Praessl Press, Calcutta

By

'_

l"HE MODERN 'REVIEW

. .

MARCH

VOL. LVII., No: 3

1935

WHOLE No: 339

TO A FRIEND

By 'WAMI VIVEKA \'NDA

Where darkne " is beheld as light And 'Ort'OW under toad a joy,

Where sic ne s mnsquerades a health And but tb~ new-born infant' cry Tells one it ives, 0 wi e one, ay,

> eekest- thou atisfa tion here?

Where strife and battl never cease, And 'len the father, pitiles ,

Turn out hi SOD, and th .. ole note I.. elf and ever. elf alone,

How dost thou hope 0 sage to nod The mine of everlasting' peace '?

.

Who au e cape this wretched w rid,

A very heaven and hell in one '!

ay, where can the poor slave, constrained With karma's fetter. in hi neck,

Find out at length hi freedom here '? Practice f Yoga, ·en. -delight, Householder's and monastic life,

Prayer, hoarded wealth, au terity

Dis as. ion, VOW!), a. ccticism,

·Tt'Je. ehave I fathom d through and through And so at last have come to know

'Ilf'at not a grain of joy i here,

Embodi d life is moekerv ,

The nobl '1' grow' thy' he"a:tt be sure, The I,.ore thy hare ~ pairr'rnu t, be.

o S fles lover gr at' 'leart,

--- Know iliou within this dis. WOL·ld

• There is no 1'0'0 a at all.f. [' ~!3e :

Can a frail roarblo bus r endure

''I'M blow an~l1nvil's 01 ss can 6.,r t

Be as one .lothful, vile and mean,

With honeyed tongne but poisoned 'heart, Empty of truth and self-co laved,

Then wilt thou find thy plac on earth!

For knowledge, taking even my life Hn.ve I devoted half my day ;

For 1 vc, like one in ane have I

Clutched oft-times at mere lifeless hades; And for religion many a creed

Have oUf,ht, along the Ganges' banks, In burning-grounds, by acrcd troams, Or deep in mountain caves hay dwelt, And many a day have passed on alms. Fri ndles and clad in scan ty rags,

B gging for food from door to door To fill my belly, and with frame Broken beneath tapasya's weight,But what the treasure 1 have earned 'I

Friend, let me peak my h nl't to thee, • One Jes on have I learned in life:

Thi dreadful world is to sed with waves And one boat only fares acres '

Study of scripture, ncred word, Restraint of breath, conflicting schools, Di pa 'ion, science, philosophy,

Hen e-pleasure,-are but freaks of mind, Love! Love! That is the only jewel! In oul and Brahman, man a. _, God,

In ghosts and spirits without 'hal_- .

In angel , beasts, birds, insect, wonii , Dwell Love, deep in the heart of all.

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Say, who else is the God of God ? S~, who else moves this univer e ? 1he mother dies to save her young, 't e robber steals; yet arc the e twain

By that; same Love divine impelled. Beyond both speech and mind concealed, -In grief and happiness dwells Love;

. Kali, all-terrible, it is, .

Death's own embodiment who come As kindliest mother to u . all.

Grief, sickness, l_Jinchiog poverty, Vice, virtue, fruit of deeds alike l}oth. good and ill, Love's worship are

In varying guise. or whom el e, say

Does any creanlre labour here?

Foolish is he who seek alone

His own delight j mad equally

Whoever racks his flesh with pain; Insane is he who long for death ; Eternal life,-a hopole quest l

However far and far you speed, MOllnting the harlot of the mind,

The self rame ocean of the world

Spreads out, its waves of bitterness'

And pleasure ever pllluging 00.

Hearken! thou bird bereft of wiug-, Th~ way lies no escape for thee.

Time- without number beaten back,

Why seek this fruitless ta k again? Renounce blind knowledge, feeble prayer, Vain offerings, petty self-e teem;

For the sole jewel is selfle s Love.

Behold, the insects teach us 0, Embracing swiftly the bright flame ! The tiny moth i blinded quite, Charmed with its beauteous, fiery-form

0, too, thy heart is mad with Love. o lover, cast u p~n the fire

The dros of all ~hy selfishness!

'ay, can a beggar live onteut ?

What profits Olle cold pity's glanc; ? Give ! if within thy heart reside

The slightest trea ure fit to share! Look not behind for recompense! Ay, to the Infinite born heir

.Art thon! Within thy bosom swells 'I'he ocean of unbounded Love. Give! Give! Whoever asks return, His ocean dwindless to a drop.

11'1'001 higheot Brahman to the worm, Even down to the least atom's core, All things with Love are interfused: • Friend, offer body, mind and soul

In constant service at th~r feet!

Thy God is here before thee new Revealed ill all these myriad forms; Rejecting such, where seekest thou

To find Him? Whoso worships these, Worships almighty God indeed.*

'" An English translation l:lJ John Uoffitt of the Bengali poem by Swami Virekananda, entitled "Sakhar Prati."

THE POETRY OF THE GOND

By VERRIER EL WIX

HERE is an entirely'non-literary and nonreligious poetry: a -poetry of earth ~ and sky, of forest, hill and river: a poetry of the changing seasons and the varied passions of men : a poetry of love, naked and unabashed: a poetry of dance and -drum and rhythm, free of all conveution aud 'restraint, W ordsworth say that. in humble and rustio I ife, "the essential ·passi.ons of the heart find a better soil in which they can attain their maturity, are less under restraint, .and speak a plainer and more emphatic Janguage . beoause in that condition of life our elementary feelings co-exist in a state of greater .simplicity ... a,p.d the passions of men are 'incorporated with the beautiful and permanent forms of nature." This is an exact decription of the poetry of the Gond.

Gond ~oetry finds expression in the Dhanda, or riddle, the Dadaria, the short song which is chanted by the woodcutter as be goes about hi"! business in the forest or by a. party of friend itting round the fire by night, but chiefly and supremely in the karma; the songs which accompany the famods dance which is said to symbolize the bringing oE the green boughs from the forest at the beginni.ng of spring.

There must be thousands of these karma:

I have a ollection of some two hundred, laboriously collected and still more laboriously translated, for many of the Gonds them elves -do not understand the meaning of all they sing, and jt needs the help of experts to clucid te the obscurer songs. Some are worthless 'as poetry or even as sense, but in ma y there are "gleams lik the flashi.ng of a shield";. while some rise to the heights of poetic thought and expression. There are a great variety of ,;Wetreli according to the raga(1:hat is to be ~u.r:g, every karma baving' ic.a a.f>pT<!priate turi'z.A~ Rhyme is not U::~"H'y emp.loved, the df"c: f the poem

.1 .... , '

b~jog gained by tlie rhy)htirlcal movement

of the words. ",'rhe form: of th~" karma is ,.,.norma~ a refrain at the begi.n -ing,' which

'.,

. . ,.

is sling over and over again lD the course of the dance and concludes the whole, followed by the burden of the poem, which mayor IDay not be related to the refrain and which may be very long or sometimes as short as only two Jines.

The karma dance is formed as follows:

a group of men with th~ drum stand in the ceutre, while a line of women, varying

in strength from two to a dozen or more, dances in front of them. Sometimes the swaying line of women moves to and fro, sometimes it circles round and round the men: sometimes when the circle is very large, a few girls will detach themselves from the rest and will go round the men very fast in the oppo ite direction to the largeT slow-moving dance. The best. dancers attain the most delicate and intricate movemeuts of the hands and feet, but especially . the feet, and after the dance bas continned half the night, even the least expert.hecomc inspired and the entire company is possessed by the very spirit, of rhythm. Sometimes the women will begin the songB, and the men have to pick up the tune and the words and answer them-c-it is an amusing sight to see a few trained women confounding

a gronp of men-s-and sometimes the men begin and the womeu answer. It is notable that there are a great many women poets, and incomparably the best karma have been given us by women. Here then we have a dance poetry, a living poew'Y recreated day by day, a. poetry of rhythm and delight, ~ung under the bright mOOD,

to the crash or the drums, the. music

of anklet and bangle, and the delicate movements of tile feet. There is a Gond riddle~".A dumb bird sits 011 a beautiful tree: shake the tree and the bird- awakes and ings." To which the ~swer is, "l)e anklet on the feet of a. girl 'who goes to

the dance." ~

" These poems are a window into the forest mind. It i"cry hard for the educated

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THE MODERN REVIEW FOR MAROH, 1935

274

"to think of the multitudes of the peasantrjs a real" people, or at least as 'people as real. as them elves. 'rho efforts of anthropologi ts to elucidate the customs and superstitions of the vUlager only ierve to accentuate the difference: he eems more bizarre than ever. He becomes an object of interest, often also an object of pity, but it is hard to think of him as a man of like passions with ourselves. The e poem" will how that even the 'aboriginal', with' bis trange knowledge and weird Cll tonis, his utter poverty and ;goorance, is of the arne co mou stuff of humanity, interested ill tho sam essential things. I believe that after reading their poetry carefully no one could again think of the forest people as mere cyphers in the population of India.

The karma range over a wide vari ty of subjects, and reveal a 10 e attachment to and obs rvation of nature. .Among their themes ar the copper-tinted border of a girl's dress shining in the sun like tire' a stream flowing beneath a plantain tree: hens scratching

• for food in tile forest, a goat munching in a thorny bush: the rain pouring down Oil thc des ed lover by the road-side, washing the mud off the walls of hou es, flooding the river. VV e sec the peasants washing themselves ill the river damming it up to catch fish, working till their backs are aching and ~y must go and sit in the cool hade to rest,

then planting chili or gnava in their courtyard while out ide the mangoe. ripen and the tamarind bear. fruit.

The mangoes grow in clusters. o laden is the tamarind;

.A IS near as seed to fruit,

o close should be our love,

·Several poem describe the village girls going for water to the well.

A fair and slender girl has gone for water

. to the well, 0

Lifr the pot from her bead for fear she may be burt. That cloth, what is it made of ? And what kind of pot is this?

The cloth i.s made of silver, the pot is made of gold.

Ne soe the-wall of cactus round the village, t eacoc Y spreading its fanlike tail on 1 . , e carts going along the mad, a dog barking at the moon and keeping e eryoues awake. The dance it elf is often de cribed.

, .

e

The dancers are dancing and the people gather round. How beautiful are feet adorned with silver.

How lovely are the ankles with their sounding rings. So the dancers are dancing and the people gather

~ round.

But especially as we might cxpect-e-the • forest and the fore, t "road have captured tbe imagination of these- poets. The forest is the place of Iove . the road the scone of

eparation and longing. '"

B fore me is 11. mountain : behind it is the forest. Where are you going, beloved? Take me with you

to th c fores t, For as dry leaves flame in the Iorest fire,

So my life burns for you.

The fore t is dangerolls-"O the jungle full of tiger" I How can we 0 cape? Ho ' '-ftl1d

ven in the narrow mountain pa,_ choked with mud, the tiger's footprints may be seen. But in on poem, the girl is proud that her lover brav its dangers. "My life is alone, cutting bamboo" in the fore b, and he is not afraid." For the forest is the madhubun, the wcet forest, the forest of beauty ~\I1d delight.

for at-bird I 0 forest-bird !

You want anklets for your feet, O! - You want a necklace for your thr at, O!

But where will you get their price, here in the

. beautiful forest?

o forest-bird I

But the forest-road 1 the place of separation. The dread of sepnratiou and death casts a sombre shadow over these poem.

