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Name of the Presenter Branch College Email address Contact No. : B.ARCHANA & B. JYOTHI : CSE (IV B.techISEM),IT(IV ISEM). : Bhoj Reddy Enggineering College For Women : : 9441482074/9393086043




There are a multitude of standards like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi that address mid to high data rates for voice, PC LANs, video, etc. However, up till now there hasn't been a wireless network standard that meets the unique needs of sensors and control devices. Sensors and controls don't need high bandwidth but they do need low latency and very low energy consumption for long battery lives and for large device arrays. There are a multitude of proprietary wireless systems manufactured today to solve a multitude of problems that don't require high data rates but do require low cost and very low current drain. These proprietary systems were designed because there were no standards that met their application requirements. These legacy systems are creating significant interoperability problems with each other and with newer technologies. The ZigBee Alliance providing a standardized base set of solutions for sensor and control systems called “ZIGBEE” technology. ZigBee is a published specification set of high level communication protocols designed to use small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The technology is designed to be simpler and cheaper than other WPANs such as Bluetooth. ZigBee is aimed at applications with low data rates and low power consumption. ZigBee's current focus is to define a general-purpose, inexpensive self-organizing mesh network that can be shared by industrial controls, medical devices, smoke and intruder alarms, building automation and home automation. The network is designed to use very small amounts of power, so that individual devices might run for a year or two with a single alkaline battery. This paper gives a brief idea on the architecture of ZigBee , stack architecture, how the networking is done using different topologies, frame structure, security issues and its benefits.

ZigBee is a home-area network designed specifically to replace the proliferation of individual remote controls. Zigbee is a wireless networking standard that is aimed at remote control and sensor applications which is suitable for operation in harsh radio environments and in isolated locations. It builds on IEEE standard 802.15.4 which defines the physical and MAC layers. Above this, Zigbee defines the application and security layer specifications enabling interoperability between products from different manufacturers. In this way Zigbee is a superset of the 802.15.4 specification.

• Low power consumption, simply implemented. • ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 has two major states: active (transmit/receive) or sleep. The application software needs to focus on the application, not on which power mode is optimum for each aspect of operation. • ZigBee devices will be more ecological than their predecessors saving megawatts at it full deployment. • Low cost to the users means low device cost, low installation cost and low maintenance. ZigBee devices allow batteries to last up to years using primary cells without any chargers. • High density of nodes per network. ZigBee's use of the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY and MAC allows networks to handle any number of devices • Simple protocol, global implementation. ZigBee's protocol code stack is estimated to be about 1/4th of Bluetooth's or 802.11's. The 802.15.4 standard is primarily aiming at monitoring and control applications. The amount of data throughput (bandwidth) is relativily low compared to wireless lan.

Three areas of architectural responsibility are in a ZigBee engineering effort

The physical and MAC layers take full advantage of the physical radio specified by IEEE 802.15.4. The 802.15.4 specification describes a peer-to-peer radio using direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS). The specification also calls out the data rates, channelization and modulation techniques to be employed. The ZigBee Alliance specifies the logical network, security and application software, which are implemented in a firmware stack. It is the ZigBee networking stack that creates the mesh networking capability. Each microcontroller/RF chip combination requires its own ZigBee stack due to the differences in microcontrollers and RF chips. Typically, the ZigBee stack is included with either the microcontroller or RF chip. The application layer is denied by profiles, of which there are two types: public profiles are those certified by the ZigBee Alliance for interoperability purposes, and private profiles are for use in closed systems.

