41 views

Uploaded by Jaol1976

a Novel Optimization Algorithm for Optimal

- Incremental Power Plow
- IEEE Paper a New Optimal Routing Algorithm for Loss
- Power World Simulator
- Indonesia Wind Sector Impact Assessment
- Multi Objective 11
- Power Generation Operation y Control Allen Wood 013
- Optimal Power Flow Simulation in Deregulated Environment
- LF User Manual
- A novel analysis of Optimal Power Flow with TCPS
- Lecture4 Power Flow Analysis
- IEEE.svc
- Power System Analysis and Operation-MTECH 1ST
- A Multi-Objective Bees Algorithm for Multi-Objective OPF - S. Anantasate and P. Bhasaputra [2011]
- Point of Collapse Constrained ATC Enhanement With TCSC
- Online Loss Minimization in Distribution System Incorporating SSSC With Particle Swarm Optimization
- 05407048
- IRJET-Linear Programming based Optimum Resource Utilization for Manufacturing of Electronic Toys
- pfatb_v1.0a
- Power Flow
- 25712_5

You are on page 1of 8

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/224254542

reactive power dispatch: A comparative study

DOI: 10.1109/DRPT.2011.5994144 Source: IEEE Xplore

CITATIONS READS

22 98

3 authors:

King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Lad University of Duisburg-Essen

18 PUBLICATIONS 137 CITATIONS 150 PUBLICATIONS 2,605 CITATIONS

Delft University of Technology

78 PUBLICATIONS 300 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

Retrieved on: 16 May 2016

A Novel Optimization Algorithm for Optimal

Reactive Power Dispatch: A Comparative Study

Worawat Nakawiro Istvn Erlich and Jos Luis Rueda

Institute of Electric Power Systems (EAN) Institute of Electric Power Systems (EAN)

University of Duisburg-Essen University of Duisburg-Essen

Duisburg, Germany Duisburg, Germany

worawat.nakawiro@uni-due.de istvan.erlich@uni-due.de

AbstractOptimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD) is a key complex multimodal problems, these methods may be easily

instrument to achieve secure and economic operation of power trapped into a local optimum. Furthermore, their searching

systems. Due to complex characteristics of ORPD, heuristic performance depends on the appropriate parameter settings

optimization has become an effective solver. A novel heuristic [13]. Premature convergence and local stagnation are

optimization algorithm namely the Mean-Variance Mapping

frequently observed in many applications [14].

Optimization (MVMO) is proposed to handle the ORPD

problem. The concept, mechanism and implementation of Mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMO) originally

MVMO are discussed in this paper. Based on the IEEE 57- and proposed in [15] is a novel optimization algorithm. The basic

118- bus systems, MVMO is compared with some basic and concept of MVMO shares certain similarities to other heuristic

enhanced evolutionary algorithms. Simulation results show that approaches. However, the novel contribution in MVMO is the

MVMO is an excellent algorithm for ORPD and should deserve special mapping function. The shape and location of the

more attention. The superiority to the other algorithms is very mapping curve are adjusted according to the searching

pronounced in the IEEE 118-test case. process. The output of this mapping function is always inside

[0,1]. This means that MVMO can guarantee no violation of

Keywords-component; Reactive power dispatch, Mean-Variance

Mapping Optimization, Heuristic optimization

the variable limits during the searching process. Moreover,

MVOM updates the candidate solution around the best

I. INTRODUCTION solution in every iteration. Thanks to the well-designed

The optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD) plays an balance between search diversification and intensification,

important role in optimal operation of electric power systems. MVMO can find the optimum quickly with minimum risk to

It is a complex nonlinear optimization problem with a mixture premature convergence. In power system optimization,

of continuous and discrete control variables. ORPD is a sub- MVMO was successfully applied to solve the optimal reactive

class of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem [1]. Generally, power dispatch of wind farms in [16]. In this paper, the

the control variables of ORPD consist of transformer tap MVMO algorithm is used to solve the ORPD problem on two

positions, generator set points (either reactive power injection standard test systems.

or voltage), and reactive power compensations. The objective The remaining of this paper is organized as follows. Section

of ORPD is to minimize transmission losses or other II presents a mathematical formulation of ORPD. The MVMO

concerned objective, such as voltage deviation from the algorithm for solving ORPD is described in details in section

desired level, etc. Furthermore, physical and operation III. In section IV, simulation results of MVMO are compared

constraints must be maintained within the allowable limits. with other heuristic methods on the IEEE 57- and 118- bus

Several classical gradient-based optimization algorithms systems. Finally, conclusion and future research direction are

have been applied to solve different ORPD problems such as drawn in section V.

