4 views

Uploaded by aslam844

2 Statistics Intmath Com

- Lesson 1 Arithmetic Sequence
- Lesson Plan Probability
- Factorial Designs
- B Stat Courses
- UT Dallas Syllabus for mech3341.0u1.10u taught by John Fonseka (kjp)
- Practice Exam 1
- lec4_chap2
- STOCHPROC
- Decision Making
- Plan Unit Launch
- Probability Distribution
- Math Concepts MAIN
- Fact Finders Brochure
- ExamSolution2010.pdf
- GOVPUB-C13-bd61ca79afcafb19c48490fcc9e066ac.pdf
- 1271829760_NSS_M1V2_12_FS__eng_
- Mtech 1st Sem Syllabus
- Excess Loss Variable
- 134 Final Solutions
- 3ec36143ab474e511905f73ea626caecIN_2

You are on page 1of 12

php

You've probably heard people say things like:

Teen mother

Teen mothers who live with their parents are less likely to use marijuana

than teen moms in other living arrangements.

He won the lottery!

There is longstanding evidence that children raised by single parents

aremore likely to perform poorly in school and partake in deviant

behaviors such as smoking, sex, substance use and crime at young

ages. [Source]

She'll probably take the offer.

Life insurance is so expensive for someone over 50.

All of these statements are about probability. We see words like "chance",

"less likely", "probably" since we don't know for sure something will happen,

but we realise there is a very good chance that it will.

In the case of the lottery (or Toto), there is a very good chance that some

things (like a win) will not happen!

To decide "how likely" an event is, we need to count the number of times an

event could occur and compare it to the total number of possible events. Such

a comparison is called the probability of the particular event occurring.

The mathematical theory of counting is known as combinatorial analysis.

Continues below

In this Chapter

Counting

1. Factorial Notation

2. Basic Principles of Counting

3. Permutations

4. Combinations

Probability

6. Probability of an Event

o Singapore TOTO

o Probability and Poker

7. Conditional Probability

8. Independent and Dependent Events

9. Mutually Exclusive Events

10. Bayes Theorem

Probability Distributions

12. Binomial Probability Distributions

13. Poisson Probability Distribution

14. Normal Probability Distribution

o The z-Table

1. Factorial Notation

For the following sections on counting, we need a simple way of writing the

product of all the positive whole numbers up to a given number. We

use factorial notation for this.

Definition of n!

n factorial is defined as the product of all the integers from 1 to n (the order of

multiplying does not matter) .

Examples

a) 5! = 5 4 3 2 1 = 120

c) 0! = 1 (this is a convention)

d) 2! = 2

Exercise

Show answer

NOTE: We conclude from this answer and the answer for (d) above that we

cannot simply cancel a fraction containing factorials. That is:

\frac{{{10}!}}{{{5}!}}\ne{2}!5!10!2!

We use factorial notation throughout this chapter, starting in

the Permutations section.

Counting

An efficient way of counting is necessary to handle large masses of statistical

data (e.g. the level of inventory at the end of a given month, or the number of

production runs on a given machine in a 24 hour period, etc.), and for an

understanding of probability.

In this section, we shall develop a few counting techniques. Such techniques

will enable us to count the following, without having to list all of the items:

On this page...

Number of outcomes

Addition rule

Multiplication rule

the number of samples, or

the number of outcomes.

Before we learn some of the basic principles of counting, let's see some of the

notation we'll need.

As an example, we may have an event E defined as

So in the example,

{n}{\left({E}\right)}={7}n(E)=7,

Continues below

Addition Rule

outcomes).

Let event E describe the situation where either event E1 or event E2 will occur.

The number of times event E will occur can be given by the expression:

Tip

where

Example 1

{2},{1},{3},{5},{6},{7},{8},{9},{10}\right\rbrace}S={4,2,1,3,5,6,7,8,

9,10}

Find n(E).

Show answer

=2+5

=7

Get the Daily Math Tweet!