Death will make entry into thv body which is

. so beautiful.

n brother, eparation will come to this sweet

life of oms.

Every parL of my body weeps for thee. l\fv mind repeats, Death is near,

Alld my heart broods on this sadness.

0, Death will come to thy body, thy body which is beautiful to me.

There is 110 escaping death: just a a man who is trying to cross a flooded river, ~o~ one who has fallen frOID a tall tree is sure to die, so death i 'ertarn for all who Jive .• And after this life of two days is over we must travel onwards along the road alone. Life is a ad bu. id,e , 'haunted by tear and separation.

'The depths of st;: ill tears have not b :11

. meas;lfred.~ ,-

The mountainr the hills _mll pas away. ,-

Like flooded nv S ~d streams tears may flow. • Brother, we)t I a t -drop I would full Jlkc

" flooded ~lltersJ

For th1de'.el1limit of ~ ITow:s tears ~e not .r : ~ round. ey

;".,_",... f. .:

rna P ETR), OF TBb ~OND

~ ~ 0 one car, [or the poor dweller in th for t. Ill' i,.; forgott n by the world. ..\ nu liCe is full of uernies and cruelty. Here i a vet)' ·tL·ange. ollg .of lonelin sa.

'TIe had no frie lei, he hod no i_ ciple, He reached tI for t-corerod m untain :

, There h found a man \ ho I ked at him

wi h crooked eyes And he said to him, do not look at In' II crookedly, 1 elm spt' J tht r t of ray da \15 as before

- wit hout a friend.

Tomorrow or the dav IIf(pr I shall die. And on my breast g-rru.>l will grow.

Thill life only remalus, in th body for two clays, l-'o do not look at me with your crook J eye.

Here is anothcr'pathetlo eng.

With sad n \I" I run come.

With heavy it ,art J st nd before your door. BHL yon cnro not whether 1 weep or no.

For you nr with your belo red.

But I stand at your door with sari news in my

it art.

One of the most constant theme is th '" pnration of 1 vel' and b iloved.

In all my dream' I searched for 'all,

II Iodi uot find ev II he echo of J ur " eps,

And againJ

The cart runs orward lik the wind. .J\ly lord, f\t!~y for a nioment, stay.

Your darlina' heart is weeping for yon.

This is one of th 010 t LOnching of th

SOil)' •

There is no l'rllj, for her. and sleep has loft her bed. Rlecpless sh s\\ ep hey: eonrt.

But on her I.IlI'n heart heavy Ii th dust. For the con. ade of her IiI has 1 t her, And there i. pain in her heart.

There is 110 re t lor her. nnd sleep has left it r bed,

The girl who from ihlldhood lin entran d the whole village must go away to be married : the 11 ce sity of finding work of 11 R pnrates I v r who ur e that ruel mast r : 1 v it 'clf bring an un 1 r- en e of sadness.

,\s tbe river II ws can Inually, so my tears for

ever flow. () my 1 v , I rgct not one pa in~ moment of

, our pns lou.

From our lif together thou hast 1 amt all my .

• .' desire,

" ve 1 • river that tak n winding

c ur-e" i" tb retrain of one on. orne f tho most traaic hay a conden. ed passion that is nlu ).1, Japanese r o orld of sorrow ill a line r .wo

. . -

275,

you have for 0 ten what you said to me

. bell 'Itth the manj!o-rree.

o "by have you forgotten ?

And tbi - •

D nut I e to!' cloth that hides my bre

Or later yon will mi. it and be ad.

.llld thi -

Yon H1JlY go anywhere,

Y u may wander over the roads of all the world. But 1 "ill find you. 0 my love.

But not all tho l.arma or tragi ~. ' here is plenty of humour, most of it gross enough, omc f it displaying a ri h vein r Hllti'te.

An llO·'. onceitcd girl goe to tbe bazaar.

On he club loot j, a lovely ring: there' collyrium ill her quintiug eyes.

In her tattered ears an earing,

'1 ilj dressed I right as the Iij:(htnillg. Thus she !l;OOS to the uazaar.

l'b r .~ a vivid pictur of a vulgar III n, On his wri t _ IIr heavy silver hrUl.!?;les.

III hiij ClUB are g-nIUCIJ rings.

1<'IOOI hi;! mouth flail'S ever [he red strenm of betel.

The «hir «·owbe>rd) speuds all dily long go' ipin I' III house t I ouse, an while> he

doe~, the cows go ·tr; ying n.11 over the

fore: { There i a song about til r lice

constnbl '.

and

,om he put in jail.

n some he puts the hnndcufls.

H put the thief in jail.

He cl:\ps hand IIfl'~ on tho ond.

Tho ~ood and innocent be also troubles eudl ssly.

But it i in thr-ir Jove poetry thn the ; nds _ excel. Thi hit. rcceiv cl scant justif'P from writers hitherto. 1 us ell who translntos It 0 few 800 '(one, t leu t of r J beauty) . nys that the)' ar 'with u few exceptions of no rotic chara t r" and Tr n h r marks piously that "unfortunately, tlloLlgh mallY r th ll1~tTiag

oog. have It distinct beauty of th ir own, the outlook of the Gond on the 11 bj ect f· marriage> severlcy restri to any attempt to print them in full, and I have wade no attempt to do 0." Do the outlook r hak speare 011 the ubject of marriazc r strict flny attempt

to print hi plays in full? And do w snuff

out thus coud s ndi.ngly the whol of Elizab than an 1 Ja obean lyric lit rature as "c.l'atic .? ... om of the 'ond l.arm« are. coars nod indec nt but I .hav a hundred love-poems, ev ry one of which til , be prist» 1 and enjoyed by an but th most conv ntional and Puritan. Th so poeuu are./. as

276

THE MODERN REVIEW FOR MARCH, 1935

I .have said, naked and unabashed: they .arc frank, bold, intense: there is nothing Platonic a nt them. The Gond would agree with Donne:

Whoever loves, if he do not propose

The right, true end of love, he's ne that goes To sea for nothing but to make him aick.

.Again and again I am reminded of the Elizabethan love-poetry, the most direct and the finest love-poetry ever written. These Gond karma are what Milton said poetry

hould be: they are simple,' sensuous and im~assioned-and their passion does Dot condemn them: it redeems them. These songs are not usu·ally marriage song ; though the love they describe not infrequently leads to what ill the West would be called "companionate marriage.J' The most trikiog thing about the Gond outlook on marriage is that men and women usually marry because they love one another and not simply because their parents want them to, and that they often dispense with the formal and expensive luxury of a marriage ceremony. Nearly all Gonas are married once in their lives offioially ; but many girls live with two Of three men before they tina II y settle down and so as likely as not they will not be mauried to the man ~hom Lhey choose finally as a life-partner. Once they have chosen him and had children by him, they are loyal, faithful and devoted, loving and tender mothers, and companions

~aud life-long lovers of their men.

I Romantic love is necessary to the Goml :

he cannot live without it.

In every Iii tlo lane there is It garden.

In ever}' village there arc flowerin~ trees.

Let me r at in your gar-den for a little while.

You may cut and drink, but life without a girl .is wasted. cio let me rest in your garden of flowers.

·There is complete frankness, Sho1:t hours have passed lor me,

But the long hours of night, for YOIl remain. So let us sleep together fill night long.

For without you my bed is savourloss,

And again,

o cosie, my love, come home with me and aleep. IIolI' can we spend the night of God in empty

dance and !:lOllg; ? '\Vhose.i that beo;l, whose is that splendid bed?

!JQ Ine""rell t, my 10~'e, the time for sleep draws near. TlLere's !1. bed. tor your mother, a seat, for your

father, but, for 'my love the noblest bed ot- all.

JJ come, my Iove, come home with me and sleep. , .

..

r

This love is trnly an intense and wonderful thing.

She is drying her clothes in the backyard of her

• house,

o how r remember the paseion, of om' love.

o the love that stirs my heart" a that wonderful love,

I can never forget j.t. .

We can almost see the following scene.

I. am looking out of II)Y house. •

The sun ill but a bamboo's length above the hills, Where can you go now it is grown so late,

O lover, in whom my life is enwound ?

Like a dry leaf in the wind, you are ever b10" n to and f1'O away from me.

Where can YOIl go now it is grown so late ?

This is a pretty song.

You have built a house of stone,

You have made a door of stone, a ! For a few nights let me stay with you, And then I'U go to !1. far distant laud.

And this is vivid and realistic.

A.t dawn. of day the lovely girl implores her love to let b er go.

Give me my sari, lover mille, gjve me my jacket too. Come kiss me, only let me go for dawn i~ comins soon.

There is room for oilly two more out of

many. •

o my beloved, a sword ever flashes above my bead. I have not stolen, J have not stolen love.

Save me the sinless lover, save me from the sWOTd.

And this

Come by ibis road ; go by bhat rondo

Ae you journey, hold in )'OUI mind the image of

• your darling, And let that love be seen in your eyes.

Yet once again 'we are brought back to sorrow and rejection-the pains which must inevitably assail those who seek the intense and pas. innate ill life. Here is a oog of rejection.

As in a pot the milk turn. SOUT, As silver is debased :

So the love I won so hardly

Has been shattered since you have !Jcl!!I,'ed me.

.and here another-

"

Your teeth- are like silver, How beautiful is your fa 'e, .My man of wonder ! •

nut in your life t~cre is no truth,

And my heart is full of pain.

But oth((r~ Me happier th~ this: we mu t not le~ this poetry\ on a -!lot~ of eadness=-rftber on one fooe.'pectation.

. "

o cuckoo, take :dJy message.,

1-'Iy love awaits me in the gaxden.

o how BOhall r send a message to him

)~

...

,

EDUCATIOK IN THE UNITED PRU I:\fCES

Jity love awaits me in his garden.

I ;"iIl send my message uy It parrot,

1 wiU send my letter even with a crow. My love awaits me in his garden.

Here then v have a corpus of poems,

as yet little explored, whi-ch uot only give

'Z7T

us unique picture or tIle life frl1{1 thought of the forest ·people but are in them elvea, I venture to think. fL not 'inconsiderable addition to our lite~atLl.re. May they serv to deepen our love fol' this wonderful romantic, tragic, heroic and forgotten race !

SOME FACTS CONCERNING EDUCATION IN THE UNITED PROVINCES

By N. K. SIDHAN'fA,

Dean of the Iracult!J of A1·tS, IJudcnOIO Unicersitq

IT L8 part of the stock-in-trade of every critic of the Indian Government to point to the appalling illiteracy o~ the masses and argne that it is due to th apathy of the 311 Lborities. which lead' to the spending of such a small urn on education as compared to what if') spent for otber purposes. It is not our concern bere to show the justice (or injustice) of tm!l criticism nor to suggest that much higher sums should be available for education though we would certainly welcome it. \Vbat some of U' regret i· that the money which. is actually being spent is 1I0t produ iug the results that it should and that there is no uniformity in the metbod. adopted or means utilized to remove i.lliteme}, and pread education in general. This is specially our regret as in O. P. the tate has perhaps contributed more toward this end than in other pro inces without achieving anything like what should have been achieved. The total educational expenditure in n. P. for Hl32 did not compare favourably with Madra but wa practically the am as in Bcugal" 01' ill Boml;aa}', in lakhs it was 389 as against 400 in Bombay, 422 i.n Bengal and 5137 in Madras ... What is instrnctive i~' however this that out of this total only 33 per cent. was contributed by tho Government in Bengal about 48 per cent. in Bombay and Madras whereas ill :7. P, it was over 55 per cent., the act~al ~moLnt ~eing mOTe than .... h.at in Bengal

., Thls in spite 01 t.~P.' fact that ilie number M Higli Schools in Benglll is' over 1,000 while in r. P. they number'about 200, and Bengal has about 2000

middle Scb"'~]6 as RO'ainst l!. P.'s·l00. ..

