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# CHAPTER I

DATA PROCESSING

In this chapter, the data and calculation of work pre work sampling, work
sampling, operator of observation objects productivity ratio, and productivity
ration of another observation object;s location will be shown.

## 1.1 Pre Work Sampling

In this sub chapter, the data recapitulation and calculation of data
adequacy of pre work sampling will be shown. Pre-work sampling is used to
determine the initial condition of the observation object, to determine how many
data needed for work sampling. Work sampling is done appropriately with
random time generated from Microsoft excel to observe the appropriate working
elements.
The observed object for this study is Front Desk of third floor in ITS Library

## 1.1.1 Pre Work Sampling Data Recapitulation

The work sampling is done on the Tuesdays afternoon. In order to know
the period of time of work sampling, randomization of observation time is done
on Microsoft Excell by using the following steps:
A Column
FORMULA = Number of observation (secon) x rand () (1.1)
Observation is arranged in 3 hours,so A coloumn = 10800 * rand ()
Then drag down until 100 data
B Column
Copy A COLUMN paste special value to B column (in order to make
sure that the random value will not change)
C Column
B column converted appropriate to the starting hour of the observation.
Observation s Starting time Random Value from B Column
Formula =( )+( ) (1.2)
24 hours Number of Seconds a Day
Observation is done from 13.00 until 16.00, so the formule becomes as
follows:
13 3226342
C column = =( 24 ) + ( ) = 0,579009
86400

## Then drag down until 100 column

D Column
Copy C column paste special value then format cell is changed to be
time.Then, sort the data from A to Z. Copy D column to the worksheet.

## Based on the result of observation on the object, the elements of working

that is done by the operator is listed on table below:

## Table 1. 1 List of Work Element of Observation Object

Type Code Definition
I Giving the book(s) to students
II Scanning the book and student id card
III Receiving the book(s) from students
VA
IV Checking the book information date
V Input data toward computer
VI Respond the customer question
I Put the books on bookshelf
SVA II Clean the bookshelf and table
III Receiving money from the customer
I Playing with cellphone
II Chatting
NVA
III Personal Need
IV Waiting

The work element in the table above is the activities that are observed in
the work sampling. By using the code and term that has been defined above, the
result of pre work sampling is shown in the data recapitulation below:
Table 1. 2 Pre-Work Sampling Data Recapitulation
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:03:44 1 1
13:04:58 2 1
13:05:00 3 1
13:06:31 4 1
13:06:48 5 1
13:08:52 6 1
13:09:50 7 1
13:13:43 8 1
13:15:27 9 1
13:16:05 10 1
13:16:35 11 1
13:18:56 12 1
13:21:45 13 1
13:26:07 14 1
13:28:00 15 1
13:29:30 16 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:31:09 17 1
13:31:41 18 1
13:33:41 19 1
13:36:06 20 1
13:37:40 21 1
13:38:39 22 1
13:46:50 23 1
13:47:41 24 1
13:52:29 25 1
13:52:32 26 1
13:53:04 27 1
13:56:26 28 1
14:01:50 29 1
14:02:24 30 1
14:04:41 31 1
14:08:17 32 1
14:10:18 33 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

14:10:38 34 1
14:10:44 35 1
14:10:54 36 1
14:11:19 37 1
14:13:31 38 1
14:14:47 39 1
14:17:48 40 1
14:19:36 41 1
14:20:06 42 1
14:20:29 43 1
14:23:19 44 1
14:24:51 45 1
14:25:22 46 1
14:27:44 47 1
14:29:32 48 1
14:31:12 49 1
14:33:17 50 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

