1 09EC7367 Linear Systems Theory

2 09EC7377 Optimization techniques

3 09EC7387 Transform Theory

4 09EC7397 Information Hiding and Data Encryption

Page 3 of 70

Kerala Technological University

Semester - IV

Course Code Name of the Subject Internal

Credits

No Week Exam

Marks

Total

Marks

L T P Marks Dur (h)

1. 0 0 21 30 0 100 12

09EC7384 Master Research Project Phase II

Guide

EC

30 40

Total 0 0 21 70 30 100 12

Total Credits: 68

Page 4 of 78

Kerala Technological University

FIRST SEMESTER

Course Title: MATHEMATICS FOR COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

This course is intended to provide the necessary Mathematical foundation needed for the

subjects to be dealt with in the program. After the completion of the course, the student

should have a thorough understanding of Linear Algebra, Random Processes and their

applications.

Syllabus:

Linear Algebra: Vector space, Linear Transformations, Matrix representation of linear

transformations, Random Variables, distributions, Elements of stochastic process, Markov

Chains, Continuous time Markov Chains, second order stochastic processes, Spectral

Density, linear prediction and filtering.

Course Outcome:

The student will have a thorough understanding of Linear Algebra, Random Processes and

their applications.

References:

nd

1. Kenneth Hoffman and Ray Kunze, Linear Algebra, 2 Edition, PHI.

2. Erwin Kreyszig, Introductory Functional Analysis with Applications, John Wiley &

Sons.

th

3. Irwin Miller and Marylees Miller, John E. Freunds Mathematical Statistics, 6 Edition,

PHI.

nd

4. S. Karlin & H.M Taylor, A First Course in Stochastic Processes, 2 edition, Academic

Press, New York.

5. S. M. Ross, Introduction to Probability Models, Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd. and Academic

Press.

6. J. Medhi, Stochastic Processes, New Age International, New Delhi.

rd

7. A Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, 3 Edition,

McGraw Hill.

8. John B Thomas, An Introduction to Applied Probability and Random Processes, John

Wiley & Sons.

Internal continuous assessment:

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 5 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC6311 Title: MATHEMATICS FOR COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

(L-T-P): 3-1-0 Credits :4

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I: Linear Algebra: Vector spaces, subspaces, Linear 14 25

dependence, Basis and Dimension, Inner product spaces, Gram

Schmidt Orthogonalization Procedure, Linear transformations,

Kernels and Images , Matrix representation of linear transformation,

Change of basis, Eigen values and Eigen vectors of linear operator,

Quadratic form.

Module II: Operations on random variables: Random Variables, 7 12

Distributions and Density functions, Moments and Moment

generating function, Multivariate distributions,

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

distributions, Conditional Expectation, Transformation of Random

Variables , Elements of stochastic processes, Classification of general

stochastic processes.

Module III: Random Processes: Markov Chains Definition, 14 25

Examples, Transition Probability Matrices of a Markov Chain,

Classification of states and chains, Basic limit theorem, Limiting

distribution of Markov chains. Continuous Time Markov Chains:

General pure Birth processes and Poisson processes, Birth and death

processes, Finite state continuous time Markov chains

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Processes, Linear operations and second order calculus, Stationary

processes, Wide sense Stationary processes, Spectral density

function, Low pass and band pass processes, White noise and white

noise integrals, Linear Predictions and Filtering.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 6 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

To provide in-depth treatment on methods and techniques in

Representation of signals and spectra

Formatting, baseband and M-ary modulation/demodulation

Synchronization

Syllabus:

Digital communication system, Pulse amplitude modulation (binary and M-ary, QAM),

Continuous phase modulation (QPSK and variants, MSK, GMSK), Coherent and non-

coherent demodulation, Optimum rule for ML and MAP detection Performance, Pulse shape

design for channels with ISI, Performance: Symbol by symbol detection and BER, Viterbi

algorithm, synchronization techniques, Characteristics of fading channels, Rayleigh and

Rician channels, receiver performance-average SNR, outage probability.

Course Outcome:

Students will be able to

Understand the basic theory of digital communications and the most common digital

communications techniques

Understand the working principles of basic building blocks of a digital

communication system.

Identify methods of digital modulation and compare their performance using signal-

space analysis.

Understand and apply suitable digital modulation schemes for various engineering

applications and measure the Error Probability

Understand receiver techniques for detection of a signal in AWGN channel.

Text Books

1. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Fundamentals of Communication Systems, Pearson

Education, 2005.

2. S. Haykins, Communication Systems, 5th ed., John wiley, 2008.

3. M. K. Simon, S. M. Hinedi and W. C. Lindsey, Digital Communication Techniques:

Signaling and detection, Prentice Hall India, N. Delhi, 1995.

4. W. Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication Systems, 4th Ed., Pearson

Education, 1998.

5. M. K. Simon and M. S. Alouini, Digital Communication over Fading Channels, 2000.

Page 7 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Reference Books

2. B.P. Lathi,Modern Digital and Analog Communication, 3rd Ed., Oxford

UniversityPress.

3. Sklar, Digital Communication, 2E, Pearson Education.

4. K.Sam Shanmugham,Digital and Analog Communication Systems, John Wiley

&Sons

5. R.E. Ziemer and W.H. Tranter,Principles of Communications, JAICO

PublishingHouse.

6. H.Taub and Schilling,Principles of Communication Systems, TMH

7. Pierre Lafrance,John G.Proakis,Digital Communications, McGraw Hill.

8. Couch, Analog and Digital Communication.5th Ed,PHI

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 8 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC6321 Title: ADVANCED DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

(L-T-P): 3-1-0 Credits :4

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I: Digital communication system (description of different

modules of the block diagram), Complex baseband representation of

signals, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure. M-ary

orthogonal signals, bi-orthogonal signals, simplex signal waveforms.

Pulse amplitude modulation (binary and M-ary, QAM), Pulse 14 25

position modulation (binary and M-ary), Carrier modulation (M-ary

ASK, PSK, FSK, DPSK), Continuous phase modulation (QPSK and

variants, MSK, GMSK).

7 12

Correlator demodulator, square-law, and envelope detection.

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Detector: Optimum rule for ML and MAP detection Performance:

Bit-error-rate, symbol error rate for coherent and non-coherent

7 13

schemes.

Module III: Pulse shape design for channels with ISI: Nyquist pulse,

Partial response signaling (duo binary and modified duo binary

pulses), demodulation; Channel with distortion: Design of

transmitting and receiving filters for a known channel and for time 14 25

varying channel (equalization); Performance: Symbol by symbol

detection and BER, symbol and sequence detection, Viterbi algorithm

Module IV: Different synchronization techniques (Early-Late Gate,

MMSE, ML and spectral line methods).Characteristics of fading

channels, Rayleigh and Rician channels, receiver performance-

average SNR, outage probability, amount of fading and average 14 25

bit/symbol error rate.

Page 9 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

To provide in-depth treatment on methods and techniques in

Discrete-time signal transforms, digital filter design, optimal filtering

Power spectrum estimation, multi-rate digital signal processing

.Adaptive filter design, multirate signal processing

Syllabus:

Discrete random signal processing: Weiner Khitchine relation, Signal Modelling, Parametric

and non-parametric spectral estimations, Adaptive Filters: FIR adaptive filters, Adaptive

channel equalization, Multirate Digital Signal Processing: Basic operations in Multirate

Signal Processing, single stage and multistage realization, poly phase realizations,

applications.

Course Outcome:

Students will be able to

Understand the basic concepts of up/down sampling through interpolation and

decimation process.

Understand the errors caused due to interpolation and decimation in real signal

processing problems and how to solve them.

Understand the basic design of filter banks and their application in various signal

processing areas.

Understand multi resolution analysis of complex signals using wavelets.

Understand basic concepts of wavelets, wavelet decomposition, wavelet packets,

continuous and discrete wavelets etc.

Understand and apply wavelets for different signal processing applications.

Reference:

1. Monson H. Hayes, Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling, John Wiley and Sons

Inc., New York, 2006.

2. Sophoncles J. Orfanidis, Optimum Signal Processing , McGraw-Hill, 2000.

3. John G. Proakis, Dimitris G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall of India, New

Delhi, 2005.

4. Simon Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, Prentice Hall, Englehood Cliffs, NJ1986.

5. S. Kay, Modern spectrum Estimation theory and application, Prentice Hall, Englehood Cliffs,

NJ1988.

6. P. P. Vaidyanathan, Multirate Systems and Filter Banks, Prentice Hall, 1992

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 10 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC6331 Title: ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

(L-T-P): 3-1-0 Credits :4

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I: DISCRETE RANDOM SIGNAL PROCESSING

Weiner Khitchine relation - Power spectral density filtering

random process, Spectral Factorization Theorem, special types

of random process Signal modeling-Least Squares method, 14 25

Pade approximation, Pronys method, iterative Prefiltering, Finite

Data records, Stochastic Models.

Module II:

Non-Parametric methods - Correlation method - Co-variance

7 12

estimator - Performance analysis of estimators Unbiased consistent

estimators.

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Periodogram estimator - Barlett spectrum estimation- Welch

estimation - Model based approach - AR, MA, ARMA Signal

7 13

modeling - Parameter estimation using Yule-Walker method

Module III:

ADAPTIVE FILTERS

FIR Adaptive filters - Newton's steepest descent method - Adaptive

filters based on steepest descent method - Widrow Hoff LMS

Adaptive algorithm - Adaptive channel equalization - Adaptive echo 14 25

canceller - Adaptive noise cancellation - RLS Adaptive filters -

Exponentially weighted RLS - Sliding window RLS - Simplified IIR

LMS Adaptive filter

Module IV:

MULTIRATE DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

Mathematical description of change of sampling rate - Interpolation

and Decimation - Continuous time model - Direct digital domain

approach - Decimation by integer factor - Interpolation by an 14 25

integer factor - Single and multistage realization - Poly phase

realization - Applications to sub band coding - Wavelet transform

and filter bank implementation of wavelet expansion of signals.

Page 11 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: DSP SYSTEM DESIGN

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

The aim of the paper is to introduce to the students the architectural features as well as the

programming aspects of the latest DSPs available in the market. The students at the end of

the course should be able to choose the appropriate processor for a given application

environment and should be in a position to design stand alone systems based on DSPs, given

a set of specifications.

Syllabus:

Introduction to a popular DSPs; DSP from Texas Instruments; DSP from Analog Devices;

Sharc Digital Signal Processor: Code Generation Tools ; Simulator;

Digital Signal Processing Applications: FIR and IIR Digital Filter Design, Filter Design

Programs using MATLAB; Real Time Implementation; Applications;

Current trend in Digital Signal Processor / DSP Controller.

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability to Implement

DSP algorithms on popular DSP processors/DSP controllers.

Text Books:

1. Naim Dahnoun, Digital Signal Processing Implementation using the TMS320C6000

DSP Platform, 1st Edition.

2. Rulf Chassaing, Digital Signal Processing and Application with C6713 and C6416

DSK, Wiley-Interscience Publication

3. Steven K Smith, Newnes, Digital Signal Processing-A Practical Guide for Engineers

and Scientists, Elsevier Science.

References:

1. T.J. Terrel and Lik-Kwan Shark, Digital Signal Processing - A Student Guide,1st

Edition; Macmillan Press Ltd.

2. David J Defatta J, Lucas Joseph G & Hodkiss William S, Digital Signal Processing:

A System Design Approach, 1st Edition, John Wiley

3. Rulph Chassaing, DSP Applications using 'C' and the TMS320C6X DSK, 1st Edition;

4. Andrew Bateman, Warren Yates, Digital Signal Processing Design, 1st Edition

5. John G Proakis, Dimitris G Manolakis, Introduction to Digital Signal Processing, 2nd

Ed.

6. Kreig Marven & Gillian Ewers, A Simple approach to Digital Signal processing, 1st

Edition, Wiely Interscience

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 12 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Introduction to a popular DSP from Texas Instruments: CPU

Architecture - CPU Data Paths and Control - Timers - Internal

Data/Program Memory - External Memory Interface - Programming -

12 25

Instructions Set and Addressing Modes - Code Composer Studio -

Code Generation Tools - Code Composer Studio Debug tools

Simulator

Module II:

Sharc Digital Signal Processor: A popular DSP from Analog

5 13

Devices - Sharc/ Tiger Sharc/ Blackfin (one of them) - Architecture -

IOP Registers.

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Peripherals - Synchronous Serial Port - Interrupts -

Internal/External/Multiprocessor Memory Space - Multiprocessing -

5 12

Host Interface - Link Ports.

