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You are on page 1of 32

Josef Malek

Sokolovska 83, 186 75 Prague 8

October 4, 2012

Contents

1 Introduction

4 Applications

Part #1

Introduction

Non-Newtonian fluid mechanics - introduction

Goals:

Answer the following questions

Q1. What do I mean by mechanics?

Q2. What is a fluid?

Q3. What is a Newtonian fluid?

Q4. What is a non-Newtonian fluid?

Q5. What are materials that are modeled by non-Newtonian fluid

models?

Recent advances in the constitutive theory

Importance of implicit constitutive theory

Part #2

Continuum physics

Balance equations: mass, linear and angular momentum, balance of energy and

the second law of thermodynamics (general assumptions)

,t + div(v) = 0

(v),t + div(v v) div T = b

TT = T

(e + |v|2 /2) ,t + div((e + |v|2 /2)v) + div q = div (Tv)

v . . . velocity T . . . the Cauchy stress

e . . . internal energy q . . . heat flux

Continuum physics

Balance equations: mass, linear and angular momentum, balance of energy and

the second law of thermodynamics (general assumptions)

,t + div(v) = 0

(v),t + div(v v) div T = b

TT = T

(e + |v|2 /2) ,t + div((e + |v|2 /2)v) + div q = div (Tv)

v . . . velocity T . . . the Cauchy stress

e . . . internal energy q . . . heat flux

representing certain aspects of behavior of natural materials

Continuum mechanics focuses on the mechanical issues - involving T.

What is a fluid?

Several definitions

Fluid is a body that takes the shape of container

Fluid is a body whose symmetry group is the unimodular group (group of all

orthogonal transformations)

Fluid is a body that cannot support the shear stress

What is a fluid?

Several definitions

Fluid is a body that takes the shape of container

Fluid is a body whose symmetry group is the unimodular group (group of all

orthogonal transformations)

Fluid is a body that cannot support the shear stress

Drawbacks

do not make any difference between liquids and gases (they behave

differently)

do not cover anisotropic fluids

Bingham or Herschel-Bulkley fluids can support the shear stress

do not take into account the time scale (how long should one wait)

What is a fluid?

Several definitions

Fluid is a body that takes the shape of container

Fluid is a body whose symmetry group is the unimodular group (group of all

orthogonal transformations)

Fluid is a body that cannot support the shear stress

Drawbacks

do not make any difference between liquids and gases (they behave

differently)

do not cover anisotropic fluids

Bingham or Herschel-Bulkley fluids can support the shear stress

do not take into account the time scale (how long should one wait)

Maxwell: In the case of a viscous fluid it is time which is required, and if enough

time is given, the very smallest force will produce a sensible effect, such as would

require a very large force if suddenly applied.

J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 7 / 27

Long-lasting physical experiment

In 1927 at University of Queensland: liquid asphalt put inside the closed

vessel, after three years the vessel was open and the asphalt has started to

drop slowly.

Year Event

1930 Plug trimmed off

1938 (Dec) 1st drop

1947 (Feb) 2nd drop

1954 (Apr) 3rd drop

1962 (May) 4th drop

1970 (Aug) 5th drop

1979 (Apr) 6th drop

1988 (Jul) 7th drop

2000 (28 Nov) 8th drop

What do we mean by fluid-like behavior?

solid and fluid behavior

the velocity and its gradients

Solid-like behavior - balance and constitutive equations expressed in terms of

the displacement and its gradients

Incompresibility

Definition

Volume of any chosen subset (at initial time t = 0) remains constant

during the motion.

Taking the derivative w.r.t. time and using the identity

d

det F = div v det F

dt

we conclude that

div v = 0

Incompresibility

Definition

Volume of any chosen subset (at initial time t = 0) remains constant

during the motion.

Taking the derivative w.r.t. time and using the identity

d

det F = div v det F

dt

we conclude that

div v = 0

compressible fluid

incompressible fluid with variable density

incompressible fluid with constant density

J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 10 / 27

What is a Newtonian fluid?

T = p()I + 2()D(v) + () div v I

T = pI + 2()D(v)

T = pI + 2 D(v) with > 0 D(v) = 12 (v + (v)T )

What is a Newtonian fluid?