14:33:27 51 1
14:34:06 52 1
14:35:32 53 1
14:38:14 54 1
14:38:24 55 1
14:40:02 56 1
14:41:22 57 1
14:41:53 58 1
14:43:26 59 1
14:43:39 60 1
14:47:04 61 1
14:47:18 62 1
14:48:16 63 1
14:52:44 64 1
14:53:52 65 1
14:55:15 66 1
14:59:10 67 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:01:55 68 1
15:03:22 69 1
15:04:11 70 1
15:04:33 71 1
15:05:25 72 1
15:05:54 73 1
15:07:42 74 1
15:08:47 75 1
15:15:23 76 1
15:20:25 77 1
15:20:54 78 1
15:22:08 79 1
15:22:50 80 1
15:23:38 81 1
15:23:41 82 1
15:24:28 83 1
15:29:46 84 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:32:39 85 1
15:33:52 86 1
15:34:20 87 1
15:34:49 88 1
15:35:03 89 1
15:35:15 90 1
15:37:02 91 1
15:39:48 92 1
15:40:46 93 1
15:41:11 94 1
15:43:06 95 1
15:44:16 96 1
15:50:38 97 1
15:53:56 98 1
15:58:53 99 1
15:59:34 100 1
Total of Each Element 24 2 74
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

Probablity of Each Element 0.24 0.02 0.74

## Source: Observation Data

1.1.2 Pre Work Sampling Data Adequacy
Adequacy test is done to know whether the data that has been obtained is
sufficient or not. In order to calculate the adequacy test, the following formula is
used:

k2 p (1p)
N = (1.3)
(Sp)2

Explanation:
N = Number of observation that needs to be done
p = probability of working element
k = value of z (Confidence level 95%, z = 1,96)
S = error rate (0,05)
The calculation of adequacy test for pre work sampling is as follows:
1.962 x 0,24 (1 0,24)
N =
(0,05 x 0,24)2
N = 4855,03
The number of data that is collected in the observation (N) is 100 data.
So, N is less than N. In another words, the data that is collected in pre-work
sampling is not sufficient.

## 1.2 Work Sampling

In this subchapter, the work sampling data recapitulation, data adequacy
testing, and work sampling accuractytesting will be shown. Work sampling is
sampling a persons activity or machine to determine the percentage of working
and not working time. In this module, the main observation object is an operator
in front desk of library 3rd floor.

## 1.2.1 Work Sampling Data Recapitulation

In this module, there are five observation days.The work sampling data
recapitulation for each day are as follows:
Table 1. 3 Work sampling data recapitulation at 13.00 16.00 on third floor front desk of ITS Library on Day 2
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:01:44 1 1
13:03:20 2 1
13:05:06 3 1
13:05:30 4 1
13:06:12 5 1
13:06:20 6 1
13:10:22 7 1
13:11:10 8 1
13:15:02 9 1
13:15:26 10 1
13:15:53 11 1
13:16:15 12 1
13:18:18 13 1
13:18:34 14 1
13:19:27 15 1
13:20:34 16 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:20:53 17 1
13:23:28 18 1
13:25:26 19 1
13:30:50 20 1
13:39:03 21 1
13:39:07 22 1
13:40:15 23 1
13:43:40 24 1
13:44:53 25 1
13:45:05 26 1
13:47:39 27 1
13:48:41 28 1
13:50:29 29 1
13:53:04 30 1
13:53:30 31 1
13:53:35 32 1
13:54:47 33 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:56:56 34 1
13:57:14 35 1
13:57:34 36 1
14:00:56 37 1
14:02:36 38 1
14:03:37 39 1
14:04:04 40 1
14:04:30 41 1
14:05:58 42 1
14:07:37 43 1
14:09:39 44 1
14:14:09 45 1
14:14:28 46 1
14:17:48 47 1
14:19:52 48 1
14:22:15 49 1
14:34:02 50 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

14:34:04 51 1
14:35:04 52 1
14:35:06 53 1
14:36:11 54 1
14:38:43 55 1
14:38:54 56 1
14:41:53 57 1
14:43:40 58 1
14:48:32 59 1
14:52:04 60 1
14:52:05 61 1
14:55:20 62 1
14:55:44 63 1
14:56:36 64 1
14:56:52 65 1
14:58:56 66 1
15:00:23 67 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:01:37 68 1
15:04:02 69 1
15:05:03 70 1
15:07:00 71 1
15:09:56 72 1
15:13:12 73 1
15:13:59 74 1
15:14:24 75 1
15:21:18 76 1
15:22:14 77 1
15:22:59 78 1
15:25:43 79 1
15:28:31 80 1
15:29:27 81 1
15:29:56 82 1
15:33:26 83 1
15:33:58 84 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:37:59 85 1
15:40:35 86 1
15:41:44 87 1
15:46:19 88 1
15:46:45 89 1
15:48:59 90 1
15:50:06 91 1
15:51:21 92 1
15:52:10 93 1
15:53:01 94 1
15:53:54 95 1
15:55:40 96 1
15:57:06 97 1
15:57:27 98 1
15:58:50 99 1
15:59:32 100 1
Total of Each Element 14 5 81
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

