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A review on extraction and separation studies

of copper with various commercial extractants

Article in Metallurgical Research and Technology January 2015

DOI: 10.1051/metal/2015005


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2 authors, including:

Sujata Mishra
Institute of Technical Education and Research,Siksha'O'Anusandhan Univerisity,Bhubaneswar


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Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 202 (2015)

c EDP Sciences, 2015 Metallurgical Research
DOI: 10.1051/metal/2015005

A review on extraction and separation studies

of copper with various commercial extractants
S. Pradhan and S. Mishra
Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technical Education and Research, SikshaOAnusandhan
University, Khandagiri square, Bhubaneswar, 751030 Odisha, India

Key words: Abstract In this study, the present status and future trends of copper solvent extrac-
Copper; solvent extraction; tion has been reviewed by focusing on the use of various types of extractants. Problems
extractants; separation commonly encountered in the earlier investigations have been reviewed. Some new in-
vestigations for special cases of copper separation from other associated metals are also
summarized. Recently developed extraction systems have also been discussed. The extrac-
tion and separation studies of copper from different sources under varying experimental
Received 19 September 2014 conditions have been discussed. Scope for further research in copper solvent extraction has
Accepted 6 February 2015 been suggested.

he demand for metals of the first ganese nodules as oxidant in 4 M hydrochlo-

T row transition series for various com-

mercial purposes is increasing exten-
sively. The tremendous utilization of these
ric acid [2]. Review of relevant literature in-
dicates that when leaching of copper sul-
phide ore is carried out in sulphate media
metals and their subsequent discharge is a large volume of sulphate salt discharge
loading the environment with alarming con- accumulate, leading to environmental pol-
centrations as some of these are serious pol- lution [3]. To avoid this, chloride leaching
lutants of the biosphere. Cobalt, nickel, zinc process is developed for the treatment of
and copper are amongst the most impor- Cu, Ni, Zn and Co containing ores. Cop-
tant nonferrous metals. In hydrometallurgi- per bearing leach liquors generally go along
cal processes, these metal values are gen- with some other impurities and pure state
erally recovered from leach liquors using of the metal is required for commercial use.
precipitation, solvent extraction and electro Hence, the process of obtaining it in high
winning techniques. Copper (II) ion pos- purity is of great significance and this ne-
sesses a wide range of biological activi- cessitates the separation of copper from the
ties [1]. Copper is used as thermal and elec- impurities. Solvent extraction is one of the ef-
trical conductor, building materials and also ficient hydrometallurgical techniques which
serves as an important constituent of vari- can be employed for recovery and separa-
ous metal alloys. The present reserve of cop- tion of copper from chloride solution and
per oxide ore is not sucient to meet the subsequently transferring it to sulphate so-
global demand as it is a widely used metal. lution for electro winning [3]. In recent years,
So quantitative recovery of copper from sul- solvent extraction as an analytical tool has
phide ores and waste materials is impor- become very popular due to its ease, sim-
tant. Since many years solvent extraction- plicity, speed and applicability to both trace
electro winning has been proved to be an and macro level [4]. Solvent extraction in
economical and versatile technique for pro- small scale copper plants was started in 1968
ducing copper. The main source of copper is and by the year 1974 copper production has
chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 ) associated with other been expanded to a large scale of about
sulphides, such as pyrite (FeS2 ). Chalcopy- 0.1 T/y [5]. The flow sheet for the recovery of
rite is quantitatively leached using man- copper from its ore is given in Figure 1 [6].

Article published by EDP Sciences

S. Pradhan and S. Mishra: Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 202 (2015)

Fig. 1. Flow-sheet diagram recovery of copper from its ore in LX/SX/EW plant reference [6].