[2-4]. These techniques are computationally fast. However, II. PROBLEM FORMULATION

they have difficulties in handling problems with the non-

convex or discontinuous landscape and discrete variables. The goal of ORPD is to determine the optimal settings of

In the past decade, heuristic optimization algorithms, such reactive power control variables leading to the minimum

as genetic algorithm (GA) [5, 6], particle swarm optimization power losses while maintaining several constraints. The

(PSO) [7, 8], differential evolution (DE) [9, 10], evolutionary problem can be mathematically described as follows.

programming (EP) [11], bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) Ploss = f ( x, u, d)

[12], etc have been applied in reactive power optimization.

Minimize (1)

These techniques have shown effectiveness in overcoming the (

= Gk ( i , j ) U i2 + U 2j 2U iU j cos ij )

disadvantages of classical algorithms. Specially, PSO and DE k v E

have received great attention from researchers because of their Subject to:

novelty and searching power. However, it does not mean that a) Generator bus voltage

these techniques do not have any limitations. In solving

work. The procedure of MVMO for solving the ORPD

UGimin UGi UGimax i = 1, 2,..., nG (2) problem with D variables can be summarized as follows.

b) Susceptance of shunt compensator

Step 1: Read power system data and set MVMO parameters

Bimin Bi Bimax i = 1, 2,..., nB (3) Step 2: Initialization: Initialize an initial vector x in [0,1] based

on the uniform random distribution.

c) Transformer tap setting

Step 3: Fitness evaluation: Denormalize x, run the power flow

tapimin tapi tapimax i = 1, 2,..., nT (4) and evaluate the fitness function.

d) Load bus voltage Step 4: Termination: Check the termination criteria. If yes,

terminate MVMO. Else, continue to step 5.

ULimin ULi U Limax i = 1, 2,..., nPQ (5) Step 5: Solution archive: Store x, fitness value, objective value

and feasibility to the archive if x is better than any of

e) Line flow

existing solutions.

SFi SFimax i = 1, 2,..., nL (6) Step 6: Based on the archived solutions, compute mean xi and

where Ploss is the total active power losses of the transmission variance vi for each dimension i.

network. The vector of control variables is u=[UG B tap]Tand

Step 7: Parent assignment: Assign the best archived solution

(2)-(4) are the corresponding limits. nG , nB and nT denote the xbest as the parent.

number of generators, shunt compensators and transformers, Step 8: Variable selection: Select m < D dimensions of x.

respectively. The vector of state (dependent) variables is

x=[UL SF]T and (5)-(6) are the corresponding limits. Step 9: Mutation: Apply the mapping function to the selected m

dimensions.

nPQ and nL denote the number of load (PQ) buses and

Step 10: Crossover: Set the remaining D-m dimensions of x to

transmission lines, respectively. The vector d=[PD QD]T the values of xbest

contains active and reactive power demand at all load buses.

In every update of the control vector u, the state vector x; Step 11: Go to step 3.

the load bus voltage both magnitude and angle are computed Fig. 1 MVMO implementation procedure for ORPD

by the power flow equations given by:

A. Fitness evaluation and constraint handling

N

0 = PGi PDi U i U j Yij cos( i j ij ) (7) For each individual, a power flow calculation is performed,

j =1 feasibility of the solution is checked and a fitness value f is

N assigned. For a minimization problem, an individual is better

0 = QGi QDi U i U j Yij sin( i j ij ) (8) if the fitness is smaller. The static penalty scheme is used in

j =1

this study to handle constraints. Because the control variables

where PGi and QGi are active and reactive power generation at in x are self-restricted, all dependent variables are constrained

bus i, respectively; PDi and QDi are active and reactive power by applying the integrated fitness function as follows:

load at bus i, respectively; Yij is the admittance matrix n

min f = f + i max [ 0, gi ]

corresponding to the ith row jth column and ij is the difference (9)

in the voltage angle between the ith and jth buses; N is the total i =1

constraints; is the order of the penalty term (usually 1 or 2);