Module III:

Digital Signal Processing Applications: FIR and IIR Digital Filter

Design, Filter Design Programs using MATLAB - Fourier

Transform: DFT, FFT programs using MATLAB - Real Time 12 25

Implementation : Implementation of Real Time Digital Filters using

DSP - Implementation of FFT Applications using DSP - DTMF Tone

Generation and Detection

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV:

Current trends: Current trend in Digital Signal Processor or DSP

8 25

Controller- Architecture and their applications.

Page 13 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: INFORMATION THEORY

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

Gives a detailed concept in Information Theory. Upon completion of this course, the

student will have a deep understanding of

Information and its measurement

Various source coding schemes

Concept of Channel capacity for both discrete and continuous channels and

Shannons theorems

Rate distortion theory and its applications

Syllabus:

Information and source, Entropy, Mutual and conditional mutual information, source coding

techniques, channel capacity, continuous sources and channels, information measures, Rate

Distortion Theory, properties.

Course Outcome:

The students will be able to:

Understand and apply fundamental concepts in information theory such as

probability, entropy, information content and their inter-relationships.

Understand the principles of data compression.

Compute entropy and mutual information of random variables.

Implement and analyse basic coding and compression algorithms.

Understand the relationship of information theoretical principles and Bayesian

inference in data modelling and pattern recognition.

Understand some key theorems and inequalities that quantify essential limitations on

compression, communication and inference.

Know the basic concepts regarding communications over noisy channels.

Reference:

1. T. Cover and Thomas, Elements of Information Theory, John Wiley & Sons

2. Robert Gallager, Information Theory and Reliable Communication, John Wiley

& Sons.

3. R. J. McEliece, The theory of information & coding, Addison Wesley

Publishing Co.

4. T. Bergu, Rate Distortion Theory a Mathematical Basis for Data Compression

PH Inc.

5. Special Issue on Rate Distortion Theory, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine,

November 1998.

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 14 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I :

Information and Sources: Zero Memory sources Concepts of

entropyExtension of a Zero memory sourceMarkov information

sources Entropy calculation Entropy of a discrete Random 10 25

variable Joint, conditional and relative entropy Mutual

Information and conditional mutual information.

Module II :

Source Coding: Uniquely decodable codes Instantaneous codes

5 13

Krafts inequality McMillans inequalityAverage length of a

code Optimal codes Shannon codes - Fano codes.

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Huffman Coding Optimality of Huffman CodesLempel Ziv

codes Shannons source coding theoremArithmetic coding. 4 12

Module III :

Channel Capacity: PropertiesData transmission over Discrete

Memoryless ChannelsCapacity of Binary symmetric and Binary

11 25

Erasure channelsComputing channel capacity ArimotoBlahut

algorithm Fanos inequality Shannons Channel Coding Theorem

Module IV :

Continuous Sources and Channels: Information measure for

Continuous sources and channelsDifferential Entropy Joint,

relative and conditional differential entropy Mutual information

Waveform channels Gaussian channels Mutual information and

Capacity calculation for Band limited Gaussian channels Shannon 12 25

limit.

Calculation of Rate Distortion Function for binary source

Gaussian

Page 15 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

To understand the filter design related to adaptive signal processing

To introduce different algorithms to implement adaptive signal processing

Application of adaptive signal processing

Syllabus:

Introduction to Adaptive systems; Wiener Hopf equation; Searching performance surface-

stability and rate of convergence LMS algorithm convergence of weight vector; lattice

structure; adaptive filters with orthogonal signals; Applications of filters.

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability to understand

the fundamental concepts of adaptive systems; Apply the concepts in filter design related to

adaptive signal processing.

References:

1. Bernard Widrow and Samuel D. Stearns, Adaptive Signal Processing, Pearson

Education, 2005.

2. Simon Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, Pearson Education.

3. John R. Treichler, C. Richard Johnson, Michael G. Larimore, Theory and Design of

Adaptive Filters, PrenticeHall of India, 2002

4. S. Thomas Alexander, Adaptive Signal Processing Theory and Application,

SpringerVerlag.

5. D. G. Manolokis, V. K. Ingle and S. M. Kogar, Statistical and Adaptive Signal

Processing, Mc Graw Hill International Edition, 2000.

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 16 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC6325 Title: ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Adaptive systems definitions and characteristics applications

properties examples adaptive linear combinerinput signal and

weight vectors performance functiongradient and minimum mean

11 25

square error introduction to filtering smoothing and prediction

linear optimum filteringorthogonality Wiener Hopf

equationperformance surface

Module II:

Searching performance surfacestability and rate of convergence 5 12

learning curve gradient search Newtons method

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Method of steepest descent comparison gradient estimation

performance penalty variance excess MSE and time constants

5 13

maladjustments

Module III:

LMS algorithm convergence of weight vectorLMS/Newton

algorithm properties sequential regression algorithm adaptive

10 25

recursive filters randomsearch algorithms lattice structure

adaptive filters with orthogonal signals

Module IV:

Applicationsadaptive modelling and system identificationadaptive

modelling for multipath communication channel, geophysical

exploration, FIR digital filter synthesis, inverse adaptive modelling, 11 25

equalization, and deconvolutionadaptive equalization of telephone

channelsadapting poles and zeros for IIR digital filter synthesis

Page 17 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

This course provides a deep knowledge on Internet architecture, Quality of service issues in

broad band networks, and Statistical multiplexing of communication networks.

Syllabus:

Internet Architecture: Application layer, Transport layer, Network layer, Link Layer-

protocol stack. Broadband services and Quality of Service issues in networks- Queuing

Disciplines - Weighted Fair Queuing - Random Early Detection - Differentiated Services -

Multi protocol Label switching - Discrete time and continuous time Markov chains- Poisson

process- Queuing models for Datagram networks- M/M/1 queuing systems- M/M/m/m

queuing models- M/G/1 queue- Mean value analysis, Statistical Multiplexing in

Communication Networks.

Course Outcome:

After completing this course the student must demonstrate the knowledge and ability to:

Independently understand basic computer network technology.

Understand and explain Data Communications System and its components.

Identify the different types of network topologies and protocols.

Enumerate the layers of the OSI model and TCP/IP. Explain the function(s) of each

layer.

Identify the different types of network devices and their functions within a network

Understand and building the skills of subnetting and routing mechanisms.

Familiarity with the basic protocols of computer networks, and how they can be used

to assist in network design and implementation.

References:

featuring the Internet, Addison Wesley.

2. D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks.

3. S. Keshav, An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking, Addison Wesley

4. Peterson L.L. & Davie B.S., Computer Networks: A System Approach, Morgan

Kaufman Publishers.

5. Anurag Kumar, D. Manjunath, and Joy Kuri, Communication Networking: An

Analytical Approach, Morgan Kaufman Publ.

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 18 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Internet Architecture: Architectural concepts in ISOs OSI layered

model, layering in the Internet. TCP/IP protocol stack. Transport

9 25

layer TCP and UDP. Network layer IP, routing, internetworking.

Data link layer ARQ schemes, multiple access, LANs.

Module II:

Broadband services and QoS issues: Quality of Service issues in

networks Integrated service architecture Queuing Disciplines 6 13

Weighted Fair Queuing - Random Early Detection.

Differentiated Services Protocols for QS support Resource

reservationRSVP Multi protocol Label switching Real Time

5 12

transport protocol.

Module III:

Introduction to Queuing theory: Markov chain Discrete time and

continuous time Markov chains Poisson process Queuing models

12 25

for Data gram networks Littles theorem M/M/1 queuing systems

M/M/m/m queuing models M/G/1 queue Mean value analysis.

Module IV:

Statistical Multiplexing in Communication Networks:

Multiplexing: Network performance and source characterization;

10 25

Stream sessions in packet networks deterministic analysis,

stochastic analysis, circuit multiplexed networks.

Page 19 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

Visual information plays an important role in almost all areas of our life. This course

introduces the fundamentals of digital image processing. It emphasizes general principles of

image processing, rather than specific applications. It cover topics such as image

representation, color representations, sampling and quantization, point operations, linear

image filtering and correlation, transforms and sub band decompositions, and nonlinear

filtering, contrast and color enhancement, dithering, and image restoration and compression.

It also introduces the basic concepts of video processing.

Syllabus

Image Representation, image transforms, image enhancement, histogram processing; Image

Restoration: Image Segmentation; Fundamental Concepts of Image Compression; image

compression standards; Video Processing; Representation of Digital Video, Motion

Estimation; Video Compression, Video coding standards.

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to

understand the fundamental concepts of image processing; Apply the concepts in Image

processing systems.

Text Books

1. A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of digital image processing, Prentice Hall of India, 1989.

2. R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, Pearson Education. II Ed.,

2002

References

1. W. K. Pratt, Digital image processing, Prentice Hall, 1989

2. A. Rosenfold and A. C. Kak, Digital Image Processing, Vols. 1 and 2, Prentice Hall,

1986.

3. H. C. Andrew and B. R. Hunt, Digital Image Restoration, Prentice Hall, 1977

Edition, 1995

5. A. M. Tekalp, Digital Video Processing , Prentice-Hall, 1995

6. A. Bovik, Handbook of Image & Video Processing, Academic Press, 2000

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 20 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC6345 Title: DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Image Representation: Gray scale and colour Images, image

sampling and quantization. Two dimensional orthogonal

transforms: DFT, WHT, Haar transform, KLT, DCT. Image

enhancement - filters in spatial and frequency domains,

11 25

histogram- based processing, homomorphic filtering. Edge

detection - non parametric and model based approaches, LOG

filters, localisation problem.

Module II:

Image Restoration: Degradation Models, PSF, circulant and block -

circulant matrices, deconvolution, restoration using inverse filtering, 5 13

Wiener filtering and maximum entropy-based methods

Image Segmentation: Pixel classification, Bi-level thresholding,

Multi- level thresholding, P-tile method, Adaptive thresholding,

Spectral & spatial classification, Edge detection, Hough 5 12

transform, Region growing.

Module III:

Fundamental Concepts of Image Compression: Compression

models - Information theoretic perspective - Fundamental coding

theorem - Lossless Compression: Huffman Coding- Arithmetic 11 25

coding - Bit plane coding - Run length coding - Lossy

compression: Transform coding - Image compression standards.

Module IV:

Video Processing: Representation of Digital Video, Spatio-

temporal sampling; Motion Estimation; Video Filtering; Video 10 25

Compression, Video coding standards.

Page 21 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objectives:

To introduce the terminology used in optical fibers

To describe the building blocks of an Optical Fiber system and to give clear

understanding of various components such as Optical fibers, Optical sources,

Photo-detectors and fiber amplifiers

To introduce loss and dispersion management

To introduce coherent and multichannel systems

Syllabus:

Introduction to optical communication: Evolution of Light wave systems, system

components, Dispersion in fibers, fiber losses non-linear effects, Optical Transmitters and

Receivers: Transmitters basic concepts, LED's structures, Spectral distributions,

semiconductor lasers, Modulation, Transmitter design, PIN and APD diode structures,

Advanced Lightwave Systems: Homodyne and heterodyne detectors, Multichannel Systems.

Course Outcome:

Fundamentals, advantages and advances in optical communication system. Types, basic

properties and transmission characteristic of optical fibers. Knowledge of working and

analysis of optical amplifiers and important parts at the transmitter (Semiconductor

lasers/LEDs, modulators etc) as well as at the receiver sides (optical detector etc.) of the

optical communications system. Configuration and architecture of coherent optical

communication, advanced system techniques and nonlinear optical effects and their

applications.

References

1. G.P.Agrawal, "Fiber Optic Communication Systems", 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2010

2. John M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition

,Pearson Education 2009

3. G. Keiser, "Optical Fiber Communication Systems", 4th edition, Tata McGrawHill. Edition,

2010.

4. Djafar.K. Mynbaev Lowell and Scheiner, "Fiber Optic Communication Technology", Pearson

Education Asia, 2009.

5. F.J.H. Franz and V.K. Jain, "Optical Communication System", Narosa Publishing House,

New Delhi 2000

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 22 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC6355 Title: ADVANCED OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I

INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL COMMUNICATION

Evolution of Light wave systems, System components, Optical fibers 10 25

- Step Index & Graded index - Mode theory, Fiber modes

Dispersion in fibers, Limitations due to dispersion - - Fiber Losses

Non-linear effects

Module II

OPTICAL TRANSMITTERS AND RECEIVERS

Transmitters basic concepts - LED's structures - Spectral

Distribution - Semiconductor lasers -Threshold conditions Single 5 12

mode semiconductor laser Laser Characteristics- Modulation

Transmitter design Receivers basic Concepts - PIN and APD diodes

structures- Photo detector Noise- Receiver sensitivity BER and 5 13

quantum limit - Receiver design.