Coextraction of iron with copper has been of extractants are their ability to extract the
a major problem encountered in the extrac- metal at the required pH, selectivity for
tion of copper using LIX 84I and LIX 622N extracting required metal and to reject un-
in kerosene. desired metal ions. It should have solubility
This article briefly highlights the appli- in the organic phase and stability through-
cation of solvent extraction for the recovery out the principal stages with acceptable rates
and separation of copper from various of extraction, scrubbing and stripping.
resources and industrial wastes by us-
For the extraction of elements of first
ing dierent commercially available organic
row transition series a wide range of ex-
tractants such as carboxylic and hydrox-
amic acids, high molecular weight amines
1 Extractants and organophosphorous extractants have
been proposed over the years. Carboxylic
In order to design extraction processes those acids and phosphoric acids were available
are feasible both environmentally and eco- in 1950 and have been used to separate cop-
nomically, suitable extractants which result per from magnesium but iron (III) was ex-
in high extraction are required. The choice tracted along with copper. The use of car-
of a specific reagent to be used as extrac- boxylic acids and high molecular weight
tant depends upon its availability, physical amines has been limited due to the prob-
performance, overall complexing ability and lem of extractant loss, emulsion formation
chemical properties. The development and and the co extraction of the associated metal
use of various organic compounds as extrac- ions [8]. Addition of alkali to precipitate
tants for the solvent extraction of copper has iron as iron hydroxide created complica-
been of considerable importance during re- tions in the process which led to the de-
cent times. Sudderth and Kordosky [7] have velopment of oximes as extractants for cop-
classified the main type of chemicals used as per (II). -hydroxyoximes have been used
metal extractants on the basis of their struc- as commercial extractants for copper ex-
ture, extraction and stripping chemistry and traction from acid solution. After the be-
the metal species extracted. General features ginning of industrial use of copper solvent
202-page 2
S. Pradhan and S. Mishra: Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 202 (2015)

Fig. 2. Structure of Chelating extractants.

extraction in 1968, Ketoxime reagents LIX 84 (5-dodecylsalicylaldoxime). Figure 2

were invented shortly using the formu- represents the structure of some chelating
lations of 2-hydroxybenzophenone oxime. extractants.
Later ketoxime reagents were made us- Later on quinoline (Kelex 100) based ex-
ing 2-hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenone, which tractants were devised. They have higher se-
proved more eective for dilute acid low lectively for copper and short contact time
copper tenor solutions. Ketoximes have resulted in better extraction of copper. These
moderate strength, useful above a pH of have advantage of extracting copper from
1.61.8 with good physical performance, ex- high acid feeds.
cellent phase separation, low entrainment A large number of organophospho-
losses to the ranate and do not promote rus compounds such as tri-n-butyl phos-
excessive crud formation [9]. Aldoximes, phate (TBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric
are second generation commercial extrac- acid (DEHPA), mono(2-ethylhexyl) phos-
tants and have advantages of better extrac- phoric acid (H2HEHP), tri-n-octyl phos-
tion ability, extraction from highly acidic phine oxide (TOPO), Cyanex 925 (a mixture
leachate with good selectivity over iron [10]. of two dierent phosphine oxides), bis(2,4,4-
Salicylaldoxime are very good copper ex- trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex
tractants with rapid copper transfer kinet- 272) and its di- and mono-sulfur analogues
ics [11]. LIX 64, LIX 63, LIX 64 N, LIX 70, LIX namely Cyanex 301 and Cyanex 302 have
65 N etc are used to extract copper in large been employed for the recovery of tran-
scale operations. LIX 973 N is a member of sition metal ions [8]. Among these com-
the oxime derivatives family and its perfor- pounds the use of TBP is restricted to ni-
mance has been proved on copper (II) extrac- trate and chloride media and the extraction
tion from ammoniacal ammonium carbon- is suppressed by complexing anions such
ate medium. The optimum extraction pH for as F , SO24
, PO3
and CO2 3 . Cyanex 921,
this extractant lies within 8.5 to 10.5 [12, 13]. (C8 H17 )3 PO, exhibits a strong dipole mo-
LIX 984N is a strong copper extractant ment centered on the phosphorus-oxygen
with very good physical performance [14]. bond. The oxygen being more electronega-
This commercial reagent is a hydroxime tive is the end that will provide the unshared
derivative and is 1:1 mixture of LIX860 (2- pair of electrons for bonding with the vacant
hydroxy-5-nonyl-acetophenoneoxime) and orbitals of a metal ion. The long side chains
202-page 3
S. Pradhan and S. Mishra: Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 202 (2015)