Probablity of Each Element 0.14 0.05 0.81

Table 1. 4 Work sampling data recapitulation at 13.00 16.00 on third floor front desk of ITS Library on Day 3
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:05:01 1 1
13:06:07 2 1
13:06:54 3 1
13:09:50 4 1
13:10:59 5 1
13:13:16 6 1
13:13:51 7 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:14:12 8 1
13:14:54 9 1
13:15:01 10 1
13:18:12 11 1
13:18:33 12 1
13:20:35 13 1
13:22:22 14 1
13:23:42 15 1
13:23:52 16 1
13:24:13 17 1
13:28:22 18 1
13:29:03 19 1
13:32:41 20 1
13:33:47 21 1
13:33:47 22 1
13:35:27 23 1
13:36:23 24 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:38:18 25 1
13:40:16 26 1
13:42:53 27 1
13:43:03 28 1
13:46:10 29 1
13:56:11 30 1
13:58:19 31 1
13:58:25 32 1
13:58:35 33 1
13:59:41 34 1
14:02:59 35 1
14:07:27 36 1
14:07:35 37 1
14:08:53 38 1
14:13:20 39 1
14:15:23 40 1
14:15:26 41 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

14:20:05 42 1
14:21:11 43 1
14:22:17 44 1
14:24:30 45 1
14:25:15 46 1
14:25:17 47 1
14:25:58 48 1
14:28:28 49 1
14:28:30 50 1
14:30:13 51 1
14:31:08 52 1
14:32:11 53 1
14:32:58 54 1
14:33:54 55 1
14:35:39 56 1
14:37:06 57 1
14:44:24 58 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

14:44:52 59 1
14:45:08 60 1
14:47:42 61 1
14:48:49 62 1
14:48:54 63 1
14:51:34 64 1
14:54:33 65 1
14:57:23 66 1
14:57:53 67 1
14:59:16 68 1
15:00:46 69 1
15:01:43 70 1
15:02:10 71 1
15:04:41 72 1
15:10:06 73 1
15:11:37 74 1
15:12:43 75 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:14:16 76 1
15:18:15 77 1
15:18:40 78 1
15:21:58 79 1
15:24:59 80 1
15:25:57 81 1
15:26:23 82 1
15:29:12 83 1
15:29:50 84 1
15:29:53 85 1
15:30:33 86 1
15:34:59 87 1
15:36:32 88 1
15:37:06 89 1
15:37:43 90 1
15:42:19 91 1
15:45:30 92 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:46:05 93 1
15:47:03 94 1
15:47:39 95 1
15:51:44 96 1
15:53:40 97 1
15:56:46 98 1
15:57:13 99 1
15:59:26 100 1
Total of Each Element 9 5 86
Probablity of Each Element 0.09 0.05 0.86

Table 1. 5 Work sampling data recapitulation at 13.00 16.00 on third floor front desk of ITS Library on Day 4
Time Observation Working Not Working
Semi Value- Non Value-Added
Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:03:44 1 1
13:04:58 2 1 1
13:05:00 3 1
13:06:31 4 1
13:06:48 5 1
13:08:52 6
13:09:50 7 1
13:13:43 8 1
13:15:27 9 1
13:16:05 10 1
13:16:35 11 1
13:18:56 12 1
13:21:45 13 1
13:26:07 14 1
13:28:00 15 1
13:29:30 16 1
13:31:09 17 1
13:31:41 18 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:33:41 19 1
13:36:06 20 1
13:37:40 21 1
13:38:39 22 1
13:46:50 23 1
13:47:41 24 1
13:52:29 25 1
13:52:32 26 1
13:53:04 27 1
13:56:26 28 1
14:01:50 29 1
14:02:24 30 1
14:04:41 31 1
14:08:17 32 1
14:10:18 33 1
14:10:38 34 1
14:10:44 35 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