Module III:

ADVANCED LIGHTWAVE SYSTEMS

Homodyne and heterodyne detectors Advanced modulation formats

- Demodulation schemes - BER in synchronous receivers - Sensitivity

degradation Systems with the DBPSK format and DQPSK System 11 25

employing Orthogonal FDM

Module IV

MULTICHANNEL SYSTEMS

WDM systems, multiple access networks - WDM Components -

XPM based and FWM based wavelength converters Fiber based

optical regenerator - Hetero wavelength linear crosstalk and homo 11 25

wavelength Linear Crosstalk TDM - Code-division multiplexing

Page 23 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

To give students an insight into the steps to be followed in doing a research

To provide an idea about technical report writing

Syllabus:

Introduction to Research Methodology; Formulating a Research Problem; Conceptualising a

research design; Methods of Data Collection; Processing and Analysis of Data; Writing a

Research Report; Ethical issues related to publishing; A study of the use of the following tools

like Matlab and LaTeX.

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have clear understanding about the steps

to be followed in doing research.

Text Books:

1. Ranjit Kumar, Research Methodology: A Step-by-step Guide for Beginners,

Pearson, Second Edition

2. Kothari, C.R, Research Methodology : Methods and Techniques, New age

International publishers

Reference Books:

Hill College, ISBN-13: 978-0073108582

2. Rudra Pratap, Getting Started with MATLAB: Version 6: A Quick Introduction for

Scientists and Engineers, 2001, Oxford University Press

3. Wayne Goddard and Stuart Melville, Research Methodology : An Introduction, 2nd

Edition, 2001, Juta & Co Ltd

Internal continuous assessment: 100 marks

Test 1- 30 marks

Test 2- 30 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-40 marks

Total-100marks

Page 24 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC6351 Title: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

(L-T-P): 0-2-0 Credits :2

% marks

Contact

Module Internal

hours

exam

Module I: Research Methodology: An Introduction

Meaning of Research, Objectives of Research, Motivation in

Research, Applications of Research, Definition of Research,

Characteristics of Research, Types of Research, Steps in Research

Process 7 25

Formulating a Research Problem

Reviewing the Literature, Formulating a Research Problem,

Identifying Variables, Constructing Hypothesis

Module II: Conceptualising a research design

Definition of a Research Design, Need for Research Design, Functions of Research

Design, Features of a Good Design

Methods of Data Collection 7 25

Collection of Primary Data, Observation Method, Interview Method, Collection of

Data through Questionnaires, Collection of Data through Schedules

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Module III: Processing and Analysis of Data

Processing Operations, Elements/Types of Analysis, Statistics in Research,

Measures of Central Tendency, Measures of Dispersion, Measures of Asymmetry

(Skewness)

7 25

Writing a Research Report

Research writing in general, Referencing, Writing a Bibliography, Developing an

outline

Writing about a variable

Module IV:

Interpretation of Data and Paper Writing Layout of a Research Paper, Journals in

Computer Science, Impact factor of Journals, When and where to publish ?

Ethical issues related to publishing, Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism 7 25

A study of the use of the following tools

Matlab / Simulink

LaTeX/ MS Office

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Page 25 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: SEMINAR

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

This course is intended for

Increasing the breadth of knowledge

Enhancing the ability of self study

Improving presentation and communication skills

Augmenting the skill of Technical Report Writing.

Students have to register for the seminar and select a topic in consultation with any faculty

member offering courses for the programme. A detailed write-up on the topic of the seminar

is to be prepared in the prescribed format given by the Department. The seminar shall be of

30 minutes duration and a committee with the Head of the department as the chairman and

two faculty members from the department as members shall evaluate the seminar based on

the coverage of the topic, presentation and ability to answer the questions put forward by the

committee

Course outcome:

The students who successfully complete this course will have the capability to

Understand technical articles in peer reviewed journals and conferences;

Analyze and present advanced topics in signal processing.

Presentation : 40 marks

Report : 30 marks

Page 26 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB

Pre-requisites: Nil

Course Objective:

This course enables the students to explore the concepts of designing and implementing

various systems using DSP kits, Simulate and study various systems using MATLAB.

Syllabus:

Development Environment

Familiarization to DSP project development stages. Study of the features of the processor

used. Development environment.

High Level Language Project Development

Developing projects in a high level language and cross-compiling. Familiarization with the

debugging facilities of the IDE. Profiling. Optimizations in C.

Assembly Optimizations

Assembly coding. Function calling conventions. Calling assembly functions from C.

Optimization by coding core modules in assembly.

Memory Map

Understand the memory map of the processor. Optimizations by using internal memory.

Real Time Processing.

Using the ADC and DAC for signal acquisition and play back. Real time filtering.

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability to practically

implement the DSP algorithms on DSP processor.

Reference

1. Jones D. DSP Laboratory with TI TMS320C54x [Connexions Web site]. January 22,

2004. Available at: http://cnx.rice.edu/content/col10078/1.2/

2. The manuals of the IDE and Processor being used.

Laboratory Experiments & Viva Voce 10 Marks

Final Internal Test 50 Marks

Total 100 Marks

Page 27 of 78

Kerala Technological University

SECOND SEMESTER

Course Title: ESTIMATION AND DETECTION THEORY

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

To introduce Detection theory and impart knowledge in both single observation and

multiple observations.

To introduce the need of Estimation theory and different methods for estimation

To understand the different properties of estimators

To introduce state estimation

Syllabus:

Detection theory : Binary decisions - Single observation- Multiple observations-Vector

observations Estimation theory Methods, Properties of estimators,State estimation:

Prediction; Kalman filter, Sufficient statistics and statistical estimation of parameters

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability to

understand the fundamental concepts of estimation and detection theory.

Reference books:

1. James L. Melsa and David L. Cohn, Decision and Estimation Theory, McGraw Hill.

2. Dimitri Kazakos, P. Papantoni Kazakos, Detection and Estimation, Computer Science

Press.

3. Steven M. Kay, Statistical Signal Processing: Vol. 1: Estimation Theory, Vol. 2:

Detection Theory, Prentice Hall Inc.

John Wiley & Sons Inc.

5. Jerry M. Mendel, Lessons in Estimation Theory for Signal Processing,

Communication and Control, Prentice Hall Inc.

6. Sophocles J. Orfanidis, Optimum Signal Processing, 2 nd edn., McGraw Hill.

7. Monson H. Hayes, Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modelling, John

Wiley & Sons Inc.

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 28 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC6312 Title: ESTIMATION AND DETECTION THEORY

(L-T-P): 3-1-0 Credits :4

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Detection theory : Binary decisions - Single observation. Maximum

likelihood decision criterion; Neymann-Pearson criterion; Probability

of error criterion; Bayes risk criterion; Minimax criterion; Robust 14 25

detection; Receiver operating characteristics.

Module II:

Detection theory: Binary decisions - Multiple observations; 7 13

Vector observations; The general Gaussian problem;

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Waveform observation in additive Gaussian noise; The integrating

7 12

optimum receiver; Matched filter receiver.

Module III:

Estimation theory

a) Methods: Maximum likelihood estimation; Bayes cost method

Bayes estimation criterion - Mean square error criterion; Uniform

cost function; absolute value cost function; Linear minimum variance

- Least squares method; Estimation in the presence of Gaussian noise 14 25

- Linear observation; Non-linear estimation.

Asymptotic properties; Sensitivity and error analysis

Module IV:

a)State estimation: Prediction; Kalman filter.

14 25

Concept of sufficient statistics; Exponential families of distributions;

Exponential families and Maximum likelihood estimation; Uniformly

minimum variance unbiased estimation.

Page 29 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objectives:

To impart knowledge in the concept of fading and diversity.

To familiarize with different techniques in cellular communication

To introduce the concept of spread spectrum and CDMA

To impart knowledge in fading channel capacity in different systems

Syllabus

Rayleigh fading channels. Cellular Communication-Multiple Access - Spatial reuse- Co-

channel interference Analysis - Hand over Analysis- Erlang Capacity Analysis-Spread

spectrum and CDMA-Rake Receiver- Fading Channel Capacity: Multiple Input Multiple

output (MIMO) systems- Cellular Wireless Communication Standards - GSM - IS 95 CDMA

- 3G systems

Course Outcome

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to

understand the fundamental concepts of wireless communications.

Text Books

1. Andrea Goldsmith, Wireless Communications, Cambridge University press.

2. Simon Haykin and Michael Moher, Modern Wireless Communications, Person

Education.

Reference Books

2. G.L Stuber, Principles of Mobile Communications, 2nd edition, Kluwer Academic

Publishers.

3. Kamilo Feher, 'Wireless digital communication', PHI, 1995.

4. R.L Peterson, R.E. Ziemer and David E. Borth, Introduction to Spread Spectrum

Communication, Pearson Education

5. A.J.Viterbi, CDMA- Principles of Spread Spectrum, Addison Wesley, 1995

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 30 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits : 3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Fading and Diversity: Wireless Channel Models- path loss and

shadowing models- statistical fading models- Narrow band and

wideband Fading models- Review of performance of digital

modulation schemes over wireless channels-Diversity- Repetition

11 25

coding and Time Diversity- Frequency and Space Diversity- Receive

Diversity - Concept of diversity branches and signal paths-

Combining methods- Selective diversity combining - Switched

combining-maximal ratio combining- Equal gain combining-

performance analysis for Rayleigh fading channels.

Module II:

Cellular Communication: Cellular Networks- Multiple Access:

5 13

FDM/TDM/FDMA/TDMA- Spatial reuse- Co-channel interference

Analysis

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Hand over Analysis- Erlang Capacity Analysis- Spectral efficiency

and Grade of Service - Improving capacity - Cell splitting and 4 12

sectorization.

Module III:

Spread spectrum and CDMA: Motivation- Direct sequence spread

spectrum- Frequency Hopping systems- Time Hopping.- Anti-

jamming - Pseudo Random (PN) sequence- Maximal length

sequences - Gold sequences - Generation of PN sequences - Diversity

11 25

in DS-SS systems- Rake Receiver- Performance analysis. Spread

Spectrum Multiple Access - CDMA Systems- Interference Analysis

for Broadcast and Multiple Access Channels- Capacity of cellular

CDMA networks- Reverse link power control- Hard and Soft hand

off strategies

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV:

Fading Channel Capacity: Capacity of Wireless Channels - Capacity

of flat and frequency selective fading channels-Multiple Input

Multiple output (MIMO) systems- Narrow band multiple antenna

system model- Parallel Decomposition of MIMO Channels- Capacity

11 25

of MIMO Channels. Cellular Wireless Communication Standards -

Second generation cellular systems: GSM specifications and Air

Interface - specifications, IS 95 CDMA - 3G systems: UMTS &

CDMA 2000 standards and specifications

Page 31 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: CODING THEORY

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

Provides a thorough understanding of the theory and design of Channel codes for error

control. The course begins with an introduction to the basic Mathematical concepts and

develops systematically through Linear block codes to the Convolutional Codes.

Syllabus:

Finite Field Arithmetic - Groups- Rings- Fields- Arithmetic of Galois Field- Polynomial

Rings- Minimal polynomial and conjugates- Vector space- Linear Block Codes - Error

detection and correction - Hamming codesPerfect and Quasi-perfect codes- Extended codes-

Hadamard codes - Cyclic Codes - Generator and Parity check matrices - Cyclic encoders-

Error detection & correction- - BCH codes- Decoding of BCH codes-The BerlekampMassey

decoding algorithm. Reed Solomon codes- Convolutional Codes - Generator matrices and

encoding- state, tree and trellis diagram- Transfer function - Maximum Likelihood decoding

Hard versus Soft decision decodingThe Viterbi Algorithm- Soft Decision and Iterative

Decoding - Soft decision Viterbi algorithm- Two way APP decoding- Low density parity

check codes- Turbo codes- Turbo decoding

Course Outcome:

Students will learn both the theory and application of error-correcting codes.

References:

1. Shu Lin and Daniel. J. Costello Jr., Error Control Coding: Fundamentals and

applications, Prentice Hall Inc.

2. R.E. Blahut, Theory and Practice of Error Control Coding, MGH.

3. W.C. Huffman and Vera Pless, Fundamentals of Error correcting codes, Cambridge

University Press.