of this molecule help to increase the size extractant ACORGA CLX-50. It has been
of the complexed metal ion. The structure found that initial extraction rate and
of some organophosphorous extractants are equilibrium constant strongly depend on
given below in Figure 3. the temperature and diluent for both the
In the next section recent works on cop- extractants. The equilibrium constant and
per extraction/separation by using various initial rate of extraction decreases as the
extractants have been summarized. The ex- temperature increases. Carvalho et al. [22]
tractive properties of the selected reagents reported the extraction of copper from
have been examined and dierent operating ammonia/ammonium sulphate medium
variables aecting extraction have also been with LIX 54, a -diketone. Highest extrac-
discussed. tion was attained in the pH range 89.5.
Above pH 10, the extraction percentage
of metal ion decreases sharply. Lan and
2 Extraction studies of copper coworkers [23] have reported the extraction
studies of copper from sulphide ores by
2.1 Chelating extractants bioleaching using LIX 984 as extractant.
The results indicate that copper extraction
Due to the importance of chelating ex- is above 97% while in case of zinc and
tractants, especially in the area of copper iron, extraction is less than 1.6% leading to
production, it seems useful to sketch the be- excellent separation. Extraction of copper
haviour of these extractants under dierent (II) from phosphoric acid media using LIX
experimental conditions. From literature 622 dissolved in kerosene has also been
studies it is evident that selective extraction investigated [24]. From application point of
of copper with chelating agents is a well- view it has been noticed that the eciency
known technique in sulphate/sulphuric of LIX 622 to recover Copper (II) from
acid media [1517]. Alguacil and Alonso concentrated phosphoric acid solutions
carried out studies on the system cop- is not very high, especially at high acid
per/ammonium sulfate/LIX 54 and noted concentration. Asghari and coworkers [25]
that copper is extracted only at pH above have studied the eect of impurities such
3 and the highest extraction eciency is as Zn (II), Mn (II), Fe (III) and Fe (II) on the
obtained in the range of pH 79 [18]. A extraction of copper using LIX 984N in
study has been carried out on the use of kerosene. In this case it was observed that
solvent extraction to remove copper from pH plays a vital role in the extraction of
concentrated zinc sulfate leach solution by copper from sulfate media by LIX 984N.
Owusu [19] using LIX 622N. The report r

Around 2.18 vol% of LIX 984N has been
indicates that selectivity of copper over found to be optimum for the maximum
other metals in solution is very high with extraction of copper and 93.9% extraction is
negligible co-extraction of zinc, iron, cobalt achieved at the end of 600 s. So it was con-
and cadmium. Copper has been extracted cluded that by good pH control, separation
selectively from solution at relatively low of Cu (II), Zn (II), Mn (II) and Fe (III) ions
pH values and the process did not require can be achieved. LIX 84-I and LIX 622N are
any pH modification. Szymanowski and good extractants for copper but they have
Borowiak-Resterna have demonstrated small dierence in structure. In this context,
that equimolar mixture of N,N,N,N- a comparative study has been carried out
tetrahexylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxamide with by Panigrahi et al. [26] to show selective
2-hydroxy-5-t-octylbenzophenone oxime extraction of copper from the manganese
extract copper from chloride solutions of nodule bulk sulphide leach liquor using
various concentrations. They reported that these extractants. The report shows that the
2-hydroxy-5-t-octylbenzophenone oxime percentage extraction of copper with both
permits eective extraction of copper from the extractants increase with increase in pH
chloride media [20]. Cierpiszewski [21] has and extractant concentration. LIX 622N was
discussed kinetics of copper (II) extrac- proven to be superior with respect to copper
tion from chloride medium with dioctyl loading. Panda et al. [27] have reported
pyridinedicarboxylate and commercial
202-page 4
S. Pradhan and S. Mishra: Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 202 (2015)