14:10:54 36 1
14:11:19 37 1
14:13:31 38 1
14:14:47 39 1
14:17:48 40 1
14:19:36 41 1
14:20:06 42 1
14:20:29 43 1
14:23:19 44 1
14:24:51 45 1
14:25:22 46 1
14:27:44 47 1
14:29:32 48 1
14:31:12 49 1
14:33:17 50 1
14:33:27 51 1
14:34:06 52 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

14:35:32 53 1
14:38:14 54 1
14:38:24 55 1
14:40:02 56 1
14:41:22 57 1
14:41:53 58 1
14:43:26 59 1
14:43:39 60 1
14:47:04 61 1
14:47:18 62 1
14:48:16 63 1
14:52:44 64 1
14:53:52 65 1
14:55:15 66 1
14:59:10 67 1
15:01:55 68 1
15:03:22 69 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:04:11 70 1
15:04:33 71 1
15:05:25 72 1
15:05:54 73 1
15:07:42 74 1
15:08:47 75 1
15:15:23 76 1
15:20:25 77 1
15:20:54 78 1
15:22:08 79 1
15:22:50 80 1
15:23:38 81 1
15:23:41 82 1
15:24:28 83 1
15:29:46 84 1
15:32:39 85 1
15:33:52 86 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:34:20 87 1
15:34:49 88 1
15:35:03 89 1
15:35:15 90 1
15:37:02 91 1
15:39:48 92 1
15:40:46 93 1
15:41:11 94 1
15:43:06 95 1
15:44:16 96 1
15:50:38 97 1
15:53:56 98 1
15:58:53 99 1
15:59:34 100 1
Total of Each Element 32 16 52
Probablity of Each Element 0.32 0.16 0.52
Table 1. 6 Work sampling data recapitulation at 13.00 16.00 on third floor front desk of ITS Library on Day 4
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:03:44 1 1
13:04:58 2 1
13:05:00 3 1
13:06:31 4 1
13:06:48 5 1
13:08:52 6 1
13:09:50 7 1
13:13:43 8 1
13:15:27 9 1
13:16:05 10 1
13:16:35 11 1
13:18:56 12 1
13:21:45 13 1
13:26:07 14 1
13:28:00 15 1
13:29:30 16 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:31:09 17 1
13:31:41 18 1
13:33:41 19 1
13:36:06 20 1
13:37:40 21 1
13:38:39 22 1
13:46:50 23 1
13:47:41 24 1
13:52:29 25 1
13:52:32 26 1
13:53:04 27 1
13:56:26 28 1
14:01:50 29 1
14:02:24 30 1
14:04:41 31 1
14:08:17 32 1
14:10:18 33 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

14:10:38 34 1
14:10:44 35 1
14:10:54 36 1
14:11:19 37 1
14:13:31 38 1
14:14:47 39 1
14:17:48 40 1
14:19:36 41 1
14:20:06 42 1
14:20:29 43 1
14:23:19 44 1
14:24:51 45 1
14:25:22 46 1
14:27:44 47 1
14:29:32 48 1
14:31:12 49 1
14:33:17 50 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