4. Rolf Johannesson, Kamil Sh. Zigangirov, Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding,

Universities Press (India) Ltd.

5. Sklar, Digital Communication, Pearson Education.

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 32 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Introduction to algebra: Groups Rings Fields Binary Field

arithmeticArithmetic of Galois Field Integer Ring Finite Field

based on Integer Ring Polynomial Rings Finite Field based on

10 25

Polynomial RingsPrimitive elements Construction and basic

properties of Finite Fields Computations using Galois Field

arithmetic Vector spaces Vector subspaces Linear independence.

Module II:

Linear Block Codes Matrix description of Linear Block codes

Minimum Distance of a Block code Error detecting and correcting 5 13

capabilities of a Block code - Standard Array and Syndrome

decoding.

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Hamming codes Perfect and Quasiperfect codes Extended codes

Hadamard codes. 5 12

Module III:

Cyclic Codes: Polynomial descriptionMinimal polynomial and

conjugates Generator and parityCheck matrices of cyclic codes

Encoding of cyclic codes Syndrome computation Error detection

11 25

decoding of cyclic codes Cyclic Hamming codes Binary Golay

codes BCH codesPerformance Decoding of BCH codes, Reed

Solomon codesEncoding and Decoding

Module IV:

Convolutional Coding: Structural propertiesEncoders for

convolutional coding State representation and the state diagram

The Tree diagram The Trellis diagram Transfer function of a

Convolutional code Systematic and Non systematic

Convolutional codes Catastrophic error propagation in

11 25

Convolutional codes Maximum likelihood decoding of

Convolutional codes Hard versus Soft decision decoding The

Viterbi Algorithm Sequential decoding Concept of interleaving

Block interleaving Convolutional interleaving Concatenated

codes Turbo codes Basic concepts Encoding with recursive

systematic codes.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 33 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

The course focuses on multirate signal processing which is the basic to modern signal

processing. Topics include multirate signal processing material such as decimation,

interpolation, filter banks, polyphase filtering, advanced filtering structures and nonuniform

sampling and the cosine modulated filter banks

Syllabus

Fundamentals of Multirate Theory and filter banks; Poly phase representation; M-channel

perfect reconstruction filter banks; Perfect reconstruction (PR) filter banks; quantization

effects in filter banks; Cosine Modulated filter banks

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to

understand the fundamentals of Multi-rate systems and filter banks; design multi rate systems

and filter banks.

Text Books

1. P.P. Vaidyanathan. Multirate systems and filter banks, Prentice Hall. PTR. 1993.

2. N.J. Fliege. Multirate digital signal processing, John Wiley 1994.

Reference Books

1. Sanjit K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing: A computer based approach, McGraw Hill.

1998.

2. R.E. Crochiere. L. R., Multirate Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall. Inc.1983.

3. J.G. Proakis. D.G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing: Principles. Algorithms and

Applications, 3rd Edn. Prentice Hall India, 1999.

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 34 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC6316 Title: MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Fundamentals of Multirate Theory: The sampling theorem

sampling at sub Nyquist rate Basic Formulations and schemes

Basic Multirate operations Decimation and Interpolation Digital

Filter Banks DFT Filter Bank Identities Polyphase representation 11 25

Maximally decimated filter banks: Polyphase representation

Errors in the QMF bank Perfect Reconstruction (PR) QMF Bank

Design of an alias free QMF Bank

Module II:

Mchannel perfect reconstruction filter banks: Uniform band and non 5 13

uniform filter bank tree structured filter bank -

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Errors created by filter bank system., Polyphase representation

perfect reconstruction systems 5 12

Module III:

Perfect reconstruction (PR) filter banks: Paraunitary PR Filter

Banks Filter Bank Properties induced by paraunitarity Two

channel FIR paraunitary QMF Bank Linear phase PR Filter banks

11 25

Necessary conditions for Linear phase property

Quantization Effects: Types of quantization effects in filter banks.

coefficient sensitivity effects, dynamic range and scaling.

Module IV:

Cosine Modulated filter banks: Cosine Modulated pseudo QMF

Bank Alas cancellation phase Phase distortion Closed form 10 25

expression Polyphase structure PR Systems.

Page 35 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: SPECTRUM ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

To impart knowledge in different methods of PSD estimation both in Non-parametric &

parametric methods

To introduce the filter bank methods

Syllabus:

Parametric method for line spectra, Filter bank methods

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to

understand the fundamental concepts of spectrum analysis techniques.

References:

2. Modern Spectral Estimation Theory & Applications, Kay SM, Prentice Hall

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 36 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC6326 Title: SPECTRUM ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Power Spectral Density: Energy spectral density of deterministic

signals, Power spectral density of random signals, Properties of

10 25

PSD

Module II:

PSD Estimation - Non-parametric methods: Estimation of PSD from

5 13

finite data, Non-parametric methods : Periodogram properties, bias

and variance analysis, Blackman-Tuckey method

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Window design considerations, time-bandwidth product and

resolution - variance trade-offs in window design, Refined

5 12

periodogram methods : Bartlet method, Welch method.

Module III:

PSD Estimation - Parametric methods: Parametric method for

rational spectra:- Covariance structure of ARMA process, AR

signals, Yule-Walker method, Least square method, Levinson-

Durbin Algorithm, MA signals, Modified Yule-Walker method,

Two stage least square method, Burg method for AR parameter

estimation. 12 25

noise, Non-linear least squares method, Higher order Yule-Walker

method, MUSIC and Pisayenko methods, Min-norm method,

SPIRIT method

Module IV:

Filter bank methods: Filter bank interpretation of periodogram,

Slepia base-band filters, refined filter bank method for higher

10 25

resolution spectral analysis, Capon method, Introduction to higher

order spectra.

Page 37 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: SPREAD SPECTRUM AND CDMA SYSTEMS

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

Upon completion of this course, students will have deep insight on spread spectrum

communication systems. The course imparts knowledge about principle of spread spectrum

and use of orthogonal codes, performance of CDMA systems under AWGN and fading

channels, use of CDMA systems in cellular communication and important CDMA

standards.

Syllabus:

Direct sequence spread spectrum, frequency-hop spread spectrum system, Spreading

sequences, Synchronization and Tracking. Performance of spread spectrum system in

jamming, AWGN and fading environments. Capacity and Coverage of cellular systems.

Multuserdetection and interference cancellation. CDMA cellular system standards

Course Outcome:

The student should be able to:

Understand the architecture and elements of a spread-spectrum system and a CDMA

system

Understand the characteristics of spread-spectrum signal waveforms

Understand the methods for spread-spectrum and CDMA system performance analysis

Apply their knowledge of Spread Spectrum technology to CDMA and wireless

systems.

Capture most recent development in CDMA and its role in 3G wireless systems

Reference books:

1. R. L. Peterson, R. Ziemer and D. Borth, Introduction to Spread Spectrum

Communications, Prentice Hall.

2. A. J. Viterbi, CDMA Principles of Spread Spectrum Communications,

AddisonWesley.

3. Vijay K. Garg, Kenneth Smolik, Joseph E. Wilkes, Applications of CDMA in

Wireless/Personal Communications, Prentice Hall.

4. S. Verdu, Multiuser Detection , Cambridge University Press.

5. M. K. Simon, J. K. Omura, R. A. Scholts and B. K. Levitt, Spread Spectrum

Communications Handbook, McGraw Hill.

6. Cooper and McGillem, Modern Communications and Spread Spectrum McGraw Hill.

7. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, McGraw Hill, 4th ed.

8. S. Glisic and B. Vucetic, Spread Spectrum CDMA Systems for Wireless

Communications, Artech House,

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 38 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Introduction to spread spectrum communication, pulse noise

jamming, low probability of detection, direct sequence spread

spectrum, frequencyhopping and timehopping spread spectrum

systems, correlation functions, spreading sequences

11 25

maximallength sequences, gold codes, Walsh orthogonal codes

properties and generation of sequences Synchronization and

Tracking: delay lock and taudither loops, coarse synchronization

principles of serial search and match filter techniques.

Module II:

Performance of spread spectrum system under AWGN, multiuser

Interference, jamming and narrow band interferences Low probability 5 12

of intercept methods

Optimum intercept receiver for direct sequence spread spectrum,

Error probability of DSCDMA system under AWGN and fading

5 13

channels, RAKE receiver.

Module III:

Basics of spread spectrum multiple access in cellular environments,

reverse Link power control, multiple cell pilot tracking, soft and

hard handoffs, cell coverage issues with hard and soft handoff,

spread spectrum multiple access outage, outage with imperfect

power control, Erlang capacity of forward and reverse links. 11 25

Multiuser Detection MF detector, decorrelating detector,

MMSE detector. Interference Cancellation: successive,

Parallel Interference Cancellation, performance analysis of

multiuser detectors and interference cancellers.

Module IV:

General aspects of CDMA cellular systems, IS95 standard,

Downlink and uplink, Evolution to Third Generation systems, 10 25

WCDMA and CDMA2000 standards, Principles of Multicarrier

communication, MCCDMA and MCDSCDMA.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 39 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: MARKOV MODELING AND QUEUEING THEORY

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

This course is a thorough treatment of Markov chains and Markov models of systems. It also

deals with the essential queuing theory and application of Markov models in the analysis of

queuing networks.

Syllabus

Stochastic Processes: Renewal Processes - Reward and Cost Models, Poisson Process; Point

Processes; Regenerative Processes; Markov Models: Discrete Time Markov Chain;

Continuous Time Markov Chain - PureJump Continuous-Time Chains, Regular Chains, Birth

and Death Process, Semi-Markov Processes; Single Class & Multi-class Queuing Networks:

Open queuing networks; Closed queuing networks; Mean value analysis; Multiclass traffic

model; Time Delays and Blocking in Queuing Networks: Time delays in single server queue;

Time delays in networks of queues; Types of Blocking; Two finite queues in a closed

network; Aggregating Markovian states.

Course Outcome:

The student should be able to do the following:

construct simple Markov chain models in discrete and continuous time and describe their

asymptotic properties and behaviour, in particular the Poisson process

model simple queueing systems with birth and death processes and calculate theoretical

quantities in these models such as expected queueing time and queue length.

Determine whether or not a Markov model is applicable to a given network performance

calculation.

Describe and assess the differences between the Markov and M/G/1 queuing models.

Construct or select a model and use it to analyse the performance of various protocols,

technologies and telecommunication networks.

Design optimal topologies for telecommunication networks.

Reference

1. Ronald W. Wolff, Stochastic Modeling and The Theory of Queues, PrenticeHall

International.

2. Peter G. Harrison and Naresh M. Patel, Performance Modeling of Communication

Networks and Computer Architectures, AddisonWesley.

3. Gary N. Higginbottom, Performance Evaluation of Communication Networks,

Artech House.

4. Anurag Kumar, D. Manjunath, and Joy Kuri, Communication Networking: An

Analytical Approach, Morgan Kaufman Publ.

5. D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks, Prentice Hall of India.

6. Ross, K.W., Multiservice Loss Models for Broadband Telecommunication

Networks, SpringerVerlag.

7. Walrand, J., An Introduction to Queueing Networks, Prentice Hall.

8. Cinlar, E., Introduction to Stochastic processes, Prentice Hall, 1975.

Page 40 of 78

Kerala Technological University

9. Karlin, S. and Taylor, H., A First course in Stochastic Processes, 2nd edition

Academic press, 1975.

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC6346 Title: MARKOV MODELING AND QUEUEING THEORY

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module1

Stochastic Processes: Renewal Processes Reward and Cost Models,

10 25

Poisson Process; Point Processes; Regenerative Processes; Renewal

Theorems.

Module 2

Markov Models: Discrete Time Markov Chain Transition

5 12

Probabilities, Communication Classes, Irreducible Chains;

Continuous Time Markov Chain

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

5 13

Process, SemiMarkov Processes.

Module 3

Single Class & Multiclass Queuing Networks: Simple Markovian

queues; M/G/1 queue; G/G/1 queue; Open queuing networks; Closed 11 25

queuing networks; Mean value analysis; Multiclass traffic model;

Service time distributions; BCMP networks; Priority systems.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module 4

Time Delays and Blocking in Queuing Networks: Time delays in

single server queue; Time delays in networks of queues; Types of 11 25

Blocking; Two finite queues in a closed network; Aggregating

Markovian states.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 41 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: COMMUNICATION SWITCHING AND MULTIPLEXING

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

The purpose of this course is to provide in-depth treatment on methods and techniques in

various switching and multiplexing schemes used in telecommunication networks

Syllabus:

Switching: Time and Space division switching, Generalized circuit switching, Fast packet

switching, Self routing Banyan networks, Types of blocking for a packet switch; Traffic

analysis: lost calls cleared, Erlang-B formula, lost calls returning and lost calls held models,

delay systems, Erlang-C formula; Blocking probability: Analysis of single stage and

multistage networks, Lee approximation, Jacobaeus method; Multiplexing: Stream sessions

in packet networks, Elastic transfers in packet networks - adaptive bandwidth sharing;

Statistical multiplexing: Effective Bandwidth approach for Admission control, Models for

traffic flow in packet networks, long range dependence and self similar processes.