Fig. 3. Structural formulae of Acidic and solvating extractants.

on the extraction of copper from bacterial examined in order to optimize the condition
leach liquor of a low grade chalcopyrite for selective and quantitative extraction
test heap using LIX 984N. Eect of dierent of copper. Investigations of the extraction
operational parameters such as equilibrium of copper from sulphate leach liquor of
pH, extractant concentration, strip solution a waste heat boiler has been carried out
concentration, phase volume ratio has been using LIX 84I and LIX 622N in kerosene by

202-page 5
S. Pradhan and S. Mishra: Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 202 (2015)

Barik et al. [28]. It was observed that the selectivity for the extraction of the desired
percentage extraction of copper increases metal [30]. The mechanisms of copper (II)
from 5.5 to 75.28 and from 13.43 to 87.85 solvent extraction by Cyanex 272, Cyanex
with LIX 84I and LIX 622N with increasing 302 and Cyanex 301 has been discussed by
equilibrium pH from 0.25 to 1.24 and Sole and Hiskey [31]. The extraction studies
0.27 to 1.1, respectively. In order to avoid revealed that Cu (II) was reduced to Cu (I) on
co-extraction of iron with copper, iron was extraction by the sulfur-containing ligands,
precipitated from the solution with Ca(OH)2 accompanied with the oxidation of the ex-
prior to extraction of copper. Ca(OH)2 was tractant. It is shown that copper combines in
added to maintain the pH values within 4 a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with these ligands
because at higher pH there was loss of cop- to form multinuclear oligomeric complexes,
per. Ochromowicz et al. [29] have presented in which the ligands bridge between metal
the results of extraction of copper (II) from centers. On the basis of Hard-Soft Acid-Base
ammonia leach solution. The eect of nature (HSAB) concept and pi bonding between the
of extractant, its concentration and nature d orbitals of the metal center and the donor
of diluent in the organic phase on extraction atoms, the increased stabilities of the com-
eciency and ammonia transfer have been plexes formed with sulphur containing lig-
studied with the commercial extractants ands can be explained. Cierpiszewski and
such as, LIX 84-I, LIX 984N, LIX 54-100. The Szymanowski [32] have reported that solvat-
results indicate that in case of systems using ing reagents are highly ecient for copper
hydroxyoximes as extractants the extraction extraction from concentrated chloride solu-
is remarkably higher as compared to that tions with low water activity. Extraction of
for -diketone reagents. Out of these three copper from sulphate media using Cyanex
extractants, the authors proposed LIX 84-I 921 and Cyanex 923 has been reported by
as the best extractant because of better Pawar et al. [33]. Tao and Nagaosa [34] inves-
stability, less number of extraction stages tigated on extraction of copper (II) with di-
and low acid requirement in the stripping 2-methylnonylphosphoric acid (DMNPA)
stage, which is suitable for commercial (HA) in n-dodecane, toluene, and 1-octanol
applications. as organic diluents. The extracted copper (II)
From the above discussion it is con- species has been found to be CuA2 . 2HA
cluded that pH plays a major role in the in n-dodecane, CuA2 . 3HA in toluene, and
extraction of copper using chelating extrac- CuA2 in 1-octanol. The stoichiometry of the
tants. Due attention has been paid to the extracted metal species has been compared
problem of ammonia transfer to the or- with that of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid
ganic phase. Ammonia in the organic phase (DEHPA) under the same experimental con-
has been eliminated by doubly washing ditions and it has been found that DM-
the loaded organic phase with sulphuric NPA is superior to DEHPA with respect
acid. Comprehensive studies have also been to copper extractability. The extraction of
made on copper removal from chloride me- Cu (II) using DEHPA and MEHPA has been
dia. The extraction of copper from nitrate studied by Hu and Otu [35]. Sato et al.
solution and organic solution containing hy- studied the extraction of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu
droxyoxime type extractants has also been and Zn from hydrochloric acid solutions
investigated [11]. by 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-
ethylhexyl ester (PC-88A) [36]. From the re-
sults, the extraction eciency of PC88A for
2.2 Acidic and solvating extractants divalent metals can be interpreted and the
order of extraction was Zn > Mn > Cu >
Organophosphorus acids have been exten- CoNi. The role of organophosphorous ex-
sively employed as extractants for metals tractants and their applications in actual
in the solvent extraction process due to industrial operating plants have been dis-
their high solubility in the organic phase, cussed by Flett [37].Voorde and cowork-
good loading capacity, availability at com- ers [38] performed extraction of nickel (II),
mercial quantities, ease of formation of com- cobalt (II) and copper (II) from chloride so-
plex with the metals of interest and good
202-page 6
S. Pradhan and S. Mishra: Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 202 (2015)