14:33:27 51 1
14:34:06 52 1
14:35:32 53 1
14:38:14 54 1
14:38:24 55 1
14:40:02 56 1
14:41:22 57 1
14:41:53 58 1
14:43:26 59 1
14:43:39 60 1
14:47:04 61 1
14:47:18 62 1
14:48:16 63 1
14:52:44 64 1
14:53:52 65 1
14:55:15 66 1
14:59:10 67 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:01:55 68 1
15:03:22 69 1
15:04:11 70 1
15:04:33 71 1
15:05:25 72 1
15:05:54 73 1
15:07:42 74 1
15:08:47 75 1
15:15:23 76 1
15:20:25 77 1
15:20:54 78 1
15:22:08 79 1
15:22:50 80 1
15:23:38 81 1
15:23:41 82 1
15:24:28 83 1
15:29:46 84 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:32:39 85 1
15:33:52 86 1
15:34:20 87 1
15:34:49 88 1
15:35:03 89 1
15:35:15 90 1
15:37:02 91 1
15:39:48 92 1
15:40:46 93 1
15:41:11 94 1
15:43:06 95 1
15:44:16 96 1
15:50:38 97 1
15:53:56 98 1
15:58:53 99 1
15:59:34 100 1
Total of Each Element 27 10 63
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

Probablity of Each Element 0.27 0.1 0.63

Table 1. 7 Work sampling data recapitulation at 13.00 16.00 on third floor front desk of ITS Library on Day 5
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:03:44 1 1
13:04:58 2 1
13:05:00 3 1
13:06:31 4 1
13:06:48 5 1
13:08:52 6 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:09:50 7 1
13:13:43 8 1
13:15:27 9 1
13:16:05 10 1
13:16:35 11 1
13:18:56 12 1
13:21:45 13 1
13:26:07 14 1
13:28:00 15 1
13:29:30 16 1
13:31:09 17 1
13:31:41 18 1
13:33:41 19 1
13:36:06 20 1
13:37:40 21 1
13:38:39 22 1
13:46:50 23 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

13:47:41 24 1
13:52:29 25 1
13:52:32 26 1
13:53:04 27 1
13:56:26 28 1
14:01:50 29 1
14:02:24 30 1
14:04:41 31 1
14:08:17 32 1
14:10:18 33 1
14:10:38 34 1
14:10:44 35 1
14:10:54 36 1
14:11:19 37 1
14:13:31 38 1
14:14:47 39 1
14:17:48 40 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

14:19:36 41 1
14:20:06 42 1
14:20:29 43 1
14:23:19 44 1
14:24:51 45 1
14:25:22 46 1
14:27:44 47 1
14:29:32 48 1
14:31:12 49 1
14:33:17 50 1
14:33:27 51 1
14:34:06 52 1
14:35:32 53 1
14:38:14 54 1
14:38:24 55 1
14:40:02 56 1
14:41:22 57 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

14:41:53 58 1
14:43:26 59 1
14:43:39 60 1
14:47:04 61 1
14:47:18 62 1
14:48:16 63 1
14:52:44 64 1
14:53:52 65 1
14:55:15 66 1
14:59:10 67 1
15:01:55 68 1
15:03:22 69 1
15:04:11 70 1
15:04:33 71 1
15:05:25 72 1
15:05:54 73 1
15:07:42 74 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:08:47 75 1
15:15:23 76 1
15:20:25 77 1
15:20:54 78 1
15:22:08 79 1
15:22:50 80 1
15:23:38 81 1
15:23:41 82 1
15:24:28 83 1
15:29:46 84 1
15:32:39 85 1
15:33:52 86 1
15:34:20 87 1
15:34:49 88 1
15:35:03 89 1
15:35:15 90 1
15:37:02 91 1
Working Not Working

## Semi Value- Non Value-Added

Time Observation Value Added Activity
Added Activity Activity

## I II III IV V VI I II III I II III IV

15:39:48 92 1
15:40:46 93 1
15:41:11 94 1
15:43:06 95 1
15:44:16 96 1
15:50:38 97 1
15:53:56 98 1
15:58:53 99 1
15:59:34 100 1
Total of Each Element 24 12 64
Probablity of Each Element 0.24 0.12 0.64
1.2.2 Data Adequacy Testing
Adequacy test is done to know whether the data that has been obtained is
sufficient or not. The observation is done for five days, with th first day is pre-
work sampling and the second until fifth day is the work sampling. On the first
day of observation, there is 100 data which is taken. The data consist of 24
working element and 76 non working elemeent. On the scond day, the data which
is taken is 100 data. The data consist of 14 working element and 86 non working
element. The adequacy test can be calculated using the formula as follow:

