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ورقة بحتية 2

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AS AFFECTED BY THEIR REINFORCEMENT RATIO

A.M. Arafah

King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia

amarafah@ksu.edu.sa

Abstract

This paper presents a reliability-based analysis for reinforced concrete beam sections at their flexural limit

states. The flexural strength of the beam sections is mathematically modeled employing representative

constitutive laws for concrete and reinforcement. Monte-Carlo technique is employed to simulate the

behavior of the beam sections at their flexural limit states. Results of the reliability based analysis are

presented in terms of the reliability index at various levels of reinforcement. At reinforcement of 0.4 of the

maximum permissible reinforcement ratio, the reliability index is about 4.0. This value drops to about 2.5

when the maximum permissible reinforcement is used. These results indicate that reliability of beam

section is highly sensitive to variation in the compression and tension reinforcements even when the design

safety factors are kept constant.

Background

In the studies conducted by Nowak (1979) and Arafah (1986), the statistical

characteristics of the beam strength were determined assuming ductile failure of the beam

section. This is true when the reinforcement is below 40 percent of the balanced ratio b

as defined by the ACI 318 (1995) When the reinforcement ratio /b is higher than 0.4,

the statistical characteristics of the section flexural strength, i.e., the mean-to nominal

ratio, R, the strength coefficient of variation, VR, and the type of distribution function

are highly affected by the reinforcement ratio.

At high /b, the probability of brittle failure, Pr(BF), of the section at its flexural limit

state is high, which adversely affects its strength statistics. As the ratio /b increases

Pr(BF) increases even when these ratios are within the ACI 318 (1995) maximum

acceptable limit. The high Pr(BF) associated with the high reinforcement ratios reduces

the mean of the strength, increases its coefficient of variation and consequently reduces

the section reliability.

reinforced concrete rectangular beam sections at their limit state. The main objective is to

investigate the sensitivity of the tension and compression reinforcements in a reinforced

concrete beam section on its reliability in terms of the reliability index . Monte Carlo

technique is employed for generating the random parameters and simulating the behavior

of the reinforced concrete sections at their limit states at various levels of the tension and

compression reinforcement ratios.

Arafah 1

Structural Reliability

Structural reliability is usually measured by the reliability index , which is defined as,

= 1 ( Pf ) (1)

where 1 is the inverse of standard normal distribution function and Pf is the probability

of failure. The First Order Second Moment, FOSM, reliability index is expressed as

follows,

R Q

= (2)

R2 + Q2

in which R and Q are the mean values of the resistance and load variables and

R and Q are the corresponding standard deviations. In this paper, reliability analysis

of beam sections at the limit state includes the following steps:

1. define the limit state function as follows, g = R Q where R is the flexural capacity

of the beam section, and Q is the sum of load effects at the section,

Detailed description of the last two steps are presented in the following sections.

step toward reliability analysis. This step can be achieved through several steps

explained next.

1. Select an appropriate constitutive laws for concrete and reinforcement. In this study,

the nonlinear model suggested by Hognestad, et al. (1955) is employed. The

descending part is presented by a straight line as shown in Fig. 1. The stress-strain

curve for reinforcement can be defined by three stages: (a) the linear stage with well

defined modulus of elasticity up to the yielding stress, (b) the yielding stage where

the strain increases with constant stress, and (c) the stage of strain hardening which

ends with the fracture of the reinforcement as shown in Fig. 1.

2. Define all possible flexural modes of failure of the beam sections. Beam sections at

their flexural limit state may fail in one of two main modes depending on the section

Arafah 2

tension reinforcement ratio. The first mode of failure is the ductile failure in which

the tensile strain in the reinforcement exceeds its yielding strain as the concrete

compression strain reaches its ultimate strain, cu. The second type of section failure is

the brittle mode of failure in which the tensile strain of the reinforcement is less than

the yield strain as the compressive strain in concrete reaches the ultimate strain.