~,

and Bombay and only a little less than what it was in 1vIa.dl·as. If again we think of the proportiou of Government expenditure on education to the total provincial expenditun we find l. P. most praisoworthy . 16.8H per

cut. a. against 10.2 in Bihar, 12.4 ill Bombay, 13.1 in Bengal and 15.7 in M adras. Thus we have practically no "unaided" High School in U. P. whereas in Bengal half of the High Schools are of that type.

But if we look to the results we find no ground.s for satisfaction: the percenta~ of male population of school-going age receiving· instruction in the primary cia ses is 30 in U. P., whereas it is 4: in Bengal, 49 in Bombay and 59 in Madra. If again we think

of the percentage, of that population receiving instruction ill the various provinces we find ' it is only 3.I in U. P. as again. t 5.5 in Bengal, 6.1 in Bombay and 6.2 in Madras. The positive result are perhaps even worse than what these figures suggest. for a good many

of the students enrolled ill primary clas es remain there only for a year, attending school. in a most perfunctory fashion and gainill!;' nothing from their enrolment in an in titntion. The number of such casual and irregular

tudents is fat· too large in I, P. and looking at the ligures of the last few year. we find that of the 537000 students who joined class I in HI'27 only about 87,000 continacd to . class V, just about 16 per cent. of the. original entrants: as a matter ,0£ fact in class IV, it was only 23 per cent, wnile even.is class II itwas les than 50 per cent, Thus more than half of the money spent on primary-

"' •

THE MODERN RJt\7IEW F'OR )''lARCH, 1935

278 •

19ducation is absolutely wasted and might have be utilized in a far better fasbion. Another pPint about till waste is evident from the number of pupils who are over-age in ecoud-

.:ary as also in primary schools. Taking any pupil above nino as over-age for class I -(twelve for class IV) we find that ill these

-four primal'}' classes 21.8 pel' cent. are over-

age as against only nine in Bengal and 11.9 in Bombay. Or again taking pupils above 17 as over-age in the class immediately before the Matriculation (or High School) examination we find that in the four highest classes of the secondary school 69.8 per cent. arc over-age in U. . as against 36 in Bengal and 59 in Madras. uch tudents have certainly stagnated, remained in the same lass for more than one year and been casual about t.heir work. Their presence in all institution is not usually helpful either to them 'elves or to their companions and the quality' of instruction would be improved if they were weeded out of the highei' clas res though they cannot be removed from the lowest. In the latter case however parents and guarcliam of irregular students might be penalized ns also those who prevent their boys from con tinning in a school for more than a veal'. We hear a good deal about compulsory primary education, an experiment which has been undertaken in some areas without as yet showing the results that they were confide~tly

.... expected to give. 10 U. P. this has been partly due to the choice of unsuitable

• area and the lack of competent supervi ors, in the Panjab to the machinery for enforcing compulsion having proved cumbrous and ineffective in Bengal and Bombay to financial stringency. But it seems certain that no compulsion can be effective where there is so

• much of waste and stagnati.on due to theapathy of guardians on the one hand and the lack of trained and efficient teachers on the other. If compulsion has to be started it should first be with the pupil who havealready had one year in the lowest class, it should be to make them continue for four years and gain the minimum that can be attained out of the educational system. At a laser stage ,,'hen it is po sible to force the -gI'eat majority of boys to attend school, those who are over-age will have to be i·eft Oll~ and

I

compulsion started only with those within a certain age-limit. There must. also be greater facilities for the adequate training of teachers for even now with a. smaller .number of teachers required we find far too many untrained men though the state of things in U. P. is here' far better than in other provinces ; 56 % of the teachers ill primary schools are trained in U. P. as against 28-1~ in Bengal 46 ~6 in Bombay and 59 ~6 in .M"a«ras. But a oon as we have compulsion, the number of teachers must be multiplied several times and it will be extremely difficult for the training schools to keep 'pace with the increase unless the authorities are careful from the very beginning. In the words of the Hartog report : "There is little hope of real progress in primary education unless a definite break is made with the policy or ineollsiderately IDultiplying sc-hools, and of hastily expanding or improvising new ineffective arrangements for training tbe additional teachers required. As matters stand in India, effective arrangements for training vernacnlar teachers must, generally speaking, precede the expansion of primary chools, as the t.raining of vernacular teachers itself depends upon a good supply of recruits from middle vernacular schools."

There are other directions in which it is necessary to work before we Can ensure our fully utilizing the amount of money at 0111' disposal. Multiplication or scqools in the Same ar as due to competition frequently aloug communal lines leading to the segregation of pupils of the different communities is not healthy for the social order and ruinously expensive for the authorities if the State is responsible for a decent fraction or the money required. 'While schools are multiplied in some districts others are starved and we have accentuation of II difference between one portion of -the :erov!ncc and another as backward or advanced leading perhaps "tiltimately to an up'lettin~ of educational balance in the procince and tile creation of favoprable and favoured areas. The segregation of boys and girls again at the alementarp tage cannot be 'supported ill any way. It#llleans the dllp1i(:"tiot of exp~nsefi and oiteIt to a lessEtn~g of cffici9"llCy, for increased mimbers up to a certain limit \noan more of a competitive spii:it in tile class and

. ., .

. ..

.

. -----

..

Swami Vivekananda

'.

lliUL:\.)l W ,ME I~

79

zreater attention paid t th pre rib d work.

Such wasteful schools ar at least partly re poe- ible' for the hot that the average ll,I;louul co t pe pupil to Governm at is high$ in L1. P. among th major indian

provinces. .F or primary, hool it i a

littl I s hero than in Bo bay, though more than wh it is in ~ndrll" an I much more than that in Ben al, .8'01' middl chool how ver it is R". ~3 per 11 ad in . P.

I

IAN "\ OlUE

I S IE CE

[Edjtor's . -ote. This article having rea .hed us ratber late, we hay not b eeu able tG try to obtain pbotographs oC the ladies mentioned in it. As w 1.10 not !mOW their add resses, we shall bo much obliged if they or ~hcir Irl nds will kindly send us their ph ogr phs.]

INDl.' ducat d und oultur d women, devot e .ol the Art- ubjeets for th last so many year ',at' takiug keen and lively

inter t in cientific u bj n w-a-days,

During the first week of January la t m~my women cienti L' from all part of India Dot only j ioed the m. etin S of the Indian ~ 'cience tigress ill alentta, but also c ntributed • rizinal paper and took part in the eli us iona.

In the Chemi try eeti 0, ~Iii3 li ve

J seph along with Prof. . ~1. )iehta or

Bombs y ootributed:1 pap r, ri ~., « tudic

o Titanium Di xide 01. Ji' V. D.

Gavankar along with Prof. N. W. Hirw of B mbay read !I. paper on " tndie

hloral-~ itro- Salicylamides." In th P y ology , actio II •• H" . Gh. 11 B.A., ~. F.W. (Loud.). of Mayurbhanj, not only read a very valuable pn.per on "'hilcl P ych logy' bu

wa aL.:o t.lle Re or r . of this ti n,

• ~:Tu;s . B. iipta of Rangpur also r ad an

interei ting I ap r, entitle "_~ pplicasion of

Bin t, imon, and Piag t Rea ning test

to a roup of 55 'hilclr 11, aged -7 y ars.'

In . .the Botany S Lion, ;\lr. _i. raker

alo g with fl'. U." P -. N a k,!T M(]' i.\{r. K P.

t, rwaa, til first . Indian ator f th

~oyal Botanic Gardens, [Jntl'i.buteu

Jf 2' •

.

. ..

IEN"E

a ,,1gaillst Rs. 14 in Madras, R~. 11 ill Bombay and fu._ in ngal, whil for higb chool " it is RFl. 39 as ag:til)S Rs. 1~ in Madras, n·. ei in Bombay and R. fl in J3 ngnJ. If are i tal n to eliminat ov r-lapping and duplieati n where ther are not ufficient

tudents the seal of c s might b brought

down .onsiderably and the limited rum available for edu ntion could g much further than whnt it d as n w.

a paper on 'Botanical Collccri n in the

ikkim Himalaya'." ~ he collected some

vcry rar p imen from uch a high altitu.de a 18,OOOft. ~ pa per entitled "A Preliminary

tudv on he bysiolo' f • 'ugar ne'

stands ill tho nam of Srimati Usha batt rjeo of Allahabad. Be ide hes ~rr . ,_. Datta, }{. HC. (Manchester), of the B thun College,

al utta Dr. Mis E. K. Janaki Auunal Ph.D.

(Michigan), of Madn and ~1i's _.'nlly

'h r an nndsrgradunt H nours tudent

a . the alcutta niver ity, w re al. 0 pre. en

through at til sittings • nd j iued in. tho . cus iou .

It is gratifying to n t in this c nnection

that Dr. Mi s nnaki Arnmal wa ulso .

nnanimou ly elected the retary of the

Indian Botanical oeiety this year.

Mention may b made or the following

who have b an lect d III rob 1'8 of the

In ian eien e ongr ~ :-:Mr. arojini

atta, Miss 'warnala.ta Ghosh, Mi s ul1it~

B In. upta, t1i s Rach I . John Mis P. M. Kanga, Mrs. . R. Ka hyap, Mi g Unlleck M. M hta MLs irupama Sen, r. E. K. J anaki Ammal, }Ir '. '. L. Horn, )fr. R. B. Lal Mrs. H. Krall, Mrs. B. Sahni, Mrs, V. , ethi, Mi K. J >. avankar, Ii sally

'Myer and Miss Jo ph live. ,

We hop to . e ill th near future

Indian WOID'I] submittina riginal paper,; in other brancbc of cien e, und taking 1!1Q.rC an more prominent par in th dis u ion. and proceedings of the Indian ei uce ~ongr s .

CODmfiTTEE REPORT

SOl\'IE ASPECTS OF THE JOINT

II. ECONOMIC Il!IPLICATIONS'"

By D. N. BANERJEE,

Head of the Department 0/ Economic» and Polities; Dorea Un·iversity

I

I propo e to consid r in till paper th~ re~ommendations of the Joint Select Committee

• :for the prevention of commercial discrimination in India. Th importance attached 111 ~e United Kingdom . till aspect of the Indian constitutional question has, observes tb~ Committee been much misunderstood In. India. It, theref~re, feels that its first duty IS t? define it in such a way as to remove t~IS rnisunderstanding. The problem of eommercial ell 'crJll~lllation is divisible ill its view into two entirely

eparate issues: (,i) the question of .admml~tFative and legislative discrimination llgaJl~st BntL.sh commercial interests and British trade ill r ndia. and (iii tb question of <Ii criminatioI?- again t British imports into India. Tb~ V\r!llte Paper .lealt with the first i ue only; It .. aid nothing regarding the second,

II

In l' gard to the question or admini",tl'~t!ve aud -legislative discrimination again.t Brltl~b commercial interests an 1 British trade III India, I may tate here that the Joint Committee has generally endorsed the relevant ·White PaI!er p1'oposal as elaborated by the ConfidentIal

•• Memorandum on the same question, dated the 3rd November, 1930, which the ,ecre~m'y 01

• State for India ubmitted to the Committee on th 6th of N ovember 1933. As 1 have already dealt with the qu~stion fully in two previou issues+ of this Recieu I do not propose to discu s it here. I ball refer, however, to the few a.dtlit:onal observations which the Oommittee has made in this connection,

• In. the first place, the mrnittee has re, ~mmended that the general. declaration as to British subject", as sugge ted by the WlUte Paper (and the C nfidential Iamorandum) hould provide tb .. "t no Briti h subject, Indian Or otherwise, domioiled. ,in India, hall be di ahled from holding' any public office or from practising any trad~, profession or calling by reason only of. hIS religion, descent. caste, colour or place of birth ; and t1tat it sho-uld be e:ctended, as 1'egardr; the

• .. Substance of a Iecture delivered on 20th January, 1935, otJefol'e the Economic ociety, l\'lymensillgh.

t Vide The Modern. Resieo: for 9ctober .aud [ovemher, 19:W.