III. MEAN-VARIANCE MAPPING OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

i is the penalty coefficient of the constraint i and gi is the

MVMO operates on a single solution rather than a set of inequality constraint i represented by:

solutions like in many EAs. The internal searching space of all

variables in MVMO is restricted in [0,1]. Hence, the real g i (x, u) 0 (10)

min/max boundaries of variables have to be normalized to 0

where x is the vector of state variables and u is the vector

and 1. During the iteration it is not possible that any

control variables. Other constraint handling techniques are

component of the solution vector will violate the also applicable to MVMO.

corresponding boundaries. To achieve this goal, a special

mapping function is developed. The inputs of this function are B. Termination criteria

mean and variance of the best solutions that MVMO has The MVMO search process is terminated based on

discovered so far. The elegant property of MVMO is the completion of the pre-specified number of fitness evaluations

ability to search around the local best-so-far solution with a (power flow calculations in ORPD) or no improvement in the

small chance of being trapped into one of the local optimums. best fitness over the last s fitness evaluations. In this paper, the

This feature is contributed to the strategy for handling the first criterion was adopted.

zero-variance. Further details are referred to our previous

1556

C. Solution archive than strategy 1. However, this observation is still neither

The solution archive (SA) serves as the knowledge base of general nor conclusive. The performance is also problem-

the algorithm for guiding the searching direction. The best n dependent.

individuals that MVMO has found so far are saved in the SA.

Here the data structure of SA is slightly modified from the

original one in [15] in order to handle constraints. Two

information; fitness and feasibility of each individual are

additionally stored as shown in Fig. 2.

Solution

# Objective Fitness Feasibility

x1 x2 xi xD

1

2

n

xi --- --- ---

vi --- --- ---

Fig. 2 Data structure of the solution archive

To avoid losing a good solution in constrained

optimization problems, the following rules are set up to

compare the individual generated at each iteration and existing

archived solutions.

Any feasible solution is preferred to any infeasible

Fig. 3 Variable selection strategies (m=3)

solution;

Between two feasible solutions, the one having better 3) Mutation

For each of the m selected dimension, mutation is used to

objective value is preferred;

assign a new value of that variable. Given a uniform random

Between two infeasible solutions, the one having

number xi [0,1] , the new value of the i component xi is

'

smaller fitness value (smaller constraint violation) is

preferred. determined by:

An update takes place only if the new individual is better

than those in the archive. The archive size is fixed for the entire xi = hx + (1 h1 + h0 ) xi' h0 (11)

process. The archived individuals are dynamically sorted so

that the first ranked individual is always the best. Feasible where hx, h1 and h0 are the outputs of the transformation

solutions are placed in the upper part of the archive. Among mapping function based on different inputs given by:

these solutions, they are sorted based on their original objective hx = h(ui = xi' ), h0 = h(ui = 0), h1 = h(ui =1) (12)

values. Infeasible solutions are sorted according to their fitness

values and then placed on the lower part of the archive. Once Note that the output of (11) is always inside [0,1] for every

the archive is filled up by n feasible solutions, any infeasible generated xi. The mapping function is parameterized as

candidate solution does not have chance to be saved in the follows:

archive.

h( xi , si1 , si 2 , ui ) = xi (1 eui si1 ) + (1 xi ) e(1ui )si 2 (13)

D. Reproduction

Reproduction refers to the process in which an offspring is where si1 and si2 are shape factors allowing asymmetrical

created. In MVMO, it refers to the steps 7-11 of the procedure slopes of the mapping function. Interested readers are referred

shown in Fig. 1. The details of each component are described to our previous work [15] for further details on how to set the

in the following subsections. two different shape factors. The slope is calculated by:

1) Parent assignment si = ln( vi ) fs (14)

The first ranked (best-so-far) solution denoted as xbest is

assigned as the parent. where fs is a MVMO parameter namely the shape scaling

2) Variable selection factor.