## N = pre work sampling + work sampling day 1 (1.4)

N = 100 + 100 = 200

## The probability value of value added elements is can be calculated using

the formula as follows:

p= (1.5)
N

24 + 14
p= = 0,19
200

## By using = 1,96 ; = 0,05 number of data that is needed can be

calculated as follow:

1,962 0,19 (1 0,19)
=
(0,05 0,19)2
= 6550,94 6551 data

The recapitulation of adequacy test for all the data from pre work
sampling until work sampling day day 4 is as follows:
Table 1. 8 Recapitulation of Adequacy Test

Number Number
Number of
Observation of of Not N N' Explanation
Observation
Working Working

## 4866 Data is not

Pre Work Sampling 100 24 76 100
sufficient
Data is not
Sampling Day 1 100 14 86 200 6551
sufficient
Data is not
Sampling Day 2 100 9 91 300 8273
sufficient
Data is not
Sampling Day 3 100 32 68 400 6244
sufficient
Data is not
Sampling Day 4 100 27 73 500 5712
sufficient
Data is not
Sampling Day 5 100 24 76 600 36879
sufficient
Source : Microsoft Excell

## 1.2.3 Work Sampling Accuracy Testing

Work sampling accuracy test is done to know the accuracy of the data.
By doing accuracy test, the error rate of the data can be known. The work
sampling accuracy test is calculated using the following formula:

k p(1p)
S= (1.6)
p N

Explanation:
k = value of z (Confidence level 95%, z = 1,96)
p = probability of job description until the n-th day
s = error rate
N = number of data collected

1,96 p (1 p)
S=
p 600

S=
0,2167 600

S = 0,015

## 1.3 Operator of Observation Objects Productivity Ratio

In this subchapter, the percentage of operatorof observation
objectsactivity type, total percentage of observation objectd svtivity type, and
percentage of non value added job description will be shown.

## 1.3.1 Percentage of Operator of Observation Objects Activity Type

The pecentage of operator of observation objects activity type is shown
in the form of table and graph. The percentage of activity type is shown to know
how much an activity type make up the whole activity. The percentages of activity
type are calculted by using following formula:

## number of value added activity

average % value added activity = (1.7)
total number

## number of semi value added activity

average % semi value added activity = (1.8)
total number

## number of non value added activity

average % non value added activity = (1.9)
total number

## The example of calculation of percentage of activity type on pre work sampling is

as follows:

24
average % value added activity = 100 = 0,24

2
average % semi value added activity = 100 = 0,02
74
average % non value added activity = 100 = 0,74

## Table 1. 9 Recapitulation of Activity Type from Pre-Work Sampling

Value Added Semi Value Non Value
Activity Added Activity Added Activity
24 2 74

1.2

## 0.8 Non Value Added

Activity
0.6 0.74 Semi Value Added
Activity
0.4 Value Added Activity
0.02
0.2
0.24
0
1

## Table 1. 10 Recapitulation of Activity Type from Work Sampling Day 1

Value Added Semi Value Non Value
Activity Added Activity Added Activity
14 5 81
1.2

## 0.8 Non Value Added

Activity
0.64
0.6 Semi Value Added
Activity
0.4 Value Added Activity
0.12
0.2
0.24
0
1

## Table 1. 11 Recapitulation of Activity Type from Work Sampling Day 2

Value Added Semi Value Non Value
Activity Added Activity Added Activity
9 5 86

1.2

## 0.8 Non Value Added

Activity
0.64
0.6 Semi Value Added
Activity
0.4 Value Added Activity
0.12
0.2
0.24
0
1
Figure 1. 3 Percentage of Activity Type from Sampling Day 2

## Table 1. 12 Recapitulation of Activity Type from Work Sampling Day 3

Value Added Semi Value Non Value
Activity Added Activity Added Activity
32 16 52

1.2

## 0.8 Non Value Added

Activity
0.64
0.6 Semi Value Added
Activity
0.4 Value Added Activity
0.12
0.2
0.24
0
1

## Table 1. 13 Recapitulation of Activity Type from Work Sampling Day 4

Value Added Semi Value Non Value
Activity Added Activity Added Activity
27 10 63
1.2

