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# Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids

Josef Malek

## Mathematical institute of Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

Sokolovska 83, 186 75 Prague 8

October 4, 2012

Contents

1 Introduction

4 Applications

Part #1

Introduction

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 3 / 27

Non-Newtonian fluid mechanics - introduction

Goals:
Q1. What do I mean by mechanics?
Q2. What is a fluid?
Q3. What is a Newtonian fluid?
Q4. What is a non-Newtonian fluid?
Q5. What are materials that are modeled by non-Newtonian fluid
models?
Recent advances in the constitutive theory
Importance of implicit constitutive theory

Part #2

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 5 / 27

Continuum physics
Balance equations: mass, linear and angular momentum, balance of energy and
the second law of thermodynamics (general assumptions)

,t + div(v) = 0
(v),t + div(v v) div T = b
TT = T
(e + |v|2 /2) ,t + div((e + |v|2 /2)v) + div q = div (Tv)


## . . . density b . . . external body forces

v . . . velocity T . . . the Cauchy stress
e . . . internal energy q . . . heat flux

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 6 / 27

Continuum physics
Balance equations: mass, linear and angular momentum, balance of energy and
the second law of thermodynamics (general assumptions)

,t + div(v) = 0
(v),t + div(v v) div T = b
TT = T
(e + |v|2 /2) ,t + div((e + |v|2 /2)v) + div q = div (Tv)


## . . . density b . . . external body forces

v . . . velocity T . . . the Cauchy stress
e . . . internal energy q . . . heat flux

## Constitutive equations: involving T; q; assumptions defining idealized materials,

representing certain aspects of behavior of natural materials
Continuum mechanics focuses on the mechanical issues - involving T.

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 6 / 27

What is a fluid?
Several definitions
Fluid is a body that takes the shape of container
Fluid is a body whose symmetry group is the unimodular group (group of all
orthogonal transformations)
Fluid is a body that cannot support the shear stress

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 7 / 27

What is a fluid?
Several definitions
Fluid is a body that takes the shape of container
Fluid is a body whose symmetry group is the unimodular group (group of all
orthogonal transformations)
Fluid is a body that cannot support the shear stress
Drawbacks
do not make any difference between liquids and gases (they behave
differently)
do not cover anisotropic fluids
Bingham or Herschel-Bulkley fluids can support the shear stress
do not take into account the time scale (how long should one wait)

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 7 / 27

What is a fluid?
Several definitions
Fluid is a body that takes the shape of container
Fluid is a body whose symmetry group is the unimodular group (group of all
orthogonal transformations)
Fluid is a body that cannot support the shear stress
Drawbacks
do not make any difference between liquids and gases (they behave
differently)
do not cover anisotropic fluids
Bingham or Herschel-Bulkley fluids can support the shear stress
do not take into account the time scale (how long should one wait)
Maxwell: In the case of a viscous fluid it is time which is required, and if enough
time is given, the very smallest force will produce a sensible effect, such as would
require a very large force if suddenly applied.
J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 7 / 27
Long-lasting physical experiment
In 1927 at University of Queensland: liquid asphalt put inside the closed
vessel, after three years the vessel was open and the asphalt has started to
drop slowly.
Year Event
1930 Plug trimmed off
1938 (Dec) 1st drop
1947 (Feb) 2nd drop
1954 (Apr) 3rd drop
1962 (May) 4th drop
1970 (Aug) 5th drop
1979 (Apr) 6th drop
1988 (Jul) 7th drop
2000 (28 Nov) 8th drop

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 8 / 27

What do we mean by fluid-like behavior?

## Most of the materials are mixture of constituents - no sharp interface between

solid and fluid behavior

## Fluid-like behavior - balance and constitutive equations expressed in terms of

Solid-like behavior - balance and constitutive equations expressed in terms of

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 9 / 27

Incompresibility
Definition
Volume of any chosen subset (at initial time t = 0) remains constant
during the motion.

## for all t: |Vt | = |V0 | det F = 1

Taking the derivative w.r.t. time and using the identity
d
det F = div v det F
dt
we conclude that

div v = 0

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 10 / 27

Incompresibility
Definition
Volume of any chosen subset (at initial time t = 0) remains constant
during the motion.

## for all t: |Vt | = |V0 | det F = 1

Taking the derivative w.r.t. time and using the identity
d
det F = div v det F
dt
we conclude that

div v = 0

compressible fluid
incompressible fluid with variable density
incompressible fluid with constant density
J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 10 / 27
What is a Newtonian fluid?
T = p()I + 2()D(v) + () div v I
T = pI + 2()D(v)
T = pI + 2 D(v) with > 0 D(v) = 12 (v + (v)T )

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 11 / 27

What is a Newtonian fluid?
T = p()I + 2()D(v) + () div v I
T = pI + 2()D(v)
T = pI + 2 D(v) with > 0 D(v) = 12 (v + (v)T )
Balance equations
,t + div(v) = 0
(v),t + div(v v) div T = b
reduce due to incompressibility constraint to

div v = 0 , t + v = 0
(v),t + div(v v) div T = b

## and if the density is constant one obtains

div v = 0
(v,t + div(v v)) div T = b

## Newtonian fluid = Navier-Stokes fluid

J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 11 / 27
Part #3

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 12 / 27

What is a non-Newtonian fluid?