Dual physical (PHY & MAC) layer
o o o

Data rates of 250 kbps at 2.4 GHz, 40 kbps at 915 MHz, and 20 kbps at 868 MHz Optimized for low duty-cycle applications (<0.1%) CSMA-CA channel access yields high throughput and low latency for low duty Low power (battery life multi-month to years) Multiple topologies: star, peer-to-peer, mesh

cycle devices like sensors and controls
o o

o Adressing space of up to:

devices (64 bit IEEE address)

- 65,535 networks
o o o

Optional guaranteed time slot for applications requiring low latency Fully hand-shaked protocol for transfer reliability Range: 50m typical (5-500m based on environment)

ZigBee Stack Architecture
Following the standard Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, ZigBee's protocol stack is structured in layers. The first two layers, physical (PHY) and media access control (MAC), are defined by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. ). Raw data throughput rates of 250Kbps can be achieved at 2.4GHz (16 channels), 40Kbps at 915MHz (10 channels), and 20Kbps at 868MHz (1 channel). The transmission distance is expected to range from 10 to 75m, depending on power output and environmental characteristics. Like Wi-Fi, Zigbee uses direct-sequence spread spectrum in the 2.4GHz band, with offset quadrature phase-shift keying modulation. Channel width is 2MHz with 5MHz channel spacing. The 868 and 900MHz bands also use direct-sequence spread spectrum but with binary-phase-shift keying modulation. The General Operation Framework (GOF) is a glue layer between applications and rest of the protocol stack. The GOF currently covers various elements that are common for all devices. It includes sub addressing and addressing modes and device descriptions, such as type of device, power source, sleep modes, and coordinators. Using an object model, the GOF specifies methods, events, and data formats that are used by application profiles to construct set/get commands and their responses. ZigBee is the only standardsbased technology that addresses the needs of most remote monitoring and control and sensory network applications. The ZigBee stack is small in comparison to other wireless standards. For networkedge devices with limited capabilities, the stack requires about 4Kb of the memory. Full implementation of the protocol stack takes less than 32Kb of memory. The ZigBee application layer consists of the APS sub-layer, the ZDO and the manufacturer-defined application objects. The responsibilities of the APS sub-layer include maintaining tables for binding, which is the ability to match two devices together

based on their services and their needs, and forwarding messages between bound devices. Another responsibility of the APS sub-layer is discovery, which is the ability to determine which responsibilities of the ZDO include defining the role of the device within the network (e.g., ZigBee coordinator or end device), initiating and/or responding to binding requests and establishing a secure relationship between network devices.

Frame structure
The four basic frame types defined in 802.15.4: data, ACK, MAC command, and beacon. The data frame provides a payload of up to 104 bytes. The frame is numbered to ensure that all packets are tracked. A frame-check sequence ensures that packets are received without error. This frame structure improves reliability in difficult conditions. Another important structure for 802.15.4 is the acknowledgment (ACK) frame. It provides feedback from the receiver to the sender confirming that the packet was received without error. The device takes advantage of specified "quiet time" between frames to send a short packet immediately after the data-packet transmission. A MAC command frame provides the mechanism for remote control and configuration of client nodes. A centralized network manager uses MAC to configure individual clients' command frames no matter how large the network. . Finally, the beacon frame wakes up client devices, which listen for their address and go back to sleep if they don't receive it. Beacons are important for mesh and cluster-tree networks to keep all the nodes synchronized without requiring those nodes to consume precious battery energy by listening for long periods of time.

Channel Access & Addressing
Two channel-access mechanisms are implemented in 802.15.4. For a nonbeacon network, a standard ALOHA CSMA-CA (carrier-sense medium-access with collision avoidance) communicates with positive acknowledgement for successfully received packets. In a beacon-enabled network, a super frame structure is used to control channel access. The super frame is set up by the network coordinator to transmit beacons at predetermined intervals (multiples of 15.38ms, up to 252s) and provides 16 equalwidth time slots between beacons for contention-free channel access in each time slot. The structure guarantees dedicated bandwidth and low latency. Channel access in each time slot is contention-based. However, the network coordinator can dedicate up to seven guaranteed time slots per beacon interval for quality of service. Device addresses employ 64-bit IEEE and optional 16-bit short addressing. The address field within the MAC can contain both source and destination address information (needed for peer-to-peer operation). This dual address information is used in mesh networks to prevent a single point of failure within the network.

Device Types
ZigBee networks use three device types:

The network coordinator maintains overall network knowledge. It's the most The full function device (FFD) supports all 802.15.4 functions and features specified by

sophisticated of the three types and requires the most memory and computing power.

the standard. It can function as a network coordinator. Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices (where the network touches the real world).

