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Lowerhybrid waves in a plasma with negative ions

T. An, R. L. Merlino, and N. DAngelo

Citation: Physics of Fluids B: Plasma Physics (1989-1993) 5, 1917 (1993); doi: 10.1063/1.860775
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Lower-hybrid waves in a plasma with negative ions
T. An, R. L. Merlino, and N. DAngelo
Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1479
(Received 13 October 1992; accepted 23 February 1993)
The low-frequency lower-hybrid (LH), ion-ion mode was investigated experimentally in a
plasma consisting of K positive ions, SF; negative ions, and electrons. The frequency of this
mode was found to increase with increasing e, the relative negative ion concentration. The
observations are compared with fluid calculations.

The introduction of an electronegative gas (i.e., a gas mode (the ion-ion mode) with w- ( l-2)0+-. This paper
with a large electron attachment cross section, e.g., SF6) is concerned with the latter, low-frequency mode, which,
into a plasma has made it possible to study plasmas in for typical Q-machine conditions has a frequency in the
which the negative ion density can be much larger than the range of 40-100 kHz.
electron density. lp2In such a plasma, new phenomena may The experiments were performed in the Iowa single-
be expected to occur, in particular, various electrostatic ended Q machine (IQ-2) in which potassium neutral at-
wave modes are modified by the presence of negative ions, oms from an atomic beam oven are contact ionized on a 6
as shown theoretically,3 and observed in a number of cm diam tantalum hot plate heated by electron bombard-
experiments.26-9 In our previous work we investigated ment to T5:2300 K. The plasma column is confined radi-
electrostatic ion-cyclotron (EIC) waves* and ion-acoustic ally by a magnetic field up to 0.6 T in strength, and is
(IA) waves in plasmas with negative ions. The present terminated on a cold plate located 1.5 m from the hot
work reports on an experimental investigation of lower- plate. The plasma density, n, and electron and ion temper-
hybrid (LH) waves in a plasma with negative ions. atures are typically lo9 cmW3 <n < 10 cmv3 and T,
The theory of LH waves in a plasma with negative ions z TK+-0.2 eV. The base pressure is 5 5x lo- Torr.
has been treated in detail elsewhere;5 here, we will provide Negative ions (SF,) are produced by leaking variable
a summary of the theory, which will then be compared amounts of SF6 into the vessel at partial pressure up to
with the experimental results. Positive ions, negative ions, -5 X 10m6 Torr.* At each SF6 partial pressure, the frac-
and electrons are treated as warm fluids which obey the tional concentration of negative ions, ~=tz~~~/n~+, was
equations of continuity and momentum. Charge neutrality determined by the same method as used in our earlier ex-
is assumed, so that n, =n- +yle, where n+ , n-, and 12, periments on IAY and EIC* waves, i.e., by measuring the
are the positive ion, negative ion, and electron density, negative saturation current, I-,$, to a Langmuir probe at
respectively. The plasma is embedded in a static and uni- some given SF, partial pressure, and pm+, the value of I_,s
form magnetic field B directed along the positive z axis. when the SF6 pressure is zero, and using the relation
The continuity and momentum equations are linearized e= 1 -I-,#%$
about a time-independent zeroth-order state in which the Low-frequency, ion-ion LH waves were launched from
plasma is spatially uniform with densities n+e=no, a 4 cm diam circular electrode inserted radially into the
n.-c=ene and neo= (1 -e)n,, no electric field is present plasma approximately 2-3 cm from the center of the
and all fluid velocities are zero. Performing the usual lin- plasma column, at an axial position 50 cm from the hot
earization of the fluid equations, and taking all first-order plate. The normal to the plane of the electrode was ori-
quantities to vary as exp[i(Kx--wt)], the K vector (which ented perpendicular to the magnetic field. For some exper-
is parallel to the wave electric field E,) having a nonzero iments a flat strip electrode 15 cm long and 0.7 cm wide
component only along the x axis, we obtain the dispersion was used instead of the disk electrode. This strip was
relation aligned along the magnetic field. A - 10 V peak-to-peak ac
signal of variable frequency could be applied to the elec-
+:n:+c (l-E,njn+~r2lnt=o, trode to launch waves into the plasma with a wave vector,
K, perpendicular to B. The waves could be detected on a
(1) floating, 5 cm diam Langmuir probe, movable radially with
where a;= 02- Ozj- K2q, with Cj = kTj/mj and respect to the launching electrode for phase measurements.
oci=eB/mj (j=+,-,e). For e=O (no negative ions) The experiment consisted of the following: ( 1) SF6 gas
Eq. ( 1) reduces to the usual dispersion relation for LH was leaked into the Q machine at a sufficient partial pres-
waves in a positive ion/electron plasma. Solutions to this sure to give a desired value of e, the negative ion concen-
dispersion relation were obtained numerically for a plasma tration. (2) The oscillating voltage of variable frequency
consisting of K+ positive ions, SF; negative ions and elec- and constant amplitude was applied to the large 4 cm diam
trons. Two modes were found, a high-frequency mode with electrode located on one side of the plasma column, and
frequencies, depending on the value of e, in the range the signal observed on the (0.5 cm diam) receiving probe
o- (l-10) d=- ( 103-104)o,-, where w,- is the on the opposite side of the column as the oscillator fre-
negative ion cyclotron frequency, and a low-frequency quency was swept past the ion-ion mode frequency. The