-----~.

holding of office under ihr Federal GO·l}emrnent, to

subjects of' Indian States. The italicized words have been added by the Committee to the relevant White Paper proposals.

It may be noted here that, under the existing

onstitution of India no native of Briti 11 India, nor any subject of His :\I{ajesty resident thcra·in, i , by reason only of his religion, place of birth, descent, colour 01' any of them, di qualified for holding any office un ler tbe Crown in India,

Secondly, in regard to Bills <lis riminatory in fact, although .not 0 in form, the ommittee has uggested that the royal In trumcnt of Iustruction to be issued to the Gov rnor-General and the Governors should make it 'plain that it i their duty, in exercising th ir discretion ein th matter of assent to Bills, "not to feel themselve bound by the terms of the sfatutory prohibitions in relation to discrimination, but to withhold their R sent from any measure which, though not in form diseriminatory, would ill their judgmen L have a discriminatory effect." 'I'he Committee has further ob erved :

"We have made, we hope, sufficiently plain the scope and the nature of the discrimination which we regard it as necessary to prohibit, and we have expressed our belief that sta~ltory prohibinons should be capable of being so framed as generally to secure what we have in view:'

It is conscious, however, of the difficulty of framing completely water-tight prohibitions and of the cope which ingenuity might lind for complying with the letter of the law in a matter of this kind while violating its spirit. It is, therefore, in its view, an ential concomitant of the tage of respon ible governrn nt which its propo als are designed to secure 'that the discretion of the Governor-General aJfd. of the Governors in the granting or withholding of assent to all Bills of their Legi lature should be tree ani! 16nfette1'f311'; and in the diiEc!llt matter of discrimination in particular,.' it would not regard this condition a fulfilled if the GovernorGeneral and the Governors regarded the exercise of their discretion as restricted by J;he terms of the statutory prohibitions. It has also recommended that

"The Ii t.rument of Instn; 'litom; of the Govl!rnorGeneral ana the Governor should require ehim, if in any case he feels doubt whether Jl particular "Bill does or does not offend ~gainst the, jntentio.~.~

• •

, . . .

.ME .A. PE 'TR OF Tm'~ JOTh"T

MMI'ITEE REPORT

<l 1

of the onstitution Act in t.he matter-of disctimination to re-erve the Bill for the ~i!!llific tion of His

Majl1t1t.y's plensur ," .

It I~, ~ think, needless to "tate that the object of ihese I' x-ommendations is to pn uro an ad.litionul sa eguard (or the protection of British commercial and indastrial interests in India.

Finally, the J uiut ( 'ommilt·p has .. xpre"~l'fl its "C01JCnrr me ~ witb th stntem nt"in the BritishIn.lia .Ioi It )Iemorantlunl that 'a friend!" settlement by negotiation i hy far the mOKt appropriate an.l sari-factory m thod of ding WiLh I,he question of discrimination.' Further, it has ohserved that, since the conventional is prefern hle 1.0 the statl1!:ury method, and since agreement and goodwill form th mo-t satisfactory ba: is for commercial relation between Indio and mt· United Kingdom, there should be nothing in the Constitution Act which might close the !lotlr ngninst a Convention. It hill; accordingly re- mmende-l that B is :\Iajesly if atisf 1 thot. a Convention has b en made between IIi. \Iniesty''l Goverumen in the ited Kingdom anti tho n w Govern OWl! t of India. covering commercial malt " and tbllt the nee sarv It:,L!'islat n for implementing it has been passed Ilf Par iam nt and by Indian Legislature hould be empowered to .Ieclare by order in 'oun it that the RfaflllfJr!l prorision» ill thr Constitution Itt-I "hf)/l[rl not ·rrJIJ.J1tJ ,qO 1(}11!/ a« th» t ourentlon If'{jJl{,j continue ill [orn between the two countries. TIll' Committee continu '15,

"II may b aid that the practical result will

Joe exactlv the same, lind this no doubt js true: nut the· meri of th« proposal, Ill:! we e it. is that it would enable the lodinn Government and Leei-lmure, i1 they 60 desire, to ub-tituto a voluntary .g"I'ccmcnt for 0. statutory enactment. and wouk] tb refer give to the arrangements for Ihe reciprocal protection of British aubjects in India and th Tnit I Kingdom respectively the ronveutional basis which in OUT judgment it is Illost desirable that the')" sbould have."

r t i. cl or, how 1'" r, from the italicized words above that the tatutory provision- will apply a", 800n as 1 he proposed Con ven tion Cf'J ses to he in Ioro-.

III

Fwc.\" .Al1TONII:llY 'ONYENTI()~

r shall no~v deal with tho SeODG issue, namely, the ques 'on of discrimtnation ug net British imports into' [ndi«, J n r gard to this question the .Ioiut Cornmiitee ha- made a recommendation which was not veil contemplated by the 'Vhile Paper. A" is well known tire ii, cal relatione between India and tho 'pited Kingdom h:IW been regu ated f'\"er inc ·tbe introduction of Lge Monlagu-Chelmi>'fo]'(l TI"forl1'l. bv wbat is c?lllplOn!y known. '\1.. th Yi- al. Autonomy

OnVe'll110n~ Now. If, p'ar' to upprpclaie properly rbr nature' and o I>! e<' I. of th 'ommittee" l't', mmt'fl{ ation for the pr~vf'nLiou of .ljs~rimilllltion

.

. .

. :

nga' at British imports, we should know the origin and thl! present position of t.he r.i"CllL Convention. I. therefore, propose to rleal with that question fir t b.,foli· I I'Xllmine the parti<:Ui.1l' recommendation of the Committe e.

The Parliamentnry .Joi;-· Selece Comrnittpf! which wr nppcinte.l 1.0 consider ta.:!. Government of India Bill, 1919, and which was 1J~:ri' 1 flVl'!. by Lord :elhorut', rnnde the following' obs rvations. while dealing with clause ,13 of the Bill, Oil the que. .. tion of til, fu are relation between the Secretary of ,"tnt€, ill Council and th .. r'T()vernment. of Irulin :

"The Committee have j..,'\ven mo t careful _consideration 1.0 the r 'lations of th eretary of litate with the Government of India, nnd through it with the provincial govemments. 1n the relation of rue riecr tary of . tn to it b tho GO\'CTDorGeneral in onncil the Committee are not of opinion that ally statutory change can be made, I'll long at> the GOI'crnor·General remaius responsible 10 Parliament, but ill prncnce rhe corivcntioru which noll' govern these relations III Y wisely be modifi d to meet fresh cireumstan t'" caused hv th creation of a Leaislative As~emltly with 1\ lorgc elected majority. In the exercise of his responeibility to Parliament. which he cannot delegat.e to ani one else. the ~ I're1nry ()[ . tute ruay reasonablj« consider that only ill exccptJ.onlil « ireumsranc should he be called upon to intervene in mutters of pur ly Indinu intert-st \I her the O{)Yemment nd Lhc' Lezislature or India are in agrc nnenl ..

"This examination of the j!'enerai proposition leads inevitably to the consideration of nne spe-lal case of non-intervention. . ~othin~ is more .likl'ly to endanger the v;ood relations net II een IJIll.ia. nd

:r t Britain than It belief that India'!' fiscul policy is met red from 'WhitehRIl iu the iuterests of the trade of Orent Britain. Thai such u belief e i til at the moment there an be no doubt. That there ought to be no room for it in the fumre is equally elear, India's position in the Imperial Conference opened the door to negotlatiou betw n India and the rest of the Empire, but • negot.iatiOI1 without power to l(·g:ialllte i~ likely to remuln ineffective, A sati-Iacrorv solution of the l{uestiOll can onlv be gunrllnt, d hy the grant of libert \' to the GQleI'Illllenl of India 10 devi.ge tbnse t.ltUff'" arrangements which c m best fitted to

l ndin's need. as nn integral portion or the British EIDJlirc. It cannot be ~nr9.I1tt.'ed hy statute without limiting the ultima! power of Parliament I control the administration of India, and without limiti.ng the power of veto which rests in the

TO"n ; lind neither o( these limitations lind. 9. place in any of the statutes in the British 1!;lUpi!'c. It can only therefore bc 3" nred by [In tlckn(lwled~ment of It convention. Whatever be the 1'1[111, fiJi"rll flolic!J lor India, for ilil nerd- of her 1'OII"llmC1·.< ., Icell as (or he)' mnnufurturers. it is fJuilr clear Iha1 she shmdd hase lite Sf/me liberty to ('IIII,./licr hrr interests a., G rrnt Britain, Au,q/1'II1,a, XP/(, 7Lallltld, Canar/a and So,d" A(rica, In the opinion of tbl~ Committee. Ihereior('6th Secretary of Sf.,fr "hould ,,~ far liS pos~i Ie. a,"old lnlerfcrc!lC'e on this &ubjeet wheD the (:overuIDcnt of Tnlliq. 1~l1d , s Lc,,'; lalurc M£' in a,_OTI'emen(', nnd they think: that. hl,' in terYull tiOIl, II ben it does takf' plsl'e, llhould be limil('d to ~llfe!!lIllrrling tb£' ioternntiOllnl

..

282

THE MODERN REVIEW FOR ~1:ARCH, 1930

obligations . of the EmJ?ll'e or a.ny fis?al ~!!iIgem nts within the EJjupU'e to which Ris MaJesty's Government is a party."

eQn the 23rd of ebruary, 1921, the Council

of State adopted fl. resolution" recommending to the Governor-GenerWl in Council that His Maje8ty's G:(}.~ernment should be addre .• ed thl'Ql.\gh -the 3e 'rotary or State with a prayer that

f the Government of India hould be granted full fiscal autonomy subject to: the provisions of the Government of India Act. The resolution, says the Indian Fi cal Commi sion, was duly forwarded by the Government of India to the

ecretary of State with the request I;hut it should be l.'l.id before the Majesty' Government.