The reduced function device (RFD) carries limited (as specified by the standard)

functionality to lower cost and complexity. It's generally found in network-edge devices.

Network Layer
The NWK layer associates or dissociates devices using the network coordinator, implements security, and routes frames to their intended destination. In addition, the NWK layer of the network coordinator is responsible for starting a new network and assigning an address to newly associated devices. In a star topology, one of the FFD-type devices assumes the role of network coordinator and is responsible for initiating and maintaining the devices on the network. All other devices, known as end devices, directly communicate with the coordinator. In a mesh topology, the ZigBee coordinator is responsible for starting the network and for choosing key network parameters, but the network may be extended through the use of ZigBee routers. The routing algorithm uses a request-response protocol to eliminate sub-optimal routing. Ultimate network size can reach 264 nodes (more than we'll probably need). Using local addressing, you can configure simple networks of more than 65,000 (216) nodes, thereby reducing address overhead. The NWK layer supports multiple network topologies including star, cluster tree, and mesh, all of which are shown below:

The protocols build on recent algorithmic research to automatically construct a low-speed ad-hoc network of nodes. In most large cases, the network is a cluster of clusters. It can also form a mesh or a single cluster. The ZigBee protocols support both beaconing and non-beaconing networks. In beaconing networks, the network nodes transmit beacons to confirm their presence to other network nodes, and to allow nodes to sleep between beacons, thereby lowering their duty cycle and extending their battery life.

DUTY CYCLE: In telecommunication and electronics, the term duty cycle has the following meanings:

The duty cycle D is defined as the ratio between the pulse duration (τ) and the period (T) of a rectangular waveform Duty cycle is the proportion of time during which a component, device, or system is operated. Suppose a disk drive operates for 1 second, then is shut off for 99 seconds, then is run for 1 second again, and so on. The drive runs for one out of 100 seconds, or 1/100 of the time, and its duty cycle is therefore 1/100, or 1 percent. In a periodic phenomenon, the ratio of the duration of the phenomenon in a given period to the period.

duty cycle where D is the so-called duty cycle; τ is the duration that the function is non-zero; Τ is the period of the function. For example, in an ideal pulse train (one having rectangular pulses), the duty cycle is the pulse duration divided by the pulse period. For a pulse train in which the pulse duration is 1 μs and the pulse period is 4 μs, the duty cycle is 0.25. The duty cycle of a square wave is 0.5, or 50%. For another example, the duty cycle for a piece of electrical equipment (such as an electric motor) is the period for which it may be operated without deleterious effects, such as from overheating.

In a continuously variable slope delta (CVSD) modulation converter, the mean proportion of binary "1" digits at the converter output in which each "1" indicates a run of a specified number of consecutive bits of the same polarity in the digital output signal. Some music synthesizers vary the duty cycle of their audio-frequency oscillators to obtain a subtle effect on the tone colors. This technique is known as Pulse-width modulation (PWM.)

In non-beaconing networks, most devices typically have their receivers continuously active, requiring a more robust power supply; however, this enables heterogeneous networks, in which some devices receive continuously while some remain asleep, transmitting only when an external stimulus is detected. The typical example of a heterogeneous network is the wireless light switch.

Network Routing Overview
Perhaps the most straightforward way to think of the ZigBee routing algorithm is as a hierarchical routing strategy with table-driven optimizations applied where possible.

NWK uses an algorithm that allows stack implementers and application developers to

balance unit cost, battery drain, and complexity in producing ZigBee solutions to meet the specific cost-performance profile of their application.

Started with the well-studied public-domain algorithm AODV and Motorola's Cluster-

Tree algorithm.

Security and data integrity are key benefits of the ZigBee technology. ZigBee leverages the security model of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC sublayer which specifies four security services:
• • •

access control—the device maintains a list of trusted devices within the network. data encryption, which uses symmetric key 128-bit advanced encryption standard. frame integrity to protect data from being modified by parties without cryptographic sequential freshness to reject data frames that have been replayed.


ZibBee Benefits
Low cost. Range and obstruction issues avoidance. Multi source products. Low power consumption.