CHAPTER 2 POWER SUPPLY 2.1 Building the 5V Regulated Power Supply 2.2Transformer Output 2.3Rectifier Output 2.

4Smoother Output POWER SUPPLY A simple power supply circuit that includes each of these blocks in given in figure 4. The following articles in this series look at each block of the Power Supply in detail, but if you just want to build a 5Vregulated Power Supply 2.1 Building the 5V Regulated Power Supply Figure gives a strip board layout for the 5V regulated power supply shown in figure 4. The layout does not include the transformer block, so the input to the board needs to be 7 - 35V AC from a suitable transformer. The layout includes space for two optional 2-way screw terminal blocks to make connecting up the power supply easier. If the input voltage is 9V AC, you will be able to draw 1A from the power supply. For the maximum input voltage of 35V you will be able to draw 0.1A. 2.2 TRANSFORMER OUTPUT A suitable ready-built mains power supply unit, such as those used to control model trains, will include a transformer. I wouldn't recommend building your own due to the safety considerations when dealing with mains voltages. If such a unit does not incorporate smoothing, rectification, and regulation, then you will need to build these blocks as described in part 1 of this series. If the unit does not have a fuse or a cut-out on the output of the transformer, you will also need to add a fuse of an appropriate rating. This fuse is in addition to the mains fuse in the unit's plug and is needed to protect the low voltage winding of the transformer and any circuits you connect to it. Although we won't be building the transformer block of our 5V regulated power supply, it is interesting to know how it works. How Transformers Work A transformer consists of two coils (often called 'windings') linked by an iron core, as shown in figure 1. There is no electrical connection between the coils, instead they are linked by a magnetic field created in the core.

They only work with AC (alternating current) because they require a changing magnetic field to be created in their core. A diode is a device which only allows current to flow through it in one direction.Transformers are used to convert electricity from one voltage to another with minimal loss of power. the diode is said to be 'forward-biased' and the only effect on the signal is that there will be a voltage loss of around 0. so they can be safely used to reduce the high voltage of the mains supply. just like that induced in the secondary coil. known as 'half. Transformers can increase voltage (step-up) as well as reduce voltage (step. This time four diodes are arranged so that both the positive and negative parts of the AC waveform are converted to DC. If the secondary coil is connected to a load the induced voltage will make an induced current flow. The iron core is laminated to prevent 'eddy currents' flowing in the core. Transformers have two great advantages over other methods of changing voltage: They provide total electrical isolation between the input and output.down).wave' and 'full-wave' rectifiers.7V. the diode is said to be 'reversebiased' and no current will flow through it. Eddy currents waste power by needlessly heating up the core but they are reduced to a negligible amount by laminating the iron because this increases the electrical resistance of the core without affecting its magnetic properties. The correct term for the induced voltage is 'induced electromotive force' which is usually abbreviated to induced emf. In the opposite direction. These are currents produced by the alternating magnetic field inducing a small voltage in the core. In this direction. Alternating current flowing in the primary (input) coil creates a continually changing magnetic field in the iron core. 2.3 Rectifier Output The purpose of a rectifier is to convert an AC waveform into a DC waveform. . Almost no power is wasted in a transformer. Both use components called diodes to convert AC into DC. They have a high efficiency (power out / power in) of 95% or more. The Full-wave Rectifier The circuit in figure addresses the second of these problems since at no time is the output voltage 0V. The resulting waveform is shown in figure. This field also passes through the secondary (output) coil and the changing strength of the magnetic field induces an alternating voltage in the secondary coil. There are two different rectification circuits.