1917 Phys. Fluids B 5 (6), June 1993 0899-8221/93/061917-02$06.00 @ 1993 American Institute of Physics 1917
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100 1004 * * * ( L
-------- Ltj (K = 6)
5 80 - THEORY (K = 1) i3 go-
.I..... E,C (K = 6)
v i

E 40.
i *O-
6 = 4375 G -
0-l c
0 2000 4000 6000 407 ) I a I , I-
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 1.0

FIG. 1. Measured frequencies of the SF< LH mode (ion-ion) versus FIG. 2. Measured frequencies of the SF; LH mode (ion-ion) versus E,
magnetic-field strength, for ~=0.9. The solid line was obtained from the for 8=4375 G. Upper dashed line and solid line were obtained from fluid
fluid calculations. calculations for K= 6 cm- (dashed line) and K=O (solid line). The
bottom dashed line is from fluid calculations of EIC waves.

LH mode frequency was identified as that frequency at calculation4 for EIC waves in a plasma consisting of SF;,
which an amplitude maximum was observed on the receiv- K+ ions and electrons.
ing probe. The observations were then repeated for several In summary, we have experimentally investigated the
values of E or, for a given value of E, at several values of the low-frequency ion-ion LH mode in a plasma consisting of
magnetic-field strength. The results of these measurements Kf positive ions, SF; negative ions and electrons. As the
are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The variation of the SF, negative ion concentration increases, the frequency of this
(low-frequency) LH mode frequency with magnetic-field mode increases, in agreement with the dispersion relation
strength is shown in Fig. 1 for e=O.9. The solid line is the obtained from a fluid theory.
result of the fluid theory calculation (Ref. 5) for
T,=T-=T,=O.2 eV and a wave number ACKNOWLEDGMENT
lu( =2?r/;l, ) = 1 cm-. In Fig. 2 the frequency of the SF; Work supported by the Office of Naval Research.
LH mode is shown as a function of E, for a fixed value of
the magnetic field (B=4375 G). For ~50.6 no clear res- D. P. Sheehan and N. Rynn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1369 (1988).
onance in the LH frequency range was found. The upper *N. Sate, A Variety of Plostnas, Proceedings of the 1989 International
Conference on Plasma Physics, edited by A. Sen and P. K. Kaw (Indian
dashed line and the solid line are the result of the fluid Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, India, 1991), p. 79.
theory calculations for wave numbers K=O and K= 6 3N. DAngelo, S. van Goeler, and T. Ohe, Phys. Fluids 9, 1605 ( 1966).
cm-, respectively. The theoretical frequency, J vs E 4N. DAngelo and R. L. Merhno, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-14, 285
curves are relatively insensitive to the actual wave number. (1986).
N. DAngelo, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-20, 568 ( 1992).
Phase measurements of the LH waves showed that the A. Y. Wong, D. L. Mamas, and D. Amush, Phys. Fluids 18, 1489
waves were propagating across the magnetic field away (1975).
from the launching grid, with wavelengths -3 cm, or D. P. Sheehan, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Irvine, California,
K-2 cm-. The measured frequencies seem to be in rea- B. Song, D. Suszcynsky, N. DAngelo, and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Fluids
sonable agreement with the fluid calculations. For compar- B 1, 2316 (1989).
ison, in Fig. 2, we also show the results of a fluid theory 9B. Song, N. DAngelo, and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Fluids B 3,284 (1991).

1918 Phys. Fluids B, Vol. 5, No. 6, June 1993 Brief Communications 1918

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