Course Outcome:

The student will be able to:

understand the basic principles of switching and multiplexing schemes;

understand the concept of various switching and multiplexing schemes within the

telecommunication networks;

understand the conflicting issues and resolution techniques in switching and

multiplexing scheme.

References:

1. A. Kumar, D. Manjunath, J. Kuri, Communication Networking: An Analytical

Approach, Morgan Kaufman Publishers.

2. Hui, J.Y., Switching and Traffic Theory for Integrated Broadband Networks, Kluwer.

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 42 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC6356 Title: COMMUNICATION SWITCHING AND MULTIPLEXING

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits : 3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I

Switching: Performance and architectural issues: Packet switches

Circuit switches. Time and Space division switching Point to point

circuit switching multistage switching network Paulls matix for

11 25

representing connections Strict sense non blocking Clos network.

Generalized circuit switching Cross Point Complexity (CPC) Fast

packet switching Self routing Banyan networks Combinatorial

limitations of Banyan networks.

Module II

Types of blocking for a packet switch Output conflicts HOL

blocking. Traffic analysis: Traffic measurements, arrival

distributions, Poisson process, holding/service time distributions, loss 5 13

systems, lost calls cleared ErlangB formula, lost calls returning

and lost calls held models, lost calls cleared and held models with

finite sources, delay systems, Littles theorem, ErlangC formula ,

M/G/1 model.

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Blocking probability: Analysis of single stage and multistage

networks Blocking for Unique path routing Alternate path

5 12

routing The Lee approximation The Jacobaeus method.

Module III

Multiplexing: Network performance and source characterization;

Stream sessions in packet networks deterministic analysis, 10 25

stochastic analysis, circuit multiplexed networks. Elastic transfers

in packet networks-adaptive bandwidth sharing.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV

Statistical multiplexing: blocking analysis in circuit multiplexed

networks, with single rate or Multirate traffic Models for

performance analysis of integrated packet networks; deterministic 11 25

models, worst case analysis; stochastic models, large deviations

analysis. The effective Bandwidth approach for Admission control

Models for traffic flow in packet networks, long range

dependence and self similar processes.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 43 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

This course provides the students with a thorough foundation of Wavelet theory, construction

of wavelets and their applications in signal analysis.

Syllabus:

Fourier and Sampling Theory: Generalized Fourier theory, Fourier transform, Short-

time(windowed) Fourier transform, Time-frequency analysis, Fundamental notions of the

theory of sampling.Theory of Frames-Definition of frames, Geometrical considerations and

the general notion of a frame windowed Fourier frames.Wavelets: The basic functions,

Specifications, Admissibility conditions, Continuous wavelet transform (CWT), Discrete

wavelet transform (DWT).The multiresolution analysis (MRA) of L2 (R) - Regularity and

selection of wavelets - Construction of wavelets -Wavelet transform: Wavelet decomposition

and reconstruction of functions in L2 (R). Fast wavelet transform algorithms - Relation to

filter banks, Wavelet packets Construction of wavelets Biorthogonality and biorthogonal

basis, Biorthogonal system of wavelets - construction, The Lifting scheme.

Course Outcome:

The students will be able to:

understand the fundamentals of wavelet theory

familiar with the most commonly used wavelets (e.g Daubechies wavelets)

understand how to design perfect reconstruction filter banks

understand the link between design of filter banks and construction of discrete and

continuous-time bases for efficient signal analysis.

Enter into various concrete aspects of functional analysis which has interest for other

parts of mathematics.

Apply the fundamental aspects of the subject in the development of tools and

techniques which may be used in signal theory, communication techniques, graphical

algorithms and numerical analysis.

References:

1. Stephen G. Mallat, A wavelet tour of signal processing 2nd Edition Academic Press.

2. M. Vetterli, J. Kovacevic, Wavelets and subband coding Prentice Hall Inc.

3. Gilbert Strang and Truong Q. Nguyen, Wavelets and filter banks 2nd Edition

Wellesley Cambridge Press.

4. Gerald Kaiser, A friendly guide to wavelets Birkhauser/Springer International Edition.

5. L. Prasad and S. S. Iyengar, Wavelet analysis with applications to image processing

CRC Press.

6. J. C. Goswami and A. K. Chan, Fundamentals of wavelets: Theory, Algorithms and

Applications WileyInterscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons.

7. Mark A. Pinsky, Introduction to Fourier Analysis and Wavelets Brooks/Cole Series in

Advanced Mathematics.

8. Christian Blatter, Wavelets: A primer A. K. Peters, Massachusetts.

Page 44 of 78

Kerala Technological University

10. R. M. Rao and A. Bopardikar, Wavelet transforms: Introduction to theory and

applications AddisonWesley.

11. Ingrid Daubechies, Ten lectures on wavelets SIAM.

12. H. L. Resnikoff and R. O. Wells, Jr., Wavelet analysis: The scalable structure of

information

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 45 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC6366

Title: WAVELETS THEORY

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module 1

Fourier and Sampling Theory, Generalized Fourier theory, Fourier

transform, Short time (windowed) Fourier transform,

Timefrequency analysis, Fundamental notions of the theory of 11 25

sampling. Theory of Frames: Bases, Resolution of unity, Definition

of frames, Geometrical considerations and the general notion of a

frame, Frame projector, Example windowed Fourier frames.

Module II

Wavelets: The basic functions, Specifications, Admissibility

conditions, Continuous wavelet transform (CWT), Discrete wavelet

5 12

transform (DWT). The multiresolution analysis , MRA axioms,

Construction of an MRA from scaling functions The dilation

equation and the wavelet equation,

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Compactly supported orthonormal wavelet bases Necessary and

sufficient conditions for orthonormality. Regularity and selection of

6 13

wavelets: Smoothness and approximationorder Analysis in

Soboleve space, Criteria for wavelet selection with examples

Module III

Splines, Cardinal Bspline MRA, Subband filtering schemes,

Compactly supported orthonormal wavelet bases. Wavelet

2

decomposition and reconstruction of functions in L ( ). Fast wavelet 10 25

transform algorithms Relation to filter banks, Wavelet packets

Representation of functions, Selection of basis.

Module IV

Biorthogonality and biorthogonal basis, Biorthogonal system of 10 25

wavelets construction, The Lifting scheme.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 46 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

This subject is framed to set the required background in wireless communication.

Being the backbone for all the IT based developments; Wireless Sensor Network has

seen tremendous growth in the past decade. There are new techniques and protocols

emerging from time-to-time to cater the requirements of this rapidly growing area.

The subject will cover fundamentals and advanced topics of Wireless Sensor

Networks.

The treatment would look at current and upcoming wireless sensor networks,

protocols for various automation applications.

Syllabus:

Issues in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Sensor Networks Comparison with Adhoc wireless

networks-Challenges for WSNs, Enabling Technologies for Wireless Sensor Networks,

Sensor Network Architecture, Gateway Concepts, MAC Protocols MAC Protocols for Sensor

Networks, Routing Gossiping and Agent based Unicast Forwarding, Energy Efficient

Unicast-Broadcast and Multicast Geographic Routing.

Course Outcome:

After successful completion of the course, students should be able to:

Understand the different wireless sensor network basics and protocols .

Understand the basics of wireless sensor network development.

Text Books:

1. Holger Karl and Andreas Wiilig, Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor

Networks John Wiley & Sons Limited 2008.

2. I.F .Akyildiz and Weillian, A Survey on Sensor Networks,IEEE Communication

Magazine, August 2007.

References:

1. Wilson , Sensor Technology hand book, Elsevier publications 2005.

2. Anna Hac Wireless Sensor Networks Design, John Wiley& Sons Limited

Publications 2003.

3. C.Siva Ram Murthy and B.S.Manoj Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Pearson Edition

2005.

notes are to be referred to get practical and application oriented information

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 47 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC6376 Title: WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I

Issues in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Medium Acces Scheme-

Routing-Multicasting-Transport Layer Protocols-Self Organization-

Security-Addressing and Service Discovery Energy management-

Scalability-Deployment Considerations, Ad Hoc Wireless Internet.

Sensor Networks Comparison with Adhoc wireless networks-

12 25

Challenges for WSNs - Difference between sensor networks and

Traditional sensor networks Types of Applications Enabling

Technologies for Wireless Sensor Networks Single Node

Architectures Hardware Components Energy Consumption of

Sensor Nodes, Issues in Designing a Multicast Routing Protocol. OS

for WSN.

Module II

ARCHITECTURES

Sensor Network Architecture Data Dissemination-Flooding and 4 12

Gossiping-Data gathering Sensor Network Scenarios Optimization

Goals and Figures of Merit.

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Design Principles for WSNs- Gateway Concepts Need for gateway

WSN to Internet Communication Internet to WSN 5 13

Communication WSN Tunneling.

Module III

NETWORKING OF SENSORS

MAC Protocols MAC Protocols for Sensor Networks -Location

Discovery-Quality of Sensor Networks-Evolving Standards-Other 10 25

Issues- Low duty cycle and wake up concepts- The IEEE 802.15.4

MAC Protocols Energy Efficiency -Geographic Routing Mobile

nodes.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV

INFRASTRUCTURE ESTABLISHMENT

Routing Gossiping and Agent based Unicast Forwarding-Energy

Efficient Unicast-Broadcast and Multicast Geographic Routing- 11 25

Mobile nodes-Security-Application Specific Support - Target

detection and tracking-Contour/ edge detection-Field Sampling.

Page 48 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

The objective is to impart the concepts and architecture of Embedded systems and to make

the students capable of designing Embedded systems. To achieve this, the architecture and

programming of Industry popular 32-bit Microcontroller, ARM Cortex is covered in detail.

Syllabus:

Embedded Concepts, Architecture of embedded systems, ARM Architecture, Cortex-M3

Basics, Exceptions, Instruction Sets, NVIC, Interrupt Behaviour, Cortex-M3/M4

Programming, Exception Programming, Memory Protection Unit and other Cortex-M3

features, STM32L15xxx ARM Cortex M3/M4 Microcontroller Memory and Peripherals,

Development & Debugging Tools.

Course Outcome:

Understand the architecture and programming of Industry standard 32-bit popular

ARM Cortex Microcontroller

Select a proper Microcontroller for a particular application

Understand the usage of the development and debugging tools.

Text Books:

1. The Definitive Guide to the ARM Cortex-M3, Joseph Yiu, Second Edition, Elsevier

Inc. 2010.

2. Embedded/Real Time Systems Concepts, Design and Programming Black Book,

Prasad, KVK.

3. David Seal ARM Architecture Reference Manual, 2001 Addison Wesley, England;

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

4. Andrew N Sloss, Dominic Symes, Chris Wright, ARM System Developer's Guide -

Designing and Optimizing System Software, 2006, Elsevier.

References:

1. Steve Furber, ARM System-on-Chip Architecture, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education

2. Cortex-M series-ARM Reference Manual

3. Cortex-M3 Technical Reference Manual (TRM)

4. STM32L152xx ARM Cortex M3 Microcontroller Reference Manual

5. ARM Company Ltd. ARM Architecture Reference Manual ARM DDI 0100E

6. ARM v7-M Architecture Reference Manual (ARM v7-M ARM).

7. Ajay Deshmukh, Microcontroller - Theory & Applications, Tata McGraw Hill

8. Arnold. S. Berger, Embedded Systems Design - An introduction to Processes, Tools

and Techniques, Easwer Press

9. Raj Kamal, Microcontroller - Architecture Programming Interfacing and System

Page 49 of 78

Kerala Technological University

10. P.S Manoharan, P.S. Kannan, Microcontroller based System Design, 1st Edition,

Scitech Publications

In addition, manufacturers Device data sheets and application notes are to be referred

to get practical and application oriented information.

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC6386 Title: SYSTEM DESIGN USING EMBEDDED PROCESSORS

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I

Embedded Concepts

Introduction to embedded systems, Application Areas, Categories of

embedded systems, Overview of embedded system architecture,

Specialties of embedded systems, recent trends in embedded systems,

Architecture of embedded systems, Hardware architecture, Software

architecture, Application Software, Communication Software, 10 25

Development and debugging Tools.