MVMO searches around the mean saved in the archive for Fig. 4 shows an example of the mapping function with a

the better solution only in m selected directions. This means uniform shape factor of 10 for two optimization variables x1

that only these m selected dimensions of the offspring will be and x2. The actual range of the two variables is -2.048 x1,x2

updated while the remaining D-m dimensions take the 2.048. Observe that the mean xi is an input of (13). Assume

corresponding values from xbest. Four strategies for selecting that the mean of the two variables is at -1 and 1, respectively.

the variables were implemented in MVMO as shown in Fig. 3. In the normalized scale, these correspond to 0.256 and 0.744.

From our experience, strategies 2 to 4 generally perform better It is clearly shown in the left of Fig. 4 that the curves are flat

1557

around the two mean values. This means that most of the the learning rate and inertia weight are internally specified

samples drawn from these functions will center around -1 and according Clercs stagnation analysis. The crossover rate CR

1 in the actual scale. However, notice that the range of these and the scaling factor F of DE are specified by 0.2 and 0.6,

functions span over the entire range between 0 and 1. This respectively. The parameters CR and F are self-adapted in

characteristic gives chances for random samplings to cover the JADE whereby the population size PS must be specified by

entire search space by getting away of the mean values. The the user. In JADE-vPS, the parameter PS is dynamically

right of Fig. 4 shows 10000 samples randomly generated from adjusted during the searching process. The internal parameters

the mapping function in the left. of MVMO are set as follows: fs = 1; AF = 2.5 and sd= 25. The

variable selection is selected to the strategy 3 (see Fig. 3) and

the number of random variable m is chosen to 6 at the

beginning and progressively declined to 2 in every 1000 FEs.

The size of solution archive is fixed to 2.

The termination criterion is the maximum number of

function (power flow) evaluations (FEs). All programs were

implemented in MATLAB R2010a. The computing

environment is Intel Core 2 Quad CPU 2.83 GHz and 3.25 GB

RAM memory. The software package namely PAST is used.

Because the most time-consuming parts in these methods are

the repeated power flow calculations and the number of such

calculations is fixed, the computational time of all algorithms

is not significantly different. The comparison in this paper will

be based on quality of the final results.

Fig. 4 Mapping function (left) and corresponding two dimensional A. Simulation results- case 57

searching space (right) The IEEE 57-bus system consists of seven generators, 80

4) Crossover lines where 15 of which are equipped with ULTC

For the remaining D-m dimensions, the values of xbest are transformers. Shunt reactive power compensators are

inherited. This process is equivalent to evolutionary processes connected to buses 18, 25 and 53. The limit of these

where an offspring is a combination of two parents. susceptances is [0,0.2], [0,0.18] and [0,0.18], respectively.

Therefore, the ORPD search space has 25 dimensions. The

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

population size PS of PSO, DE and JADE and the initial value

The IEEE 57- and 118- bus systems are used as the test of PS in JADE-vPS is set to 50.

cases and named as case 57 and case 118, respectively to

Table I Statistical results case 57

examine the performance of MVMO and compare it with

other heuristic algorithms. The system data of the two cases MVMO PSO DE JADE JADE-vPS

are taken from [17]. For both test systems, the lower and upper

Minimum 24.8512 24.8479 24.8360 24.8493 24.8451

limits of load bus voltages are 0.95 p.u. and 1.05 p.u.,

respectively. Generator voltages at the high voltage terminal Average 24.9917 24.9336 24.8701 24.9494 24.9565

are defined as continuous variables. The lower and upper Maximum 25.2608 25.1642 25.0307 25.2044 25.3768

limits are set to 0.94 p.u. and 1.06 p.u., respectively. Discrete

control variables consist of transformer tap positions and the Standard deviation 0.1029 0.0671 0.0352 0.0666 0.0896

susceptance of shut compensators. All under-load tap

changing (ULTC) transformers are assumed to have 21

36

discrete taps within 10% of the nominal voltage (1% for each MVMO

tap). Each transformer tap is defined by an integer between - PSO

34 DE

10 to 10. These ULTC data are fictitious values. The number JADE

of taps and the voltage range in practical cases can be JADE-vPS

Power losses (MW)