Definition
Fluid is a non-Newtonian if it is not a Newtonian fluid
Departures from behavior of Newtonian fluids (non-Newtonian phenomena)
Dependence of the viscosity on the shear rate (shear thinning/thickening)
Dependence of the viscosity on the pressure (pressure thinning/thickening)
The presence of activation or deactivation criteria (such as yield stress)
The presence of the normal stress differences in simple shear flows
Stress Relaxation
(Nonlinear) Creep

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 13 / 27

Viscosity

Definition
Coefficient proportionality between the shear stress and the shear-rate

v (y ) 0 v 0
1
Simple shear flow: v(x, y , z) = 0 D = 2 v 0 0
0 0 0 0
Newton (1687):
The resistance arising from the want of lubricity in parts of
the fluid, other things being equal, is proportional to the
velocity with which the parts are separated from one another.

Txy = v (y )
Experimental data shows that the viscosity depends on the shear-rate,
pressure, . . .

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 14 / 27

Dependence of the viscosity on the shear-rate
Generalized viscosity

Txy ()
g () := , kde = v

## Shear thinning/thickening Generalized viscosity

1 Viscosity increases with incresing shear-rate (shear thickening)
2 Viscosity decreases with increasing shear-rate (shear thinning)
3 Constant viscosity (Newtonian fluid - provided that the fluid does not
exhibit other effects)
J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 15 / 27
Classical power-law models

## Simple models that are able to capture such fluid behavior

T = pI + 2|D|r 2 D

or
 r 2
T = pI + 2 1 + |D|2 2
D

## r > 2 Viscosity increases with shear rate (shear thickening)

r = 2 Viscosity is constant
r < 2 Viscosity decreases with shear rate (shear thinning)

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 16 / 27

Dependence of the viscosity on the pressure

## Incompressible fluid with the viscosity depending on the pressure

T = pI + (p, |D|2 )D

## (Q. What do we mean by the pressure?)

   
1 1
T = tr T I + tr T, |D|2 D
3 3

invariant of D

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 17 / 27

Normal stress differences in simple shear flow

v (y )
v(x, y , z) = 0
0
For the model T = pI + (p, |D|2 )D

T11 T22 = p + p = 0
T22 T33 = p + p = 0

## The presence of non-zero normal stress differences

in simple shear flows is associated with the effects
such as
Die swell
Delayed die swell
Rod climbing
J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 18 / 27
Yield stress and activation criteria

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 19 / 27

Stress relaxation

## Sudden jump discontinuous change of deformation

Response at stress relaxation test for linear spring and linear dashpot

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 20 / 27

Stress relaxation

## Response at stress relaxation test for natural materials: solid-like response

(left) and fluid-like response (right)

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 21 / 27

(Non-linear) creep

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 22 / 27

(Non-linear) creep

Response at creep test for natural materials: solid-like response (left) and
fluid-like response (right)

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 23 / 27

What all shall we neglect in what follows?

Thermal effect
The consequences of the second law of thermodynamics
Compressibility of the fluid
Visco-elastic properties (normal stress differences, stress relaxation
and creep)
chemical reactions, electric and magnetic effects
Models for non-newtonian fluids are non-linear of
differential type
rate type
integro-differential type
others
We shall focus on the first three phenomena modeled by the
differential type constitutive equations.
J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 24 / 27
Part #4

Applications

## J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 25 / 27

Selected areas of application
Newtonian fluid is exception
1 Food materials such as milk, oil, tomato products, products of
granular type (such as rice)
2 Chemical suspensions, gels, paints, ....
3 Biological materials such as blood and synovial fluid
4 Geophysical materials such as rocks, soil, sand, clay, lava, the earths
mantle, glacier
Common properties
Complex mixture of solid-like components in a (Newtonian) fluid
Microstructure is very complicated, frequently with not complete
understanding - it suffices (remains) to model such a material as a
single continuum
Same comment concerns (sometimes) chemical reactions
Observed non-Newtonian phenomena
J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 26 / 27
Recent new approaches in continuum thermodynamics

## K.R. Rajagopal (since 1995)

1 Concept of natural configuration associated to the current
configuration of the body
2 Principle of maximization of the rate of entropy production
3 Implicit constitutive theory
4 Consequences on the mixture theory