Fig. 4. Plot of equilibrium pH versus percentage extraction reference [43].

lutions with Aloxime 800, D2EHPA, Cyanex with 1 M Cyanex 923, 97.5 percent extrac-
272 and its sulphur analogs, Cyanex 301 and tion was reported from 5 M HCl. There-
302 dissolved in hexane. Copper and nickel fore, it is concluded that the extraction ef-
complexes were formed with all extractants ficiency of Cyanex 923 for Cu (II) is higher
but coordination of copper (II) with Cyanex than that of Cyanex 921 in chloride me-
301 and 302 was less pronounced due to dia. This may be due to the better solubility
the replacement of oxygen by sulphur. High- of Cyanex 923 in kerosene as compared to
est equilibrium constant were obtained with Cyanex 921. Agrawal et al. [42] used Cyanex
Cyanex 301 and Aloxime800 and the later 272 diluted in kerosene as an ecient solvent
has been a potential extractant for Cu (II). for the separation and recovery of copper
Daoud and Hefny [39] obtained Cyanex 302 and nickel from copper bleed stream. Hun-
dissolved in kerosene as a potential extrac- dred percent copper extraction was achieved
tant for the extraction of copper from sul- in two counter-current stages at O:A ratio
phate, chloride and nitrate solutions. Inter- of unity, whereas 100% stripping of cop-
action between TBP and D2EHPA during per has been possible in two counter-current
solvent extraction of Zn, Cd, Mn, Cu, Co stages at O:A ratio of 2:1. Begum et al. [43]
and Ni has been studied [40]. The equivalent also studied the extraction of copper, nickel
concentration of D2EHPA has been used as and zinc using Cyanex 272. The extraction
modifying factor for TBP during the extrac- studies were performed with variation in
tion as the results indicate that the equiva- parameters like equilibrium pH, extractant
lent concentration of D2EHPA decreases as concentration, sulphate and acetate ion con-
a function of concentration of TBP because centration. The percentage extraction of all
of the formation of hydrogen bonds between metals increased with equilibrium pH and
the two. Devi and Mishra [3, 41] have stud- maximum extraction has been achieved at
ied the extraction of Cu (II) ion from chlo- equilibrium pH of 5.3, 7.45 and 3.6 for cop-
ride media by using Cyanex 923 and 921 per, nickel and zinc extraction, respectively
in kerosene. Using 0.5M Cyanex 921, 93% as given in Figure 4.
Cu (II) was extracted from 5M HCl whereas
202-page 7
S. Pradhan and S. Mishra: Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 202 (2015)