32

different. All shunt compensators have 11 discrete steps of

different ratings (defined by an integer between 0 to 10). 30

For the two test cases, the performance of MVMO is

compared with the following algorithms. 28

1. PSO: a standard PSO version 2007 [18];

2. DE: a basic DE namely DE/current-to-best/1 [19, 26

20],

3. JADE: an adaptive DE algorithm [13] and 24

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

4. JADE-vPS: a modified JADE algorithm [21]. No. of function evaluations 4

x 10

The difference between the latter two algorithms is the Fig. 5 Average convergence characteristics - case 57

adaptive scheme for the population size in JADE-vPS. In PSO,

1558

To fairly compare the proposed MVMO method with

8

others, every algorithm is independently run for 50 times. Tap21-20 Tap34-32 Tap14-46 Tap9-55

Then statistical values consisting of minimum, average, 6

maximum and standard deviation of active power losses are

4

computed as listed in Table I. The average convergence of

active power losses found by each algorithm is plotted after 2

the first 100 FEs as shown in Fig. 5. It is clearly shown that

the convergence of MVMO is the fastest. In this test case, the 0

other algorithms. However, the MVMO results are on average

very close to the other techniques. An interesting observation -4

search capability because the lowest power loss has been

found after the first 100 FEs. -8

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

As mentioned in [22] that there are five buses (buses 25, 30, No. of function evalutations x 10

4

31, 32 and 33) in this network that the voltages are outside the Fig. 8 Convergence of selected transformer taps case 57

limits. After the ORPD result given by each method, power The convergence of optimized control variables are shown

flow is calculated to determine bus voltages as shown in Fig. in Fig. 7-Fig. 9. From these figures, the control variables

6. It is shown that all bus voltages can be maintained within change abruptly at the early searching stage. Then, they settle

the limits. These voltage profiles confirm the merits of ORPD to a steady state at the later stage. At this phase, an optimum

in achieving both reduced power losses and voltage security. has been discovered. The CPU time of all methods is

approximately 5 minutes.

1.06

10

1.05 B18 B25 B53

9

1.04

8

1.03

Voltage (p.u.)

Shunt compensator

7

1.02

6

1.01

5

1

MVMO 4

0.99

PSO

DE 3

0.98 JADE

JADE-vPS 2

0.97

0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60

Bus number 1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

No. of function evalutations 4

Fig. 6 Load bus voltage profiles case 57 x 10

1.06 1.06

B. Simulation results- case 118

1.05 To further evaluate the performance of MVMO, the IEEE

1.05

118-bus system is employed. In this test case, the search space

1.04

of this problem has 77 dimensions. The continuous variables

Generator bus voltage (p.u.)

1.04

1.03 consist of 54 generator bus voltages. There are 23 discrete

variables; 9 transformer taps and 14 shunt compensators. All

1.03 1.02

shunt compensators are defined by susceptances with the

1.01 lower limit of 0 p.u. and the upper limit of 0.2 p.u. The

1.02

population size PS of PSO, DE and JADE and the initial value

U

U

1

U

G6

of PS in JADE-vPS is set to 100.

1.01

U

G1

G2

0.99 U

G8

G9

The convergence of active power losses averaged from 50

U

G3

U

G12

independent trials of different algorithms is shown in Fig. 10.

1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

0.98

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Similar to the case 57, the first plotting starts from 100 FEs.

No.of function evaluations

x 10

4 No.of function evaluations

x 10

4

Statistical results are shown in Table II. In this test case,

Fig. 7 Convergence of generator voltages case 57 minimum, average, maximum and standard deviation of power

losses from MVMO are the lowest among all methods. In

other words, MVMO perform the best in this problem. In

1559

terms of the convergence characteristic, MVMO is the fastest V. CONCLUSION

among all methods. After the first 100 FEs, MVMO is able to MVMO is a novel heuristic algorithm that has recently

locate the optimal area in the search space. Moreover, it can shown great promises in dealing real-world complex

continue exploring that area for any better solution without optimization problems. Besides its capability, the algorithm is

being trapped in one of local optimums. In contrast to other also simple to be implemented. In this paper, MVMO was

greedy search algorithm such as DE/best/1 in DE, MVMO applied to solve the optimal reactive power dispatch problem.

overcomes the well-know premature convergence and local The performance of MVMO was examined and compared

stagnation. In other words, MVMO is an enhanced greedy with other heuristic algorithms. The IEEE 57-bus and 118-bus

search algorithm. systems were used as the test cases. The simulation results

show that MVMO obviously has the better convergence speed

200

MVMO than the other algorithms. The final result is nearly the same

190 PSO for all algorithms. . MVMO performs outstandingly in the

180

DE 118-bus case both in terms of convergence and the minimum

JADE

JADE-vPS reached. . The CPU times used in both cases are relatively

Power losses (MW)

170

high. The source of this occurrence is the power flow program

160 used in this paper. This issue will be corrected in our future

150

work. In summary, MVMO has a huge potential in dealing

with large-scale OPF problems.