ARM Architecture

Background of ARM Architecture, Architecture Versions, Processor

Naming, Instruction Set Development, Thumb-2 and Instruction Set

Architecture.

Module II

Overview of Cortex-M3

Cortex-M3 Basics: Registers, General Purpose Registers, Stack

Pointer, Link Register, Program Counter, Special Registers,

Operation Mode, Exceptions and Interrupts, Vector Tables, Stack

Memory Operations, Reset Sequence. 6 13

Instruction Sets: Assembly Basics, Instruction List, Instruction

Descriptions.

Cortex-M3 Implementation Overview: Pipeline, Block Diagram,

Bus Interfaces on Cortex-M3, I-Code Bus, D-Code Bus, System Bus,

External PPB and DAP Bus.

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Page 50 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Inputs and Pending Behavior, Fault Exceptions, Supervisor Call and

Pendable Service Call.

NVIC: Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller Overview, Basic

Interrupt Configuration, Software Interrupts and SYSTICK Timer. 6 12

Interrupt Behavior: Interrupt/Exception Sequences, Exception

Exits, Nested Interrupts, Tail-Chaining Interrupts, Late Arrivals and

Interrupt Latency

Module III

Cortex-M3/M4 Programming: Overview, Typical Development

Flow, Using C, CMSIS (Cortex Microcontroller Software Interface

Standard), Using Assembly.

Exception Programming: Using Interrupts, Exception/Interrupt 10 25

Handlers, Software Interrupts, Vector Table Relocation.

Memory Protection Unit and other Cortex-M3 features: MPU

Registers, Setting Up the MPU, Power Management, Multiprocessor

Communication.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV

Cortex-M3/M4 Microcontroller

STM32L15xxx ARM Cortex M3/M4 Microcontroller: Memory

and Bus Architecture, Power Control, Reset and Clock Control.

10 25

Controller, NVIC, ADC, Comparators, GP Timers, USART.

Software and Hardware tools like Cross Assembler, Compiler,

Debugger, Simulator, In-Circuit Emulator (ICE), Logic Analyzer etc.

Page 51 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

To familiarize with the concept of private key and public key crypto systems.

To introduce the concept of Elliptic curves

Syllabus:

Basic encryption techniques -Private key and Public key crypto systems - Message

authentication and hash functions Digital signatures -Elliptic curves -ECDSA

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to

understand the fundamental concepts of secure communication.

Text Books

1. Douglas A. Stinson, Cryptography, Theory and Practice, 2nd edition, Chapman &

Hall, CRC Press Company, Washington

2. William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security, 3rd edition, Pearson

Education

Reference Books

1. Lawrence C. Washington, Elliptic Curves, Chapman & Hall, CRC Press Company,

Washington.

2. David S. Dummit, Richard M. Foote, Abstract Algebra, John Wiley & Sons

3. Evangelos Kranakis, Primality and Cryptography, John Wiley & Sons

4. Rainer A. Ruppel, Analysis and Design of Stream Ciphers, Springer Verlag

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 52 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC6396 Title: SECURE COMMUNICATION

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Rings and fields - Homomorphism- Euclidean domains - Principal Ideal

Domains - Unique Factorization Domains -- Field extensions- Splitting 10 25

fields - Divisibility- Euler theorem - Chinese Remainder Theorem

Primality

Module II :

Basic encryption techniques - Concept of cryptanalysis - Shannon's 5 13

theory - Perfect secrecy - Block ciphers - Cryptographic algorithms

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

linear complexity - Non-linear combination of LFSRs - Boolean 5 12

functions.

Module III:

Private key and Public key crypto systems - One way functions - Discrete

log problem - Factorization problem - RSA encryption - Diffie Hellmann

11 25

key exchange - Message authentication and hash functions Digital

signatures - Secret sharing - features of visual cryptography - other

applications of cryptography

Module IV:

Elliptic curves - Basic theory - Weirstrass equation - Group law - Point at

Infinity -Elliptic curves over finite fields - Discrete logarithm problem on

11 25

EC - Elliptic curve cryptography - Diffie Hellmann key exchange over

EC - Elgamal encryption over EC ECDSA

Page 53 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: MINI PROJECT

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

communication and signal processing problems.

Syllabus:

The mini project work can be a design project, experimental project on any of the

topics in Communication engineering/ Signal processing area. The assessment of all the mini

projects should be done by a Committee consisting of three or four faculty members

specialized in the various fields of Communication engineering/ Signal processing. The

students will present their project work before the Committee. Each student group consisting

of maximum two members shall prepare and submit the project report to the Department

through respective guides. The head of the department will certify the reports and a copy of

the report will be kept in the Department Library.

The assessment details are to be announced to the students, right at the beginning of the

semester by the teacher.

Evaluation I 30 Marks

Evaluation II 30 Marks

Assessment by Guide 20 Marks

Total 100 Marks

Page 54 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: ADVANCED COMMUNICATION LAB

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

Be able to design enlisted experiments and implement using hardware

Acquire sufficient expertise in simulating these systems using MATLAB

Be able to design and implement self standing systems of their choice with

sufficient complexity.

Tools :

Numerical Computing Environments GNU Octave or MATLAB or any other

equivalent tool

Lab:

1. Implementation of digital modulation schemes BASK, BFSK, BPSK. Plot BER vs

Eb / N0. in AWGN channels.

2. Performance comparison of QPSK, DPSK, MSK & GMSK.

3. Communication over fading channels Rayleigh fading & Rician fading

channels.

4. Comparison of diversity combining techniques SC, EGC & MRC.

5. Simulation of CDMA systems.

6. Implementation of Matched filter, Correlation receiver & Equalizer.

7. Gram Schmidt Orthogonalization of waveforms.

8. Carrier recovery and bit synchronization.

9. Implementation of multicarrier communication.

10. Plotting Eye pattern.

11. Constellation diagram of various digital modulation schemes.

Mini project:

12. Mini project in the area of advanced communication/signal processing

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have the ability to implement

major concepts introduced in advanced digital communication.

Internal Continuous Assessment: 100 marks

Laboratory Experiments & Viva Voce 10 Marks

Final Internal Test 50 Marks

Total 100 Marks

Page 55 of 78

Kerala Technological University

THIRD SEMESTER

The student has to credit 2 theory subjects from the two groups of electives listed.

Course No: 09EC7317 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: SIGNAL COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objectives:

To familiarize with different coding techniques.

To introduce the concept of rate distortion theory.

To introduce different types of transforms

To familiarize with different data compression standards

Syllabus:

Review of Information Theory; Compression Techniques ; Huffman Coding; Arithmetic

coding, Run Length Coding, Dictionary Techniques; Rate distortion theory; Quantization;

vector quantization and structures for VQ; Mathematical Preliminaries for Transforms;

Data Compression standards; Speech Compression Standards; Audio Compression standards;

Image Compression standards; Video Compression Standards.

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have fundamental knowledge about

different coding schemes; rate distortion theory; various transforms and different

compression standards.

Text books

1.Khalid Sayood, Introduction to Data Compression, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.,

Second Edn, 2005.

2.David Salomon, Data Compression: The Complete Reference, Springer Publications, 4th

Edn., 2006.

3.Thomas M. Cover, Joy A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory," John Wiley & Sons,

Inc., 1991.

Reference books

1. Toby Berger, Rate Distortion Theory: A Mathematical Basis for Data Compression,

Prentice Hall, Inc., 1971.

2. K.R.Rao, P.C.Yip, The Transform and Data Compression Handbook, CRC Press.,

2001.

3. R.G.Gallager, Information Theory and Reliable Communication, John Wiley &

Sons, Inc., 1968.

4. Ali N. Akansu, Richard A. Haddad, Multiresolution Signal Decomposition:

Transforms, Subbands and Wavelets, Academic Press., 1992

5. Martin Vetterli, Jelena Kovacevic, Wavelets and Subband Coding, Prentice Hall

Inc., 1995.

Page 56 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 57 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC7317 Title: SIGNAL COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I

Review of Information Theory: The discrete memoryless information

source - Kraft inequality; optimal codes Source coding theorem.

Compression Techniques - Lossless and Lossy Compression -

Mathematical Preliminaries for Lossless Compression -Huffman

Coding - Optimality of Huffman codes - Extended Huffman Coding 10 25

Adaptive Huffman Coding - Arithmetic Coding - Adaptive

Arithmetic coding, Run Length Coding, Dictionary Techniques -

Lempel-Ziv coding, Applications - Predictive Coding - Prediction

with Partial Match Burrows Wheeler Transform, Dynamic Markov

Compression.

Module II

Rate distortion theory: Rate distortion function R(D),Properties of

R(D); Calculation of R(D) for the binary source and the Gaussian 5 13

source, Rate distortion theorem, Converse of the Rate distortion

theorem

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Quantization Uniform & Non-uniform - optimal and adaptive

quantization, vector quantization and structures for VQ, Optimality

5 12

conditions for VQ, Predictive Coding - Differential Encoding

Schemes

Module III

Mathematical Preliminaries for Transforms, Karhunen Loeve

Transform, Discrete Cosine and Sine Transforms, Discrete Walsh

11 25

Hadamard Transform, Lapped transforms - Transform coding -

Subband coding - Wavelet Based Compression - Analysis/Synthesis

Schemes

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV:

Data Compression standards: Zip and Gzip, Speech Compression

Standards: PCM -G.711, ADPCM G.726, SBC G.722, LD-CELP

G.728, CS-ACELP (-A) G.729, MPC-MLQ , G.723.1, GSM HR

VSELP, IS-54 VSELP, IS-96 QCELP, Immarsat - B APC, MELP, FS

11 25

1015, LPC10, FS1016, CELP, G721. Audio Compression standards:

MPEG, Philips PASC, Sony ATRAC, Dolby AC-3, Image

Compression standards: JBIG, GIF, JPEG & JPEG derived industry

standards, CALIC, SPIHT, EZW, JPEG 2000. Video Compression

Standards: MPEG, H.261, H.263 & H264.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 58 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

To study the mechanisms of speech production and various models used for speech

processing

To provide a knowledge of different coding methods used in speech and audio processing

Syllabus:

Digital models for the speech signal - mechanism of speech production - acoustic theory -

coefficients - Spectral analysis of speech- Auditory Perception-Speech coding -Speech

synthesis - homomorphic speech processing -.Speech Transformations - Automatic speech

recognition systems - pattern classification - speaker recognition systems - speaker

verification systems - speaker identification Systems. Audio Processing: - Modeling -. Music

Production - Content based retrieval.

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to

understand the fundamental concepts of speech and audio processing.

References:

1. .Rabiner L.R. & Schafer R.W., Digital Processing of Speech Signals, Prentice Hall

Inc.

2. OShaughnessy, D. Speech Communication, Human and Machine. Addison

Wesley.

3. Thomas F. Quatieri , Discretetime Speech Signal Processing: Principles and Practice

Prentice Hall, Signal Processing Series.

4. Deller, J., J. Proakis, and J. Hansen. DiscreteTime Processing of Speech Signals.

Macmillan.

5. Ben Gold & Nelson Morgan , Speech and Audio Signal Processing, John Wiley &

Sons, Inc.

6. Owens F.J., Signal Processing of Speech, Macmillan New Electronics

7. Saito S. & Nakata K., Fundamentals of Speech Signal Processing, Academic Press,

Inc.

8. Papamichalis P.E., Practical Approaches to Speech Coding, Texas Instruments,

Prentice Hall

9. Rabiner L.R. & Gold, Theory and Applications of Digital Signal Processing, Prentice

Hall of India

10. Jayant, N. S. and P. Noll. Digital Coding of Waveforms: Principles and Applications to

Speech and Video. Signal Processing Series, Englewood Cliffs: PrenticeHall

11. Thomas Parsons, Voice and Speech Processing, McGraw Hill Series

12. Chris Rowden, Speech Processing, McGrawHill International Limited

13. Moore. B, An Introduction to Psychology of hearingAcademic Press, London, 1997

14. Zwicker and L. Fastl, Psychoacousticsfacts and models, SpringerVerlag., 1990

Page 59 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 60 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC7327 Title: SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I

Digital models for the speech signal - mechanism of speech

production - acoustic theory - lossless tube models - digital models -

linear prediction of speech - auto correlation - formulation of LPC

equation - solution of LPC equations - Levinson Durbin algorithm -

10 25

Levinson recursion - Schur algorithm - lattice formulations and

solutions - PARCOR coefficients - Spectral analysis of speech - Short

Time Fourier analysis - filter bank design. Auditory Perception:

Psychoacoustics - Frequency Analysis and Critical Bands Masking

properties of human ear

Module II

Speech coding -subband coding of speech - transform coding -

channel vocoder - formant vocoder cepstral vocoder - vector

5 13

quantizer coder- Linear predictive Coder. Speech synthesis - pitch

extraction algorithms - gold rabiner pitch trackers - autocorrelation

pitch trackers

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

voice/unvoiced detection - homomorphic speech processing -

homomorphic systems for convolution - complex cepstrums - pitch

5 12

extraction using homomorphic speech processing. Sound Mixtures

and Separation - CASA, ICA & Model based separation.