A will appeal' from what follows, the principle of fiscal autono ~ for India wa practically definltely accepted by the Briti h Government. In the course of his reply to a deputation from Lancashire on the Indian import duties on cotton goods, Mr. Montagu stated on March 23rd, 1!J21 , us S cretary of ,tato for India: "Alter that Report by an authoritative Committee of both Houses and Lord Curzon's promise in the House of Lords, it was absolutely impossible for me to interfere with the right which I believe was wisely giv 11 and which I am d termin d to maintain to give to the Governm nt of India the right to con ider the intere 1,9 of India fir t, ju t as we, without any complaint from any oth r parts of the Empire, and the other parts of the Empire without any complaint from U:-, have always chosen the tariff arrangement. which they think .. best fit d for thei; needs) thinking of their own Citizens first." This speech, writes the Report of the Indian Fi cal Commission, was followerl up by a Despatch date! 1he 30th JlUle, 1!J21, written with reference to thl' resolution pas ed by the Council of Si,ate on F bruary 23rl1, 1921, in which tho ecretarv of tate stated that he had

• on behalf of His Maje ty's overn ment, accepted tbe principl r commended by the Joint Select Committee in its report on lau e 33 of the Government of India Bill, 191!). Hi won I were:

"Th Secretary of State should. as far as possible, avoid interference 00 thi subject when the Government of India and the Indian Legislature are in 8p.r cment, and it is .onaidcrcd that his interven-

• tion when it docs take 'Place should be limited to safeguarding the international obligations of the Empire or any fiscal arrangements within tho Empir to which His Majesty's Government j a party."

Although there was a sting in the tail, this wa a fairly clear and definite pronouncement. In eptember, 1921, again, the Honourable lIir. H. A. F. Lind ay declared in the Council of

tlltc Ol~ behalf of' the Government of India, with reference to the Honourable Mr. V. G. Kal 's resolution .regarding fi cal power under eomJ;itutional Reforms :

* 'Vide the Council of tate Dbbates, ~3rd

Feb., 1921.

"I am perfectly prepared to state that the Government of India have every intention of exercising, in concert with the Indian Legislature. and in what it believes to be the best Interests of the country, the fiscal powers whiea have been conferred on it und r the lllcent constitutional reforms."

On the 3!Jlh of • March, 1922, however, Lo~'~ ·Winterton, Under- cretary of State fOI' India, acting on behalf of his Ohief, Lord Peel, made the following significant remarks" on the question of fiscal autonomy for India, in. reply to repre entatious made by another deputation repre entina Lanca hire cotton textile interests:

"I should like first ol all to deal very bricfly with the con titutional point that Iias been raised, I will at once. say that of course the ultimate fi,nancial rei pon. il)ility under the Government ot India Act rests with the Beorotary of State, but I think it will be generally admitted that the Government f India must hare wide latitude in deciding the steps to be taken in particular instances .... If 'You accept my argument, real, coml?lete, self-government must always be based Oll fiscal autcnogty. However, do not let us raise that point at this moment. 1 would only v nturc to say with all respect that sooner C!r later whe,ll this question comes to be the" subject of public controversy and public debate, not perhaps in this Parliament but in a future Parliament, when the advance is again made, =hich J suppose, we all hope, will be made as anticipated by Parliament -then Portia ment toil! have to rna"'e ~tP its mind uhen the que lion is most emr,hatieaUy brought 11J.l of the cot ton ill tere t of Lancnshire, with all its magnificent record. of service and devotion to. the Empire on which leg it stands, uihether it ~. p1·epare~l to say it wut grant complete fiswt autonomy to 'India or not.'

As I have stated elsewhere,']' this strltemenL indicated rather a change of attitllde. 011 the part of the Home authorities, and was against the spirit of the recommendation of the Joint Select Committee 011 the question of fiscal autonomy for India.

The true ignificance of the convention of fiscal autonomy came in for a go d deal of discussion in the Legislative Assembly ill connection with the consideration of the Cotton Textile J ndustry (Protection) Bill which had been ill troduce 1 into Assembly on February 28th, 1930, by tho Honourable Sir Ge(ll'ge Rainy (Member for Commerce and Railways),

Previously to the introduction of the Bill Sir George Schaster (Finance Member) bad.. said on tbe same day in the course of his -Budget spe ch, in reference to the propo ed increa e in the import duty on .couon piece-good and the messl1gc§ from His Majesty's Government relating

thereto: •

ill Vide 'lhe Indiasi Annual t{legi~rer,. 1922-23, vol. rr, pp. 1 7-98; also Dr. ~anerjee, Pi8cal ]'P()liry

in India, pp. 12i-22.· «

.'- The Indian C{)nstz'iution and its .Act1/.al TVil1'king.

Brd Ed., p. 341. • (

§ In tills message, His Majesty's I lovernm<l11t

TNDIA

as well a to th intclle l. Hi men are honest and shapely, seldom overblown or conceited. There .i no falling Irorn virtue or stooping to folly ; hence no . cope for I he h igher reaches of comedy, Irony or sal ire. Our poet felt that the spheres of the two sexes are com plem ntary and cu-operative 001 comperltlve or conflicting. Tb€f woman has her sphere in thq horne, is queen of I he a ffect ions, and tells' by sweet persuasi v nes and non-co-operuticu, ruth r INn, by being naughty or headstrong or !ldoptin<~ masculin w"ays. We do not have

W ;,)'1AKB. OD

369

a portia or a Cordelia, not to sp ak of a Lad)' Mecheth or aa hr w to iarne. When Kanwa send akuntala lind r th guidance of hi pupil arangarava, Kalidasa reveals the relations of th 'exes at the age of adolesCt'U e. Students were trained 10 regard with a hrotherly eye the tend r-eyed maiden of the Guru' house-hold. There is a certain sense of innocence and h: .edum which put we carnal idea to shame: 'II YOu be chaste, here is ),0111' home: if you b even a your husband describes you. what 11,t' i" it YOlH returning to rour father's home'?'

INDIAN WOMANHOOD

RAN!, L IT(SFDJJB·\ J RAJlYADE, th zift d wif of [11 army memb r of the Conn .il of regency, GWHjiOl', it; the life and soul of the movem ut for the uplift of women. Her fascinating persofial ity, her" golden eloquen e, her clear grasp of tho most tangled qu 'lions, her

n thu siastic devotion to the cause of progress nll along the line, h r ardent zeal for emancipating thL) rnem hers of her sox from the galling yoke

I' cu. [0111, have made her the fountain- head. of inspiration alike to the old and the young so tha; thrilled by her shining example, they are ;;Ll'llining every nerve to beat down conventions which ke p woman' spirit imprisoned within deadening limit ..

• he i. in the vanguard 01' the r volt against the barharou survivals in society- 'he hates oppre sian and immorality-alone among the cultured wow en-folk ill the Indian States and

ven beyond she em bodies the helleyau ideal,

starry-eyed, fresh as sea-foam. sending up an incense like the perfum d altar-flame .

..

. )

ADDENDC'I\1

'~. M. J.' has rejiewed the Oujrati Books in the Reoie.» section.t

o \

Rani Lukshmibai Rai~ad

Let U' llOW come to the distribution or the 246 seats among the provinces themselves. These scats are to be Illled by the reprcseutative of 337,100,000 persons. Dividing 257,1.00,000 by 246 we get 1,045,1?1. That mean that every 1,0:1:5,121 persons are to get one representative each. We give below the number of seat which each province should g t on their population ba i and the number which has been actually gi~en to them ill the Bill. It will be· een t,hat the p~plllation put dowu against Bombay, Madras, Bihar, and Orissa are omewhat different (rom the Census figlll'e of UJ31. The difference i due to the facts that Sind and Aden are to be separated hom the Bombay Pre iidency, aud some area are to be taken from the :\ladra, Presidency and to be given to Orissa, which again is to he separated 'from Bihar and made a separate governor is provin e. The population figure, in the table printed below .a~·e adapted from the J. P. . Report on which the Government of India Bill is based.

Illoqical Distribution ot Seats in Indian Federal Legislature

TIle population of the Provinces in British .Iudia to which repre entation i. to be civen io the Federal Logislature has been taken to be 257,100,000 in round numbers, anel the population of the Indian tate of which the Ruler will nominate th it' representatives in that Le~islature has been ,given ih It scbedlll J of the Government of India Bill as 7 , 01,!H2, the total population of these" two units being thus 335,!l01,912. Burma i>\ to be separated from India.

1 here-are to be 375 seats in the }i'ederal Assembly, which is to be the lower house of the H'ed ral Legislaturc. Thouzh the people ?f the Indian States have beben absolutely 19n.oL'ed, let us assume that their Rulers will u_ominate as repre entatives, not the representatives 0.£ themselves, bnt the representatives of tbe people of the 8tates. .So tho 375 repre eutativ s in the Federal As sernbly will represent 3' 0,901,912 persons of India as a whole. Dividing 335,901,!H2 by 375 we get 890,708. So every 95,738 per .ons are to get. one l' ipresentative each. Therefore the 7 , 01,912 inhabitants of the Indian States are entitl d to 87 aud a fraction seats-e-say 8 seats, and the '357,100,000 persons of British India should get 287 eats. But the Indian S~~tes hU\7C been given 125 seats-3? more

ea than they are entitled to, and the

Provinces have been given 250 seats. In realitj' they have been givou 246 seats j for out of the ~ 50 given to them 4 have been kept apart as cc Ton-Provincial eats.~ So nhC' J: rovinces are to get 41 seats less than they are en titled to on the' basis e of population.

Provinces,

Population. eats they ,'cat they

should get have been

gIven.

Madras 45600000 43.0 37

Hombav 17940375 17.1, 30

Bencal 501l4ro2 47.9 :17

U. P. 48408763 46.3" 37

Rihnl'" 32400000 ai.o 30

Paniab 2::1580852 2~.5 30

O. P. (' .Berar 1.5507'72:1 ]4:8 15

Assam 8622251 R.2 10

N.-W. F. P. 2425076 2.:' (5

Orissa 6700000 6.4 fi

Sind ,,388'7070 3.7 5

British Baluchistan 463580 A fraction J

. Delhi 6%245 Do 2

/\ [mer-Merwara 560292 Do 1

Ooorg ,. 163321 Do 1 <,

Calculating on the al.sumptiou; . that it would be.'the 7 ,801,81'3 per on of the Indian

tuteli who wOllld get 12!i representatives, we hould find that there would be one eat for every 6130,415 0 them wh reas in Briti h [l1di~ a seat i given to every 1,0401 ,121 in- 1mbit;lU s. f thf' pe pI ~o{ the ltates bad beeu given Lila utt this cl~ r no would not have been b tnt I~' obj 'ctiOtlablr' or v ry objectionable, But the t'l.ot . some l.j(j Ruler of. orue HiO btate will nominate l25 r pre puta.tiv:'l. That aui uut, to :aying that each of the e mighty uperm n ar to have the sumo v tiu r power 11" ea h agar O'ate of more than on III illion p(·t'50n - in Briti 11 belia.