140

130

REFERENCES

120

[1] H. W. Dommel and W. F. Tinney, "Optimal Power Flow

110

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Solutions," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-87, no. 10,

No. of function evaluations x 10

4 pp. 1866-1876, Oct. 1968.

[2] J. A. Momoh, M. E. El-Hawary, and R. Adapa, "A review of

Fig. 10 Average convergence characteristics - case 118 selected optimal power flow literature to 1993 part I & II,"

Table II Statistical results case 118 IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 96-111, Feb. 1999.

[3] J. L. M. Ramos, A. G. Exposito, and V. H. Quintana,

MVMO PSO DE JADE JADE-vPS "Transmission power loss reduction by interior-point methods:

implementation issues and practical experience," IEE Proc.

Minimum 115.7932 120.8967 125.0250 119.1614 119.2006 Gener. Trans. Distrib., vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 90-98, Jan. 2005.

Average 116.8202 125.4868 127.4415 122.6774 125.5745 [4] V. H. Quintana and M. Santos-Nieto, "Reactive power-dispatch

by sucessive quadratic programming," IEEE Trans. Energy

Maximum 119.3584 135.3720 130.2292 132.0349 133.3443 Convers., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 425-435, 1989.

Standard [5] M. Todorovski and D. Rajicic, "An initialization procedure in

deviation

0.7682 3.1634 1.1337 3.0467 3.8943 solving optimal power flow by genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans.

Power Syst., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 480-487, May 2006.

[6] Q. H. Wu, Y. J. Cao, and J. Y. Wen, "Optimal reactive power

1.05 dispatch using an adaptive genetic algorithms," Int. J. Electr.

1.04

Power Energy Syst., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 563-569, 1998.

[7] H. Yoshida, K. Kawata, Y. Fukuyama, S. Takamura, and Y.

1.03

Nakanishi, "A Particle Swarm Optimization for Reactive Power

1.02 and Voltage Control Considering Voltage Security

Assessment," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 15, no. 4, pp.

Voltage (p.u.)

1.01

1232-1239, Nov. 2000.

1 [8] A. A. A. Esmin, G. Lambert-Torres, and A. C. Z. d. Souza, "A

0.99 hybrid particle swarm optimization applied to loss power

minimization," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 20, no. 2, pp.

0.98

MVMO 859-866, May 2005.

PSO

0.97

DE

[9] C. H. Liang, C. Y. Chung, K. P. Wong, X. Z. Duan, and C. T.

0.96 JADE Tse, "Study of differential evolution for optimal reactive power

JADE-vPS flow," IEE Proc. Gener. Trans. Distrib., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 253-

0.95

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 260, 2007.

Bus number [10] M. Varadarajan and K. S. Swarup, "Network loss minimization

Fig. 11 Load bus voltage profiles case 118 with voltage security using differential evolution," Elec. Power

Syst. Research, vol. 78, pp. 815-823, 2008.

Fig. 11 shows the voltage profiles at load buses resulting [11] Q. H. Wu and J. T. Ma, "Power system optimal reactive power

from all methods. Again, all optimization algorithms can dispatch using evolutionary programming," IEEE Trans. Power

maintain all bus voltages within the limits. The CPU time of Syst., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1243-1249, 1995.

all methods is approximately 15 minutes. [12] M. Tripathy and S. Mishra, "Bacteria Foraging-Based Solution

to Optimize Both Real Power Loss and Voltage Stability

1560

Limit," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 240 - 248 [22] C. Dai, W. Chen, Y. Zhu, and X. Zhang;, "Seeker Optimization

Feb. 2007. Algorithm for Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch," IEEE Trans.

[13] J. Zhang and A. C. Sanderson, "JADE: Adaptive Differential Power Syst., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1218 - 1231, Aug. 2009

Evolution with Optional External Archive," IEEE Trans. Evol.

Compt., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 945-958, Oct. 2009.