3 Separation slag by solvent extraction. The results of the

experiments indicate that LIX 984N is highly
Separation of metals by solvent extraction is eective and very ecient for the extraction
usually based on the dierent complexing of Cu (II) over Zn (II) and Cd (II). Using 25%
properties of the metals. The binary sepa- of LIX 984N concentration, copper has been
rations of first row transition metals from selectively extracted with seven minutes
hydrochloric acid medium are possible shaking time, pH = 1.7 and 3:2 of O/A phase
using Cyanex 923, in which the metal ion ratio. The separation of Zn (II) and Cd (II)
is selectively extracted at an appropriate was performed after the copper extraction
aqueous acidity [8]. For eective separation from the ranate. Qing-Ming et al. [55] re-
of Zn, Cu, Mn, Co and Ni, DEHPA and PC ported the separation of copper and iron us-
88A are considered to be suitable cation ing LIX 984 N in dexing copper mine. Using
exchangers [44]. The separation of copper 1:1 O/A phase volume ratio, 98.5% copper
and zinc from leach solution of complex has been extracted. The pH value for quan-
sulphide ore has been reported [45, 46]. The titative separation of Cu and Fe has been
results indicate that LIX 64N selectively found to be 1.5. Experiments have been con-
extracted copper from copper-zinc solution. ducted on the simultaneous and individual
The eciency of LIX 84 and LIX 64N for extraction of metals (copper, nickel and zinc)
the separation of copper and zinc from from their sulphate solutions using Cyanex
solution containing iron and manganese 272 as an extractant. Eect of various pa-
have been compared by Kumar et al. [47]. rameters such as equilibrium pH, extractant
The analysis revealed that LIX 84 showed concentration, sulphate and acetate ion con-
greater selectivity for copper/zinc sepa- centration have been investigated [56]. Se-
ration in comparison to LIX 64N. Cheng lective separation of copper and nickel from
and group [48] studied the separation ammoniacal/ammonium carbonate medium
of divalent metal ions from a synthetic has been carried out by LIX 984N diluted
solution containing Zn, Cu, Co and Mg with deodourised kerosene. The influence
using D2EHPA. Reddy and Priya [49, 50] of equilibration time, equilibrium pH, ex-
observed that extraction of metal is depen- tractant concentration and selective strip-
dent upon pH and developed a process for ping of copper and nickel has been opti-
separation of Cu (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) mized. It was found that extraction of both
using LIX 84I. They also demonstrated that the metals were unaected by the changes
temperature has no eect on the extraction. in pH. The equilibration time was longer for
Belkhouche et al. [51] have studied the ex- nickel in comparison to copper and nickel
traction of Cu (II) and Ni (II) from acetate extraction depends largely on the extractant
media with D2EPHA under the optimal con- concentration in the organic phase [57]. A
dition. The extraction of Cu (II) was found study of the separation of zinc and copper
to be 96%, 95%, and 85% in neutral, acetic from the leach liquor generated in the treat-
acid, and acetate buer media, respectively ment of the zinc residue (29.6 g/L Zn and
and decreases with the increase in salt con- 37.4 g/L Cu) by liquidliquid extraction has
centration in the aqueous phase. The con- been reported [58]. In this, the influence of
ditions for the separation of Cu (II) from the extractant type and concentration, aque-
Ni (II) by D2 EHPA have been studied and ous phase acidity, contact time and strip-
the separation factors are not very high. ping agent concentration on the extraction
Zhuo-Yue et al. [52] carried out the separa- have been investigated. Sridhar et al. [59]
tion of copper and zinc from bioleaching so- have eectively used LIX 984N for extrac-
lution using LIX984 and D2EHPA under op- tive separation of Cu, Ni and Zn. Since pH
timum extraction conditions. The separation plays a very significant role in separation,
of Cu (II), Fe (III) and Zn (II) from mixed sul- it has been possible to separate the met-
phate/chloride leach using TBP, LIX 841 and als from one another based on their extrac-
Cyanex 923 in kerosene has been reported tion behavior at dierent pH. Copper has
by Sarangi et al. [53]. Xie et al. [54] have re- been extracted at an equilibrium pH of 3.5
ported on the separation of Cu (II), Zn (II), while Ni and Zn at 7.3 and 8.8, respectively.
and Cd (II) from a rich sulfate leachate of zinc
202-page 8
S. Pradhan and S. Mishra: Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 202 (2015)

Fig. 5. Flowsheet for separation of Cu, Co and Mn using Cyanex272 and PC88A Reference [62].