From what lllttl been writt 11 ab ve it will

I (I observ tl that the Provin '0- of Briti h India and the Indian States hav not ben giv II at" aecordiug t their populu iou which the, should have beeo. That J rovinees. Rtates, Di triers, Towns and ccustituen iics ill gf'l1 ral -hould have repre ell "nth' '8 accordi,.g to th uum rical str'llgeh uf their populatiou, .is not a mere thPMY I' H ilew-fanglcu idea. T'ud r the R presentation of the People (bqllnl Frauchise] Act, U12, I Gr flt Britain und ~ orthr-nl Ir land, (the s ats iu r at Britain wor redi-tribut d 1] til basis of one member of Lhe Hou e of - 0,000 of tit· population. eedistcibution ill Ireland was mad Oil the ba."l" of om' for every i' ,00 of the populali !J." Th J'c ar similar rnl ' in ~\.ustl'alia) Cauuda, Bol~illm, tc. A India i' ("roing to be, F deration, the law and practice in the Ullil<'Cl "tut's of Ameri 'ft, which is the mo t important F deration in the 'N rld should be instructive, k\,ccol'ding to th En yclopaedia Britan uica [l Lth edition),

.. {nch r,mlTOH'r y had raged OVEr the con1Licting principles If th ... equal r pres niatlon Ilf the states and of representution on the ba i, of number'. the Iat'j!('· ~tatl"" advocating the lauer, the -muller rates the fornU'l<. prinoiple ; anrl those who made them"'!vrp champions of th rights of 1]'6 stat professed 10 dTeat! the tyrannical PO\\CI' whlc:'l an a--t'mbly rt-prr-sen ti 11 1::\ .popula.tion might xert. The adoption of It bicameral 1'"lflm !l'I!IfIt' i[ poss.i:blt\ to gi" due n·"'!tlui.ion to both principle-, On' house, the :-ruule. r-outalns the n presentatives <If the tares, <,vt'rr suue sen linz lIVO: the other, IJIC TTUIIRC of R'·prc,s/'lllalive5. contains members elet'lPd on II basis "f popuiari-m. 'lh .. I"" taken !ng ... th r ar (~)ed (:nl1irt!;;~, and form tln- national Iegislntur 01 ih

United .sl~tes." l'

"

• im;Jar arrau~eUl ints . i fulg 111 ther

Fed rdtions may n180 btl cite 1.

,,' III the propcsed III [ian Federation al ) there are to" be two hou es, tll Federal As. embly and the COUll ,it or State. But in neither House is either of the principles followf>u in the I 1 nited tatex of mericn to he obs rved. In b th the 11 edsral em blv and th Council of 'tate unequal 1'epr entation is given to th PI' vince. ned the -'tntc, jointly autl «verally in quite au illogical malin r,

\\ ' hav(~ deal with repr'. n ation iu the l~ ederul .1:\.8 cmblv in some d tail. It is 1111- neee-« arv to tl '0 in th cas of the Council of ta ': iuffice it. t say that "The Council

f • 'tn.tcball consist of ~II hun Ired and liE~'-' u reptp en atives of Briti h India IIl1d not exceeding 011 hundred and four repres n tative of the Indian da to I' ( 11<1 LlS0 1 R

E til Government of I ndiu ill). .A. th

inhabitunh or tho Indinn tates number IC:-l>i than one-third of those of Briti h India. too many .M ~ al'O being gin'l! tl) tb '[aLe.. Jr r ther L th R ulcrs of the ,.late-. FOI', a 'aid ubove, tb people of tile :t: t " have b ell absolutely ignored.

It may be object d that, as till' Indian

.,. atioual "Ollgre's has r je ted th .r. P.

Report {ana c(')u.'oqnently tb Government of India Bill, which j., bas d on vit, in udvnne« '. nud 0' no :,oction of the p op11' is qllite

ati 'Iied with the" Bill, what i th (l·of.1 of eritlt!izing til aUo 'ution of S IIIk in detail '? Hilt as in spite of what the 'ongre; and other orzsuizati II mlly say the BiH will beconre law and at', v Il I~le Congressm n and mernh 1'8 of other organization will eut I' tlt, Fedam] Legi slatnre constituted a eordinz that lltw and will take purt in its proceedi IIgS, iL is uece .·ary t know how illogically and unju tly tlHlt legi luture i_." oing to b. con >t,ituted. It may also b obje t d thllt our expo ition of the nstitnti n f the [utnr legiHlntur mny giv l'i. e to inter-promo ial 31Jd Pr vincc-Stato jealonsi es and bi kerings. honld they do ,'0, it is not 0111' expo ition whi 11 weuld. be to blam for it, but rather the British parents

E tb [utili' on-titutiou of India who IUlVC

drafted th J. P. C. Ropers and tbe Govprnment of India BtU. Jll, t a he' who fu.H-v cx:pri ~ th mi sehievon oharact r 0 f the

'ommunal Deci, ion cannot b ca1Ied the fJthe[' o~ the mischief '0 the critic of the constitution o~ the fnture I; deral Legislature of India

372

THE :JIODERN REVIEW FOR :MARCH, 1935

cannot be held responsible for its direct al1~ indirect undesirable conseqnences."

Representation is meant for hUI1lUn beingll, not fo~' stretches or soil, or grass and trees gt'Dwing on them, or for sand or dust, or for wild and domesticated animals. And, therefore, it will not do to say that representation bas been ziven according to the area of the Provinces and the States. Hut upposing that representation on the ba is of area could be justified, it wonld be quite easy to show that the framers of the Bill did not follow even that principle. rOT bas the number of literates ill the different provinces, etc., been made the basis of the cli. tribution of seats.

We Illay be permitted to add here incidentally that in October, 1927, we dent a paper, somewhat similar to this note, 00 "The Voting Strength of our Provinces in the Legislative A embly," to the Secretary, AlIIndia Congress Committee, the 'ecretary, Muslim League, the Secretary, Indian National Federation, the lecretary, Hindu Mahasabha, and tbe 'ecretary, Non-Brahman Federation. But not oue of them even acknowledged its receipt.

That seats in the Federal Council of tat have ~ot been di tributed according to any equitable principle will appear from the fact that tbe rulers 01' the Indian states ruling a population of about 79 millions have been given th'e right to nominate 10:1: members and the people of British India, more than thrice as many in number (more than, 257 millions), have been given 150 seat.', the remaining six seats to be filled by persons chosen by the Governor-Genera] in his discretion. In· British India also, no just principle has been followed in giving eats to the provinces, as will appeal' from the following table :

Provinces or Population in
co mm n n i ty. millions . 'eat ..
::\fadras 45.6 20
Bombay 18.0 16
Benaal so.i 20
0
U. P. 48.4 20
Panjab- ~3.(j 16
Bihar :12.4 16
, C. P. & Berar rs.s g;,
Assam ,.6 I)
N.-\V. F.·P 2.4 5
Sind q.g Provinces or community.

Orissa

Delhi A.jmer-Merwara British Balnehi tan Coorg Anglo-Indians< Europeans

Indian Christians

Population in

millions.

6.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 ·O.?

5 1 1 1 1 1

, eats,

'\ I

2

That the distribution of scat in British Iudia lias not been according to the areas of the provinee will appear from the foHowing table:

Province '. Area iu eat 10 Seats in
sI}. ms, Assembly. Conneil of
State.
~hdras .142,277 37 20
Bombay 7'7,?':?1 30 Hi
Bengal 77,521 37· 30
U. P. 106,24 37 2~
Panjab 99,200 30 If)
, Bihar 69,348 30 Hi
C. P. & Bcrar 99,920 Hi 8
Orissa 13,706 !)
Assam 6.5,014 ]0 i)
~.-W. E. P. 13,51 ' fi n
Baluchi tan - 4,228 1 1
Ajmcr-Merwara 2,711 1. ]
COOl'g 1,593 1. 1.
Delhi 573 .) 1
ind -1(-i,37 !) i5 If, according to the principle followed in the United States of America, all provinces, whether large or small, had been given an equal number of seats in the Council of "tate, the reason could be under tood. But that has not been done. NOl' has Hle basis of population or area been follo~ed; nor, even population-ruza-area, if that were at all possible accOrding to any kind of arithmetic.

The distsibution of seats in the- two Houses of the B ec1eral Legislature bas not been made according' to the Dumber of literates in the units. For the Br;.tish Provinces contain a. total literate male population of 15, 45,287 ,and a total female' literate population of 2,239,046, and the Indian tates c'on'taiu a total male literate population of -1,4 8-,674 and'll. total female literate population of 919,761'. In'

. .

British I ndia the distribution of tile literate population is a. Iollows according to provinces:

Province. Literate ~la.l.e. Literate Female.
Madras a,70li,!l7:") G n.nos
'Bombay
(il1cIUllill~ , 'iml) 1 730,010 ~) ~ l') ,'),..;,
. _, d,v .J
Bengal 4,03:1,2;)2 .()I~() Fil
1 . P. 2,0-13,4,10 21(1,228
Punjab .. 1 ofI7,04-± 150,~13
Bihar & Orissa i.s: 1,506 1~!1,360
C. P. &, Bornr 7!-)O,!H8 76,784:
A 'sam 5~J, i90 '·J,1126
I .-W. r. P. .:;n,05" 11:30
Bulu ch is tu n ~ 1,!l8G :3,858
. \jrncr-:'III rwarn fi 1,17 7.7 3
.oorg HI, W? 5,1J.!
I) lbi 73 :~77 1 fl,005 It. i,.; not Oil!" idea that (11(' inhabitants of LlH' very smal] provinces shcukl not have ;iny representation. T3l1t' ill OUl' opinion, ur as with a population which would no!' hp cl1titled to even one seat on the population basis Rhould not han' been constitut id into ..,e-puTah' provinces. They houlrl bo aril:11g;~mllt.ed with orne adjacent big province, and then 'their inhabitants can have rep" senrnlinn by bccorniug parts f some c n stitucneies. Ilut if they . moot be amalgamated with big provinces, gl'OUpS of them .an be given ODe' "pat ach, just It' has been done in the case of tht' smaller Indian tate:'. (>t. the (' smallest provinces may be gj'v' n n sent hy rotation. .I. one of theso arrangements ma3' brsntisfactory, But neither is the allotment .If ~('a(..s according to the schedule of. the

overnmeut of India Bill at all atisfnetorv.

FOt' g-iving "eats to small province». o~ for giving extra ro.PlL~" by way of "weighLage" to some provinc -s, some other provinces have b en ~1C'priJ;"ed of OqH) .... cab to which thov were entitled. nd this deprivntion also haR not bern carried ont ar-cordinv to au.y just princi] 1 .

Briti,.;jlel's· have tal en full acl'\'aotage of t.lw division of race, religion, caste, laoglHlge, etc., which exist in Indin, and in addition

th y have set IIp new division-. Ol11'

of the objects of this Note has been

In how that, n" i 1 ,the \lollt~gu-C'heJ Ol&OI'tJ pOll;;:titlltipn, 8(1 in the Government of !ndia e lhll now under discussion in the

N TES

:373

Hou .. ·" of Commons, not onlv have conunnnitio ..... C~RSC_, rae d. etc., been favoured r di crimiuated againsr, but provinces :l180. This bow that British imperiuli sts are adepts in the appli ation of the dirid« pi ill/pan 1 uaxim,

lL is quite usual for people, whether they he nationalists and putr io or not, to condemn favouritism and discruninntiou, when they are not the pfLl'ty favoured and when they al"~ discriminat d nsraiu rt, But what i ... expected 1)£ tru patriot'! and nationalists L that, if in. IlIU'snuuce of the di /"1',11" 1"1 impern maxim or of soine other ..\IaclriJ.n~ellial1 polio they are favoured, they should reject such favnnr-, with disdain. No Invourcd race, community, province, cia's. ete.. in India hns ypt ad(>u in n ordan e with this ideal.