## 0.8 Non Value Added

Activity
0.64
0.6 Semi Value Added
Activity
0.4 Value Added Activity
0.12
0.2
0.24
0
1

## Table 1. 14 Recapitulation of Activity Type from Work Sampling Day 5

Value Added Semi Value Non Value
Activity Added Activity Added Activity
24 12 64

1.2

## 0.8 Non Value Added

Activity
0.64
0.6 Semi Value Added
Activity
0.4 Value Added Activity
0.12
0.2
0.24
0
1
Figure 1. 6 Percentage of Activity Type from Sampling Day 5

## 1.3.2 Total Percentage of Observation Objects Activity Type

In this part, the percentage of observation pbjcts activity type will be shown.

## Table 1. 15 Percentage of Observation Object's Activity Type

Semi Non
Operator 1 Value
Value Value Total
result of Added
Added Added Activity
activity Activity
Activity Activity
In number 130 50 420 600
In
22% 8% 70% 100%
presentation

CHART TITLE
Value Added Activity Semi-Value Added Activity Non-Value Added Activity

70%

8%

22%

OPERATOR 1

## 1.3.3 Percentage of non Value Added Job Description

In this part, the percentage of non valye added job will be shown. In
order to calculate the percentage of non value added job, the following formula is
used:

% =

44
% = 346 = 0,127168
61
% = 346 = 0,176301
51
% = 346 = 0,147399
190
% = 346 = 0,549133

55%
Waiting

Chatting 18%

13%

## 1.4 Productivity Ratio of Another Observation Objects Shift

In this subchapter, there will be an explanation about the productivity
ratio of another observations shift in the ITS Library front desk at the 3rd floor.
In this case, the shift is a morning shift. In tables below, the recapitulation data of
total activity type of the morning shift and the elements of non-value added
activity will be shown.

## Table 1. 16 Recapitulation of Activity Type

VA SVA NVA
84 18 398

From the table above, it can be concluded that the non-value added is the
most done activity from the total activity.
Table 1. 17 Recapitulation of Elements of Non-value Added Activity Type
NVA
Playing with cellphone Chatting Personal Need Waiting
47 79 78 194

From the table above, it can be concluded that the highest number of
non-value added activity is waiting.

## 1.4.1 Percentage of Another Observation Objects Shift Activity Type

In this part, the percentage of another shift activity type will be shown
using graph.

Another Shift
17%
4%

79%

VA SVA NVA

## Figure 1. 9 Percentage of Activity Type in Another Shift

From the graph above, it can be concluded that the most activity done in
the morning shift is a non-value added activity at 79% of the total activity.

## 1.4.2 Percentage of Another Observation Objects Non Value Added Job

Description
In this part, the percentage of elements of non-value added activity type
will be shown using graph.
Percentage of Elements of Non-value Added
Activity Type
Playing with
cellphone