[14] J. Lampinen and I. Zelinka, "On stagnation of the differential

evolution algorithms," in 6th Int. Conf. Soft Computing, 2000, BIOGRAPHIES

pp. 76-83. Worawat Nakawiro received received his Ph.D. degree in electic

[15] I. Erlich, G. K. Venayagamoorthy, and W. Nakawiro, "A mean- power systems from the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany

variance optimization algorithm," in WCCI IEEE World where he is currently working as a postdoctoral fellow. His research

Congress on Computational Intelligence Barcelona, Spain, interests include computational intelligence with emphasis on

2010. heuristic optimization and its applications in power systems and

[16] I. Erlich, W. Nakawiro, and M. Martinez, "Optimal Dispatch of voltage stability problems.

Reactive Sources in Wind Farms," in IEEE PES General

Meeting Detroit, USA, 2011. Istvan Erlich received received his PhD degree from the University

[17] "Power Systems Test Case Archive," [Online] of Dresden/Germany in 1983. Since 1998, he is Professor and head of

http://www.ee.washington.edu/research/pstca/. the Institute of Electrical Power Systems at the University of

[18] "Standard PSO 2007 (SPSO-2007) on the Particle Swarm Duisburg-Essen/Germany. His major scientific interest is focused on

Central," [Online] http://www.particleswarm.info, 2007. power system stability and control, modelling and simulation of

[19] R. Storn and K. Price, "Differential evolution - a simple and power system dynamics including intelligent system applications. He

efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous is a member of VDE and IEEE.

spaces," Journal of Global Optimization vol. 11, pp. 341359, Jos L. Rueda received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering

1997. from the Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan, Argentina, in

[20] K. Price, R. Storn, and J. Lampinen, Differential Evolution - A 2009. Currently, he is a research fellow at the Institute of Electrical

Practical Approach to Global Optimization: Springer Verlag, Power Systems at the University of Duisburg-Essen. His current

2005. research interests include power system stability and control, system

[21] W. Nakawiro, "Voltage Stability Assessment and Control of identification, power system planning, smart grids and wind power.

Power Systems using Computational Intelligence," Ph.D.

Thesis, University of Duisburg-Essen, 2011

1561

- Incremental Power PlowUploaded byasad6577
- IEEE Paper a New Optimal Routing Algorithm for LossUploaded byPrasanna Kumar Mahadevu
- Power World SimulatorUploaded bygirish19
- Indonesia Wind Sector Impact AssessmentUploaded byIrving Paul Girsang
- Multi Objective 11Uploaded byragvshah
- Power Generation Operation y Control Allen Wood 013Uploaded byVinod Murugan
- Optimal Power Flow Simulation in Deregulated EnvironmentUploaded byGuru Mishra
- LF User ManualUploaded bykrcdewanew
- A novel analysis of Optimal Power Flow with TCPSUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Lecture4 Power Flow AnalysisUploaded byfpttmm
- IEEE.svcUploaded byEngr Muhammad Imran Khan
- Power System Analysis and Operation-MTECH 1STUploaded bysambit
- A Multi-Objective Bees Algorithm for Multi-Objective OPF - S. Anantasate and P. Bhasaputra [2011]Uploaded byJose A. Regalado Rojas
- Point of Collapse Constrained ATC Enhanement With TCSCUploaded bySuresh Babu D
- Online Loss Minimization in Distribution System Incorporating SSSC With Particle Swarm OptimizationUploaded byIJAERS JOURNAL
- 05407048Uploaded bySarath Ravulaparthi
- IRJET-Linear Programming based Optimum Resource Utilization for Manufacturing of Electronic ToysUploaded byIRJET Journal
- pfatb_v1.0aUploaded byHarshith Gowda
- Power FlowUploaded byDresta Ari Arkan
- 25712_5Uploaded byDiogo Marujo
- 05405021Uploaded byms6675223
- LocalizationUploaded byAtri Prasetyo
- EE4031 1 LoadflowUploaded byMuhammad Rizki Alvian
- OBJ DatastreamUploaded byKean Pahna
- Decentralized Intraday Generation Scheduling ForUploaded byLucas Souza
- gauss siedelUploaded byShivani Singh
- s System ModelingUploaded byKaleem Ullah
- Resultats OPF ACUploaded byMarcAparici
- MATLAB-Lecture11.pdfUploaded byBrownKing
- mehran-3g.pdfUploaded byMehran