Basi and Pl"inc;ples of Represe11tation in Some Countries

r~ has bcp,u stated in the previous notethat under the Represent .tiou of the People (&lual Franchise) .\ ,t, HI:?, thp bellt.. if) "pat Britniu were rc(listl'ibuted on the basis oC one

• member of to Llou e of ('C)!l\fP'> J tor CVN\ 70,000 of III populntiou. B) 11 P lmt!' \c~ redistributi n in Ireland wa !lude ou Ihe ba .. i4 of one for everv 4:3.0()() of the pflpllll1- tion,

A cordi fig to the constitution 0[' the r rish Free State, "the totnl uuuihcr of member» or DttiJ Eireann (p.x:('lli'ii\(~ of mcmbors I'lI'thf' univr-rsitie«) shall not be fixed Itt le ... s than OIW member for each thirty thou-nud or (he

~ .

population, UI' at mnre than one I11f'mb('I' for

each tweuty tliousund of the population : provided Lila the proportion between the number of member= to be elected llt auv lime for ench constituency and the poplllati~n of each constituency, a. ascertained at tho In t preceding C nsus, "h111,. () far as possible, be identical throughout the country:'

In th t_; oiled RtaLes of' A merica, the

. 'ennt consists of two member. from ench ,tatf'. Tn the 1I0ll 'e of Represerr ati ves, the number of member!'! to which cuch Slate is entitled is determinod by the decennial ceo u .. 13y the Appointment Act following the· ('(llt'IlL or HllO the number of rcpres ntatives \vas 43'''(008 Ior e\'ery 210 l-I 0 iuh ibitants] .. but.' iq l!H~, with the admission of Arizona and N cw Mexico, it became <135. 1'11(" census o~

TO TFfE EOTTOR OF THE TT:ME

~ir,-When so much doubt ha b en ca L on tile pledges that have been given India by Cabinet }[ini"ters, Viceroys, and even by the King-Emperor, it must. indeed be gl'atilying to India-is to see in th leading ani le 01 The Times today that "there hit. been no deviation Ly 8() mil n as a hair's hrcadsh Irum a single oue 'of the pledges given to India by the Sovereign, hi Viceroys, and hi iin:i ter in t11~ Iast decade." As The Times points out so forcibly, ,. the Secrera-v uf State can make this clear when he inLJ'ocl\wes' it (the £;ov'er01110nl of Tnclia Bill). and it is essential that. he shou'ld do s: ." This is the more necessary because India has hecn very rnur-h perturbed by the words of lh Chairman n( the Conservative ~·LP.s' India Committee in the House of Commons during the debate on tile Joint

ommiuee's Report, that" no pledge given hy an)' Secretary of Stat or any Vicer Y ha any real legal hearing on the matter at all. The only tltin~ that Parliament is .. eally bound by is th Act of 1919." 'I'his auitud was explicitly rtaffinn ,d in the House of Lords by Lord Rankeillour, on December ]3 last, in the e words: "No statement Ly a Viceroy, no 'l'aj;emt'l'lt by any representative of rhe "- overeign. J'lI) Rtal:<'mf'nt by the Prime Minister, indr-erl 110 state· ment by the Sovereign hims If, can .bind Parliament against its j udgrnent." While L0T11 Rankeillour's words are no doubt technically LrIJ~ in a strlctlv legal sense, as Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru lias pninterl out, "it is very poor statesmanship to say "n and to art on it."

As The Times points 011t, there is no preumhlr III the present Bill, a rhut "the prear-ible uf tlw 1919 Act will remain 01] rer-orrl, and during th· d,..halr· " ,lhr Covcrnm nt will make it clear that lllt'l adhere 10 all the pledges which have been givel1 to India and t hat rhcv have no doul I in their minds as to WIUH tlu- ultimate lntnre of India should he." ,\Vl1al ludiaus now realize, however, is that the only t:hi'ng that is binding on Parflamant is the actual !e.xt' of IU~ Act of Parliament-and tha nothing said In a Parliamentary debate can l1P taken as Interpreting (JT qllali(ying that text- There is milch force therefore in the contention of H.lL the Aga Khan and the other Brit ish-India delegat ,110 sal with the JOilll elect Committee. that" since it is apparently contended that only II definite statement in an Act of Parf iamenr would he I inding on Iutnre Parliament's, ami that even the olernn declaration rnude by hi" Majesty the King·Emperlll' on a Iormal

ccasion i not authoritauve, we fe .. l that a rleclaration in rhp preamhls is essential In order 1.0 remove pl'e8e~1L ~~ve ml~gi\liJlgs and avoid future misuud=r-

~t (l~dll1gs, . -v

From my (,lose touch, h)' mail and ca;,lc. wi11i Indians of all shades 01 opinion, J fe-d certain that onlv sncl- a. de [arution in the Act 'itself will remove Indian O(IU~,t~ a~ lo our bona fides and enable us l" get the co-op-ration .in India thar W'l all S(J earnesrlv desire. I. •

THE ~tODERN REVIEW FOR l\1AROft, 1935

1930, whik leaving the total member hip at el35 suggested an alteration, due.to population sh lit", in the representation of 36 out of the 48 States : this rcdi tributiou, a determined by the census, became effective in 1933, by virtue 0:£ legislation passed by Congress in lH29.

In Belgium Senators are chosen on the basi' of: one for 200,000 inhabitants. The number of members of the Chamber of R presentativcs, at pTe ent 1 7, is proportioned to the population, and cannot exceed one for v IT <10,000 inhabitant.

III the Kin,rdom of the Serbs, roats and Slov nes, "One Deputy hall be elected for

each forty-thousand inhabitants. If the

xcesi populatioo of an electoral area is

more than twenty-five thousand, an additional depuey 81oa11 be elected for' that area,')

In Bulgaria, the members of the National Assembly are elected at the rate of ODe member to every 20,000 of the population,

In the republic of M.e. icc, ongress

consi ts of a Chamber of Deputies and a

, enate, Deputies are elected at the rate ofone member for 100JOOO inhabitants. The 8 nate consi t of 5 members, tW'J for each State nnd thc Federal Di trict.

T;le higbest authority in Soviet Russia is the AI1-R'L sian Ollgeess of Soviet.', which consists 9f representatives of town 'oviets on the bn is of one dele,ga e £01' ;.5,000 elector, , and of Regi.onal nongresses of Soviets on the basis of one delegate for

very 1 ~'~ ,000 in habitants.

Tn Sweden, the ountry is divided~llto 2 constituencies, in ea h of which one member is elected for every :?30th part of the population of thp. Kingdom it contains.

In Swit7.erland, ill the Swiss Federation, the Nationalrat or National Council consi ts of 187 repl' seutati ves of the wiss people FIt the rate of one deputy fOT every :?~ ,000 souls.

Hut we must stop.

Major Graham Pole on Declaration of Dominion Status in Government oj India Act

Th.e following- letter' of Major D. Graham Pole" appeared in the leader page of The Times of. January 2 last:

Yours faitlrfullv.

D. GRAnA]',,! rot.t, Vit',,·Cbai,rman of the British Committee on Indian and Burman' Aflairs,

We agl'c~, :with this addition thatth Act should contain provisions making for Domininn • satus a,HtoOmatica,lly, that the provi ions

NOTES

hould be such a' would enabl Indians to obtain Dominion Status for their country (including the right of sece sion at option) within a d{;finitely fixed period, without further reference to and enquiry and legi iatiou by the British Parliament.

Mr. P. Kodanda Rao's Tour .~broad

Mr. l? Kodandn Rao, the able and wellinform id scretary of tho ervants of India Society and Editor of The Seroanl 0(' India, Poena, is now in the United tates of Amcri a engaged in erious study ill the Department of Race Relations ill the niver ity of Yale. Before returning to India, be wi he to visit some of the countries in which Indians arc settled in SOUle numbers and !?tudy their problems. Our countrymen there would do well to give him every assistanc to become fully conversant with their problems and discuss with him. a. to how they could be

best ~I:lolv .d, Orgalliultions which would

like him to -isit their countries may

comnuuiicato direct with him. HiI'! addre sis': flail of Graduate Studies, Iuiversity of Yal , New Haven, Conn., U. '., J\,

Mr. C. F. Andrews on "Repression in India"

Tho following 1 tter on "Repro sian ill India," from Mr. . II'. Andrew" appeared in The Neto Statf'.SIIIO;f/ and Nation of February :?, Hl2fi :

REPREssro L T DIA

Slll.-\Vr 11lI1'C hluru d France, year after year, for nut tak ing count 01 the rising tide of national Ieeling in .crmany after the war; ),el. when we ourselves are pur to !I similar test in India we seem to Ill' e-qually f"oli~h. Th delencelessness of India tuday, nuder the PI' sr-nt rule of repression, which ha .. reached something near to martial law in Bengal

and the or~h-W .. st FrClnti .. r Province .....

W.· have made the pTE'" law ;;0 severe, that the r-dltor uf rhe Modern Rf'r1<!1Il has heen warned twice, and threatened with what would amouno to onfiscauon, Ior PII~li"hill!( Tagorc's articles ..... The number of detenu .. rnHUY uJ whom an·,kept for long years in iruprisonrueut, seems to be continually increasing, Concentration amps, where th yare kept, make life .intclerahle fOT them. as their whole future i~ blighted and their families brought to

ruin. '"

The 'following Inlormstton has been ~iven me b'y one whose family bas thus sufiered,

," Those .iu jail haV been there ill many case" for over six., Sears will-;;:Jnt trial : and yet the Indian .p~1l1l1 ·~ude .i iself has few punishments cf. over five

, -u

315

If·ars. ~-fany w re placed b fore the COllcLS, dis~harged, and shen rearre led. Ilere, there cOIJd be no question of want of evidence which could be placed before the Conrt. Av.ailable evidence D1Ust have been produced and nave been in ulficient for conviction. Th re are cases where a man, convicted in onuection with Civil Disobedience J18S been arrested at the jail gate as eon as he wa releas d."

The wri ter then gives specific instances, which need not be d tailed here. He goes on as follows;

•. umerous in ranees of uieide .• insanity. infection of tuberculosis, have com to light, and the pitiable tale of negle t •.•.. arc many. These reach hundreds of homes in Bengal and aCOOUlllS of them are ent to members of the Legi lature. The venulaI iun uf such cases brings s harp d mials, a companied h, rebukes 5U h ab were giv n by ir Harry Haig in the Legi lative Assembly. I wiIRI a Commiuee of :\l.P:~ could rome out and recei};e facilities fOT inquiring into the mi ']1' of the deierius and their families. '\Jy own relation (he gives the name which I omit) i,. II deienu, at It malarinl village, going through his fifth year of detention. Hi allowance has been reduced 10 15 rup es (under £1 3s. Od.) per month, He was a college stndcnt, champion swimmer, musician, and sportsman, and mUSL have been quite incapable "I any direct connection with terrorism. Jj i now bruk n in health and was at one time suspected of being tubercular."

'ly friend then goes on to mention in his letter a . choolmi tre ,wbo had been arrested nuder similar cundi lions and is now huttered in health, after

• nearly Jour years'imprisoll111C'llt: also a college PIO' (('~ 01', vho has hC'1'1l in jail (as a Regulation ITI pnsoner) for very many yean, ami hi, family brought to nun.

No une in this country can -ver immaaine the horror that is connected with this .. detention :i S>I tern. Recently, cunditious have been made less inhuman owing to ontinucd public pres lire hut the whol~ PI'O .ess of detention without tria] i· rouen to the cor '_ The !~nocent suffer with the guilty; ....

1 a.m wnung about what l know Irom personal experience, and my only regret i that 1 did nOL wrue long .ago. While wearing Bengali dre s, and therefore lIU taken »: a Bengali, I have been myself maltn,aled. ~y I h(> pohc<:'. orne o] my <)"~I tudents from Saruinikeran, who were as innocent uf terrorism a-, I am, have been arrested and imprisoned. Sir liar TTaig denounced ill rhe Legislative .Assemhlv one who signed his name to a petition asking that the A ndurnans should no longer be used as a P nul seulemeui. 1 myself igned that petition. and came Ilncl.er .the same ondcmuauon. Tf any attention in lndia IS .called to t hese thing« the answer is usually a pre"arl~aton. and a bullying tone is adopted.