3. Prepare an appropriate algorithm for performing the sectional analysis, defining the

mode of flexural failure, and computing the flexural strength. Strength evaluation of a

beam section can be achieved by several steps. The first step is to determine the

depth of the neutral axis at the limit state, xu, from the section equilibrium. The

second step is to compute the strain in the tension reinforcement, s, from strain

compatibility assuming perfect bond between concrete and reinforcement. The type

of failure can be identified depending on s. If s < y, the failure mode is brittle

otherwise it is ductile mode of failure. The flexural strength of beam section can be

determined by computing the moment of the tension and compression forces about

any point in the section as shown in Fig. 2.

reinforcement yield strength, and the sectional dimensions. Before starting the

sensitivity analysis, it is necessary to identify the practical ranges of the statistics of

the compressive strength of normal weight concrete depending on its nominal value

and the level of quality control during the concrete production, casting and curing and

those for the reinforcement yield strength depending on its method of production.

of the beam sections and their distribution function. In this study, the range of c is

taken between 0.8 and 1.2 whereas the range of Vc is between 20 and 40%. The range

of s is taken between 1.0 and 1.4 whereas Vs is taken between 4 and 12% (Arafah,

1997). The coefficient of variation of the depth of tension reinforcement, d, and

compression reinforcement, d, are taken as 2 and 20 percent, respectively (Arafah et

al., 1991).

strength parameters and perform the simulation process. Monte-Carlo technique is

employed in this study. The flexural strength results obtained from the simulation

process are plotted on the normal probability papers, NPP, and the R and VR are

computed. Results are listed in Table 1.

Reliability-Based Analysis

ratios and based on the results obtained from Table 1. The FOSM reliability index is

determined as follows,

Arafah 3

Tc Stress Stress

Esh

fc fy

z

co cu Strain y sh Strain

cu

Cs

N.A. As xu Cc

Tc

d

As

Ts

s

Arafah 4

R Rn Q Qn

= (3)

( R Rn VR ) 2 + ( Q Qn VQ ) 2

where Rn and Qn are the nominal values of strength and load effect respectively. The

ratio of the nominal strength to nominal load effect is kept constant in the reliability

analysis, i.e., Rn/Qn = 1.5. The load effect Q and VQ are assumed to be 0.8 and 0.2

respectively. Reliability index is determined for various values of tension reinforcement.

Results are listed in Table 1 and are plotted in Fig. 3. Results indicate that section

reliability is highly sensitive to the compression and tension reinforcements even with

constant safety factor. For singly reinforced sections, dropped from 5.08 to 2.68 by

increasing /b from 0.3 to 0.75. The compression reinforcement improves the section

reliability especially when /b > 0.5. At /b = 0.75, increased from 2.68 to 3.65 by

increasing ' from 0.0 to 10 percent of b .

Results indicate that reliability of reinforced concrete beam section is highly sensitive to

variation in the compression and tension reinforcements even when the design safety

factors are kept constant. High reliability levels are observed for low tension

reinforcement ratios. At reinforcement of 0.4 of the maximum permissible reinforcement

ratio, the reliability index is about 4.0. This value drops to about 2.5 when the maximum

permissible reinforcement is used. The compression reinforcement increases the section

ductility and reliability. Compression reinforcement is highly recommended in beam

sections.

References

Nowak, A. S. (1979), Effect of Human Errors on Structural Safety, Journal of the American Concrete

Institute, September, 959-972.

Arafah, A. M. (1986), Integration of Human Errors in Structural reliability models, Ph.D. Thesis,

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michgan.

ACI Committee 318 (1995), Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary,

ACI 318M-95, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hill, USA.

Hognestad, E., Hanson, N. W., and McHenry, D. (1955), Concrete Stress Distribution in Ultimate

Strength Design, ACI Journal, Proceedings 52(4), 455-479.

Arafah, A. (1997), Statistics for Concrete and Steel Quality in Saudi Arabia, Magazine of Concrete

Research, 49(180), London, UK, 185-194.

Arafah, A., Al-Zaid, R., Al-Haddad, M., AL-Tayeb, A., Al-Sulimani, G., and Wafa, F. (1991),

Development of a Solid Foundation for a National Reinforced Concrete Design Building Code, Final

Report, KACST project No. AT-9-34, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Arafah 5

/b R VR

0.30 1.23 0.070 5.08

Case 1

0.40 1.18 0.078 4.59

0.60 1.07 0.108 3.41

0.75 0.98 0.131 2.68

0.30 1.25 0.068 5.25

Case 2

0.40 1.21 0.073 4.89

0.60 1.09 0.096 3.73

0.75 1.04 0.114 3.18

0.30 1.28 0.067 5.46

Case 3

0.40 1.24 0.070 5.14

'/b = 0.10 0.50 1.22 0.090 4.49

0.60 1.17 0.105 3.91

0.75 1.08 0.100 3.60

Rn/Qn= 1.5, Q= 0.8, and VQ = 0.2

6.0

5.5

Case 1

5.0

Case 2

4.5 Case 3

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Ratio of Reinforcement to its Balanced Value

Arafah 6

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