IntMath on Twitter

Example 2

In how many ways can a number be chosen from {1}1 to {22}22 such that

Show answer

n(E1) = 7

E2 = multiples of {8}8:

E2 = {8, 16}

n(E2) = 2

n(E1) = 11

E2 = multiples of {3}3:

n(E2) = 7

n(E) = n(E1) + n(E2) - n(E1 E2) = 11 + 7 3 = 15

IntMath on Twitter

Multiplication Rule

Now consider the case when two events E1 and E2 are to be performed and

the events E1 and E2 areindependent events i.e. one does not affect the

other's outcome.

Example 3

Say the only clean clothes you've got are {2}2 t-shirts and {4}4 pairs of

jeans. How many different combinations can you choose?

Answer

We have {2}2 t-shirts and with each t-shirt we could pick {4}4 pairs of jeans.

Altogether there are

We could write

E2 = "choose jeans"

Suppose that event E1 can result in any one of n(E1) possible outcomes; and

for each outcome of the event E1, there are n(E2) possible outcomes of

event E2.

Together there will be n(E1) n(E2) possible outcomes of the two events.

Tip

That is, if event E is the event that both E1 and E2 must occur, then

Example 4

What is the total number of possible outcomes when a pair of coins is tossed?

Show answer

E2 = toss second coin (2 outcomes, so n(E2) = 2.)

They are independent, since neither toss affects the outcome of the other

toss.

IntMath on Twitter

Example 5

under 25 years,

between 25 years and 50 years,

over 50 years old;

sex;

marital status:

single or

married.

Show answer

Example 6

For our clothes problem above, say we found {3}3 caps that we could wear

with our {2}2 t-shirts and {4}4 pairs of jeans. How many different

combinations could we choose from now?

Show answer

We have 2 choices in the first row, 4 in the second row and 3 in the third row.

Together, we will have

Get the Daily Math Tweet!

IntMath on Twitter

Example 7

Image source

In the excellent Monoface (external site), we can change the head, left and

right eyes, nose and mouth of some zany guys who work at momo-1.com.

We are told that there are 759,375 possible faces. Where does this number

come from?

If they were to let us change the chin as well, how many possible

combinations would there be?

Show answer

There are {15}15 people in the photos (I got this by counting the number of

heads) and there are {5}5 different options that you can change (head, left

eye, right eye, nose and mouth).

So there are

{15}\times{15}\times{15}\times{15}\times{15}={15}^{5}={759},{375}

1515151515=155=759,375 combinations

If we add another possible event (changing the chin), we have {6}6 possible

options, so the answer is simply:

{15}^{6}={11},{390},{625}156=11,390,625 combinations

Easy to understand math videos:

MathTutorDVD.com

- Lesson 1 Arithmetic SequenceUploaded byPaula Jan
- Lesson Plan ProbabilityUploaded byLiya Susanti
- Factorial DesignsUploaded byDCampbell
- B Stat CoursesUploaded byMirza Ahad Baig
- UT Dallas Syllabus for mech3341.0u1.10u taught by John Fonseka (kjp)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Practice Exam 1Uploaded byRon
- lec4_chap2Uploaded byakirank1
- STOCHPROCUploaded byLe Hoang Anh
- Decision MakingUploaded byepidavrios
- Plan Unit LaunchUploaded byNick Hershman
- Probability DistributionUploaded byBoost Websitetraffic Freeviral
- Math Concepts MAINUploaded byVishakha Nara
- Fact Finders BrochureUploaded byViswam EdutechSolutions
- ExamSolution2010.pdfUploaded by강주성
- GOVPUB-C13-bd61ca79afcafb19c48490fcc9e066ac.pdfUploaded bykilmaster
- 1271829760_NSS_M1V2_12_FS__eng_Uploaded byKaji Kung
- Mtech 1st Sem SyllabusUploaded byvin
- Excess Loss VariableUploaded byvbatta2
- 134 Final SolutionsUploaded byEthan Xu
- 3ec36143ab474e511905f73ea626caecIN_2Uploaded byArnab Sankar Tah
- .Fuzzy sets as a basis for a theory of possibility-1978.pdfUploaded byAni
- ECUploaded byAditya Singh
- KSS03 Chapter 04Uploaded bypooppa
- Midterm SolnUploaded byJoanna Linette
- 2015 H2 Set G Solutions (7) Binomial & Poisson Distributions-2Uploaded byMun Yen Loi
- Laplace Transform.pdfUploaded byĐỗ Nam
- ReviewUploaded byhannybag123
- hwk3Uploaded byKemal Gözdeler
- MM_Ch2f_Program+Verification_HandoutUploaded bytuan kiet
- C PDFUploaded byskumar4787