Module III

Speech Transformations - Time Scale Modification - Voice

Morphing. Automatic speech recognition systems - isolated word

recognition - connected word recognition large vocabulary word 11 25

recognition systems - pattern classification - DTW, HMM - speaker

recognition systems - speaker verification systems speaker

identification Systems.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV

Audio Processing: Non speech and Music Signals - Modeling -

Differential transform and subband coding of audio signals &

standards - High Quality Audio coding using Psychoacoustic models

11 25

- MPEG Audio coding standard. Music Production - sequence of

steps in a bowed string instrument - Frequency rSPonse measurement

of the bridge of a violin. Audio Data bases and applications - Content

based retrieval.

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 61 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: BIOMEDICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objectives:

To impart knowledge about the principle of different types of bio-medical signals

To give ideas about the interpretation of various signals in biomedical applications

Syllabus:

Introduction to Biomedical signals, Origin of bio-potentials - Fourier Transform and Time

Frequency Analysis - -spectral estimation

Concurrent, coupled and correlated processes - Adaptive and optimal filtering - Modeling of

Biomedical signals - Detection of biomedical signals in noise

Cardio vascular applications : ECG parameters & their estimation - Arrhythmia analysis -

Data Compression: - Heart Rate Variability - Spectral analysis of heart rate variability -

Neurological Applications: - EEG applications- Model based spectral analysis

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to

understand the fundamental concepts of biomedical signal processing

Reference Books:

1. Bruce, Biomedical Signal Processing & Signal Modeling, Wiley, 2001

2. Srnmo, Bioelectrical Signal Processing in Cardiac & Neurological Applications,

Elsevier

3. Rangayyan, Biomedical Signal Analysis, Wiley 2002.

4. Semmlow, Marcel Dekker Biosignal and Biomedical Image Processing, 2004

5. Enderle, Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, 2/e, Elsevier, 2005

6. D.C.Reddy , Biomedical Signal Processing: Principles and techniques, Tata McGraw

Hill, New Delhi, 2005

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 62 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC7337 Title: BIOMEDICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I

Introduction to Biomedical Signals - Examples of Biomedical signals

- ECG, EEG, EMG etc - Tasks in Biomedical Signal Processing -

Computer Aided Diagnosis. Origin of bio-potentials - Review of

10 25

linear systems - Fourier Transform and Time Frequency Analysis -

(Wavelet) of biomedical signals- Processing of Random & Stochastic

signals - spectral estimation Properties and effects of noise in

biomedical instruments - Filtering in biomedical instruments

Module II

Concurrent, coupled and correlated processes - illustration with case

studies - Adaptive and optimal filtering - Modeling of Biomedical 5 13

signals - Detection of biomedical signals in noise - removal of

artifacts of one signal embedded in another

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Maternal-Fetal ECG Muscle -contraction interference. Event

detection - case studies with ECG & EEG - Independent component

5 12

Analysis - Cocktail party problem applied to EEG signals -

Classification of biomedical signals.

Module III

Cardio vascular applications : Basic ECG - Electrical Activity of the

heart- ECG data acquisition ECG parameters & their estimation -

Use of multiscale analysis for ECG parameters estimation - Noise &

Artifacts - ECG Signal Processing: Baseline Wandering, Power line

11 25

interference, Muscle noise filtering QRS detection - Arrhythmia

analysis - Data Compression: Lossless & Lossy- Heart Rate

Variability Time Domain measures - Heart Rhythm representation -

Spectral analysis of heart rate variability - interaction with other

physiological signals.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV

Neurological Applications: The electroencephalogram - EEG rhythms

& waveform - categorization of EEG activity - recording techniques -

EEG applications- Epilepsy, sleep disorders, brain computer

interface. Modeling EEG- linear, stochastic models - Non linear

11 25

modeling of EEG - artifacts in EEG & their characteristics and

processing - Model based spectral analysis - EEG segmentation -

Joint Time-Frequency analysis - correlation analysis of EEG channels

- coherence analysis of EEG channels.

Page 63 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: DSP ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURES

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

The evolving field of ASIC design enables the customized design of DSP algorithms on

dedicated chips. This paper introduces systematic approaches for mapping algorithms to

VLSI architectures. It deals with representation of DSP algorithms, various techniques to

optimize these architectures for various parameters such as computation time, hardware,

space and power consumption. It also introduces fast DSP algorithms for efficient hardware

implementation.

Syllabus:

DSP Algorithm Design; DSP representations; fixed-point DSP design; filter structures;

System modelling and performance measures;

Circuits and DSP Architecture Design; Fast filtering; VLSI performance measures; Analog

signal processing for fast operation;

DSP Module Synthesis; Distributed arithmetic; Implementation of elementary functions;

High performance arithmetic unit; Parallel algorithms and their dependence; Applications to

some common DSP algorithms; Algebraic technique for mapping algorithms.

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability for mapping

DSP algorithms to ASIC/VLSI architectures.

References:

1. Sen M.Kuo , Woon-Seng S. Gan, Digal Signal Processors: Architectures,

Implementations, and Applications Prentice Hall 2004.

2. Keshab K. Parhi, VLSI Signal Processing Systems, Design and Implementation, John

Wiley & Sons,1999.

3. Uwe Meyer-Baese, Digital Signal Processing with Field Programmable Gate Array,

Springer- Verlag 2001

4. John G. Proakis , Dimitris Manolakis K, DSP Principles, Algorithms and

Applications, Prentice Hall 1995

5. Pirsch, Architectures for Digital Signal Processing, John Wiley and Sons, 1998.

6. Lars Wanhammar, DSP Integrated Circuits, Academic Press, 1999

7. Parhami, Behrooz, Computer Arithmetic: Algorithms and Hardware Designs, Oxford

University Press, 2000

8. Israel Koren, A. K. Peters, Natick, Computer Arithmetic Algorithms, MA, 2002

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 64 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC7347 Title: DSP ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURES

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I

DSP representations (data-flow, control-flow, and signal-flow graphs,

block diagrams),fixed-point DSP design (A/D precision, coefficient

quantization, round-off and scaling), filter structures (recursive, non- 10 25

recursive and lattice), algorithmic simulations of DSP systems in C,

behavioral modeling in HDL. System modeling and performance

measures.

Module II

Fast filtering algorithms (Winograd's, FFT, short- length FIR), re-

timing and pipelining, block processing, folding, distributed 5 13

arithmetic architectures, VLSI performance measures (area, power,

and speed), structural modeling in VHDL.

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Analog signal processing for fast operation. Impact of non ideal

characteristics of analog functional blocks on the system 5 12

performance.

Module III

Distributed arithmetic (DA). Advantageous of using DA. Size

reduction of look-up tables. Canonic signed digit arithmetic.

Implementation of elementary functions Table-oriented methods.

Polynomial approximation Random number generators. Linear 11 25

feedback shift register. High performance arithmetic unit

architectures (adders, multipliers, dividers), bit-parallel, bit-serial,

digit-serial, carry-save architectures, redundant number system,

modeling for synthesis in HDL, synthesis place-and-route.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV

Applications to some common DSP algorithms. System timing using

the scheduling vector. Projection of the dependence graph using a

projection direction. The delay operator and z-transform techniques

for mapping DSP algorithms onto processor arrays. Algebraic

11 25

technique for mapping algorithms. The computation domain. The

dependence matrix of a variable. The scheduling and projection

functions. Data broadcast and pipelining Applications using common

DSP algorithms.

Page 65 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC7357 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: GRAPH THEORY

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objectives:

To introduce different concepts in graph theory

Syllabus:

Introduction to graphs, basics in graphs, operations on graphs, Trees: definitions and

properties, Matrix representation of graphs, Planar graphs, Euler formula, Hamiltonian

graphs, graph colouring and chromatic polynomials, Network flows and max-flow min-cut

theorem, Digraphs: connectivity, Polynomial algorithms and NP completeness, BFS, DFS,

Kruskals, Prims, Dijkstras & Floyds algorithms.

Course Outcome:

After the course the student will have a strong background of graph theory which has diverse

applications in the areas of computer science, biology, chemistry, physics, sociology, and

engineering.

References:

1. Gary Chartrand, Ping Zhang, Introduction to Graph Theory, McGraw Hill

International Edition, 2005.

2. J Clark and D. A Holton. A First Look at Graph Theory. Allied Publishers (World

Scientific). New Delhi, 1991.

3. R. P. Grimaldi, Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics: An Applied Introduction.

Addison Wesley, 1994.

4. T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson and R. L. Rivest, Introduction to Algorithms PHI

1990.

5. C. R. Foulds, Graph Theory Applications, Narosa Publishing House, 1994

6. Harary. F, Graph Theory, Addison Wesley, 1972.

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 66 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Introduction to graphs, definitions, subgraphs, paths and cycles,

isomorphism, cut vertex, bridge, block, bipartite graph, complement

10 25

of a graph, vertex and edge connectivity, degree sequence, metric ,

eccentricity, centre , median.

Module II:

Trees, definitions and properties, rooted trees, trees and sorting,

5 13

weighted trees and prefix codes, Matrix representation of graphs.

Adjacency, Incidence and Distance matrices, Matrix tree theorem,

5 12

biconnected components and articulation points.

Module III:

Planar graphs, Euler formula, platonic bodies. Hamiltonian graphs,

graph colouring and chromatic polynomials, Network flows and max- 11 25

flow min-cut theorem.

Module IV:

Digraphs, connectivity, acyclic digraphs, tournaments, Algorithms

and complexity, Polynomial algorithms and NP completeness, BFS,

11 25

DFS, Kruskals, Prims, Dijkstras & Floyds algorithms.

Page 67 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, the students will have deep knowledge and insight on vector

space representation of signals, bases, orthonormal bases, analysis of linear systems, eigen

values and eigen vectors, infinite dimensional vector spaces and Hilbert spaces.

Syllabus:

Finite Dimensional Signal Space: Vector Spaces Definition, Properties. Subspaces, Inner-

Product Spaces , Linear Functionals and Adjoints, Standard Ordered Bases, DFT Bases, DCT

Bases. Linear Systems :Linear Maps, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Operators on Inner-

Product Spaces, Some Important Classes of Linear Systems, Infinite Dimensional Signal

Spaces, Metric Spaces Hilbert spaces.

Course Outcome:

The students will be able to rigorously apply the mathematics of linear analysis to

characterize and approximate the behaviour systems.

References:

1. Sheldon Axler, Linear Algebra Done Right, Springer

2. G. F. Simmons, Introduction to Topology and Modern Analysis, Tata McGraw

Hill.

3. Paul R. Halmos, FiniteDimensional Vector Spaces, Springer

4. Todd K. Moon and Wynn C. Stirling, Mathematical Methods and Algorithms for

Signal Processing, Pearson

5. Arch W. Naylor and George R. Sell, Linear Operator Theory in Engineering and

Science, Springer

6. Peter D. Lax, Linear Algebra, Wiley Students Edition.

7. Michael W. Frazier, An Introduction to Wavelets Through Linear Algebra, Springer.

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 68 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Finite Dimensional Signal Space: Vector Spaces : Complex Numbers,

Definition of Vector Space, Properties of Vector Spaces, Subspaces,

Sums and Direct Sums, Span and Linear Independence, Bases, 11 25

Dimension InnerProduct Spaces : Inner Products, Norms,

Orthonormal Bases, Orthogonal Projections and Minimization

Problems, Linear Functionals and Adjoints Some Important Bases :

Standard Ordered Bases, DFT Bases, DCT Bases.