In order to recover quantitative amount of It has been reported by Pradhan et al. [64]
individual metal, two stage counter current that temperature and shaking time variation
stripping has been done. Sahu and cowork- do not have any impact on the extraction of
ers [60] studied the separation of copper and Cu (II) and Fe (III) from 2M HCl medium
zinc using versatic10 acid and Cyanex 272 using Cyanex 921 as extractant in kerosene.
by optimizing various parameters such as It has been found that separation is feasible
eect of pH, extractant concentration and with shaking time of only 30 s at 300 K with
phase volume ratio. Pospiech [61] studied 0.1 mol /L Cyanex 921 and from 2 M HCl.
the possibilities to recover copper from syn-
thetic sulphate leach liquor containing Co,
Ni and Mn. It was concluded that 99% of 4 Conclusions and future scope
Cu (II) can be eectively extracted with 5%
Kelex 100 and 10% LIX 70 at pH 2 while Solvent extraction technique has been used
10% of other metals are transported to the or- widely for copper production. It is mostly
ganic phase. Separation of Cu (II) from Co, applied to recover copper from the oxides.
Ni, Mn is very eective and Cu (II) can be It is a hydrometallurgical process which se-
successfully back extracted from loaded or- lectively isolates and concentrates the de-
ganic phase Kelex 100 by stripping with 2M sired metal into a form from which it can
H2 SO4 . The proposed flow sheet for the sep- be recovered in a high state of purity. A
aration is shown in Figure 5. Extraction and suitable organic extractant can be used for
separation of cobalt (II), copper (II) and man- selective extraction of desired metal or im-
ganese (II) from sodium sulphate media by purities depending on presence of anions
Cyanex272, PC-88A and their mixtures in n- and cations and their concentration in the
heptane has been studied by Wang et al. [62]. solution. But due to growing demand and
They observed that the order of extraction is recent advancement in the application of this
Mn > Co > Cu. Kumar et al. [63] demon- process for the recovery of copper from sul-
strated that 30% LIX 664N in kerosene at pH phide ores and waste products, research is in
2 eciently separates copper from nickel. progress. The leaching method of sulphide
202-page 9
S. Pradhan and S. Mishra: Metall. Res. Technol. 112, 202 (2015)

ores results in large accumulation of sul- [11] Z. Lazarova, M. Lazarova, Solvent Extraction
phidic waste materials harmful to environ- and Ion Exchange 23 (2005) 695-711
ment. Therefore, good leaching reagents and [12] F.J. Alguaci, Hydrometallurgy 61 (2001) 177-
new extractants are to be developed which 183
[13] F.J. Alguacil, P. Navarro, Hydrometallurgy 65
can reduce adverse environmental impacts.
(2002) 77-82
Several researchers working with ionic liq- [14] C.R. Marigold, Mid Cnnmiec-Yunnan
uids in metal extraction have shown increas- Company, Annual Technical Seminar, 1996
ing interest in this field due to its excellent [15] A.I. Ali, J.A. Daoud, H.F. Aly, J. Chem.
properties such as negligible vapor pressure, Technol. Biotechnol. 67 (1996) 137-142
good extraction eciency for metal ions (as [16] S.B. Hu, J.M. Wiencek, Separation Sci. Technol.
neutral or charged complexes), thermal sta- 35 (2000) 469-481
bility and miscibility with water and organic [17] F.D. Mendes, A.H. Martins, Miner. Metall.
solvents [6567]. Extraction of copper using Process. 19 (2002) 165-168
[18] F.J. Alguacil, M. Alonso, J. Chem. Technol.
ionic liquid as extractant has been carried
Biotechnol. 74 (1999) 1171-1175
out. Chemical structure of the ionic liquid [19] G. Owusu, Hydrometallurgy 51 (1999) 1-8
cation is found to be important in deter- [20] A. Borowiak-Resterna, J. Szymanowski,
mining the eciency of the extraction pro- Solvent Extraction and ion Exchange 18 (2000)
cess. This study reports development of one- 77-91
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