The wrue-r from whom [ have quoted Slates further that tl.11" numb r nnw irnpri oned or interned must have rrsen to nearly 2;DOO detenus. He gives details about ,.Ibe. different "camps." He then goes on to say: WlIh I'll" grant of reforms, under which they cOl1.l~ . honourably und~rl?-k lO give up subversive actlVltJes. 11 hugf' majoruy would come out, You cun-T am letung you know on good aUlhority"-your. self offer such aSSllrances."

TI~s letter Is already long. but one of the a •

regrets o~ my Iiie is that I dil.~ not lake u'; ;h~t cause ~ctJvely before; and 1 would wish t l .. f~

tl I I I if I 0 rec ress

j8 rms a ... e now) possibly call do o.

C. F. Al'fDRf.W_

{'':la"Jj~heJ the point of Sir N. N. Sircar's that discussion on a motion lor reduction of grani. like this must br- confined to questions of admi nistraiion under the existing acts and not discussion f all)' gropo. ed legislation 011 the subject. ;\,11:. Bhulabhai Desai had referred 10 1934· debate hu t Oil that "c(,ssion no point of order was raised ami no objection was [Ilk'll that on a motion for reduction lo[ grant in the railway budget any such discussion was nor 1'010VII11"" Apparently Government fOT purpose of expediency or convenience did nnt raise any 811 II obj~(Jti"'" an,,] disCIJOsion WII allowed In plIoceeci. II sl"f'med 1:0 the Chair thai. practice l.ad ber-n well-established that general quest ions of pol icy might be raised in general discussion 011 the railway hurlge: or ill the case of the general budg 1 all the Finance Bill. bUL when motions for reduction of particular grant came up. only queslions of administration could he discussed. The Chair therefore, held that eli cussion of 311)' prcpo ed legislation r r~orrlin:! the railwav aurhority would lint 111' ill meier on thi: motion. At the rune time. tlre (;Iwil' would givc Iiberty to III mb rs to make pahl!.iuf! rr-f .. rences 10 I1TI>P<lR('" leglslatiu» '18 motive for l'dIJ<ld I)f "rant~.

Mr. ftnna h' s "personal self-respect"

In the cour e of his speech in support of his motion in t'he Assembly for the a sceptnnce of the 'omrnunnl Decision "so Int at'; it goeR," Mr. Jinnnh said that

,

.. Iii. personal sell-respect wOIILJ never be satisfied lillie ~ the lndians Ihpl11"elvl'~ worked out an ape rl formula."

And, therefore, Ul the meanwhile Lis

non-personal and ommnnal self-respect

ould not be satisfied without nccopting a formula worked out by non-Indinns which has insulted and wronged the va t majority of Indian.' and can sed gl'oat di. agreement among' all or them.

The Communal Decision Accepted by Government and Muslims

As the rnemb J'S of the Assembly who were returned as nominees of the Congr 's Parliamentary Board refrained from votiug on Mr . .:T;'nn~h's motion fOI' acceptance of the

ommuna] Decision, it was carried by fl, lRt'gc majority, consisting of. oB'icin.1 1I1ClIIbcl's, Govornment-uorninntad members and Mr. J innah . 'imlppellt1ent" party., of Iuslim mem bel'S.

The nell trality of Cougre s s Parlinmentary m mbcrs was quivalent tc tacit, though not to c..'(_rlici~ nud open, acceptance. Th_is is tnntamormb to uniujcnded bct!;ay?ti of the call '0 of nationalism. 1~1s Cougre s adheres to the polic.)'·;]! neithe~ accepting nor ,rcjecting the

NOTES

38H

Decision, these members should have voted

- against the anotio 11 for its acceptance, as thev would be bound to vote a ainst a motion for its rejection also. This is a rather farcical po ition, but Congressmen have only themselves to thank for it.

Sir N. N. Sircar Does His Duty

Though a member of the Govemrnonr, Sir ~. N. Sircar, the Law Member, did not vote with the other official members for the ;\.CC ptance of tho Communal Decision, but abstained from \'oting. He-having a a nonofficial taken a leading r~rt in the agitation against ih Decision hi. a tion 'W~'1 (Illite

orrect, and conrageolls. A non-Beugali

ex-M, L. A. writes thus in Tile Amrita Basar Patril«: 011 thi incident :

1'1'1<' II·a.1 "f Sir Nripendra Slrcar. '11'1.11, eOlJ'ld not r·')l1",·ielll.il)u",ly g<J into the Covorumen: Jubhy 1111 111(" Cormnunal Award even though he is tho Ieader of Ll11' House shows Nl once tual the Hindu community has in the 'nbinr-t of 1110 GO\'Cn1nlCIH of .lndiu a man of nm~ rnuruge. U Ieader of ourstandinu chara . rr-r, who lS prepared 10 . ink ill' swim with the cause of the Hindns. This is IIIP first tim e in the history ol Indian nutionulisrn 11)1(1 of Ihe Central Legislature that it~ leader r-muiru«! ne-utral. Sir ripendra has fOl,ghl [or liS at 111(' R\lllnd Tahle Conference 89 IlU other Hindu leader Iought. How can he gil bad .. on his pasi ? IIe 100k$ to 'tl(' Inture.r-rhe gnocl of his CQ111R1Wlil\'.

Sir N. N. Sin:ul' a3kt'd Ih~ i\~sembJy 10 rake a concrr-tc view of lhinp:s ami Iu answr-r Ihe 'lllt'bli"l1 a", In whal ril'J!TCC ,. we hove be~n prepared to slIbn1'flinalf' con-rnunal. FPl'li(lllal anrl 1<1(,111' c'onHirl: in national interests,"

Mr. A. C. Chatterjee

Mr. A. C. Chatterjee, H br tber of l ir A tnl Chandra Chatterjee, who was an officer in the League of Nations offi e, and who had Come ant to India 011 lenvo, was killed in a motor'

accident last mouth 111 Calcutta. Iliti

unnimely and tmgic death orentss a

void in the ranks of the very small group o] Indian' who are employed ill the League office or ill its International Labour Organization. Before going to Geneva he was the chief officer of the 1-1. sociated Pl'es~ in Bombay. r n Geneva he was at fir t employ d in the League of N ation Informntion Section. Later he was tran ferred t the Political Se~tion. Many Indian \?isitors to' GenevTl, .recrrU with sadnet:>s hi" and bid "rife's ge'nial hospitality .

39,0

THE MODERN REV!EW l!"'OR MARCn, 193b

Srimati Priyambada De1Ji

Sri mati Priyarnbada Dcvi, the Bengali poetess, who died 10, t m,onth in Calcutta ~t the ace of 63, was a mecc or the late Sir .iishL1t~sh Chaudlurri, Her mother is still alive. rimati Priyambada Devi was a contributor to the leading Bengali monthlies and was connected with some women's organizations. She was the author of a book of poems named Dluirtt an 1 of Anaih. a novel.

An Absurd Demand

The ouneil of the All-India Muslim

League uemands." unanimously that British Baluchist,an be raIsed to the standard of a "Governor's province." J ust think of an area containing only <:1:63,50 inhabitants boing made a Govemor's province. It is easy to can t,he tune wh n others have to pay the piper.

The alternative demand of the ouncil,

namely, that British Baluchistan be aLOalgam~ted with Sind, i not unreasonable. Ite practicability ought to be con idercd,

Subhas Chandra Bose's Book

Sit' Samuel TIoare has said iu the Ilouse of Comlnons that Mr. Rnbha Chandra Bose's book on the Indian struggle has been proscribed by the G verutnent of India '(on the OTOllUd that it tended generaJly to ellcol1~agc methods of terrori m and of direct action."

On the ther hand there have been eulogis-

tic re£ercnce~ ill the Manchester OI£rt1·dirtlZ and rome other British paper" a'ild Mr. George Lansbmy leader of the oppo iitiou in tho Commons, bas llraised it.

Al 0, the £olllnvillg is the opmlOll of s.L:. W. N. Ewar, the foreign editor of the Daiut Herald- of London, Iu the course of a review or the book whi h appeared in that paper on the 2 Sth Jannary la t, Mr. Ewar write :

,. Bose ul l!ClIlrse, is stamped a an extremist, a wiltl. 'mau, a menace 10 sn iety. 'Veil, here is

his ""ok .

. , II is calm sane, disp!tssionulc. I think it th

ablest work 1 'have read Oil ell rrcnt Indian politics. He has~his own opinions, vigorously held, yet never

11 nfairly e](prcs ed. .' .

... , This .is the hook of no Ianati but of a singularly

, ahle micd the book of an acu rc, thoughtful, CQf111otructiv mind, of a man wbo, While st.ill under forty, would lie an asset and an ornumem. to the political lift' of any country. •

"Blit for the past ten years be 1,65 spent most

, .

of his life in jail: and is now an exile broken iIi health.

"That is one tragedy of til Indian situation."

Instrument of Instructions

Clause 13, Sub-clause (2) _0£ the "Government of India Bill runs as follows :

"The validity of anything done by the GovernorGeneral shall not be caller in quest ion on the • ground that it was done otherwise than in accordance with ail) Instruments of Instructions issued

to him." •

Even without this provision the GovernorGeneral, armed with tile other powet'~ given to him in it, would have been a great a utocrat, But this provision absolves him from all responsibility for his actions.

Therefore, it very greatly minimizes the value of the Instrument 01 Instructions, o£ wbi h the draft ha been cabled out to India. by Reut r.

Ravages of Malaria in Ceylon

Malarln has been. ~'lking a heavy toll of lives in C ylon. The sufferers de erve every sympathy and help. Bengal being perhaps the most malarious province in India we can realize the distress of the Sinhalo e"

Madame Halide Edib Hanums Advice

In the course of her imprc ivc address to an audience of some 7000 pel'sons in the quadrangle of A huto h Ilall ill alcutta Madame If alide Bdib Hanum said:

How l' CREATE A 'ATION.

".LeI' me ay that l10 matter how many great men and great women you may have, 110w many uurvcrsities )'OU have, unless you go down and solve the economic problems of the masses so IhaL we)' have a decem staudurd of Iiving, il you do noi go down and give them 'ducat;on and teach them to lnve India above everything Is yon cannot create a nation."

HfNDU-:MosLE~r "'lrY.

Referring to the contents of a Jetter which she had received from a gentleman of this city she said: c , the letter touched oOP. important question and as your Vice-Chancellor had described, the jl111chmenlal question of Hindu Moslem unity, It is your lamily affair. You will have differences but it ~s best that young Indians who love India above everything else should C\11]16' togeLher and olve it them elves, Whatever yop. may think in india, 'Ire in Turkey do not believe Islam to bf' a communal religion. Islam finder food in its fundamentals, which ill its purest S rn e .mean co-operation, and equality of men. T believe if f here is a single Muslim in sp many hundreds of l-lindtl brothers for him india should he; a part and_parcel of Iris religion. Tberefore, to k,n il is Tno;a fi]'st and not his community first. May h be one rh' one milliori, his duty is 10 stand, shou [del' lo ~holllder with eve,"f child ef India. India belongs to him as it belongs to e;·~rvcll1e

clre. - .

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