T = p()I + 2()D(v) + () div v I

T = pI + 2()D(v)

T = pI + 2 D(v) with > 0 D(v) = 12 (v + (v)T )

Balance equations

,t + div(v) = 0

(v),t + div(v v) div T = b

reduce due to incompressibility constraint to

div v = 0 , t + v = 0

(v),t + div(v v) div T = b

div v = 0

(v,t + div(v v)) div T = b

J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 11 / 27

Part #3

What is a non-Newtonian fluid?

Definition

Fluid is a non-Newtonian if it is not a Newtonian fluid

Departures from behavior of Newtonian fluids (non-Newtonian phenomena)

Dependence of the viscosity on the shear rate (shear thinning/thickening)

Dependence of the viscosity on the pressure (pressure thinning/thickening)

The presence of activation or deactivation criteria (such as yield stress)

The presence of the normal stress differences in simple shear flows

Stress Relaxation

(Nonlinear) Creep

Viscosity

Definition

Coefficient proportionality between the shear stress and the shear-rate

v (y ) 0 v 0

1

Simple shear flow: v(x, y , z) = 0 D = 2 v 0 0

0 0 0 0

Newton (1687):

The resistance arising from the want of lubricity in parts of

the fluid, other things being equal, is proportional to the

velocity with which the parts are separated from one another.

Txy = v (y )

Experimental data shows that the viscosity depends on the shear-rate,

pressure, . . .

Dependence of the viscosity on the shear-rate

Generalized viscosity

Txy ()

g () := , kde = v

1 Viscosity increases with incresing shear-rate (shear thickening)

2 Viscosity decreases with increasing shear-rate (shear thinning)

3 Constant viscosity (Newtonian fluid - provided that the fluid does not

exhibit other effects)

J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 15 / 27

Classical power-law models

T = pI + 2|D|r 2 D

or

r 2

T = pI + 2 1 + |D|2 2

D

r = 2 Viscosity is constant

r < 2 Viscosity decreases with shear rate (shear thinning)

Dependence of the viscosity on the pressure

T = pI + (p, |D|2 )D

1 1

T = tr T I + tr T, |D|2 D

3 3

invariant of D

Normal stress differences in simple shear flow

v (y )

v(x, y , z) = 0

0

For the model T = pI + (p, |D|2 )D

T11 T22 = p + p = 0

T22 T33 = p + p = 0

in simple shear flows is associated with the effects

such as

Die swell

Delayed die swell

Rod climbing

J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 18 / 27

Yield stress and activation criteria

Stress relaxation

Response at stress relaxation test for linear spring and linear dashpot

Stress relaxation

(left) and fluid-like response (right)

(Non-linear) creep

(Non-linear) creep

Response at creep test for natural materials: solid-like response (left) and

fluid-like response (right)

What all shall we neglect in what follows?

Thermal effect

The consequences of the second law of thermodynamics

Compressibility of the fluid

Visco-elastic properties (normal stress differences, stress relaxation

and creep)

chemical reactions, electric and magnetic effects

Models for non-newtonian fluids are non-linear of

differential type

rate type

integro-differential type

others

We shall focus on the first three phenomena modeled by the

differential type constitutive equations.

J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 24 / 27

Part #4

Applications

Selected areas of application

Newtonian fluid is exception

1 Food materials such as milk, oil, tomato products, products of

granular type (such as rice)

2 Chemical suspensions, gels, paints, ....

3 Biological materials such as blood and synovial fluid

4 Geophysical materials such as rocks, soil, sand, clay, lava, the earths

mantle, glacier

Common properties

Complex mixture of solid-like components in a (Newtonian) fluid

Microstructure is very complicated, frequently with not complete

understanding - it suffices (remains) to model such a material as a

single continuum

Same comment concerns (sometimes) chemical reactions

Observed non-Newtonian phenomena

J. Malek (MFF UK) Mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids October 4, 2012 26 / 27

Recent new approaches in continuum thermodynamics

1 Concept of natural configuration associated to the current

configuration of the body

2 Principle of maximization of the rate of entropy production

3 Implicit constitutive theory

4 Consequences on the mixture theory

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