- HW Unit 3Uploaded byJaol1976
- PSS with remote signal considering the Transport DelayUploaded byJaol1976
- IJSEE Volume 3 FuzzyUploaded byJaol1976
- HK Unit 2Uploaded byJaol1976
- Signal WordsUploaded byJaol1976
- A Trip To The Stars_notes.pdfUploaded byJaol1976
- 3. Tesis Control Jerarquico.pdfUploaded byJaol1976
- A method for Tuning Models-DIgSILENT.pdfUploaded byJaol1976
- Paper Monte Carlo and PSSUploaded byJaol1976
- Slide 1 Introduction ChapmanUploaded byJaol1976
- PI PSS in SimulikUploaded byJaol1976
- Paper Patel 2018Uploaded byJaol1976
- Gurung2019.pdfUploaded byJaol1976
- Gurung2018.pdfUploaded byJaol1976
- DigSilent PowerfactoryUploaded byPandiyan
- WADC and PSSUploaded byJaol1976
- SMCUploaded byJaol1976
- Muela2007Uploaded byJaol1976
- CENACE_WAMPACUploaded byJaol1976
- sinchronized machineUploaded byJaol1976
- 2011 - Engineering Analysis - Conservation Voltage Reduction in WindMilUploaded byJaol1976
- Paper Load ModelingUploaded byJaol1976
- 00466523.pdfUploaded byJaol1976
- Load Representation for Dynamic Performance AnalysisUploaded byrnmukerjee
- PSS&C - PKundur - Cap01Uploaded byFrancisco Guerra
- Sistemas de Control Automatico Solucionario, 8° ED. - Benjamin C. KuoUploaded bycosg11
- 390320Uploaded byTaher Al-Tammam
- Tecnica de Optimizacion MVMOUploaded byJaol1976

- hss9860-v900r008-hlr-subscriber-data-in-huawei-standard-format.pdfUploaded byfabred65
- Call Syllabus - Ivonne LondoñoUploaded byivlondono
- 03 Circuit Schematics an4988Uploaded byAdam Mamani
- Theory of Computation.pdfUploaded byPRINCE DEWANGAN
- Diagnostic aids in orthodontics.docUploaded byNevin Abraham
- Final Manual for EncounterUploaded byrajesh4172003
- ISO 27001 Certification Now Offered by iCertWorks WorldwideUploaded byPR.com
- Cs1 CatalogUploaded byChairil Anwar
- I Hunt TR 069 Admins Shahar Tal Hacktivity SlidesUploaded byBces Basistha Bhandari
- csp-900rmm-2_i1r34pUploaded byrobiny
- Data Science in the Cloud with MicrosoftUploaded byzhf526
- cover sheet story 2Uploaded byapi-301425716
- A Secure Erasure Code-Based Cloud Storage System With Secure Data ForwardingUploaded byJAYAPRAKASH
- ClassicUploaded byclau a
- HEN retrofit methodsUploaded byJihane Kehal
- Jonathan Small ResumeUploaded bysmallsketch
- 16-06-08 BSA Amicus Curiae Brief SCOTUS Samsung v. AppleUploaded byFlorian Mueller
- how to download and install Dev C++ 5.11Uploaded byMuhammad Haider
- Intro to Programming EC201 Fundamental ProgrammingUploaded byAyu Wafa
- Vco Based AdcUploaded byGaneshVenkatachalam
- lan.pdfUploaded byAldo Apazza
- Ccnp1_mod 6 Ospf LabsUploaded byRamdon999
- 6LoWPAN Protocol Stack Brief PptUploaded byNikhil PS
- RAMConcept WSP-Shard Case Study 8-12Uploaded bydhawanaxit
- Analysis of Unsteady Pipe Flow Using Modified FEMUploaded byDiener Volpin
- 020.pdfUploaded bySynths
- TMM02 Cok Prapti Gunadarma Perancangan Konstruksi-libre (1)Uploaded byARun DNe
- Resume of Trishita DasUploaded bytrishitadas
- E38087Uploaded bygiraiadoinferno
- DFM-Checklist-ExcelVersion.xlsUploaded byMark Wilkinson