- psUploaded byaslam844
- Function for KidsUploaded byaslam844
- LimitUploaded byaslam844
- Function.docxUploaded byaslam844
- 1 Calculus I MathIFunUploaded byaslam844
- 1 Statistics DataUploaded byaslam844
- ComputersUploaded byaslam844
- LimitUploaded byaslam844
- Net Test Questions2017Uploaded byaslam844
- Accurate PlanningUploaded byaslam844
- BBA 1st Semester Syllabus FormatUploaded byaslam844
- Web Certification BookletUploaded byaslam844
- Sap Kcl CgstUploaded byaslam844
- Sap Kcl CgstUploaded byaslam844
- Sap Kcl CgstUploaded byaslam844
- SAP-cgstUploaded byaslam844
- SAP-igstUploaded byaslam844
- SAP-gstUploaded byaslam844
- SAP PremchandUploaded byaslam844
- SAP PremchandUploaded byaslam844
- sa remchandUploaded byaslam844
- sqlUploaded byaslam844
- JavaUploaded byaslam844
- OracleUploaded byaslam844
- MS-WordUploaded byaslam844
- Word HelpUploaded byaslam844
- Book Release 080104Uploaded byaslam844

- Care_Plan_TemplateUploaded byjlauchman
- CreativeYR-CompanyProfile-2015.pdfUploaded byandi m
- BoomjyotaUploaded byYogi Noverki
- team charterUploaded byapi-440032174
- vca book by ahUploaded byMatheus Albuquerque
- Ts 7400 DatasheetUploaded bymanteshb
- Control of a Robot by Voice InputUploaded byAkhil Pt
- Effect of Different Types of Organic Manure and Mulching on the Growth and Yield of Carrot (Daucus Carota L.)Uploaded byIJSRP ORG
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ee6360.501 06f taught by Issa Panahi (imp015000)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Amega Line data sheet finalUploaded byapi-19852580
- FSC Annual ReportUploaded byOzzoman Duke
- History of Settlement PlanningUploaded bySheila Anne Cruz
- Sample(JohnLocke)Uploaded byRené Ríos
- HimanshuKashyap - Appellant 1 MemorialUploaded byRatna Prasad
- c-27jpocket_technical_guide_2010Uploaded byThinkDefence
- master v glinsky complaint 1Uploaded byapi-296035455
- Keppel Seghers Waste-to-Energy.pdfUploaded byCarlos Gomez
- Is 2250-1981 (Preparation and Use of Masonry Mortars)Uploaded byDharmesh
- Bikol Reporter January 6 - 12, 2019 IssueUploaded byBikol Reporter
- Acid Stains ManualUploaded bymaxbyz
- lpic1-datisnetwork.pdfUploaded bykoorosh
- 19.1 Villanueva vs CA DigestUploaded byEstel Tabumfama
- Sample Interview PlanUploaded bypam7779
- Anne Anastasi- Psychological Testing IUploaded bydemon_for_me20
- Philanthropy Journal Special Report- Non-Profit Professional DevelopmentUploaded bydennis8113
- Laptop&DesktopUploaded byFattihiEkhmal
- US Treasury: oig01051Uploaded byTreasury
- Handbook_Public_Policy_Peters2Uploaded byBenjamín Sandoval
- Product_Information_DIGSI_V4_87-SP1.pdfUploaded byZoki
- Simple and Effective Antennas for Amateur Radio OperatorsUploaded byToto W. Juniarto