Chatting
Waiting 20%
49%

Personal Need
19%
Playing with cellphone Chatting Personal Need Waiting

## Figure 1. 10 Percentage of Elementsof Non-Value Added Actvity Type

CHAPTER II
ANALYSIS AND DATA INTERPRETATIO

## 2.1 Analysis of Pre Work Sampling, Work Sampling, and Adequacy

Data
In this subchapter, the analysis of pre work sampling, work sampling,
and adequacy test will be explaind. Based on the process listed in the module, pre-
work sampling is conducted to assess the number of data needed for the next
procedure, which are work sampling to assure the observation is categorized as
adequate. In the pre work samplig process, the data that is obtained is 100 with
mostly of them is non value added activity. After the data is calculated, it can be
know that the data is not sufficient. But, the data is assumed as adequate referring
to the laboratory assistant and module regulation. Then, work sampling is
conducted for five days. Each day, writers collct 100 data on 2 hours for 5 days.
The total data that is collected is 500. After it is tested using adequacy test, it can
be know that the data is not sufficient. But, because of time limitation and referes
to the semi value added activity is 8% and the value added activity is 22%., the
data is assumed to be enough.
The process of collecting data is done starts from 1 pm until 4 pm. After
the data has been collected, it can be seen that the percentage of the data in work
sampling is unbalance with 21,2% for the value added activity, 9,6 % for semi-
value added activity and 69,2% for non-value added activity. While in the pre-
work sampling the number of percentage are similar in result but different in
value, with 14% for value-added activity, 5% for semi-value added activity and
81% for non-value added activity. By observing the result of data collection, it
could be inferred that the value-added activity of the 3rd floor front desk should be
added with more activity to increase the percentage of value-added activity by the
observation object. But, the unbalanced percentage could also originated from the
observation time that is 1pm until 4pm which is more quiet or deserted compared
to the morning visitor.
2.2 Analysis of Operator Productivity Ratio
In this subchapter, the analysis of operator productivity ratio will be
explained. Based on figure 1.7, it can be seen that non value added activity
dominates the operators activity. The non value added activity cover 70% of the
operator;s activity. The percentage of semi value added activity is 8% and the
value added activity is 22%. This shows that the operator spends his job maily
idle and do nothing. It may be caused because the location of the observation is 3rd
floor of library which is reference room and there is only few people that visits the
library. The operator only works when there is a visitor, and because there is only
a few visitor, the operator only have little work. Besides serves the visitor,the
operator also input the books data and because the data is not many, the operator
spends his activity by doing nothing or idle.

## 2.3 Comparison Between Observation Objects Productivity and

Another Shifts Productivity
In this subchapter, the comparison between observation objects
productivity and another shifts productivity will be explained. Based on figure
1.9, it can be seen that the percentage of value added activity is 17%, semi value
added activity is 4%, and non value added activity is 79%. It can be seen that in
morning shift, non value added activity cover almost all the operators activity.
While in afternoon shift, the percentage of value added activity is 70%, semi
value added activity is 8% and the value added activity is 22%. Based on those
data, it can be seen that in both shift,morning and afternoon, the non value added
activity covers almost all the operators activity. It can be said that all day along,
the operator spends her time only by doing nothing or idle. But, it can also be seen
that the percentage of value added activity in afternoon shift is a little bit higher. It
may be caused by the tendencies of people that visits library in the afternoon that
causes the number of visitor in the afternoon is higher.

## 2.4 Improvement Recommendation

In this subchapter, the improvement recommendation will be explained.
There are several methods to improve the service quality and efficiency in the
Front Desk of ITS Library at the 3rd floor. Considering that the ITS Library is a
non-profit service provider, then the approach can be slightly different compared
to the profit oriented business entity. The approach could be a lean concept with a
bit adjustment, which minimize waste that could have occured in the process. For
nonprofit organizations, lean manufacturing principles can serve to help staff and
volunteers reduce needless effort, as well as assist in redefining job duties in
better support of the mission. Agencies interested in lean operations should start
by defining what they want to accomplish. Often, the goal is to tighten up
spending to improve cash flow. Occasionally, organizations might be considering
sweeping changes in how they do business. The management of ITS Library can
list all steps in the intake process and determine if every step is necessary. For
further, the management of ITS Library can apply a new staff modelling to reduce
the unnecessary work done by the employee in order to reach the goals of ITS
Library.
CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

In this chapter, the conclusions and suggestions that can be obtained will
be explained.

3.1 Conclusions
The conclusions that can be obtaind by doing the module of work
sampling are as follows:
1. Pre work sampling is done to grasp the work nature of observed
object, thus it is usually done in the initial steps of the observation,
and the length can be assumed.
2. The most done activities by the operators is a non added value
activity.
3. The activity ratio in morning and afternoon shift of 3rd Floor Front
Desk of ITS Library are relatively similar.

3.2 Suggestions
The suggestions that can be given for the next module so that it can done
successfully are as follows:
1. The length of the observation can be reduced a bit
2. No need to show all the results of the observation
3. The data can be decreased
REFERENCES

Ergonomic and Work System Design Laboratory 2017, Modul III TTC&PK
WORK SAMPLING, Laboratory Manual, Industrial Engineering Department,
FTI-ITS, Surabaya.