. I is the current taken by the circuit in Amps. The amount of ripple is affected by a combination of three factors: The value of the capacitor. The output waveform in figure shows how smoothing works. . the capacitor releases its stored energy to keep the output voltage as constant as possible. its output still isn't suitable as a power supply for most circuits since the output voltage still varies between 0V and Vs-1. Then. Why not 2. in Hertz. it would eventually discharge and the output voltage would decrease all the way down to 0V. Such a capacitor is called a 'smoothing' or 'reservoir' capacitor when it is used in this application. the opposite is true . when the voltage increases. and F is the frequency of the peaks from the fullwave rectifier. 100Hz in the case of the UK mains supply.6V DC out. while the voltage decreases to zero in the second half of the peaks. the capacitor will discharge more quickly and there will be a higher ripple voltage. 2. the more often the capacitor will be charged. When the AC input is negative. diodes A and B are forward-biased. and the lower the ripple voltage will be. The amount of current used by the circuit. One disadvantage of the full-wave rectifier is that there is a voltage loss of 1. C is the value of the smoothing capacitor in Farads. If the circuit connected to the power supply takes a lot of current.e. If you want to calculate the ripple voltage.. During the first half of the voltage peaks from the rectifier. The frequency of the peaks. The more frequent the voltage peaks from the rectifier.diodes C and D are forwardbiased. i. and the slower it will discharge.8V as there are four diodes? Remember that only two of the diodes are passing current at any one time While the full-wave rectifier is an improvement on the half-wave rectifier.4V across the diodes. RIPPLE If the voltage peaks from the rectifier were not continually charging up the capacitor. smoothing capacitors are normally electrolytic capacitors with values over 470μF.4V. This frequency will be double the normal mains frequency. as shown in figure. The discharging that does occur between peaks gives rise to a small 'ripple' voltage. So. you will 10.4 Smoother Output Most circuits will require 'smoothing' of the DC output of a rectifier. if you put 12V AC in. and this is a simple matter since it involves only one capacitor. Where Vr is the ripple voltage in Volts. the more charge it can store. or 120Hz in the case of the US mains supply. The larger the capacitor value. while diodes C and D are reverse-biased. you can use this formula. Therefore.When the AC input is positive. while diodes A and B are reverse-biased. the capacitor charges up.

but some must have a completely regular supply with no ripple voltage 2. There are seven regulators in the 78xx series. 22OHM=1.outs and will need to be connected up slightly differently.100=2. as are regulators that can provide negative regulation voltages for circuits that require them. Name Description Specifications Number of components required RES Resistor 1K=4. some must have a completely regular supply with no ripple voltage.5 Regulator Output While there are many circuits that will tolerate a smoothed power supply.if it is.01=2 micro farads 7 VDC Dc voltage source 5 volts 2 GND Ground 0 volts 3 REL Relay - .001. This article discusses regulator ICs which can provide this regular power supply. 0. VAR 20 K =1 9 CAP Capacitor 0. variable regulators are available. There are many types of regulator IC and each type will have different pin. Therefore.6.The ripple voltage should not be more than 10% of Vs . increase the value of the smoothing capacitor.4. 1. the 78xx series.8.5K=1. In addition. 10K=1.100K =1. Lots of circuits will work fine from a smoothed power supply. There are also regulators with similar type numbers that can pass a higher or lower current. and each can pass up to 1A to any connected circuit. as shown in the table below.7. this article will only look at one of the common ranges of regulator.

 38 kHz integrated oscillator. 6.3 IR SENSOR TSOP 1738 A sensor is a type of transducer. or mechanism that responds to a type of energy by producing another type of energy signal. Types of sensors include electromagnetic. a computer and a display) so that the value sensed is translated for human understanding. . either the round metal-can called the 'T' package or the more familiar 8-pin DIP 'V' package. biological and acoustic.  The sensor should not influence the measured property. chemical. usually electrical. The 556 timer is a dual 555 version and comes in a 14-pin DIP package. They are either direct indicating (an electrical meter) or are paired with an indicator (perhaps indirectly through an analog to digital converter. the following guidelines must be met:  The sensor should be sensitive to the measured property.  Receives and amplifies the infrared signal without any external component.  High sensitivity. the 558 is a quad version with four 555's also in a 14 pin DIP package.1 IC 555 Timer 2 LED IR Infra-red LED 1 TRANS Transistor BC548 2 PIN OUT The 555 comes in 2 packages. Features of IR SENSOR used:  Photo detector and preamplifier circuit in the same casing. In order to act as an effectual sensor.  The sensor should be insensitive to any other property.

8 µm Spectral Bandwidth (FWHM) 0.2SPECIFICATION OF IR SENSOR TSOP 1738 Supply voltage (VCC) .3SPECIFICATION OF IR LED 38: Peak Emission Wavelength 3.5 to 15 V Supply current (VCC = +5 V) 3 to 6 mA Supply current (VCC = +15 V) 10 to 15 mA Output current (maximum) 200 mA P Power dissipation 600 mW Operating temperature 0 to 70° C 5. Automatic IR Tap Controller 5.  Improved shielding against electrical field interference.  TTL and CMOS compatibility.4 µm Radiant Output Power 60 µW Output current (maximum) 200 mA Operating currents 500-600 mA Rise time 200 ns Field of View 60 5.1SPECIFICATIONS OF IC555 Supply voltage (VCC) 4. High level of immunity to ambient light.

5 x 10 x Thickness 5.5V Integrated Oscillator 38 KHz Output Voltage (active at level 0) 5V Output current (maximum) 200 mA P Power Consumption 0.0 mA Operating temperature -25 to 80O C Angle of Detection 90O Dimensions of Casing 12.4 to 1.8 .

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