Module II :

Linear Systems :Linear Maps : Definitions and Examples, Null Spaces

5 12

and Ranges, The Matrix of a Linear Map, Invertibility. Eigenvalues and

Eigenvectors

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Invariant Subspaces, Polynomials Applied to Operators,

UpperTriangular Matrices, Diagonal Matrices, Invariant Subspaces on 5 13

Real Vector Spaces

Module III:

Linear Systems : Operators on InnerProduct Spaces : SelfAdjoint and

Normal Operators, The Spectral Theorem, Normal Operators on Real

InnerProduct Spaces, Positive Operators, Isometries, Polar and 11 25

SingularValue Decompositions. Some Important Classes of Linear

Systems : Shift Invariant systems and Toeplitz matrices. Operators and

square matrices. Self adjoint operators and Hermitian matrices.

Projections and idempotent matrices. Rotations and unitary matrices.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV:

Infinite Dimensional Signal Spaces : Metric Spaces : Definition,

Convergence and Completeness. Hilbert spaces : Introduction [Ref 3,

Appendix]. l2 and L2 spaces. Definition and some properties.

10 25

Orthogonal Complements, Orthonormal Sets, Fourier Expansion.

Conjugate Space, Adjoint of an Operator, Self Adjoint Operators,

Normal and Unitary operators, Projections.

Page 69 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: OPTIMISATION TECHNIQUES

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

The aim of this course is to expose students to various deterministic optimization tools and

techniques. The course generally covers topics such as: an overview of mathematical

modeling, linear and non linear programming and various constrained & unconstrained

optimization techniques which will be useful for engineering applications.

Syllabus:

Mathematical Background Sequences and Subsequences Minima and maxima of functions-

Differentiable functions. Linear transformation; Introduction to Linear Programming: -

Optimization model, formulation and applications; Classical optimization techniques;

Sensitivity analysis and parametric programming, Nonlinear Programming: Minimization and

maximization of convex functions,. Unconstrained optimization methods. Constrained

optimization examples, Convex programming problems.

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated ability to develop

optimization algorithms and use them in signal processing applications.

References:

1. David G Luenberger, .Linear and Non Linear Programming., 2nd Ed, Addison

Wesley.

2. S.S.Rao, .Engineering Optimization.; Theory and Practice; Revised 3rd Edition, New

Age International Publishers, New Delhi

3. S.M. Sinha, Mathematical programming: Theory and Methods, Elsevier.

4. Hillier and Lieberman Introduction to Operations Research, McGrawHill, 8th edition.

5. Saul I Gass, Linear programming, McGrawHill, 5th edition.

6. Bazarra M.S., Sherali H.D. & Shetty C.M., Nonlinear Programming Theory and

Algorithms, John Wiley, New York.

7. Kalyanmoy Deb, Optimization for Engineering: DesignAlgorithms and Examples,

Prentice Hall (India).

Internal continuous assessment :

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 mark

Total-40mark

Page 70 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I: Mathematical Background: Sequences and Subsequences-

Mapping and functions- Continuous functions- Infimum and Supremum

of functions- Minima and maxima of functions- Differentiable

functions. Vectors and vector spaces-Matrices- Linear transformation-

Quadratic forms- Definite quadratic forms- Gradient and Hessian-

Linear equations- Solution of a set of linear equations -Basic solution

11 25

and degeneracy. Convex sets and Convex cones-Introduction and

preliminary definition- Convex sets and properties- Convex Hulls-

Extreme point- Separation and support of convex sets- Convex

Polytopes and Polyhedra- Convex cones- Convex and concave

functions- Basic properties- Differentiable convex functions-

Generalization of convex functions.

Module II: Linear Programming: Introduction -Optimization model,

formulation and applications -Classical optimization techniques: Single

and multi variable problems-Types of constraints. Linear optimization 5 13

algorithms: The simplex method -Basic solution and extreme point -

Degeneracy

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

The primal simplex method -Dual linear programs - Primal, dual, and

duality theory - The dual simplex method -The primal-dual algorithm-

5 12

Duality applications. Post optimization problems: Sensitivity analysis

and parametric programming

Module III: Nonlinear Programming: Minimization and maximization of

convex functions- Local & Global optimum - Convergence-Speed of

convergence. Unconstrained optimization: One dimensional

minimization - Elimination methods: Fibonacci & Golden section search

11 25

- Gradient methods - Steepest descent method. Constrained

optimization: Constrained optimization with equality and inequality

constraints. Kelley's convex cutting plane algorithm - Gradient

projection method - Penalty Function methods.

SECOND INTERNAL TEST

Module IV: Constrained optimization: Lagrangian method - Sufficiency

conditions - Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions- Rate of convergence -

10 25

Engineering applications Quadratic programming problems-Convex

programming problems

END SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Page 71 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC7387 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: TRANSFORM THEORY

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objectives:

To impart a thorough knowledge in Discrete Fourier Transform and the Karhunen-Loeve

transform

Syllabus:

Review of Linear Algebra , Spectral Theorem for Matrices, The Discrete Fourier Transform,

The Discrete Time Fourier Transform, The Fourier Transform, The Karhunen-Loeve

transform, Optimal Transform, Independent Component Analysis.

Course Outcome:

Students who successfully complete this course will have demonstrated an ability to

understand the fundamental concepts of transform theory.

References:

1. Michael W. Frazier, An Introduction to Wavelets Through Linear Algebra, Springer.

2. Aapo Hyvrinen, Juha Karhunen, and Erkki Oja, Independent component analysis,

John Wiley

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 72 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC7387 Title: TRANSFORM THEORY

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Review of Linear Algebra : Vector Spaces and Bases, Linear

Transformations, Matrices, and Change of Basis, Diagonalization of

10 25

Linear Transformations and Matrices, Inner Products, Orthonormal

Bases, and Unitary Matrices, Spectral Theorem for Matrices.

Module II:

The Discrete Fourier Transform: Basic Properties of the Discrete

5 13

Fourier Transform, Translation-Invariant Linear Transformations

Circulant Matrices, Convolution Operator, Fourier Multiplier

Operator. 5 12

Module III:

The Discrete Time Fourier Transform : l2(), Hilbert Spaces,

Complete Orthonormal Sets in Hilbert Spaces, L2([-,]) and Fourier

Series, The Fourier Transform and Convolution on l2(). 11 25

The Fourier Transform: L2() and Approximate Identities. The

Fourier Transform on .

Module IV:

The Karhunen-Loeve transform: Whitening of a Random Process.

Optimal Transform. Dimensionality Reduction. Independent 11 25

Component Analysis.

Page 73 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No: 09EC7397 Credits: 3-0-0: 3 Year :2015

Course Title: INFORMATION HIDING AND DATA ENCRYPTION

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objectives:

This course deals with the principles and implementation of secure communication.

It extensively covers cryptography, steganography, their methods and applications.

Syllabus:

Information security, digital rights management, digital watermarking and steganography,

watermarking in spatial domain, steganography in spatial domain, watermarking and

steganography in frequency domain, watermark detection, quality evaluation, watermark

security, steganalysis, steganography and cryptography, watermarking with visual

cryptography.

Course Outcome:

The students will be able to:

Identify techniques for data hiding

Analyse models of watermarking and Steganography

Identify different types of attacks

Apply data hiding techniques into different domains

References:

1. Ingemar Cox, Matthew Miller, Jeffrey Bloom, Jessica Fridrich, Ton Kalker Digital

Watermarking and Steganography, 2nd Ed., Morgan Kaufman Publishers

2. Fundamentals of Digital Image Watermarking Book Description, John Wiley & Sons

Fernando Perez Gonzalez, Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy

3. Fabien Petitcolas Stefan Katzenbeisser Information Hiding Techniques for

Steganography and Digital Watermarking, Artech publihsers

4. Wang, F. Pan, J. Jain, L. C. Innovations in Digital Watermarking Techniques, Springer.

Test 1- 15 marks

Test 2- 15 marks

Assignment/Tutorial-10 marks

Total-40marks

Page 74 of 78

Kerala Technological University

COURSE PLAN

Course No:09EC7397 Title: INFORMATION HIDING AND DATA ENCRPTION

(L-T-P): 3-0-0 Credits :3

% marks in

Contact end

Module

hours semester

exam

Module I:

Information security Digital rights management copy right

protection Information integration Digital watermarking and

steganography difference between watermarking and

steganography Classification, applications in content

11 25

authentication, medical images, audio and video requisites of

watermarking and steganography data hiding capacity, robustness

and imperceptibility Watermarking with side information fragile

watermark benchmark for watermarking data hiding in text

Module II:

Watermarking in spatial domain Additive methods, spread spectrum

5 13

based methods Steganography in spatial domain Information

theoretic approach for watermarking

FIRST INTERNAL TEST

Watermarking and steganography in frequency domain Based on

Discrete cosine transform, Discrete Wavelet transform and

Contourlet transform different methods Comparison between 5 12

frequency domain and spatial domain methods

Module III:

Watermark detection Operating characteristics Recovery of

embedded data Blind and non blind methods Quality evaluation

of data hidden images, audio and video. Quality evaluation with

11 25

and without reference Watermark securitysecurity requirements -

watermark security and cryptography some significant known

attacks - steganalysis statistical based techniques for steganalysis.

Module IV:

Difference between steganography and cryptography Encryption

and decryption for Watermarks Embedding and Extraction 10 25

Procedures Image hashing Watermarking with Visual

Cryptography Analysis of different methods.

Page 75 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: SEMINAR

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

This course is intended for

Increasing the breadth of knowledge

Enhancing the ability of self study

Improving presentation and communication skills

Augmenting the skill of Technical Report Writing.

Students have to register for the seminar and select a topic in consultation with any faculty

member offering courses for the programme. A detailed write-up on the topic of the seminar

is to be prepared in the prescribed format given by the Department. The seminar shall be of

30 minutes duration and a committee with the Head of the department as the chairman and

two faculty members from the department as members shall evaluate the seminar based on

the coverage of the topic, presentation and ability to answer the questions put forward by the

committee

Course outcome:

The students who successfully complete this course will have the capability to

Understand technical articles in peer reviewed journals and conferences;

Analyze and present advanced topics in signal processing.

Presentation : 40 marks

Report : 30 marks

Page 76 of 78

Kerala Technological University

Course Title: MASTERS RESEARCH PROJECT (PHASE I)

Pre-requisites: Nil

Objective:

The main objective of the Master Research Project is to identify current issues in the area

of Communication Engineering and Signal Processing. The ability of the student to address

contemporary issues and to find practical solutions to the issues increases. Also, continued

and self learning skill of the student is enhanced.

Project work is to be carried out in the third and fourth semesters. The project work

can be a design project/experimental project and/or computer simulation project on any of

the topics in communication/signal processing area and is allotted individually on different

topics.

Normally students are expected to do the project within the college. However they

are permitted to do the project in an industry or in a government research institute under a

qualified supervisor from that organization. Progress of the project work is to be evaluated

at the end of the third semester. For this a committee headed by the head of the department

with two other faculty members in the area of the project, of which one shall be the project

supervisor. If the project is done outside the college, the external supervisor associated with

the student will also be a member of the committee.

Project work is to be evaluated both in the third and the fourth semesters. Based on

these evaluations the grade is finalised in the fourth semester.

Course outcome:

The students who successfully complete this course will have the demonstrated capability to

Formulate a research problem and perform literature review

systematically carrying out a research and write technical reports

Presentation and evaluation by the committee : 30 Marks

Page 77 of 78

Kerala Technological University

FOURTH SEMESTER

Course No: 09EC7384 Credits: 0-0-21: 12 Year :2015

Course Title: MASTERS RESEARCH PROJECT (PHASE - 2)

Pre-requisites: 09EC7383

Objectives:

To improve the professional competency and research aptitude by touching the areas which

otherwise not covered by theory or laboratory classes. The project work aims to develop the

work practice in students to apply theoretical and practical tools/techniques to solve real life

problems related to industry and current research.

Syllabus:

rd

Project phase II is a continuation of project phase I started in the 3 semester. Final

evaluation of the project will be taken up only on completion of the project in the fourth

semester. This shall be done by a committee constituted for the purpose by the principal of

the college. The concerned head of the department shall be the chairman of this committee.

It shall have two senior faculty members from the same department, project supervisor and

the external supervisor, if any, of the student and an external expert either from an

academic/R&D organization or from Industry as members. Final project grading shall take

into account the progress evaluation done in the third semester and the project evaluation in

the fourth semester.

committee may extend the duration of the project up to one more semester, giving reasons

for this in writing to the student. Normally further extension will not be granted and there

shall be no provision to register again for the project.

Course outcome:

The students who successfully complete this course will have the demonstrated capability to

Formulate a research problem in signal processing area

systematically carrying out a research

Write technical reports and research publications

Committee Exam/Viva Voce

Page 78 of 78

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